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"Republic of the Sudan" redirects here. Sudan_sentence_0

For the 1956–1969 republic, see Republic of the Sudan (1956–1969). Sudan_sentence_1

"Sudanese Republic" redirects here. Sudan_sentence_2

For the French colony in West Africa known as the "Sudanese Republic" from 1958 to 1960, see French Sudan. Sudan_sentence_3

This article is about the country. Sudan_sentence_4

For the geographical region, see Sudan (region). Sudan_sentence_5

For other uses, see Sudan (disambiguation). Sudan_sentence_6


Republic of the Sudan

جمهورية السودان (Arabic) Jumhūriyyat as-SūdānSudan_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest citySudan_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesSudan_header_cell_0_2_0 Sudan_cell_0_2_1
Demonym(s)Sudan_header_cell_0_3_0 SudaneseSudan_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentSudan_header_cell_0_4_0 Federal provisional governmentSudan_cell_0_4_1
Chairman of the Sovereignty CouncilSudan_header_cell_0_5_0 Abdel Fattah al-BurhanSudan_cell_0_5_1
Prime MinisterSudan_header_cell_0_6_0 Abdalla HamdokSudan_cell_0_6_1
LegislatureSudan_header_cell_0_7_0 Transitional Legislative CouncilSudan_cell_0_7_1
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan colonizationSudan_header_cell_0_9_0 1899Sudan_cell_0_9_1
Independence and end of the Anglo-Egyptian ruleSudan_header_cell_0_10_0 1 January 1956Sudan_cell_0_10_1
Secession of South SudanSudan_header_cell_0_11_0 9 July 2011Sudan_cell_0_11_1
Coup d'étatSudan_header_cell_0_12_0 11 April 2019Sudan_cell_0_12_1
Constitutional DeclarationSudan_header_cell_0_13_0 4 August 2019Sudan_cell_0_13_1
Area Sudan_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalSudan_header_cell_0_15_0 1,886,068 km (728,215 sq mi) (15th)Sudan_cell_0_15_1
11 million (2020 estimate) estimateSudan_header_cell_0_17_0 41,592,539 (33rd)Sudan_cell_0_17_1
2008 censusSudan_header_cell_0_18_0 30,894,000 (disputed)Sudan_cell_0_18_1
DensitySudan_header_cell_0_19_0 21.3/km (55.2/sq mi)Sudan_cell_0_19_1
GDP (PPP)Sudan_header_cell_0_20_0 2018 estimateSudan_cell_0_20_1
TotalSudan_header_cell_0_21_0 $177.678 billionSudan_cell_0_21_1
Per capitaSudan_header_cell_0_22_0 $4,232Sudan_cell_0_22_1
GDP (nominal)Sudan_header_cell_0_23_0 2018 estimateSudan_cell_0_23_1
TotalSudan_header_cell_0_24_0 $33.903 billionSudan_cell_0_24_1
Per capitaSudan_header_cell_0_25_0 $808Sudan_cell_0_25_1
Gini (2009)Sudan_header_cell_0_26_0 35.3


HDI (2018)Sudan_header_cell_0_27_0 0.507

low · 168thSudan_cell_0_27_1

CurrencySudan_header_cell_0_28_0 Sudanese pound (SDG)Sudan_cell_0_28_1
Time zoneSudan_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC+2 (CAT)Sudan_cell_0_29_1
Date formatSudan_header_cell_0_30_0 dd/mm/yyyySudan_cell_0_30_1
Driving sideSudan_header_cell_0_31_0 leftSudan_cell_0_31_1
Calling codeSudan_header_cell_0_32_0 +249Sudan_cell_0_32_1
ISO 3166 codeSudan_header_cell_0_33_0 SDSudan_cell_0_33_1
Internet TLDSudan_header_cell_0_34_0 .sd


The Sudan (/suːˈdɑːn/; Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān) or North Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. Sudan_sentence_7

It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast. Sudan_sentence_8

Sudan has a population of 43 million (2018 estimate) and occupies 1,886,068 square kilometres (728,215 square miles), making it Africa's third-largest country and also the third-largest in the Arab world. Sudan_sentence_9

It was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world by area before the secession of South Sudan in 2011. Sudan_sentence_10

Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the Kingdom of Kerma (c. 2500–1500 BC), the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom (c. 1500 BC–1070 BC) and the rise of the Kingdom of Kush (c. 785 BC–350 AD), which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. Sudan_sentence_11

After the fall of Kush, the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500. Sudan_sentence_12

Between the 14th and 15th centuries, much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. Sudan_sentence_13

From the 16th–19th centuries, central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north. Sudan_sentence_14

From the 19th century, the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty, which was then eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman. Sudan_sentence_15

This state was eventually toppled in 1898 by the British, who would then govern Sudan together with Egypt. Sudan_sentence_16

The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Sudan_sentence_17

Independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956. Sudan_sentence_18

Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Sudan_sentence_19

Under the Jaafar Nimeiry regime, Sudan began Islamist rule. Sudan_sentence_20

This exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the Animists and Christians in the south. Sudan_sentence_21

Differences in language, religion, and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF), and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), eventually concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. Sudan_sentence_22

Between 1989 and 2019, Sudan experienced a 30-year-long military dictatorship led by Omar al-Bashir accused of widespread human rights abuses including torture, persecution of minorities, allegations of sponsoring global terrorism and notably, ethnic genocide due to its role in the War in the Darfur region that broke out in 2003. Sudan_sentence_23

Overall, the regime's actions killed between 300,000 and 400,000 people. Sudan_sentence_24

Protests erupted in late 2018, demanding Bashir's resignation, which resulted in a successful coup d'état on April 11, 2019. Sudan_sentence_25

Islam was Sudan's state religion and Islamic laws applied from 1983 until 2020 when the country became a secular state. Sudan_sentence_26

The economy has been described as lower-middle income and relies on oil production despite a long-term international sanctions and isolation. Sudan_sentence_27

Sudan is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, COMESA, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. Sudan_sentence_28

Etymology Sudan_section_0

The country's name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. Sudan_sentence_29

The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or the "Land of the Blacks". Sudan_sentence_30

The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. Sudan_sentence_31

Initially, the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black Africans. Sudan_sentence_32

The idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s when it was popularised by young intellectuals. Sudan_sentence_33

History Sudan_section_1

Main article: History of Sudan Sudan_sentence_34

By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. Sudan_sentence_35

Neolithic peoples created cemeteries such as R12. Sudan_sentence_36

During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. Sudan_sentence_37

The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma) at 1700 BC. Sudan_sentence_38

Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC. Sudan_sentence_39

Kingdom of Kush (c. 1070 BC–350 AD) Sudan_section_2

Main articles: Kingdom of Kush and Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt Sudan_sentence_40

The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and the Nile River. Sudan_sentence_41

It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. Sudan_sentence_42

After King Kashta ("the Kushite") invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. Sudan_sentence_43

At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan to the Sinai. Sudan_sentence_44

Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sudan_sentence_45

The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers might have been one of the reasons for the failure to take the city. Sudan_sentence_46

The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria. Sudan_sentence_47

Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further and invaded Egypt itself to secure his control of the Levant. Sudan_sentence_48

This succeeded, as he managed to expel Taharqa from Lower Egypt. Sudan_sentence_49

Taharqa fled back to Upper Egypt and Nubia, where he died two years later. Sudan_sentence_50

Lower Egypt came under Assyrian vassalage but proved unruly, unsuccessfully rebelling against the Assyrians. Sudan_sentence_51

Then, the king Tantamani, a successor of Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain Lower Egypt from the newly re-instated Assyrian vassal Necho I. Sudan_sentence_52

He managed to retake Memphis killing Necho in the process and besieged cities in the Nile Delta. Sudan_sentence_53

Ashurbanipal, who had succeeded Esarhaddon, sent a large army in Egypt to regain control. Sudan_sentence_54

He routed Tantamani near Memphis and, pursuing him, sacked Thebes. Sudan_sentence_55

Although the Assyrians immediately departed Upper Egypt after these events, weakened, Thebes peacefully submitted itself to Necho's son Psamtik I less than a decade later. Sudan_sentence_56

This ended all hopes of a revival of the Nubian Empire, which rather continued in the form of a smaller kingdom centered on Napata. Sudan_sentence_57

The city was raided by the Egyptian c. 590 BC and the Kushite resettled in Meroë. Sudan_sentence_58

During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was still at Meroë. Sudan_sentence_59

In ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia (a term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the Nubians). Sudan_sentence_60

The civilization of Kush was among the first in the world to use iron smelting technology. Sudan_sentence_61

The Nubian kingdom at Meroë persisted until the mid-4th century AD. Sudan_sentence_62

Medieval Christian Nubian kingdoms (c. 350–1500) Sudan_section_3

Main articles: Nobatia, Makuria, Alodia, and Daju kingdom Sudan_sentence_63

On the turn of the fifth century the Blemmyes established a short-lived state in Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia, probably centered around Talmis (Kalabsha), but before 450 they were already driven out of the Nile Valley by the Nobatians. Sudan_sentence_64

The latter eventually founded a kingdom on their own, Nobatia. Sudan_sentence_65

By the 6th century there were in total three Nubian kingdoms: Nobatia in the north, which had its capital at Pachoras (Faras); the central kingdom, Makuria centred at Tungul (Old Dongola), about 13 kilometres (8 miles) south of modern Dongola; and Alodia, in the heartland of the old Kushitic kingdom, which had its capital at Soba (now a suburb of modern-day Khartoum). Sudan_sentence_66

Still in the sixth century they converted to Christianity. Sudan_sentence_67

In the seventh century, probably at some point between 628 and 642, Nobatia was incorporated into Makuria. Sudan_sentence_68

Between 639 and 641 the Muslim Arabs of the Rashidun Caliphate conquered Byzantine Egypt. Sudan_sentence_69

In 641 or 642 and again in 652 they invaded Nubia but were repelled, making the Nubians one of the few who managed to defeat the Arabs during the Islamic expansion. Sudan_sentence_70

Afterward the Makurian king and the Arabs agreed on a unique non-aggression pact that also included an annual exchange of gifts, thus acknowledging Makuria's independence. Sudan_sentence_71

While the Arabs failed to conquer Nubia they began to settle east of the Nile, where they eventually founded several port towns and intermarried with the local Beja. Sudan_sentence_72

From the mid 8th-mid 11th century the political power and cultural development of Christian Nubia peaked. Sudan_sentence_73

In 747 Makuria invaded Egypt, which at this time belonged to the declining Umayyads, and it did so again in the early 960s, when it pushed as far north as Akhmim. Sudan_sentence_74

Makuria maintained close dynastic ties with Alodia, perhaps resulting in the temporary unification of the two kingdoms into one state. Sudan_sentence_75

The culture of the medieval Nubians has been described as "Afro-Byzantine", but was also increasingly influenced by Arab culture. Sudan_sentence_76

The state organisation was extremely centralised, being based on the Byzantine bureaucracy of the 6th and 7th centuries. Sudan_sentence_77

Arts flourished in the form of pottery paintings and especially wall paintings. Sudan_sentence_78

The Nubians developed an own alphabet for their language, Old Nobiin, basing it on the Coptic alphabet, while also utilizing Greek, Coptic and Arabic. Sudan_sentence_79

Women enjoyed high social status: they had access to education, could own, buy and sell land and often used their wealth to endow churches and church paintings. Sudan_sentence_80

Even the royal succession was matrilineal, with the son of the king's sister being the rightful heir. Sudan_sentence_81

From the late 11th/12th century, Makuria's capital Dongola was in decline, and Alodia's capital declined in the 12th century as well. Sudan_sentence_82

In the 14th and 15th centuries Bedouin tribes overran most of Sudan, migrating to the Butana, the Gezira, Kordofan and Darfur. Sudan_sentence_83

In 1365 a civil war forced the Makurian court to flee to Gebel Adda in Lower Nubia, while Dongola was destroyed and left to the Arabs. Sudan_sentence_84

Afterwards Makuria continued to exist only as a petty kingdom. Sudan_sentence_85

After the prosperous reign of king Joel (fl. 1463–1484) Makuria collapsed. Sudan_sentence_86

Coastal areas from southern Sudan up to the port city of Suakin was succeeded by the Adal Sultanate in the fifteenth century. Sudan_sentence_87

To the south, the kingdom of Alodia fell to either the Arabs, commanded by tribal leader Abdallah Jamma, or the Funj, an African people originating from the south. Sudan_sentence_88

Datings range from the 9th century after the Hijra (c. 1396–1494), the late 15th century, 1504 to 1509. Sudan_sentence_89

An alodian rump state might have survived in the form of the kingdom of Fazughli, lasting until 1685. Sudan_sentence_90

Islamic kingdoms of Sennar and Darfur (c. 1500–1821) Sudan_section_4

Main articles: Sultanate of Sennar, Tunjur kingdom, and Sultanate of Darfur Sudan_sentence_91

In 1504 the Funj are recorded to have founded the Kingdom of Sennar, in which Abdallah Jamma's realm was incorporated. Sudan_sentence_92

By 1523, when Jewish traveler David Reubeni visited Sudan, the Funj state already extended as far north as Dongola. Sudan_sentence_93

Meanwhile, Islam began to be preached on the Nile by Sufi holymen who settled there in the 15th and 16th centuries and by David Reubeni's visit king Amara Dunqas, previously a Pagan or nominal Christian, was recorded to be Muslim. Sudan_sentence_94

However, the Funj would retain un-Islamic customs like the divine kingship or the consummation of alcohol until the 18th century. Sudan_sentence_95

Sudanese folk Islam preserved many rituals stemming from Christian traditions until the recent past. Sudan_sentence_96

Soon the Funj came in conflict with the Ottomans, who had occupied Suakin around 1526 and eventually pushed south along the Nile, reaching the third Nile cataract area in 1583/1584. Sudan_sentence_97

A subsequent Ottoman attempt to capture Dongola was repelled by the Funj in 1585. Sudan_sentence_98

Afterwards, Hannik, located just south of the third cataract, would mark the border between the two states. Sudan_sentence_99

The aftermath of the Ottoman invasion saw the attempted usurpation of Ajib, a minor king of northern Nubia. Sudan_sentence_100

While the Funj eventually killed him in 1611/1612 his successors, the Abdallab, were granted to govern everything north of the confluence of Blue and White Niles with considerable autonomy. Sudan_sentence_101

During the 17th century the Funj state reached its widest extent, but in the following century it began to decline. Sudan_sentence_102

A coup in 1718 brought a dynastic change, while another one in 1761–1762 resulted in the Hamaj regency, where the Hamaj (a people from the Ethiopian borderlands) effectively ruled while the Funj sultans were their mere puppets. Sudan_sentence_103

Shortly afterwards the sultanate began to fragment; by the early 19th century it was essentially restricted to the Gezira. Sudan_sentence_104

The coup of 1718 kicked off a policy of pursuing a more orthodox Islam, which in turn promoted the Arabisation of the state. Sudan_sentence_105

In order to legitimise their rule over their Arab subjects the Funj began to propagate an Umayyad descend. Sudan_sentence_106

North of the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, as far downstream as Al Dabbah, the Nubians adopted the tribal identity of the Arab Jaalin. Sudan_sentence_107

Until the 19th century Arabic had succeeded in becoming the dominant language of central riverine Sudan and most of Kordofan. Sudan_sentence_108

West of the Nile, in Darfur, the Islamic period saw at first the rise of the Tunjur kingdom, which replaced the old Daju kingdom in the 15th century and extended as far west as Wadai. Sudan_sentence_109

The Tunjur people were probably Arabised Berbers and, their ruling elite at least, Muslims. Sudan_sentence_110

In the 17th century the Tunjur were driven from power by the Fur Keira sultanate. Sudan_sentence_111

The Keira state, nominally Muslim since the reign of Sulayman Solong (r. c. 1660–1680), was initially a small kingdom in northern Jebel Marra, but expanded west- and northwards in the early 18th century and eastwards under the rule of Muhammad Tayrab (r. 1751–1786), peaking in the conquest of Kordofan in 1785. Sudan_sentence_112

The apogee of this empire, now roughly the size of present-day Nigeria, would last until 1821. Sudan_sentence_113

Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan (1821–1899) Sudan_section_5

Main articles: History of Sudan (1821–1885), Mahdist Sudan, and Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan Sudan_sentence_114

In 1821, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, had invaded and conquered northern Sudan. Sudan_sentence_115

Although technically the Vali of Egypt under the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali styled himself as Khedive of a virtually independent Egypt. Sudan_sentence_116

Seeking to add Sudan to his domains, he sent his third son Ismail (not to be confused with Ismaʻil Pasha mentioned later) to conquer the country, and subsequently incorporate it into Egypt. Sudan_sentence_117

With the exception of the Shaiqiya and the Darfur sultanate in Kordofan, he was met without resistance. Sudan_sentence_118

The Egyptian policy of conquest was expanded and intensified by Ibrahim Pasha's son, Ismaʻil, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered. Sudan_sentence_119

The Egyptian authorities made significant improvements to the Sudanese infrastructure (mainly in the north), especially with regard to irrigation and cotton production. Sudan_sentence_120

In 1879, the Great Powers forced the removal of Ismail and established his son Tewfik Pasha in his place. Sudan_sentence_121

Tewfik's corruption and mismanagement resulted in the 'Urabi revolt, which threatened the Khedive's survival. Sudan_sentence_122

Tewfik appealed for help to the British, who subsequently occupied Egypt in 1882. Sudan_sentence_123

Sudan was left in the hands of the Khedivial government, and the mismanagement and corruption of its officials. Sudan_sentence_124

During the Khedivial period, dissent had spread due to harsh taxes imposed on most activities. Sudan_sentence_125

Taxation on irrigation wells and farming lands were so high most farmers abandoned their farms and livestock. Sudan_sentence_126

During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade had an adverse impact on the economy of northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Sudan_sentence_127

Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, the Mahdi (Guided One), offered to the ansars (his followers) and those who surrendered to him a choice between adopting Islam or being killed. Sudan_sentence_128

The Mahdiyah (Mahdist regime) imposed traditional Sharia Islamic laws. Sudan_sentence_129

From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of Khartoum in January 1885, Muhammad Ahmad led a successful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan, known as the Turkiyah. Sudan_sentence_130

Muhammad Ahmad died on 22 June 1885, a mere six months after the conquest of Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_131

After a power struggle amongst his deputies, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, with the help primarily of the Baggara of western Sudan, overcame the opposition of the others and emerged as the unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah. Sudan_sentence_132

After consolidating his power, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad assumed the title of Khalifa (successor) of the Mahdi, instituted an administration, and appointed Ansar (who were usually Baggara) as emirs over each of the several provinces. Sudan_sentence_133

Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah period, largely because of the Khalifa's brutal methods to extend his rule throughout the country. Sudan_sentence_134

In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded Ethiopia, penetrating as far as Gondar. Sudan_sentence_135

In March 1889, king Yohannes IV of Ethiopia marched on Metemma; however, after Yohannes fell in battle, the Ethiopian forces withdrew. Sudan_sentence_136

Abd ar-Rahman an-Nujumi, the Khalifa's general, attempted an invasion of Egypt in 1889, but British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah. Sudan_sentence_137

The failure of the Egyptian invasion broke the spell of the Ansar's invincibility. Sudan_sentence_138

The Belgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering Equatoria, and in 1893, the Italians repelled an Ansar attack at Agordat (in Eritrea) and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia. Sudan_sentence_139

In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, but in actuality treating the country as a British colony. Sudan_sentence_140

By the early 1890s, British, French, and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile headwaters. Sudan_sentence_141

Britain feared that the other powers would take advantage of Sudan's instability to acquire territory previously annexed to Egypt. Sudan_sentence_142

Apart from these political considerations, Britain wanted to establish control over the Nile to safeguard a planned irrigation dam at Aswan. Sudan_sentence_143

Herbert Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdist Sudan from 1896 to 1898. Sudan_sentence_144

Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a decisive victory in the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898. Sudan_sentence_145

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956) Sudan_section_6

Main article: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Sudan_sentence_146

In 1899, Britain and Egypt reached an agreement under which Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent. Sudan_sentence_147

In reality, Sudan was effectively administered as a Crown colony. Sudan_sentence_148

The British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali Pasha, of uniting the Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries. Sudan_sentence_149

Under the Delimitation, Sudan's border with Abyssinia was contested by raiding tribesmen trading slaves, breaching boundaries of the law. Sudan_sentence_150

In 1905 Local chieftain Sultan Yambio reluctant to the end gave up the struggle with British forces that had occupied the Kordofan region, finally ending the lawlessness. Sudan_sentence_151

The continued British administration of Sudan fuelled an increasingly strident nationalist backlash, with Egyptian nationalist leaders determined to force Britain to recognise a single independent union of Egypt and Sudan. Sudan_sentence_152

With a formal end to Ottoman rule in 1914, Sir Reginald Wingate was sent that December to occupy Sudan as the new Military Governor. Sudan_sentence_153

Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt and Sudan, as was his brother and successor, Fuad I. Sudan_sentence_154

They continued upon their insistence of a single Egyptian-Sudanese state even when the Sultanate of Egypt was retitled as the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, but it was Saad Zaghloul who continued to be frustrated in the ambitions until his death in 1927. Sudan_sentence_155

From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate territories; the north and south. Sudan_sentence_156

The assassination of a Governor-General of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in Cairo was the causative factor; it brought demands of the newly elected Wafd government from colonial forces. Sudan_sentence_157

A permanent establishment of two battalions in Khartoum was renamed the Sudan Defence Force acting as under the government, replacing the former garrison of Egyptian army soldiers, saw action afterward during the Walwal Incident. Sudan_sentence_158

The Wafdist parliamentary majority had rejected Sarwat Pasha's accommodation plan with Austen Chamberlain in London; yet Cairo still needed the money. Sudan_sentence_159

The Sudanese Government's revenue had reached a peak in 1928 at £6.6 million, thereafter the Wafdist disruptions, and Italian borders incursions from Somaliland, London decided to reduce expenditure during the Great Depression. Sudan_sentence_160

Cotton and gum exports were dwarfed by the necessity to import almost everything from Britain leading to a balance of payments deficit at Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_161

In July 1936 the Liberal Constitutional leader, Muhammed Mahmoud was persuaded to bring Wafd delegates to London to sign the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, "the beginning of a new stage in Anglo-Egyptian relations", wrote Anthony Eden. Sudan_sentence_162

The British Army was allowed to return to Sudan to protect the Canal Zone. Sudan_sentence_163

They were able to find training facilities, and the RAF was free to fly over Egyptian territory. Sudan_sentence_164

It did not, however, resolve the problem of Sudan: the Sudanese Intelligentsia agitated for a return to metropolitan rule, conspiring with Germany's agents. Sudan_sentence_165

Mussolini made it clear that he could not invade Abyssinia without first conquering Egypt and Sudan; they intended unification of Libya with Italian East Africa. Sudan_sentence_166

The British Imperial General Staff prepared for military defence of the region, which was thin on the ground. Sudan_sentence_167

The British ambassador blocked Italian attempts to secure a Non-Aggression Treaty with Egypt-Sudan. Sudan_sentence_168

But Mahmoud was a supporter of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem; the region was caught between the Empire's efforts to save the Jews, and moderate Arab calls to halt migration. Sudan_sentence_169

The Sudanese Government was directly involved militarily in the East African Campaign. Sudan_sentence_170

Formed in 1925, the Sudan Defence Force played an active part in responding to incursions early in World War Two. Sudan_sentence_171

Italian troops occupied Kassala and other border areas from Italian Somaliland during 1940. Sudan_sentence_172

In 1942, the SDF also played a part in the invasion of the Italian colony by British and Commonwealth forces. Sudan_sentence_173

The last British governor-general was Robert George Howe. Sudan_sentence_174

The Egyptian revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the march towards Sudanese independence. Sudan_sentence_175

Having abolished the monarchy in 1953, Egypt's new leaders, Mohammed Naguib, whose mother was Sudanese, and later Gamal Abdel Nasser, believed the only way to end British domination in Sudan was for Egypt to officially abandon its claims of sovereignty. Sudan_sentence_176

In addition, Nasser knew it would be difficult for Egypt to govern an impoverished Sudan after its independence. Sudan_sentence_177

The British on the other hand continued their political and financial support for the Mahdist successor, Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, whom it was believed would resist Egyptian pressure for Sudanese independence. Sudan_sentence_178

Rahman was capable of this, but his regime was plagued by political ineptitude, which garnered a colossal loss of support in northern and central Sudan. Sudan_sentence_179

Both Egypt and Britain sensed a great instability fomenting, and thus opted to allow both Sudanese regions, north and south to have a free vote on whether they wished independence or a British withdrawal. Sudan_sentence_180

Independence (1956–present) Sudan_section_7

Main articles: History of Sudan (1956–69), History of Sudan (1969–85), and History of Sudan (1986–present) Sudan_sentence_181

A polling process was carried out resulting in the composition of a democratic parliament and Ismail al-Azhari was elected first Prime Minister and led the first modern Sudanese government. Sudan_sentence_182

On 1 January 1956, in a special ceremony held at the People's Palace, the Egyptian and British flags were lowered and the new Sudanese flag, composed of green, blue and yellow stripes, was raised in their place by the prime minister Ismail al-Azhari. Sudan_sentence_183

Dissatisfaction culminated in a second coup d'état on 25 May 1969. Sudan_sentence_184

The coup leader, Col. Gaafar Nimeiry, became prime minister, and the new regime abolished parliament and outlawed all political parties. Sudan_sentence_185

Disputes between Marxist and non-Marxist elements within the ruling military coalition resulted in a briefly successful coup in July 1971, led by the Sudanese Communist Party. Sudan_sentence_186

Several days later, anti-communist military elements restored Nimeiry to power. Sudan_sentence_187

In 1972, the Addis Ababa Agreement led to a cessation of the north-south civil war and a degree of self-rule. Sudan_sentence_188

This led to ten years hiatus in the civil war but an end to American investment in the Jonglei Canal project. Sudan_sentence_189

This had been considered absolutely essential to irrigate the Upper Nile region and to prevent an environmental catastrophe and wide-scale famine among the local tribes, most especially the Dinka. Sudan_sentence_190

In the civil war that followed their homeland was raided, looted, pillaged, and burned. Sudan_sentence_191

Many of the tribe were murdered in a bloody civil war that raged for over 20 years. Sudan_sentence_192

Until the early 1970s, Sudan's agricultural output was mostly dedicated to internal consumption. Sudan_sentence_193

In 1972, the Sudanese government became more pro-Western and made plans to export food and cash crops. Sudan_sentence_194

However, commodity prices declined throughout the 1970s causing economic problems for Sudan. Sudan_sentence_195

At the same time, debt servicing costs, from the money spent mechanizing agriculture, rose. Sudan_sentence_196

In 1978, the IMF negotiated a Structural Adjustment Program with the government. Sudan_sentence_197

This further promoted the mechanised export agriculture sector. Sudan_sentence_198

This caused great hardship for the pastoralists of Sudan (see Nuba peoples). Sudan_sentence_199

In 1976, the Ansars had mounted a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt. Sudan_sentence_200

But in July 1977, President Nimeiry met with Ansar leader Sadiq al-Mahdi, opening the way for a possible reconciliation. Sudan_sentence_201

Hundreds of political prisoners were released, and in August a general amnesty was announced for all oppositionists. Sudan_sentence_202

Bashir government (1989–2019) Sudan_section_8

Further information: 1989 Sudanese coup d'état Sudan_sentence_203

On 30 June 1989, Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a bloodless military coup. Sudan_sentence_204

The new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level. Sudan_sentence_205

Later al-Bashir carried out purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, the banning of associations, political parties, and independent newspapers, and the imprisonment of leading political figures and journalists. Sudan_sentence_206

On 16 October 1993, al-Bashir appointed himself "President" and disbanded the Revolutionary Command Council. Sudan_sentence_207

The executive and legislative powers of the council were taken by al-Bashir. Sudan_sentence_208

In the 1996 general election, he was the only candidate by law to run for election. Sudan_sentence_209

Sudan became a one-party state under the National Congress Party (NCP). Sudan_sentence_210

During the 1990s, Hassan al-Turabi, then Speaker of the National Assembly, reached out to Islamic fundamentalist groups, invited Osama bin Laden to the country. Sudan_sentence_211

The United States subsequently listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism. Sudan_sentence_212

Following Al Qaeda's bombing of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania the U.S. launched Operation Infinite Reach and targeted the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory which the U.S. government falsely believed was producing chemical weapons for the terrorist group. Sudan_sentence_213

Al-Turabi's influence began to wane, others in favour of more pragmatic leadership tried to change Sudan's international isolation. Sudan_sentence_214

The country worked to appease its critics by expelling members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and encouraging bin Laden to leave. Sudan_sentence_215

Before the 2000 presidential election, al-Turabi introduced a bill to reduce the President's powers, prompting al-Bashir to order a dissolution and declare a state of emergency. Sudan_sentence_216

When al-Turabi urged a boycott of the President's re-election campaign signing agreement with Sudan People's Liberation Army, al-Bashir suspected they were plotting to overthrow the government. Sudan_sentence_217

Hassan al-Turabi was jailed later the same year. Sudan_sentence_218

In February 2003, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favor of Sudanese Arabs, precipitating the War in Darfur. Sudan_sentence_219

The conflict has since been described as a genocide, and the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague has issued two arrest warrants for al-Bashir. Sudan_sentence_220

Arabic-speaking nomadic militias known as the Janjaweed stand accused of many atrocities. Sudan_sentence_221

On 9 January 2005, the government signed the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement with the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) with the objective of ending the Second Sudanese Civil War. Sudan_sentence_222

The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN Security Council Resolution 1590 to support its implementation. Sudan_sentence_223

The peace agreement was a prerequisite to the 2011 referendum: the result was a unanimous vote in favour of secession of South Sudan; the region of Abyei will hold its own referendum at a future date. Sudan_sentence_224

The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was the primary member of the Eastern Front, a coalition of rebel groups operating in eastern Sudan. Sudan_sentence_225

After the peace agreement, their place was taken in February 2004 after the merger of the larger Hausa and Beja Congress with the smaller Rashaida Free Lions. Sudan_sentence_226

A peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Eastern Front was signed on 14 October 2006, in Asmara. Sudan_sentence_227

On 5 May 2006, the Darfur Peace Agreement was signed, aiming at ending the three-year-long conflict. Sudan_sentence_228

The Chad–Sudan Conflict (2005–2007) had erupted after the Battle of Adré triggered a declaration of war by Chad. Sudan_sentence_229

The leaders of Sudan and Chad signed an agreement in Saudi Arabia on 3 May 2007 to stop fighting from the Darfur conflict spilling along their countries' 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) border. Sudan_sentence_230

In July 2007 the country was hit by devastating floods, with over 400,000 people being directly affected. Sudan_sentence_231

Since 2009, a series of ongoing conflicts between rival nomadic tribes in Sudan and South Sudan have caused a large number of civilian casualties. Sudan_sentence_232

Partition and rehabilitation Sudan_section_9

The Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile in the early 2010s between the Army of Sudan and the Sudan Revolutionary Front started as a dispute over the oil-rich region of Abyei in the months leading up to South Sudanese independence in 2011, though it is also related to civil war in Darfur that is nominally resolved. Sudan_sentence_233

The events would later be known as the Sudanese Intifada, which would end only in 2013 after al-Bashir promised he would not seek re-election in 2015. Sudan_sentence_234

He later broke his promise and sought re-election in 2015, winning through a boycott from the opposition who believed that the elections would not be free and fair. Sudan_sentence_235

Voter turnout was at a low 46%. Sudan_sentence_236

On 13 January 2017, US president Barack Obama signed an Executive Order that lifted many sanctions placed against Sudan and assets of its government held abroad. Sudan_sentence_237

On 6 October 2017, the following US president Donald Trump lifted most of the remaining sanctions against the country and its petroleum, export-import, and property industries. Sudan_sentence_238

2019 Sudanese Revolution and transitional government of Hamdok Sudan_section_10

Main articles: Sudanese Revolution and 2019–2022 Sudanese transition to democracy Sudan_sentence_239

See also: Sovereignty Council of Sudan Sudan_sentence_240

On 19 December 2018, massive protests began after a government decision to triple the price of goods at a time when the country was suffering an acute shortage of foreign currency and inflation of 70 percent. Sudan_sentence_241

In addition, President al-Bashir, who had been in power for more than 30 years, refused to step down, resulting in the convergence of opposition groups to form a united coalition. Sudan_sentence_242

The government retaliated by arresting more than 800 opposition figures and protesters, leading to the death of approximately 40 people according to the Human Rights Watch, although the number was much higher than that according to local and civilian reports. Sudan_sentence_243

The protests continued after the overthrow of his government on 11 April 2019 after a massive sit-in in front of the Sudanese Armed Forces main headquarters, after which the chiefs of staff decided to intervene and they ordered the arrest of President al-Bashir and declared a three-month state of emergency. Sudan_sentence_244

Over 100 people died on 3 June after security forces dispersed the sit-in using tear gas and live ammunition in what is known as the Khartoum massacre, resulting in Sudan's suspension from the African Union. Sudan_sentence_245

Sudan's youth had been reported to be driving the protests. Sudan_sentence_246

The protests came to an end when the Forces for Freedom and Change (an alliance of groups organizing the protests) and Transitional Military Council (the ruling military government) signed the July 2019 Political Agreement and the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration. Sudan_sentence_247

The transitional institutions and procedures included the creation of a joint military-civilian Sovereignty Council of Sudan as head of state, a new Chief Justice of Sudan as head of the judiciary branch of power, Nemat Abdullah Khair, and a new prime minister. Sudan_sentence_248

The new Prime Minister, Abdalla Hamdok, a 61-year-old economist who worked previously for the UN Economic Commission for Africa, was sworn in on 21 August. Sudan_sentence_249

He initiated talks with the IMF and World Bank aimed at stabilising the economy, which was in dire straits because of shortages of food, fuel and hard currency. Sudan_sentence_250

Hamdok estimated that US$10bn over two years would suffice to halt the panic, and said that over 70% of the 2018 budget had been spent on civil war-related measures. Sudan_sentence_251

The governments of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates had invested significant sums supporting the military council since Bashir's ouster. Sudan_sentence_252

On 3 September, Hamdok appointed 14 civilian ministers, including the first female foreign minister and the first Coptic Christian, also a woman. Sudan_sentence_253

Geography Sudan_section_11

Main article: Geography of Sudan Sudan_sentence_254

Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with an 853 km (530 mi) coastline bordering the Red Sea. Sudan_sentence_255

It has land borders with Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Chad, and Libya. Sudan_sentence_256

With an area of 1,886,068 km (728,215 sq mi), it is the third-largest country on the continent (after Algeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the sixteenth-largest in the world. Sudan_sentence_257

Sudan lies between latitudes and 23°N. Sudan_sentence_258

The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges. Sudan_sentence_259

In the west, the Deriba Caldera (3,042 m or 9,980 ft), located in the Marrah Mountains, is the highest point in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_260

In the east are the Red Sea Hills. Sudan_sentence_261

The Blue Nile and White Nile rivers meet in Khartoum to form the Nile, which flows northwards through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. Sudan_sentence_262

The Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km (497 mi) long and is joined by the Dinder and Rahad Rivers between Sennar and Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_263

The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries. Sudan_sentence_264

There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Sudan_sentence_265

Among them are the Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the Jebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. Sudan_sentence_266

There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border. Sudan_sentence_267

Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including asbestos, chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron, kaolin, lead, manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium and zinc. Sudan_sentence_268

Climate Sudan_section_12

The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. Sudan_sentence_269

The central and the northern part have extremely dry, desert areas such as the Nubian Desert to the northeast and the Bayuda Desert to the east; in the south, there are grasslands and tropical savanna. Sudan_sentence_270

Sudan's rainy season lasts for about four months (June to September) in the north, and up to six months (May to October) in the south. Sudan_sentence_271

The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. Sudan_sentence_272

In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels. Sudan_sentence_273

Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops. Sudan_sentence_274

The sunshine duration is very high all over the country but especially in deserts where it could soar to over 4,000 h per year. Sudan_sentence_275

Environmental issues Sudan_section_13

Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_276

There is also concern over soil erosion. Sudan_sentence_277

Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. Sudan_sentence_278

The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table. Sudan_sentence_279

The nation's wildlife is threatened by poaching. Sudan_sentence_280

As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Sudan_sentence_281

Critically endangered species include: the waldrapp, northern white rhinoceros, tora hartebeest, slender-horned gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. Sudan_sentence_282

The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild. Sudan_sentence_283

Government and politics Sudan_section_14

Main article: Politics of Sudan Sudan_sentence_284

The politics of Sudan formally took place within the framework of a federal representative democratic republic until April 2019, when President Omar al-Bashir's regime was overthrown in a military coup led by Vice President Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf. Sudan_sentence_285

As an initial step he established the Transitional Military Council to manage the country's internal affairs. Sudan_sentence_286

He also suspended the constitution and dissolved the bicameral parliament — the National Legislature, with its National Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States (upper chamber). Sudan_sentence_287

Ibn Auf however, remained in office for only a single day and then resigned, with the leadership of the Transitional Military Council then being handed to Abdel Fattah al-Burhan. Sudan_sentence_288

On 4 August 2019, a new Constitutional Declaration was signed between the representatives of the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change, and on 21 August 2019 the Transitional Military Council was officially replaced as head of state by an 11-member Sovereignty Council, and as head of government by a civilian Prime Minister. Sudan_sentence_289

Sharia law Sudan_section_15

Under al-Bashir Sudan_section_16

During the regime of Omar al-Bashir, the legal system in Sudan was based on Islamic Sharia law. Sudan_sentence_290

The 2005 Naivasha Agreement, ending the civil war between north and south Sudan, established some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_291

Sudan's application of Sharia law is geographically inconsistent. Sudan_sentence_292

Stoning was a judicial punishment in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_293

Between 2009 and 2012, several women were sentenced to death by stoning. Sudan_sentence_294

Flogging was a legal punishment. Sudan_sentence_295

Between 2009 and 2014, many people were sentenced to 40–100 lashes. Sudan_sentence_296

In August 2014, several Sudanese men died in custody after being flogged. Sudan_sentence_297

53 Christians were flogged in 2001. Sudan_sentence_298

Sudan's public order law allowed police officers to publicly whip women who were accused of public indecency. Sudan_sentence_299

Crucifixion was also a legal punishment. Sudan_sentence_300

In 2002, 88 people were sentenced to death for crimes relating to murder, armed robbery, and participating in ethnic clashes, Amnesty International wrote that they could be executed by either hanging or crucifixion. Sudan_sentence_301

International Court of Justice jurisdiction is accepted, though with reservations. Sudan_sentence_302

Under the terms of the Naivasha Agreement, Islamic law did not apply in South Sudan. Sudan_sentence_303

Since the secession of South Sudan there was some uncertainty as to whether Sharia law would apply to the non-Muslim minorities present in Sudan, especially because of contradictory statements by al-Bashir on the matter. Sudan_sentence_304

The judicial branch of the Sudanese government consists of a Constitutional Court of nine justices, the National Supreme Court, the Court of Cassation, and other national courts; the National Judicial Service Commission provides overall management for the judiciary. Sudan_sentence_305

After al-Bashir Sudan_section_17

Following the ouster of al-Bashir, the interim constitution signed in August 2019 contained no mention of Sharia law. Sudan_sentence_306

As of 12 July 2020, Sudan abolished the apostasy law, public flogging and alcohol ban for non-Muslims. Sudan_sentence_307

The draft of a new law was passed in early July. Sudan_sentence_308

Sudan also criminalized female genital mutilation with a punishment of up to 3 years in jail. Sudan_sentence_309

An accord between the transitional government and rebel group leadership was signed in September 2020, in which the government agreed to officially separate the state and religion, ending three decades of rule under Islamic law. Sudan_sentence_310

It also agreed that no official state religion will be established. Sudan_sentence_311

Foreign relations Sudan_section_18

Main article: Foreign relations of Sudan Sudan_sentence_312

Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and much of the international community, owing to what is viewed as its radical Islamic stance. Sudan_sentence_313

For much of the 1990s, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia formed an ad hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with support from the United States to check the influence of the National Islamic Front government. Sudan_sentence_314

The Sudanese Government supported anti-Ugandan rebel groups such as the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). Sudan_sentence_315

As the National Islamic Front regime in Khartoum gradually emerged as a real threat to the region and the world, the U.S. began to list Sudan on its list of State Sponsors of Terrorism. Sudan_sentence_316

After the US listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism, the NIF decided to develop relations with Iraq, and later Iran, the two most controversial countries in the region. Sudan_sentence_317

From the mid-1990s, Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as a result of increased U.S. pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, in Tanzania and Kenya, and the new development of oil fields previously in rebel hands. Sudan_sentence_318

Sudan also has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle. Sudan_sentence_319

Since 2003, the foreign relations of Sudan had centered on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias in the war in Darfur. Sudan_sentence_320

Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. Sudan_sentence_321

China obtains ten percent of its oil from Sudan. Sudan_sentence_322

According to a former Sudanese government minister, China is Sudan's largest supplier of arms. Sudan_sentence_323

In December 2005, Sudan became one of the few states to recognise Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. Sudan_sentence_324

In 2015, Sudan participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising. Sudan_sentence_325

In June 2019, Sudan was suspended from the African Union over orders to violently confront pro-democracy protesters, which left over 100 civilians dead. Sudan_sentence_326

In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Sudan, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region. Sudan_sentence_327

On October 23, 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that Sudan will start to normalize ties with Israel, making it the third Arab state to do so as part of the U.S.-brokered Abraham Accords. Sudan_sentence_328

Armed Forces Sudan_section_19

Main article: Sudanese Armed Forces Sudan_sentence_329

The Sudanese Armed Forces is the regular forces of Sudan and is divided into five branches: the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy (including the Marine Corps), Sudanese Air Force, Border Patrol and the Internal Affairs Defence Force, totalling about 200,000 troops. Sudan_sentence_330

The military of Sudan has become a well-equipped fighting force; a result of increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms. Sudan_sentence_331

These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its strategic principles include defending Sudan's external borders and preserving internal security. Sudan_sentence_332

Since the Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups such as the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have been important priorities. Sudan_sentence_333

While not official, the Sudanese military also uses nomad militias, the most prominent being the Janjaweed, in executing a counter-insurgency war. Sudan_sentence_334

Somewhere between 200,000 and 400,000 people have died in the violent struggles. Sudan_sentence_335

International organisations in Sudan Sudan_section_20

Several UN agents are operating in Sudan such as the World Food Program (WFP); the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO); the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF); the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the United Nations Mine Service (UNMAS), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the World Bank. Sudan_sentence_336

Also present is the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Sudan_sentence_337

Since Sudan has experienced civil war for many years, many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are also involved in humanitarian efforts to help internally displaced people. Sudan_sentence_338

The NGOs are working in every corner of Sudan, especially in the southern part and western parts. Sudan_sentence_339

During the civil war, international nongovernmental organisations such as the Red Cross were operating mostly in the south but based in the capital Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_340

The attention of NGOs shifted shortly after the war broke out in the western part of Sudan known as Darfur. Sudan_sentence_341

The most visible organisation in South Sudan is the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) consortium. Sudan_sentence_342

Some international trade organisations categorise Sudan as part of the Greater Horn of Africa Sudan_sentence_343

Even though most of the international organisations are substantially concentrated in both South Sudan and the Darfur region, some of them are working in the northern part as well. Sudan_sentence_344

For example, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization is successfully operating in Khartoum, the capital. Sudan_sentence_345

It is mainly funded by the European Union and recently opened more vocational training. Sudan_sentence_346

The Canadian International Development Agency is operating largely in northern Sudan. Sudan_sentence_347

Human rights Sudan_section_21

Main articles: Human rights in Sudan, Freedom of religion in Sudan, Slavery in Sudan, and Child marriage in Sudan Sudan_sentence_348

Since 1983, a combination of civil war and famine has taken the lives of nearly two million people in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_349

It is estimated that as many as 200,000 people had been taken into slavery during the Second Sudanese Civil War. Sudan_sentence_350

Sudan ranks 172 of 180 countries in terms of freedom of the press according to Reporters Without Borders. Sudan_sentence_351

More curbs of press freedom to report official corruption are planned. Sudan_sentence_352

Muslims who convert to Christianity can face the death penalty for apostasy, see Persecution of Christians in Sudan and the death sentence against Mariam Yahia Ibrahim Ishag (who actually was raised as Christian). Sudan_sentence_353

According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 88% of women in Sudan had undergone female genital mutilation. Sudan_sentence_354

Sudan's Personal Status law on marriage has been criticised for restricting women's rights and allowing child marriage. Sudan_sentence_355

Evidence suggests that support for female genital mutilation remains high, especially among rural and less well educated groups, although it has been declining in recent years. Sudan_sentence_356

Homosexuality is illegal; as of July 2020 it was no longer a capital offense, with the highest punishment being life imprisonment. Sudan_sentence_357

A report published by Human Rights Watch in 2018 revealed that Sudan has made no meaningful attempts to provide accountability for past and current violations. Sudan_sentence_358

The report documented human rights abuses against civilians in Darfur, southern Kordofan, and Blue Nile. Sudan_sentence_359

During 2018, the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) used excessive force to disperse protests and detained dozens of activists and opposition members. Sudan_sentence_360

Moreover, the Sudanese forces blocked United Nations-African Union Hybrid Operation and other international relief and aid agencies to access to displaced people and conflict-ridden areas in Darfur. Sudan_sentence_361

Darfur Sudan_section_22

Main articles: War in Darfur and International Criminal Court investigation in Darfur Sudan_sentence_362

A letter dated 14 August 2006, from the executive director of Human Rights Watch found that the Sudanese government is both incapable of protecting its own citizens in Darfur and unwilling to do so, and that its militias are guilty of crimes against humanity. Sudan_sentence_363

The letter added that these human-rights abuses have existed since 2004. Sudan_sentence_364

Some reports attribute part of the violations to the rebels as well as the government and the Janjaweed. Sudan_sentence_365

The U.S. State Department's human-rights report issued in March 2007 claims that "[a]ll parties to the conflagration committed serious abuses, including widespread killing of civilians, rape as a tool of war, systematic torture, robbery and recruitment of child soldiers." Sudan_sentence_366

Over 2.8 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is estimated at 300,000 killed. Sudan_sentence_367

Both government forces and militias allied with the government are known to attack not only civilians in Darfur, but also humanitarian workers. Sudan_sentence_368

Sympathisers of rebel groups are arbitrarily detained, as are foreign journalists, human-rights defenders, student activists and displaced people in and around Khartoum, some of whom face torture. Sudan_sentence_369

The rebel groups have also been accused in a report issued by the U.S. government of attacking humanitarian workers and of killing innocent civilians. Sudan_sentence_370

According to UNICEF, in 2008, there were as many as 6,000 child soldiers in Darfur. Sudan_sentence_371

Disputed areas and zones of conflict Sudan_section_23


  • In mid-April 2012, the South Sudanese army captured the Heglig oil field from Sudan.Sudan_item_0_0
  • In mid-April 2012 the Sudanese army recaptured Heglig.Sudan_item_0_1
  • Kafia Kingi and Radom National Park was a part of Bahr el Ghazal in 1956. Sudan has recognised South Sudanese independence according to the borders for 1 January 1956.Sudan_item_0_2
  • The Abyei Area is disputed region between Sudan and South Sudan. It is currently under Sudanese rule.Sudan_item_0_3
  • The states of South Kurdufan and Blue Nile are to hold "popular consultations" to determine their constitutional future within Sudan.Sudan_item_0_4
  • The Hala'ib Triangle is disputed region between Sudan and Egypt. It is currently under Egyptian administration.Sudan_item_0_5
  • Bir Tawil is a terra nullius occurring on the border between Egypt and Sudan, claimed by neither state.Sudan_item_0_6

Administrative divisions Sudan_section_24

Main articles: States of Sudan, List of Sudan's state governors, and Districts of Sudan Sudan_sentence_372

Sudan is divided into 18 states (wilayat, sing. Sudan_sentence_373

wilayah). Sudan_sentence_374

They are further divided into 133 districts. Sudan_sentence_375

Regional bodies and areas of conflict Sudan_section_25

In addition to the states, there also exist regional administrative bodies established by peace agreements between the central government and rebel groups. Sudan_sentence_376


Economy Sudan_section_26

Main article: Economy of Sudan Sudan_sentence_377

See also: Telecommunications in Sudan and Transport in Sudan Sudan_sentence_378

In 2010, Sudan was considered the 17th-fastest-growing economy in the world and the rapid development of the country largely from oil profits even when facing international sanctions was noted by The New York Times in a 2006 article. Sudan_sentence_379

Because of the secession of South Sudan, which contained over 80 percent of Sudan's oilfields, Sudan entered a phase of stagflation, GDP growth slowed to 3.4 percent in 2014, 3.1 percent in 2015 and is projected to recover slowly to 3.7 percent in 2016 while inflation remained as high as 21.8% as of 2015. Sudan_sentence_380

Sudan's GDP fell from US$123.053 billion in 2017 to US$40.852 billion in 2018. Sudan_sentence_381

Even with the oil profits before the secession of South Sudan, Sudan still faced formidable economic problems, and its growth was still a rise from a very low level of per capita output. Sudan_sentence_382

The economy of Sudan has been steadily growing over the 2000s, and according to a World Bank report the overall growth in GDP in 2010 was 5.2 percent compared to 2009 growth of 4.2 percent. Sudan_sentence_383

This growth was sustained even during the war in Darfur and period of southern autonomy preceding South Sudan's independence. Sudan_sentence_384

Oil was Sudan's main export, with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the years before South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. Sudan_sentence_385

With rising oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of about nine percent in 2007. Sudan_sentence_386

The independence of oil-rich South Sudan, however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's direct control and oil production in Sudan fell from around 450,000 barrels per day (72,000 m/d) to under 60,000 barrels per day (9,500 m/d). Sudan_sentence_387

Production has since recovered to hover around 250,000 barrels per day (40,000 m/d) for 2014–15. Sudan_sentence_388

In order to export oil, South Sudan relies on a pipeline to Port Sudan on Sudan's Red Sea coast, as South Sudan is a landlocked country, as well as the oil refining facilities in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_389

In August 2012, Sudan and South Sudan agreed a deal to transport South Sudanese oil through Sudanese pipelines to Port Sudan. Sudan_sentence_390

The People's Republic of China is one of Sudan's major trading partners, China owns a 40 percent share in the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company. Sudan_sentence_391

The country also sells Sudan small arms, which have been used in military operations such as the conflicts in Darfur and South Kordofan. Sudan_sentence_392

While historically agriculture remains the main source of income and employment hiring of over 80 percent of Sudanese, and makes up a third of the economic sector, oil production drove most of Sudan's post-2000 growth. Sudan_sentence_393

Currently, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is working hand in hand with Khartoum government to implement sound macroeconomic policies. Sudan_sentence_394

This follows a turbulent period in the 1980s when debt-ridden Sudan's relations with the IMF and World Bank soured, culminating in its eventual suspension from the IMF. Sudan_sentence_395

The program has been in place since the early 1990s, and also work-out exchange rate and reserve of foreign exchange. Sudan_sentence_396

Since 1997, Sudan has been implementing the macroeconomic reforms recommended by the International Monetary Fund. Sudan_sentence_397

Agricultural production remains Sudan's most-important sector, employing 80 percent of the workforce and contributing 39 percent of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Sudan_sentence_398

Instability, adverse weather and weak world-agricultural prices ensures that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years. Sudan_sentence_399

The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in northern Sudan, about 350 kilometres (220 mi) north of the capital, Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_400

It is situated on the River Nile, close to the Fourth Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Sudan_sentence_401

Merowe is a city about 40 kilometres (25 mi) downstream from the dam's construction site. Sudan_sentence_402

The main purpose of the dam will be the generation of electricity. Sudan_sentence_403

Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in Africa. Sudan_sentence_404

The construction of the dam was finished December 2008, supplying more than 90 percent of the population with electricity. Sudan_sentence_405

Other gas-powered generating stations are operational in Khartoum State and other states. Sudan_sentence_406

According to the Corruptions Perception Index, Sudan is one of the most corrupt nations in the world. Sudan_sentence_407

According to the Global Hunger Index of 2013, Sudan has an GHI indicator value of 27.0 indicating that the nation has an 'Alarming Hunger Situation.' Sudan_sentence_408

It is rated the fifth hungriest nation in the world. Sudan_sentence_409

According to the 2015 Human Development Index (HDI) Sudan ranked the 167th place in human development, indicating Sudan still has one of the lowest human development rates in the world. Sudan_sentence_410

In 2014, 45% of the population lives on less than US$3.20 per day, up from 43% in 2009. Sudan_sentence_411

Demographics Sudan_section_27

Main article: Demographics of Sudan Sudan_sentence_412

In Sudan's 2008 census, the population of northern, western and eastern Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million. Sudan_sentence_413

This puts present estimates of the population of Sudan after the secession of South Sudan at a little over 30 million people. Sudan_sentence_414

This is a significant increase over the past two decades, as the 1983 census put the total population of Sudan, including present-day South Sudan, at 21.6 million. Sudan_sentence_415

The population of Greater Khartoum (including Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and was recorded to be 5.2 million. Sudan_sentence_416

Aside from being a refugee-generating country, Sudan also hosts a large population of refugees from other countries. Sudan_sentence_417

According to UNHCR statistics, more than 1.1 million refugees and asylum seekers lived in Sudan in August, 2019. Sudan_sentence_418

The majority of this population came from South Sudan (858,607 people), Eritrea (123,413), Syria (93,502), Ethiopia (14,201), the Central African Republic (11,713) and Chad (3,100). Sudan_sentence_419

Apart from these, the UNHCR report 1,864,195 Internally Displaced Persons (IDP's). Sudan_sentence_420

Sudan is a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Sudan_sentence_421

Ethnic groups Sudan_section_28

The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the population. Sudan_sentence_422

Others include North Sudan Nubians, Zurga (South and West Sudan), and Copts. Sudan_sentence_423

Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. Sudan_sentence_424

Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_425

They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic, some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic; and Beni Ḥassān, Al-Ashraf and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic. Sudan_sentence_426

In addition, the Western province comprises various ethnic groups, while a few Arab Bedouin of the northern Rizeigat and others who speak Sudanese Arabic share the same culture and backgrounds of the Sudanese Arabs. Sudan_sentence_427

The majority of Arabised and indigenous tribes like the Fur, Zaghawa, Borgo, Masalit and some Baggara ethnic groups, who speak Chadian Arabic, show less cultural integration because of cultural, linguistic and genealogical variations with other Arab and Arabised tribes. Sudan_sentence_428

Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian Peninsula and intermarriages with the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, especially the Nubian people, who also share a common history with Egypt. Sudan_sentence_429

Additionally, a few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in Sudan from earlier migrations into the region from Western Arabia, although most Arabs in Sudan are dated from migrations after the 12th century. Sudan_sentence_430

The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous Nubian and other African populations and introduced Islam. Sudan_sentence_431

Sudan consists of numerous other non-Arabic groups, such as the Masalit, Zaghawa, Fulani, Northern Nubians, Nuba, and the Beja people. Sudan_sentence_432

There is also a small, but prominent Greek community. Sudan_sentence_433

Languages Sudan_section_29

Main article: Languages of Sudan Sudan_sentence_434

Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan. Sudan_sentence_435

Sudanese Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. Sudan_sentence_436

It is the variety of Arabic, an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch spoken throughout Sudan. Sudan_sentence_437

The dialect has borrowed much vocabulary from local Nilo-Saharan languages (Nobiin, Fur, Zaghawa, Mabang). Sudan_sentence_438

This has resulted in a variety of Arabic that is unique to Sudan, reflecting the way in which the country has been influenced by Nilotic, Arab, and western cultures. Sudan_sentence_439

Few nomads in Sudan still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia. Sudan_sentence_440

Other important languages include Beja (Bedawi) along the Red Sea, with perhaps two million speakers. Sudan_sentence_441

It is the language from the Afroasiatic family's Cushitic branch that is today spoken in the territory. Sudan_sentence_442

The second most spoken language in eastern Sudan is the Tigre language, spoken by the other portion of the Beja, the Bani-amir and by the Tigre people. Sudan_sentence_443

As with South Sudan, a number of Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_444

Fur speakers inhabit the west (Darfur), with perhaps a million speakers. Sudan_sentence_445

There are likewise various Nubian languages along the Nile in the north. Sudan_sentence_446

The most linguistically diverse region in the country is the Nuba Hills area in Kordofan, inhabited by speakers of multiple language families, with Darfur and other border regions being second. Sudan_sentence_447

The Niger–Congo family is represented by many of the Kordofanian languages, and Indo-European by Domari (Gypsy) and English. Sudan_sentence_448

Historically, Old Nubian, Greek, and Coptic were the languages of Christian Nubia, while Meroitic was the language of the Kingdom of Kush, which conquered Egypt. Sudan_sentence_449

Sudan also has multiple regional sign languages, which are not mutually intelligible. Sudan_sentence_450

A 2009 proposal for a unified Sudanese Sign Language had been worked out, but was not widely known. Sudan_sentence_451

Prior to 2005, Arabic was the nation's sole official language. Sudan_sentence_452

In the 2005 constitution, Sudan's official languages became Arabic and English. Sudan_sentence_453

Urban areas Sudan_section_30

Further information: List of cities in Sudan Sudan_sentence_454

Religion Sudan_section_31

Main article: Religion in Sudan Sudan_sentence_455

At the 2011 division which split off South Sudan, over 97% of the population in the remaining Sudan adheres to Islam. Sudan_sentence_456

Most Muslims are divided between two groups: Sufi and Salafi (Ansar Al Sunnah) Muslims. Sudan_sentence_457

Two popular divisions of Sufism, the Ansar and the Khatmia, are associated with the opposition Umma and Democratic Unionist parties, respectively. Sudan_sentence_458

Only the Darfur region has traditionally been bereft of the Sufi brotherhoods common in the rest of the country. Sudan_sentence_459

Long-established groups of Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Christians exist in Khartoum and other northern cities. Sudan_sentence_460

Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox communities also exist in Khartoum and eastern Sudan, largely made up of refugees and migrants from the past few decades. Sudan_sentence_461

The Sudan Evangelical Presbyterian Church also has membership. Sudan_sentence_462

Religious identity plays a role in the country's political divisions. Sudan_sentence_463

Northern and western Muslims have dominated the country's political and economic system since independence. Sudan_sentence_464

The NCP draws much of its support from Islamists, Salafis/Wahhabis and other conservative Arab Muslims in the north. Sudan_sentence_465

The Umma Party has traditionally attracted Arab followers of the Ansar sect of Sufism as well as non-Arab Muslims from Darfur and Kordofan. Sudan_sentence_466

The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) includes both Arab and non-Arab Muslims in the north and east, especially those in the Khatmia Sufi sect. Sudan_sentence_467

Culture Sudan_section_32

Further information: Music of Sudan, Cinema of Sudan, Photography of Sudan, and List of Sudanese writers Sudan_sentence_468

Sudanese culture melds the behaviors, practices, and beliefs of about 578 ethnic groups, communicating in 145 different languages, in a region microcosmic of Africa, with geographic extremes varying from sandy desert to tropical forest. Sudan_sentence_469

Recent evidence suggests that while most citizens of the country identify strongly with both Sudan and their religion, Arab and African supranational identities are much more polarising and contested. Sudan_sentence_470

Music Sudan_section_33

Main article: Music of Sudan Sudan_sentence_471

Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan. Sudan_sentence_472

Beginning with the imposition of strict Salafi interpretation of sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent poets, like Mahjoub Sharif, were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin (returned to Sudan in the mid-1990s) and Mohammed Wardi (returned to Sudan 2003), fled to Cairo. Sudan_sentence_473

Traditional music suffered too, with traditional Zār ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated . Sudan_sentence_474

At the same time European militaries contributed to the development of Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and styles; military bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes, were renowned, and set traditional music to military march music. Sudan_sentence_475

The march March Shulkawi No 1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk. Sudan_sentence_476

Northern Sudan listens to different music than the rest of Sudan. Sudan_sentence_477

A type of music called Aldlayib uses a musical instrument called the Tambur. Sudan_sentence_478

The Tambur has five strings and is made from wood and makes music accompanied by the voices of human applause and singing artists. Sudan_sentence_479

This music has a perfect blend that gives the area of the Northern State a special character. Sudan_sentence_480

Cinema and photography Sudan_section_34

Main articles: Cinema of Sudan and Photography of Sudan Sudan_sentence_481

The cinema of Sudan began with cinematography by the British colonial presence in the early 20th century. Sudan_sentence_482

After independence in 1956, a vigorous documentary film tradition was established, but financial pressures and serious constraints imposed by the Islamist government led to the decline of filmmaking from the 1990s onwards. Sudan_sentence_483

Since the 2010s, several initiatives have shown an encouraging revival of filmmaking and public interest in film shows and festivals, albeit limited mainly to Khartoum. Sudan_sentence_484

The use of photography in Sudan goes back to the 1880s and the Anglo-Egyptian rule. Sudan_sentence_485

As in other countries, the growing importance of photography for mass media like newspapers, as well as for amateur photographers led to a wider photographic documentation and use of photographs in Sudan during the 20th century and beyond. Sudan_sentence_486

In the 21st century, photography in Sudan has undergone important changes, mainly due to digital photography and distribution through social media and the internet. Sudan_sentence_487

Sport Sudan_section_35

The most popular sports in Sudan are athletics (track and field) and football. Sudan_sentence_488

Though not as successful as football, basketball, handball, and volleyball are also popular in Sudan. Sudan_sentence_489

In the 1960s and 1970s, the national basketball team finished among the continent's top teams. Sudan_sentence_490

Nowadays, it is only a minor force. Sudan_sentence_491

Sudanese football has a long history. Sudan_sentence_492

Sudan was one of the four African nations – the others being Egypt, Ethiopia and South Africa – which formed African football. Sudan_sentence_493

Sudan hosted the first African Cup of Nations in 1956, and has won the African Cup of Nations once, in 1970. Sudan_sentence_494

Two years later, the Sudan's National Football Team participated in the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. Sudan_sentence_495

The nation's capital is home to the Khartoum League, which is considered to be the oldest football league in Africa. Sudan_sentence_496

Sudanese football teams such as Al-Hilal, Al-Merrikh, and Abdelgadir Osman FC are among the nation's strongest teams. Sudan_sentence_497

Other teams like Khartoum, El-Neel, Al-Nidal El-Nahud and Hay-Al Arab, are also starting to grow in popularity. Sudan_sentence_498

Clothing Sudan_section_36

Most Sudanese wear either traditional or western attire. Sudan_sentence_499

A traditional garb widely worn by Sudanese men is the galabiya, which is a loose-fitting, long-sleeved, collarless ankle-length garment also common to Egypt. Sudan_sentence_500

The galabiya is often accompanied by a large turban and a scarf, and the garment may be white, colored, striped, and made of fabric varying in thickness, depending on the season of the year and personal preferences. Sudan_sentence_501

The most common dress for Sudanese women is the thobe or thawb, pronounced tobe in Sudanese dialect. Sudan_sentence_502

The thobe is a white or colorful long, one piece cloth that women wrap around their inner garments, usually covering their head and hair. Sudan_sentence_503

Due to a 1991 penal code (Public Order Law), women were not allowed to wear trousers in public, because it was interpreted as an "obscene outfit." Sudan_sentence_504

The punishment for wearing trousers could be up to 40 lashes, but after being found guilty in 2009, one woman was fined the equivalent of 200 U.S. dollars instead. Sudan_sentence_505

Education Sudan_section_37

Main article: Education in Sudan Sudan_sentence_506

Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years, although more than 40% of children do not go to schools due to the economic situation. Sudan_sentence_507

Environmental and social factors also increase the difficulty of getting to school, especially for girls. Sudan_sentence_508

Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. Sudan_sentence_509

The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 was changed in 1990. Sudan_sentence_510

The primary language at all levels is Arabic. Sudan_sentence_511

Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the west have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. Sudan_sentence_512

In 2001 the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students. Sudan_sentence_513

Enrollment varies widely, falling below 20 percent in some provinces. Sudan_sentence_514

The literacy rate is 70.2% of total population, male: 79.6%, female: 60.8%. Sudan_sentence_515

Science and research Sudan_section_38

Sudan has around 25–30 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic or English. Sudan_sentence_516

Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education. Sudan_sentence_517

In addition, the "Islamisation" encouraged by president Al-Bashir alienated many researchers: the official language of instruction in universities was changed from English to Arabic and Islamic courses became mandatory. Sudan_sentence_518

Internal science funding withered. Sudan_sentence_519

According to UNESCO, more than 3,000 Sudanese researchers left the country between 2002 and 2014. Sudan_sentence_520

By 2013, the country had a mere 19 researchers for every 100,000 citizens, or 1/30 the ratio of Egypt, according to the Sudanese National Centre for Research. Sudan_sentence_521

In 2015, Sudan published only about 500 scientific papers. Sudan_sentence_522

For comparison, Poland, a country of similar population size, publishes on the order of 10,000 papers per year. Sudan_sentence_523

Health Sudan_section_39

Main article: Health in Sudan Sudan_sentence_524

Sudan has a life expectancy of 65.1 years according to the latest data for the year 2019 from the macrotrends. Sudan_sentence_525

Infant mortality in 2016 was 44.8 per 1,000. Sudan_sentence_526

UNICEF estimates that 87% of Sudanese women and girls between the ages of 15 to 49 have had female genital mutilation performed on them. Sudan_sentence_527

See also Sudan_section_40


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