Sun Microsystems

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"SunSoft, Inc." redirects here. Sun Microsystems_sentence_0

For the Japanese video game company, see Sunsoft. Sun Microsystems_sentence_1

Sun Microsystems_table_infobox_0

Sun MicrosystemsSun Microsystems_table_caption_0
Former typeSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_0_0 PublicSun Microsystems_cell_0_0_1
Traded asSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_1_0 Sun Microsystems_cell_0_1_1
IndustrySun Microsystems_header_cell_0_2_0 Sun Microsystems_cell_0_2_1
FateSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_3_0 Acquired by OracleSun Microsystems_cell_0_3_1
FoundedSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_4_0 February 24, 1982; 38 years ago (1982-02-24)Sun Microsystems_cell_0_4_1
FoundersSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_5_0 Sun Microsystems_cell_0_5_1
DefunctSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_6_0 January 27, 2010 (2010-01-27)Sun Microsystems_cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_7_0 Menlo Park, California, U.S.Sun Microsystems_cell_0_7_1
ProductsSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_8_0 Sun Microsystems_cell_0_8_1
OwnerSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_9_0 Oracle CorporationSun Microsystems_cell_0_9_1
Number of employeesSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_10_0 38,600 (near peak, 2006)Sun Microsystems_cell_0_10_1
WebsiteSun Microsystems_header_cell_0_11_0 See 4 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.Sun Microsystems_cell_0_11_1

Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the (NFS), and SPARC microprocessors. Sun Microsystems_sentence_2

Sun contributed significantly to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, and virtualized computing. Sun Microsystems_sentence_3

Sun was founded on February 24, 1982. Sun Microsystems_sentence_4

At its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California (part of Silicon Valley), on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center. Sun Microsystems_sentence_5

On April 20, 2009, it was announced that Oracle Corporation would acquire Sun for US$7.4 billion. Sun Microsystems_sentence_6

The deal was completed on January 27, 2010. Sun Microsystems_sentence_7

Sun products included computer servers and workstations built on its own RISC-based SPARC processor architecture, as well as on x86-based AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Sun Microsystems_sentence_8

Sun also developed its own storage systems and a suite of software products, including the Solaris operating system, developer tools, Web infrastructure software, and identity management applications. Sun Microsystems_sentence_9

Technologies included the Java platform and . Sun Microsystems_sentence_10

In general, Sun was a proponent of open systems, particularly Unix. Sun Microsystems_sentence_11

It was also a major contributor to open-source software, as evidenced by its $1 billion purchase, in 2008, of MySQL, an open-source relational database management system. Sun Microsystems_sentence_12

At various times, Sun had manufacturing facilities in several locations worldwide, including Newark, California; Hillsboro, Oregon; and Linlithgow, Scotland. Sun Microsystems_sentence_13

However, by the time the company was acquired by Oracle, it had outsourced most manufacturing responsibilities. Sun Microsystems_sentence_14

History Sun Microsystems_section_0

The initial design for what became Sun's first Unix workstation, the Sun-1, was conceived by Andy Bechtolsheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Sun Microsystems_sentence_15

Bechtolsheim originally designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation. Sun Microsystems_sentence_16

It was designed around the Motorola 68000 processor with an advanced memory management unit (MMU) to support the Unix operating system with virtual memory support. Sun Microsystems_sentence_17

He built the first examples from spare parts obtained from Stanford's Department of Computer Science and Silicon Valley supply houses. Sun Microsystems_sentence_18

On February 24, 1982, Scott McNealy, Andy Bechtolsheim, and Vinod Khosla, all Stanford graduate students, founded Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems_sentence_19

Bill Joy of Berkeley, a primary developer of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), joined soon after and is counted as one of the original founders. Sun Microsystems_sentence_20

The Sun name is derived from the initials of the Stanford University Network. Sun Microsystems_sentence_21

Sun was profitable from its first quarter in July 1982. Sun Microsystems_sentence_22

By 1983 Sun was known for producing 68k-based systems with high-quality graphics that were the only computers other than DEC's VAX to run 4.2BSD. Sun Microsystems_sentence_23

It licensed the computer design to other manufacturers, which typically used it to build Multibus-based systems running Unix from UniSoft. Sun Microsystems_sentence_24

Sun's initial public offering was in 1986 under the stock symbol SUNW, for Sun Workstations (later Sun Worldwide). Sun Microsystems_sentence_25

The symbol was changed in 2007 to JAVA; Sun stated that the brand awareness associated with its Java platform better represented the company's current strategy. Sun Microsystems_sentence_26

Sun's logo, which features four interleaved copies of the word sun in the form of a rotationally symmetric ambigram, was designed by professor Vaughan Pratt, also of Stanford. Sun Microsystems_sentence_27

The initial version of the logo was orange and had the sides oriented horizontally and vertically, but it was subsequently rotated to stand on one corner and re-colored purple, and later blue. Sun Microsystems_sentence_28

The "dot-com bubble" and aftermath Sun Microsystems_section_1

In the dot-com bubble, Sun began making much more money, and its shares rose dramatically. Sun Microsystems_sentence_29

It also began spending much more, hiring workers and building itself out. Sun Microsystems_sentence_30

Some of this was because of genuine demand, but much was from web start-up companies anticipating business that would never happen. Sun Microsystems_sentence_31

In 2000, the bubble burst. Sun Microsystems_sentence_32

Sales in Sun's important hardware division went into free-fall as customers closed shop and auctioned high-end servers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_33

Several quarters of steep losses led to executive departures, rounds of layoffs, and other cost cutting. Sun Microsystems_sentence_34

In December 2001, the stock fell to the 1998, pre-bubble level of about $100. Sun Microsystems_sentence_35

It continued to fall, faster than many other technology companies. Sun Microsystems_sentence_36

A year later, it had reached below $10 (a tenth of what it was in 1990), but it eventually bounced back to $20. Sun Microsystems_sentence_37

In mid-2004, Sun closed their Newark, California, factory and consolidated all manufacturing to Hillsboro, Oregon and Linlithgow, Scotland. Sun Microsystems_sentence_38

In 2006, the rest of the Newark campus was put on the market. Sun Microsystems_sentence_39

Post-crash focus Sun Microsystems_section_2

In 2004, Sun canceled two major processor projects which emphasized high instruction-level parallelism and operating frequency. Sun Microsystems_sentence_40

Instead, the company chose to concentrate on processors optimized for multi-threading and multiprocessing, such as the UltraSPARC T1 processor (codenamed "Niagara"). Sun Microsystems_sentence_41

The company also announced a collaboration with Fujitsu to use the Japanese company's processor chips in mid-range and high-end Sun servers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_42

These servers were announced on April 17, 2007, as the M-Series, part of the SPARC Enterprise series. Sun Microsystems_sentence_43

In February 2005, Sun announced the Sun Grid, a grid computing deployment on which it offered utility computing services priced at US$1 per CPU/hour for processing and per GB/month for storage. Sun Microsystems_sentence_44

This offering built upon an existing 3,000-CPU server farm used for internal R&D for over 10 years, which Sun marketed as being able to achieve 97% utilization. Sun Microsystems_sentence_45

In August 2005, the first commercial use of this grid was announced for financial risk simulations which were later launched as its first software as a service product. Sun Microsystems_sentence_46

In January 2005, Sun reported a net profit of $19 million for fiscal 2005 second quarter, for the first time in three years. Sun Microsystems_sentence_47

This was followed by net loss of $9 million on GAAP basis for the third quarter 2005, as reported on April 14, 2005. Sun Microsystems_sentence_48

In January 2007, Sun reported a net GAAP profit of $126 million on revenue of $3.337 billion for its fiscal second quarter. Sun Microsystems_sentence_49

Shortly following that news, it was announced that Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) would invest $700 million in the company. Sun Microsystems_sentence_50

Sun had engineering groups in Bangalore, Beijing, Dublin, Grenoble, Hamburg, Prague, St. Sun Microsystems_sentence_51 Petersburg, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Canberra and Trondheim. Sun Microsystems_sentence_52

In 2007–2008, Sun posted revenue of $13.8 billion and had $2 billion in cash. Sun Microsystems_sentence_53

First-quarter 2008 losses were $1.68 billion; revenue fell 7% to $12.99 billion. Sun Microsystems_sentence_54

Sun's stock lost 80% of its value November 2007 to November 2008, reducing the company's market value to $3 billion. Sun Microsystems_sentence_55

With falling sales to large corporate clients, Sun announced plans to lay off 5,000 to 6,000 workers, or 15–18% of its work force. Sun Microsystems_sentence_56

It expected to save $700 million to $800 million a year as a result of the moves, while also taking up to $600 million in charges. Sun Microsystems_sentence_57

Sun acquisitions Sun Microsystems_section_3

Sun Microsystems_unordered_list_0

  • 1987: Trancept Systems, a high-performance graphics hardware companySun Microsystems_item_0_0
  • 1987: Sitka Corp, networking systems linking the Macintosh with IBM PCsSun Microsystems_item_0_1
  • 1987: Centram Systems West, maker of networking software for PCs, Macs and Sun systemsSun Microsystems_item_0_2
  • 1988: Folio, Inc., developer of intelligent font scaling technology and the F3 font formatSun Microsystems_item_0_3
  • 1991: Interactive Systems Corporation's Intel/Unix OS division, from Eastman Kodak CompanySun Microsystems_item_0_4
  • 1992: Praxsys Technologies, Inc., developers of the Windows emulation technology that eventually became WabiSun Microsystems_item_0_5
  • 1994: Thinking Machines Corporation hardware divisionSun Microsystems_item_0_6
  • 1996: Lighthouse Design, Ltd.Sun Microsystems_item_0_7
  • 1996: Cray Business Systems Division, from Silicon GraphicsSun Microsystems_item_0_8
  • 1996: Integrated Micro Products, specializing in fault tolerant serversSun Microsystems_item_0_9
  • 1996: Thinking Machines Corporation software divisionSun Microsystems_item_0_10
  • February 1997: LongView Technologies, LLCSun Microsystems_item_0_11
  • August 1997: Diba, technology supplier for the Information Appliance industrySun Microsystems_item_0_12
  • September 1997: Chorus Systems, creators of ChorusOSSun Microsystems_item_0_13
  • November 1997: Encore Computer Corporation's storage businessSun Microsystems_item_0_14
  • 1998: RedCape SoftwareSun Microsystems_item_0_15
  • 1998: i-Planet, a small software company that produced the "Pony Espresso" mobile email client—its name (sans hyphen) for the Sun-Netscape software allianceSun Microsystems_item_0_16
  • June 1998: Dakota Scientific Software, Inc.—development tools for high-performance computingSun Microsystems_item_0_17
  • July 1998: NetDynamics—developers of the NetDynamics Application ServerSun Microsystems_item_0_18
  • October 1998: Beduin, small software company that produced the "Impact" small-footprint Java-based Web browser for mobile devices.Sun Microsystems_item_0_19
  • 1999: Star Division, German software company and with it StarOffice, which was later released as open source under the name OpenOffice.orgSun Microsystems_item_0_20
  • 1999: MAXSTRAT Corporation, a company in Milpitas, California selling Fibre Channel storage servers.Sun Microsystems_item_0_21
  • October 1999: Forté Software, an enterprise software company specializing in integration solutions and developer of the Forte 4GLSun Microsystems_item_0_22
  • 1999: TeamWareSun Microsystems_item_0_23
  • 1999: NetBeans, produced a modular IDE written in Java, based on a student project at Charles University in PragueSun Microsystems_item_0_24
  • March 2000: Innosoft International, Inc. a software company specializing in highly scalable MTAs (PMDF) and Directory Services.Sun Microsystems_item_0_25
  • July 2000: Gridware, a software company whose products managed the distribution of computing jobs across multiple computersSun Microsystems_item_0_26
  • September 2000: Cobalt Networks, an Internet appliance manufacturer for $2 billionSun Microsystems_item_0_27
  • December 2000: HighGround, with a suite of Web-based management solutionsSun Microsystems_item_0_28
  • 2001: LSC, Inc., an Eagan, Minnesota company that developed Storage and Archive Management File System (SAM-FS) and Quick File System QFS file systems for backup and archiveSun Microsystems_item_0_29
  • March 2001: InfraSearch, a peer-to-peer search company based in Burlingame.Sun Microsystems_item_0_30
  • March 2002: Clustra SystemsSun Microsystems_item_0_31
  • June 2002: Afara Websystems, developed SPARC processor-based technologySun Microsystems_item_0_32
  • September 2002: Pirus Networks, intelligent storage servicesSun Microsystems_item_0_33
  • November 2002: Terraspring, infrastructure automation softwareSun Microsystems_item_0_34
  • June 2003: Pixo, added to the Sun Content Delivery ServerSun Microsystems_item_0_35
  • August 2003: CenterRun, Inc.Sun Microsystems_item_0_36
  • December 2003: Waveset Technologies, identity managementSun Microsystems_item_0_37
  • January 2004 Nauticus NetworksSun Microsystems_item_0_38
  • February 2004: Kealia, founded by original Sun founder Andy Bechtolsheim, developed AMD-based 64-bit serversSun Microsystems_item_0_39
  • January 2005: SevenSpace, a multi-platform managed services providerSun Microsystems_item_0_40
  • May 2005: Tarantella, Inc. (formerly known as Santa Cruz Operation (SCO)), for $25 millionSun Microsystems_item_0_41
  • June 2005: SeeBeyond, a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) software company for $387mSun Microsystems_item_0_42
  • June 2005: Procom Technology, Inc.'s NAS IP AssetsSun Microsystems_item_0_43
  • August 2005: StorageTek, data storage technology company for $4.1 billionSun Microsystems_item_0_44
  • February 2006: Aduva, software for Solaris and Linux patch managementSun Microsystems_item_0_45
  • October 2006: NeogentSun Microsystems_item_0_46
  • April 2007: SavaJe, the SavaJe OS, a Java OS for mobile phonesSun Microsystems_item_0_47
  • September 2007: , Inc.Sun Microsystems_item_0_48
  • November 2007: Vaau, Enterprise Role Management and identity compliance solutionsSun Microsystems_item_0_49
  • February 2008: MySQL AB, the company offering the open source database MySQL for $1 billion.Sun Microsystems_item_0_50
  • February 2008: Innotek GmbH, developer of the VirtualBox virtualization productSun Microsystems_item_0_51

Sun Microsystems_unordered_list_1

  • April 2008: Montalvo Systems, x86 microprocessor startup acquired before first siliconSun Microsystems_item_1_52
  • January 2009: Q-layer, a software company with cloud computing solutionsSun Microsystems_item_1_53

Major stockholders Sun Microsystems_section_4

As of May 11, 2009, the following shareholders held over 100,000 common shares of Sun and at $9.50 per share offered by Oracle, they received the amounts indicated when the acquisition closed. Sun Microsystems_sentence_58

Sun Microsystems_table_general_1

Major Investors in SunSun Microsystems_table_caption_1
InvestorSun Microsystems_header_cell_1_0_0 Common SharesSun Microsystems_header_cell_1_0_1 Value at MergerSun Microsystems_header_cell_1_0_2
Barclays Global InvestorsSun Microsystems_cell_1_1_0 37,606,708Sun Microsystems_cell_1_1_1 $357 millionSun Microsystems_cell_1_1_2
Scott McNealySun Microsystems_cell_1_2_0 14,566,433Sun Microsystems_cell_1_2_1 $138 millionSun Microsystems_cell_1_2_2
Ken OshmanSun Microsystems_cell_1_3_0 584,985Sun Microsystems_cell_1_3_1 $5.5 millionSun Microsystems_cell_1_3_2
Jonathan I. SchwartzSun Microsystems_cell_1_4_0 536,109Sun Microsystems_cell_1_4_1 $5 millionSun Microsystems_cell_1_4_2
James L. BarksdaleSun Microsystems_cell_1_5_0 231,785Sun Microsystems_cell_1_5_1 $2.2 millionSun Microsystems_cell_1_5_2
Michael E. LehmanSun Microsystems_cell_1_6_0 106,684Sun Microsystems_cell_1_6_1 $1 millionSun Microsystems_cell_1_6_2

Hardware Sun Microsystems_section_5

For the first decade of Sun's history, the company positioned its products as technical workstations, competing successfully as a low-cost vendor during the Workstation Wars of the 1980s. Sun Microsystems_sentence_59

It then shifted its hardware product line to emphasize servers and storage. Sun Microsystems_sentence_60

High-level telecom control systems such as Operational Support Systems service predominantly used Sun equipment. Sun Microsystems_sentence_61

Motorola-based systems Sun Microsystems_section_6

Sun originally used Motorola 68000 family central processing units for the Sun-1 through Sun-3 computer series. Sun Microsystems_sentence_62

The Sun-1 employed a 68000 CPU, the Sun-2 series, a 68010. Sun Microsystems_sentence_63

The Sun-3 series was based on the 68020, with the later Sun-3x using the 68030. Sun Microsystems_sentence_64

SPARC-based systems Sun Microsystems_section_7

See also: SPARC Sun Microsystems_sentence_65

In 1987, the company began using SPARC, a RISC processor architecture of its own design, in its computer systems, starting with the Sun-4 line. Sun Microsystems_sentence_66

SPARC was initially a 32-bit architecture (SPARC V7) until the introduction of the SPARC V9 architecture in 1995, which added 64-bit extensions. Sun Microsystems_sentence_67

Sun has developed several generations of SPARC-based computer systems, including the SPARCstation, Ultra, and Sun Blade series of workstations, and the SPARCserver, Netra, Enterprise, and Sun Fire line of servers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_68

In the early 1990s the company began to extend its product line to include large-scale symmetric multiprocessing servers, starting with the four-processor SPARCserver 600MP. Sun Microsystems_sentence_69

This was followed by the 8-processor SPARCserver 1000 and 20-processor SPARCcenter 2000, which were based on work done in conjunction with Xerox PARC. Sun Microsystems_sentence_70

In 1995 the company introduced Sun Ultra series machines that were equipped with the first 64-bit implementation of SPARC processors (UltraSPARC). Sun Microsystems_sentence_71

In the late 1990s the transformation of product line in favor of large 64-bit SMP systems was accelerated by the acquisition of Cray Business Systems Division from Silicon Graphics. Sun Microsystems_sentence_72

Their 32-bit, 64-processor Cray Superserver 6400, related to the SPARCcenter, led to the 64-bit Sun Enterprise 10000 high-end server (otherwise known as Starfire). Sun Microsystems_sentence_73

In September 2004 Sun made available systems with UltraSPARC IV which was the first multi-core SPARC processor. Sun Microsystems_sentence_74

It was followed by UltraSPARC IV+ in September 2005 and its revisions with higher clock speeds in 2007. Sun Microsystems_sentence_75

These CPUs were used in the most powerful, enterprise class high-end CC-NUMA servers developed by Sun, such as Sun Fire E25K. Sun Microsystems_sentence_76

In November 2005 Sun launched the UltraSPARC T1, notable for its ability to concurrently run 32 threads of execution on 8 processor cores. Sun Microsystems_sentence_77

Its intent was to drive more efficient use of CPU resources, which is of particular importance in data centers, where there is an increasing need to reduce power and air conditioning demands, much of which comes from the heat generated by CPUs. Sun Microsystems_sentence_78

The T1 was followed in 2007 by the UltraSPARC T2, which extended the number of threads per core from 4 to 8. Sun Microsystems_sentence_79

Sun has open sourced the design specifications of both the T1 and T2 processors via the OpenSPARC project. Sun Microsystems_sentence_80

In 2006, Sun ventured into the blade server (high density rack-mounted systems) market with the Sun Blade (distinct from the Sun Blade workstation). Sun Microsystems_sentence_81

In April 2007 Sun released the SPARC Enterprise server products, jointly designed by Sun and Fujitsu and based on Fujitsu SPARC64 VI and later processors. Sun Microsystems_sentence_82

The M-class SPARC Enterprise systems include high-end reliability and availability features. Sun Microsystems_sentence_83

Later T-series servers have also been badged SPARC Enterprise rather than Sun Fire. Sun Microsystems_sentence_84

In April 2008 Sun released servers with UltraSPARC T2 Plus, which is an SMP capable version of UltraSPARC T2, available in 2 or 4 processor configurations. Sun Microsystems_sentence_85

It was the first CoolThreads CPU with multi-processor capability and it made possible to build standard rack-mounted servers that could simultaneously process up to massive 256 CPU threads in hardware (Sun SPARC Enterprise T5440), which is considered a record in the industry. Sun Microsystems_sentence_86

Since 2010, all further development of Sun machines based on SPARC architecture (including new SPARC T-Series servers, SPARC T3 and T4 chips) is done as a part of Oracle Corporation hardware division. Sun Microsystems_sentence_87

x86-based systems Sun Microsystems_section_8

In the late 1980s, Sun also marketed an Intel 80386-based machine, the Sun386i; this was designed to be a hybrid system, running SunOS but at the same time supporting DOS applications. Sun Microsystems_sentence_88

This only remained on the market for a brief time. Sun Microsystems_sentence_89

A follow-up "486i" upgrade was announced but only a few prototype units were ever manufactured. Sun Microsystems_sentence_90

Sun's brief first foray into x86 systems ended in the early 1990s, as it decided to concentrate on SPARC and retire the last Motorola systems and 386i products, a move dubbed by McNealy as "all the wood behind one arrowhead". Sun Microsystems_sentence_91

Even so, Sun kept its hand in the x86 world, as a release of Solaris for PC compatibles began shipping in 1993. Sun Microsystems_sentence_92

In 1997 Sun acquired Diba, Inc., followed later by the acquisition of Cobalt Networks in 2000, with the aim of building network appliances (single function computers meant for consumers). Sun Microsystems_sentence_93

Sun also marketed a Network Computer (a term popularized and eventually trademarked by Oracle); the JavaStation was a diskless system designed to run Java applications. Sun Microsystems_sentence_94

Although none of these business initiatives were particularly successful, the Cobalt purchase gave Sun a toehold for its return to the x86 hardware market. Sun Microsystems_sentence_95

In 2002, Sun introduced its first general purpose x86 system, the LX50, based in part on previous Cobalt system expertise. Sun Microsystems_sentence_96

This was also Sun's first system announced to support Linux as well as Solaris. Sun Microsystems_sentence_97

In 2003, Sun announced a strategic alliance with AMD to produce x86/x64 servers based on AMD's Opteron processor; this was followed shortly by Sun's acquisition of Kealia, a startup founded by original Sun founder Andy Bechtolsheim, which had been focusing on high-performance AMD-based servers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_98

The following year, Sun launched the Opteron-based Sun Fire V20z and V40z servers, and the Java Workstation W1100z and W2100z workstations. Sun Microsystems_sentence_99

On September 12, 2005, Sun unveiled a new range of Opteron-based servers: the Sun Fire X2100, X4100 and X4200 servers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_100

These were designed from scratch by a team led by Bechtolsheim to address heat and power consumption issues commonly faced in data centers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_101

In July 2006, the Sun Fire X4500 and X4600 systems were introduced, extending a line of x64 systems that support not only Solaris, but also Linux and Microsoft Windows. Sun Microsystems_sentence_102

On January 22, 2007, Sun announced a broad strategic alliance with Intel. Sun Microsystems_sentence_103

Intel endorsed Solaris as a mainstream operating system and as its mission critical Unix for its Xeon processor-based systems, and contributed engineering resources to OpenSolaris. Sun Microsystems_sentence_104

Sun began using the Intel Xeon processor in its x64 server line, starting with the Sun Blade X6250 server module introduced in June 2007. Sun Microsystems_sentence_105

On May 5, 2008, AMD announced its Operating System Research Center (OSRC) expanded its focus to include optimization to Sun's OpenSolaris and xVM virtualization products for AMD based processors. Sun Microsystems_sentence_106

Software Sun Microsystems_section_9

Although Sun was initially known as a hardware company, its software history began with its founding in 1982; co-founder Bill Joy was one of the leading Unix developers of the time, having contributed the vi editor, the C shell, and significant work developing TCP/IP and the BSD Unix OS. Sun Microsystems_sentence_107

Sun later developed software such as the Java programming language and acquired software such as StarOffice, VirtualBox and MySQL. Sun Microsystems_sentence_108

Sun used community-based and open-source licensing of its major technologies, and for its support of its products with other open source technologies. Sun Microsystems_sentence_109

GNOME-based desktop software called Java Desktop System (originally code-named "Madhatter") was distributed for the Solaris operating system, and at one point for Linux. Sun Microsystems_sentence_110

Sun supported its Java Enterprise System (a middleware stack) on Linux. Sun Microsystems_sentence_111

It released the source code for Solaris under the open-source Common Development and Distribution License, via the OpenSolaris community. Sun Microsystems_sentence_112

Sun's positioning includes a commitment to indemnify users of some software from intellectual property disputes concerning that software. Sun Microsystems_sentence_113

It offers support services on a variety of pricing bases, including per-employee and per-socket. Sun Microsystems_sentence_114

A 2006 report prepared for the EU by UNU-MERIT stated that Sun was the largest corporate contributor to open source movements in the world. Sun Microsystems_sentence_115

According to this report, Sun's open source contributions exceed the combined total of the next five largest commercial contributors. Sun Microsystems_sentence_116

Operating systems Sun Microsystems_section_10

Main article: Solaris (operating system) Sun Microsystems_sentence_117

Sun is best known for its Unix systems, which have a reputation for system stability and a consistent design philosophy. Sun Microsystems_sentence_118

Sun's first workstation shipped with UniSoft V7 Unix. Sun Microsystems_sentence_119

Later in 1982 Sun began providing SunOS, a customized 4.1BSD Unix, as the operating system for its workstations. Sun Microsystems_sentence_120

In the late 1980s, AT&T tapped Sun to help them develop the next release of their branded UNIX, and in 1988 announced they would purchase up to a 20% stake in Sun. Sun Microsystems_sentence_121

UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4) was jointly developed by AT&T and Sun; Sun used SVR4 as the foundation for Solaris 2.x, which became the successor to SunOS 4.1.x (later retrospectively named Solaris 1.x). Sun Microsystems_sentence_122

By the mid-1990s, the ensuing Unix wars had largely subsided, AT&T had sold off their Unix interests, and the relationship between the two companies was significantly reduced. Sun Microsystems_sentence_123

From 1992 Sun also sold Interactive Unix, an operating system it acquired when it bought Interactive Systems Corporation from Eastman Kodak Company. Sun Microsystems_sentence_124

This was a popular Unix variant for the PC platform and a major competitor to market leader SCO UNIX. Sun Microsystems_sentence_125

Sun's focus on Interactive Unix diminished in favor of Solaris on both SPARC and x86 systems; it was dropped as a product in 2001. Sun Microsystems_sentence_126

Sun dropped the Solaris 2.x version numbering scheme after the Solaris 2.6 release (1997); the following version was branded Solaris 7. Sun Microsystems_sentence_127

This was the first 64-bit release, intended for the new UltraSPARC CPUs based on the SPARC V9 architecture. Sun Microsystems_sentence_128

Within the next four years, the successors Solaris 8 and Solaris 9 were released in 2000 and 2002 respectively. Sun Microsystems_sentence_129

Following several years of difficult competition and loss of server market share to competitors' Linux-based systems, Sun began to include Linux as part of its strategy in 2002. Sun Microsystems_sentence_130

Sun supported both Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server on its x64 systems; companies such as Canonical Ltd., Wind River Systems and MontaVista also supported their versions of Linux on Sun's SPARC-based systems. Sun Microsystems_sentence_131

In 2004, after having cultivated a reputation as one of Microsoft's most vocal antagonists, Sun entered into a joint relationship with them, resolving various legal entanglements between the two companies and receiving US$1.95 billion in settlement payments from them. Sun Microsystems_sentence_132

Sun supported Microsoft Windows on its x64 systems, and announced other collaborative agreements with Microsoft, including plans to support each other's virtualization environments. Sun Microsystems_sentence_133

In 2005, the company released Solaris 10. Sun Microsystems_sentence_134

The new version included a large number of enhancements to the operating system, as well as very novel features, previously unseen in the industry. Sun Microsystems_sentence_135

Solaris 10 update releases continued through the next 8 years, the last release from Sun Microsystems being Solaris 10 10/09. Sun Microsystems_sentence_136

The following updates were released by Oracle under the new license agreement; the final release is Solaris 10 1/13. Sun Microsystems_sentence_137

Previously, Sun offered a separate variant of Solaris called Trusted Solaris, which included augmented security features such as multilevel security and a least privilege access model. Sun Microsystems_sentence_138

Solaris 10 included many of the same capabilities as Trusted Solaris at the time of its initial release; Solaris 10 11/06 included Solaris Trusted Extensions, which give it the remaining capabilities needed to make it the functional successor to Trusted Solaris. Sun Microsystems_sentence_139

After releasing Solaris 10, its source code was opened under CDDL free software license and developed in open with contributing Opensolaris community through SXCE that used SVR4 .pkg packaging and supported Opensolaris releases that used IPS. Sun Microsystems_sentence_140

Following acquisition of Sun by Oracle , Opensolaris continued to develop in open under illumos with illumos distributions. Sun Microsystems_sentence_141

Oracle Corporation continued to develop OpenSolaris into next Solaris release, changing back the license to proprietary, and released it as Oracle Solaris 11 in November 2011. Sun Microsystems_sentence_142

Java platform Sun Microsystems_section_11

Main article: Java platform Sun Microsystems_sentence_143

The Java platform was developed at Sun by James Gosling in the early 1990s with the objective of allowing programs to function regardless of the device they were used on, sparking the slogan "Write once, run anywhere" (WORA). Sun Microsystems_sentence_144

While this objective was not entirely achieved (prompting the riposte "Write once, debug everywhere"), Java is regarded as being largely hardware- and operating system-independent. Sun Microsystems_sentence_145

Java was initially promoted as a platform for client-side applets running inside web browsers. Sun Microsystems_sentence_146

Early examples of Java applications were the HotJava web browser and the HotJava Views suite. Sun Microsystems_sentence_147

However, since then Java has been more successful on the server side of the Internet. Sun Microsystems_sentence_148

The platform consists of three major parts: the Java programming language, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and several Java Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). Sun Microsystems_sentence_149

The design of the Java platform is controlled by the vendor and user community through the Java Community Process (JCP). Sun Microsystems_sentence_150

Java is an object-oriented programming language. Sun Microsystems_sentence_151

Since its introduction in late 1995, it became one of the world's most popular programming languages. Sun Microsystems_sentence_152

Java programs are compiled to byte code, which can be executed by any JVM, regardless of the environment. Sun Microsystems_sentence_153

The Java APIs provide an extensive set of library routines. Sun Microsystems_sentence_154

These APIs evolved into the Standard Edition (Java SE), which provides basic infrastructure and GUI functionality; the Enterprise Edition (Java EE), aimed at large software companies implementing enterprise-class application servers; and the Micro Edition (Java ME), used to build software for devices with limited resources, such as mobile devices. Sun Microsystems_sentence_155

On November 13, 2006, Sun announced it would be licensing its Java implementation under the GNU General Public License; it released its Java compiler and JVM at that time. Sun Microsystems_sentence_156

In February 2009 Sun entered a battle with Microsoft and Adobe Systems, which promoted rival platforms to build software applications for the Internet. Sun Microsystems_sentence_157

JavaFX was a development platform for music, video and other applications that builds on the Java programming language. Sun Microsystems_sentence_158

Office suite Sun Microsystems_section_12

In 1999, Sun acquired the German software company Star Division and with it the office suite StarOffice, which Sun later released as under both GNU LGPL and the SISSL (Sun Industry Standards Source License). Sun Microsystems_sentence_159 supported Microsoft Office file formats (though not perfectly), was available on many platforms (primarily Linux, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Solaris) and was used in the open source community. Sun Microsystems_sentence_160

The principal differences between StarOffice and were that StarOffice was supported by Sun, was available as either a single-user retail box kit or as per-user blocks of licensing for the enterprise, and included a wider range of fonts and document templates and a commercial quality spellchecker. Sun Microsystems_sentence_161

StarOffice also contained commercially licensed functions and add-ons; in these were either replaced by open-source or free variants, or are not present at all. Sun Microsystems_sentence_162

Both packages had native support for the OpenDocument format. Sun Microsystems_sentence_163

Virtualization and datacenter automation software Sun Microsystems_section_13

In 2007, Sun announced the Sun xVM virtualization and datacenter automation product suite for commodity hardware. Sun Microsystems_sentence_164

Sun also acquired VirtualBox in 2008. Sun Microsystems_sentence_165

Earlier virtualization technologies from Sun like Dynamic System Domains and Dynamic Reconfiguration were specifically designed for high-end SPARC servers, and Logical Domains only supports the UltraSPARC T1/T2/T2 Plus server platforms. Sun Microsystems_sentence_166

Sun marketed Sun Ops Center provisioning software for datacenter automation. Sun Microsystems_sentence_167

On the client side, Sun offered virtual desktop solutions. Sun Microsystems_sentence_168

Desktop environments and applications could be hosted in a datacenter, with users accessing these environments from a wide range of client devices, including Microsoft Windows PCs, Sun Ray virtual display clients, Apple Macintoshes, PDAs or any combination of supported devices. Sun Microsystems_sentence_169

A variety of networks were supported, from LAN to WAN or the public Internet. Sun Microsystems_sentence_170

Virtual desktop products included Sun Ray Server Software, Sun Secure Global Desktop and Sun Virtual Desktop Infrastructure. Sun Microsystems_sentence_171

Database management systems Sun Microsystems_section_14

Sun acquired MySQL AB, the developer of the MySQL database in 2008 for US$1 billion. Sun Microsystems_sentence_172

CEO Jonathan Schwartz mentioned in his blog that optimizing the performance of MySQL was one of the priorities of the acquisition. Sun Microsystems_sentence_173

In February 2008, Sun began to publish results of the MySQL performance optimization work. Sun Microsystems_sentence_174

Sun contributed to the PostgreSQL project. Sun Microsystems_sentence_175

On the Java platform, Sun contributed to and supported Java DB. Sun Microsystems_sentence_176

Other software Sun Microsystems_section_15

Sun offered other software products for software development and infrastructure services. Sun Microsystems_sentence_177

Many were developed in house; others came from acquisitions, including Tarantella, Waveset Technologies, SeeBeyond, and Vaau. Sun Microsystems_sentence_178

Sun acquired many of the Netscape non-browser software products as part a deal involving Netscape's merger with AOL. Sun Microsystems_sentence_179

These software products were initially offered under the "iPlanet" brand; once the Sun-Netscape alliance ended, they were re-branded as "Sun ONE" (Sun Open Network Environment), and then the "Sun Java System". Sun Microsystems_sentence_180

Sun's middleware product was branded as the Java Enterprise System (or JES), and marketed for web and application serving, communication, calendaring, directory, identity management and service-oriented architecture. Sun Microsystems_sentence_181

Sun's Open ESB and other software suites were available free of charge on systems running Solaris, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, HP-UX, and Windows, with support available optionally. Sun Microsystems_sentence_182

Sun developed data center management software products, which included the Solaris Cluster high availability software, and a grid management package called Sun Grid Engine and firewall software such as SunScreen. Sun Microsystems_sentence_183

For Network Equipment Providers and telecommunications customers, Sun developed the Sun Netra High-Availability Suite. Sun Microsystems_sentence_184

Sun produced compilers and development tools under the Sun Studio brand, for building and developing Solaris and Linux applications. Sun Microsystems_sentence_185

Sun entered the software as a service (SaaS) market with zembly, a social cloud-based computing platform and Project Kenai, an open-source project hosting service. Sun Microsystems_sentence_186

Storage Sun Microsystems_section_16

Sun sold its own storage systems to complement its system offerings; it has also made several storage-related acquisitions. Sun Microsystems_sentence_187

On June 2, 2005, Sun announced it would purchase Storage Technology Corporation (StorageTek) for US$4.1 billion in cash, or $37.00 per share, a deal completed in August 2005. Sun Microsystems_sentence_188

In 2006, Sun introduced the Sun StorageTek 5800 System, the first application-aware programmable storage solution. Sun Microsystems_sentence_189

In 2008, Sun contributed the source code of the StorageTek 5800 System under the BSD license. Sun Microsystems_sentence_190

Sun announced the Sun Open Storage platform in 2008 built with open source technologies. Sun Microsystems_sentence_191

In late 2008 Sun announced the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage systems (codenamed Amber Road). Sun Microsystems_sentence_192

Transparent placement of data in the systems' solid-state drives (SSD) and conventional hard drives was managed by ZFS to take advantage of the speed of SSDs and the economy of conventional hard disks. Sun Microsystems_sentence_193

Other storage products included Sun Fire X4500 storage server and SAM-QFS filesystem and storage management software. Sun Microsystems_sentence_194

High-performance computing Sun Microsystems_section_17

Sun marketed the Sun Constellation System for high-performance computing (HPC). Sun Microsystems_sentence_195

Even before the introduction of the Sun Constellation System in 2007, Sun's products were in use in many of the TOP500 systems and supercomputing centers: Sun Microsystems_sentence_196

Sun Microsystems_unordered_list_2

  • was used by seven of the top 10 supercomputers in 2008, as well as other industries that need high-performance storage: six major oil companies (including BP, Shell, and ExxonMobil), chip-design (including Synopsys and Sony), and the movie-industry (including Harry Potter and Spider-Man).Sun Microsystems_item_2_54
  • Sun Fire X4500 was used by high-energy physics supercomputers to run dCacheSun Microsystems_item_2_55
  • Sun Grid Engine was a popular workload scheduler for clusters and computer farmsSun Microsystems_item_2_56
  • Sun Visualization System allowed users of the TeraGrid to remotely access the 3D rendering capabilities of the Maverick system at the University of Texas at AustinSun Microsystems_item_2_57
  • Sun Modular Datacenter (Project Blackbox) was two Sun MD S20 units used by the Stanford Linear Accelerator CenterSun Microsystems_item_2_58

The Sun HPC ClusterTools product was a set of Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries and tools for running parallel jobs on Solaris HPC clusters. Sun Microsystems_sentence_197

Beginning with version 7.0, Sun switched from its own implementation of MPI to Open MPI, and donated engineering resources to the Open MPI project. Sun Microsystems_sentence_198

Sun was a participant in the OpenMP language committee. Sun Microsystems_sentence_199

Sun Studio compilers and tools implemented the OpenMP specification for shared memory parallelization. Sun Microsystems_sentence_200

In 2006, Sun built the TSUBAME supercomputer, which was until June 2008 the fastest supercomputer in Asia. Sun Microsystems_sentence_201

Sun built Ranger at the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) in 2007. Sun Microsystems_sentence_202

Ranger had a peak performance of over 500 TFLOPS, and was the sixth-most-powerful supercomputer on the TOP500 list in November 2008. Sun Microsystems_sentence_203

Sun announced an OpenSolaris distribution that integrated Sun's HPC products with others. Sun Microsystems_sentence_204

Staff Sun Microsystems_section_18

See also: List of Sun Microsystems employees Sun Microsystems_sentence_205

Notable Sun employees included John Gilmore, Whitfield Diffie, Radia Perlman, Ivan Sutherland, and Marc Tremblay. Sun Microsystems_sentence_206

Sun was an early advocate of Unix-based networked computing, promoting TCP/IP and especially NFS, as reflected in the company's motto "The Network Is The Computer", coined by John Gage. Sun Microsystems_sentence_207

James Gosling led the team which developed the Java programming language. Sun Microsystems_sentence_208

Jon Bosak led the creation of the XML specification at W3C. Sun Microsystems_sentence_209

Sun staff published articles on the company's blog site. Sun Microsystems_sentence_210

Staff were encouraged to use the site to blog on any aspect of their work or personal life, with few restrictions placed on staff, other than commercially confidential material. Sun Microsystems_sentence_211

Jonathan I. Schwartz was one of the first CEOs of large companies to regularly blog; his postings were frequently quoted and analyzed in the press. Sun Microsystems_sentence_212

In 2005, Sun Microsystems was one of the first Fortune 500 companies that instituted a formal Social Media program. Sun Microsystems_sentence_213

Acquisition by Oracle Sun Microsystems_section_19

Main article: Sun acquisition by Oracle Sun Microsystems_sentence_214

Sun was sold to Oracle Corporation in 2009 for $5.6 billion. Sun Microsystems_sentence_215

Sun's staff were asked to share anecdotes about their experiences at Sun. Sun Microsystems_sentence_216

A web site containing videos, stories, and photographs from 27 years at Sun was made available on September 2, 2009. Sun Microsystems_sentence_217

In October, Sun announced a second round of thousands of employees to be laid off, blamed partially on delays in approval of the merger. Sun Microsystems_sentence_218

The transaction was completed in early 2010. Sun Microsystems_sentence_219

In January 2011, Oracle agreed to pay $46 million to settle charges that it submitted false claims to US federal government agencies and paid "kickbacks" to systems integrators. Sun Microsystems_sentence_220

In February 2011, Sun's former Menlo Park, California, campus of about 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m) was sold, and it was announced that it would become headquarters for Facebook. Sun Microsystems_sentence_221

The sprawling facility built around an enclosed courtyard had been nicknamed "Sun Quentin". Sun Microsystems_sentence_222

On September 1, 2011, Sun India legally became part of Oracle. Sun Microsystems_sentence_223

It had been delayed due to legal issues in Indian court. Sun Microsystems_sentence_224

See also Sun Microsystems_section_20

Sun Microsystems_unordered_list_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Microsystems.