Surry Hills, New South Wales

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For the Melbourne suburb, see Surrey Hills, Victoria. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_0

Surry Hills is an inner city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_1

Surry Hills is immediately south-east of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Sydney. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_2

Surry Hills is surrounded by the suburbs of Darlinghurst to the north, Chippendale and Haymarket to the west, Moore Park and Paddington to the east and Redfern to the south. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_3

It is bordered by Elizabeth Street and Chalmers Street to the west, Cleveland Street to the south, South Dowling Street to the east, and Oxford Street to the north. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_4

Central is a locality in the north-west of the suburb around Central station. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_5

Prince Alfred Park is located nearby. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_6

Strawberry Hills is a locality around Cleveland and Elizabeth Streets and Brickfield Hill to the east of that. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_7

A multicultural suburb, Surry Hills has had a long association with the Portuguese community of Sydney. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_8

History Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_0

The first land grants in Surry Hills were made in the 1790s. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_9

Major Joseph Foveaux received 105 acres (0.42 km). Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_10

His property was known as Surry Hills Farm, after the Surrey Hills in Surrey, England. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_11

Foveaux Street is named in his honour. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_12

Commissary John Palmer received 90 acres (360,000 m). Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_13

He called the property George Farm and in 1800 Palmer also bought Foveaux's farm. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_14

In 1792, the boundaries of the Sydney Cove settlement were established between the head of Cockle Bay to the head of Woolloomooloo Bay. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_15

West of the boundary, which included present-day Surry Hills, was considered suitable for farming and was granted to military officers and free settlers. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_16

After Palmer's political failures, his reduced financial circumstances forced the first subdivision and sale of his estate in 1814. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_17

Isaac Nichols bought Allotment 20, comprising over 6 acres (24,000 m). Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_18

Due to the hilly terrain, much of the suburb was considered remote and 'inhospitable'. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_19

In the early years of the nineteenth century the area around what is now Prince Alfred Park was undeveloped land known as the Government Paddocks or Cleveland Paddocks. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_20

A few villas were built in the suburb in the late 1820s. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_21

The suburb remained one of contrasts for much of the nineteenth century, with the homes of wealthy merchants mixed with that of the commercial and working classes. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_22

In 1820, Governor Macquarie ordered the consecration of the Devonshire Street Cemetery. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_23

A brick wall was erected before any interments took place to enclose its 4 acres (16,000 m). Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_24

Within a four-year period the cemetery was expanded by the addition of 7 acres (28,000 m) to its south. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_25

A road was formed along the southern boundary of the cemetery in the first half of the 1830s and was called Devonshire Street. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_26

The Devonshire Street Cemetery, where many of the early settlers were buried, was later moved to build the Sydney railway terminus. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_27

Central railway station was opened on 4 August 1906. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_28

The area around Cleveland and Elizabeth streets was known as Strawberry Hills. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_29

Strawberry Hills post office was located at this intersection for many years. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_30

In 1833, the Nichols estate was subdivided and sold. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_31

One purchase was by Thomas Broughton and subsequently acquired by George Hill who constructed Durham Hall on this and adjoining lots. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_32

Terrace houses and workers' cottages were built in Surry Hills from the 1850s. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_33

Light industry became established in the area, particularly in the rag trade (clothing industry). Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_34

It became a working class suburb, predominately inhabited by Irish immigrants. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_35

The suburb developed a reputation for crime and vice. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_36

The Sydney underworld figure Kate Leigh (1881–1964), lived in Surry Hills for more than 80 years. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_37

In 1896 Patineur Grotesque one of Australia's first films and first comedy routine filmed was shot in Prince Alfred Park by Marius Sestier. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_38

Surry Hills was favoured by newly arrived families after World War II when property values were low and accommodation was inexpensive. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_39

From the 1980s, the area was gentrified, with many of the area's older houses and building restored and many new upper middle-class residents enjoying the benefits of inner-city living. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_40

The suburb is now a haven for the upper middle class and young rich. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_41

Trams Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_1

Main article: Trams in Sydney Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_42

The West Kensington via Surry Hills Line operated from 1881 down Crown Street as far as Cleveland Street as a steam tramway. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_43

It was extended to Phillip Street in 1909, Todman Avenue in 1912, and then to its final terminus down Todman Avenue in 1937. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_44

When the line was fully operational it branched from the tramlines in Oxford Street and proceeded down Crown Street to Cleveland Street in Surry Hills, then south along Baptist Street to Phillip Street, where it swung left into Crescent Street before running south along Dowling Street. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_45

It passed the Dowling Street Depot, then tuned left into Todman Avenue, where it terminated at West Kensington. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_46

The line along Crown Street closed in 1957, the remainder stayed open until 1961 to allow access to Dowling Street Tram Depot. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_47

State Transit routes 301, 302 and 303 generally follow the route down Crown and Baptist Streets as far as Phillip Street. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_48

Urban character Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_2

Surry Hills has a mixture of residential, commercial and light industrial areas. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_49

It remains Sydney's main centre for fashion wholesale activities, particularly on the western side. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_50

Surry Hills Markets are held in Shannon Reserve at the corner of Crown and Collins Streets, on the first Saturday of every month, and the Surry Hills Festival is an annual community event, attracting tens of thousands of visitors, held in and around Ward Park, Shannon Reserve, Crown Street and Hill Street. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_51

The Surry Hills Library and Community Centre sits opposite Shannon Reserve and houses the local branch of the city library and the Surry Hills Neighbourhood Centre. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_52

The building was "designed to achieve excellence in sustainable design and set new benchmarks in environmental performance" according to the City of Sydney website. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_53

In popular culture Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_3

Literature Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_4

The Harp in the South is a novel by Ruth Park. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_54

Published in 1948, it portrays the life of a Catholic Irish-Australian family in Surry Hills, which was an inner city slum at the time. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_55

A sequel, Poor Man's Orange, was published in 1949. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_56

Transport Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_5

Central railway station, the largest station on the Sydney Trains and NSW TrainLink networks, sits on the western edge of Surry Hills. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_57

Surry Hills is also serviced by State Transit Authority buses. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_58

The Eastern Distributor is a major road, on the eastern edge of the suburb. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_59

Major thoroughfares are Crown Street, Cleveland Street, Bourke Street and Foveaux Street. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_60

Surry Hills is within easy walking distance of the Sydney CBD, and is included in a widening network of cycleways. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_61

Major construction took place on the Surry Hills section of the CBD and South East Light Rail which opened in December 2019 and April 2020 respectively. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_62

Transport for NSW managed this project. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_63

It has been reported that there has been some disruption to local businesses because of the construction work taking place. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_64

Places of worship Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_6

Surry Hills, New South Wales_unordered_list_0

  • Chinese Presbyterian ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_0
  • Christian Israelite ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_1
  • Cityside Church (Australian Christian Churches)Surry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_2
  • Dawn of Islam MosqueSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_3
  • Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_4
  • King Faisal MosqueSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_5
  • Self-Realization FellowshipSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_6
  • Society of FriendsSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_7
  • St Frances De Sales Catholic ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_8
  • St Michael's Anglican ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_9
  • St Peters Catholic ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_10
  • Surry Hills Baptist ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_11
  • Sydney Streetlevel Mission (The Salvation Army)Surry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_12
  • Vine ChurchSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_0_13

Landmarks Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_7

Sydney Police Centre, Centennial Plaza, Belvoir Street Theatre, Tom Mann Theatre, Prince Alfred Park, Harmony Park, Surry Hills Library and Community Centre. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_65

Restaurants Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_8

Surry Hills boasts a diverse range of cafes and restaurants serving a wide variety of cooking styles and cultures. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_66

The suburb has one of the highest, if not the highest, concentration of restaurants in Sydney. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_67

Local chefs include Andrew Cibej and Bill Granger. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_68

Pubs and bars Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_9

Because of its industrial and commercial history, the Surry Hills area contains a significant number of pubs. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_69

The style of pubs range from the Victorian period to Federation and Art Deco pubs from the mid-1900s. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_70

Many of these have been refurbished in recent years to include restaurants and modern facilities. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_71

Some of the more popular pubs in Surry Hills include: Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_72

Heritage buildings Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_10

Surry Hills has a number of heritage-listed sites, including the following sites listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register: Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_73

Surry Hills, New South Wales_unordered_list_1

The following buildings are listed on the now defunct Register of the National Estate: Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_74

Surry Hills, New South Wales_unordered_list_2

  • Bourke Street Public School, established in 1880 and located in heritage-listed buildingsSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_24
  • Children's Court, Albion StreetSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_25
  • Former Police Station, 703 Bourke Street (designed by Walter Liberty Vernon)Surry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_26
  • Former Wesleyan Chapel, 348A Bourke StreetSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_27
  • Riley Street Infants School, 378-386 Riley StreetSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_28
  • Society of Friends Meeting House, Devonshire StreetSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_29
  • St David's Hall, Arthur StreetSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_30
  • St Michael's Anglican Church, hall and rectory, Albion StreetSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_2_31

Housing Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_11

Surry Hills is largely composed of grand Victorian terraced houses and some complexes of public housing units to the west of Riley Street. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_75

Examples of converted buildings previously used as hospitals include Crown Street Hospital and St. Margaret's, in addition to other building conversions. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_76

Schools Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_12

Bourke Street Public School, Crown Street Public School, Sydney Community College, Sydney Boys High School and Sydney Girls High School are notable examples. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_77

The Australian Institute of Music's Sydney Campus is also located in Surry Hills. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_78

Population Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_13

Demographically, Surry Hills is now characterised as a mixture of wealthy newcomers who have gentrified the suburb, and long-time residents. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_79

At the 2016 census, 69.4% of dwellings are flats, units or apartments, compared to the Australian average of 13.1%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_80

29.1% are semi-detached terraced houses or townhouses, compared to the Australian average of 12.7%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_81

Only 0.4% of dwellings are separate houses, compared to the Australian average of 75.6%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_82

Surry Hills is categorised as a high wealth area, with a median weekly household income of $2,144, compared to the Australian average of $1,438. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_83

Historically, the suburb had an influx of post-war immigrants from Europe, particularly those from Greece, Portugal and Italy. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_84

Surry Hills had a population of 16,412 at the 2016 census. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_85

42.1% of people were born in Australia. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_86

The most common foreign countries of birth were England 6.4%, Thailand 3.9%, China (excludes SARs and Taiwan) 3.6%, New Zealand 3.2% and the United States of America 1.9%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_87

47.6% of dwellings have no cars, compared to the Australian average of 7.5%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_88

32.9% of the population walked to work, compared to the Australian average of 3.7%, and 30.2% travelled to work by public transport, compared to the Australian average of 10.4%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_89

Surry Hills is a significantly more irreligious suburb than the Australian average. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_90

A plurality (44.0%) reported no religion whilst 16.9% did not answer the question. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_91

The most common religions reported were Catholic 15.6%, Buddhism 6.4% and Anglican 5.6%. Surry Hills, New South Wales_sentence_92

Notable people Surry Hills, New South Wales_section_14

Surry Hills, New South Wales_unordered_list_3

  • Tilly Devine (1900–1970), a prominent English-born Sydney crime syndicate gangs member figure and madamSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_32
  • Kate Leigh (1881–1964), (resided) a figure in the notorious Sydney razor gang warsSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_33
  • Jessica Mauboy, (born 1989) singer and actressSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_34
  • Ruth Park, (1917-2010), author, resided for a time in Surry Hills, where her first book, The Harp in the South (1948), was set.Surry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_35
  • Kenneth Slessor OBE (1901–1972), poet and author, many of his poems were set in Surry Hills, Darlinghurst, and Kings CrossSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_36
  • Catherine Sutherland, (born 1974) actressSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_37
  • Brett Whiteley AO (1939–1992), artist, resided and had a studio in Surry Hills, now the Brett Whiteley StudioSurry Hills, New South Wales_item_3_38

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Hills, New South Wales.