Swing music

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Swing music_table_infobox_0

SwingSwing music_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsSwing music_header_cell_0_1_0 Swing music_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsSwing music_header_cell_0_2_0 1930s, United StatesSwing music_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsSwing music_header_cell_0_3_0 Swing music_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresSwing music_header_cell_0_4_0
Fusion genresSwing music_header_cell_0_5_0
Regional scenesSwing music_header_cell_0_6_0

Swing music is a form of jazz that developed in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s. Swing music_sentence_0

The name came from the emphasis on the off–beat, or weaker pulse. Swing music_sentence_1

Swing bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement. Swing music_sentence_2

The danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, known as the swing era. Swing music_sentence_3

The verb "to swing" is also used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Swing music_sentence_4

Notable musicians of the swing era include Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong(Dixieland jazz), Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Jimmy Dorsey, Tommy Dorsey, Woody Herman, Harry James, Lionel Hampton, Glenn Miller, and Artie Shaw. Swing music_sentence_5

Overview Swing music_section_0

1920s: Roots Swing music_section_1

Developments in dance orchestra and jazz music during the 1920s both contributed to the development of the 1930s swing style. Swing music_sentence_6

Starting in 1923, the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra featured innovative arrangements by Don Redman that featured call-response interplay between brass and reed sections, and interludes arranged to back up soloists. Swing music_sentence_7

The arrangements also had a smoother rhythmic sense than the ragtime-influenced arrangements that were the more typical "hot" dance music of the day. Swing music_sentence_8

In 1924 Louis Armstrong joined the Henderson band, lending impetus to an even greater emphasis on soloists. Swing music_sentence_9

The Henderson band also featured Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, and Buster Bailey as soloists, who all were influential in the development of swing era instrumental styles. Swing music_sentence_10

During the Henderson band's extended residency at the Roseland Ballroom in New York, it became influential on other big bands. Swing music_sentence_11

Duke Ellington credited the Henderson band with being an early influence when he was developing the sound for his own band. Swing music_sentence_12

In 1925 Armstrong left the Henderson band and would add his innovations to New Orleans style jazz to develop Chicago style jazz, another step towards swing. Swing music_sentence_13

Traditional New Orleans style jazz was based on a two-beat meter and contrapuntal improvisation led by a trumpet or cornet, typically followed by a clarinet and trombone in a call-response pattern. Swing music_sentence_14

The rhythm section consisted of a sousaphone and drums, and sometimes a banjo. Swing music_sentence_15

By the early 1920s guitars and pianos sometimes substituted for the banjo and a string bass sometimes substituted for the sousaphone. Swing music_sentence_16

Use of the string bass opened possibilities for 4/4 instead of 2/4 time at faster tempos, which increased rhythmic freedom. Swing music_sentence_17

The Chicago style released the soloist from the constraints of contrapuntal improvisation with other front-line instruments, lending greater freedom in creating melodic lines. Swing music_sentence_18

Louis Armstrong used the additional freedom of the new format with 4/4 time, accenting the second and fourth beats and anticipating the main beats with lead-in notes in his solos to create a sense of rhythmic pulse that happened between the beats as well as on them, i.e. swing. Swing music_sentence_19

In 1927 Armstrong worked with pianist Earl Hines, who had a similar impact on his instrument as Armstrong had on trumpet. Swing music_sentence_20

Hines' melodic, horn-like conception of playing deviated from the contemporary conventions in jazz piano centered on building rhythmic patterns around "pivot notes." Swing music_sentence_21

His approaches to rhythm and phrasing were also free and daring, exploring ideas that would define swing playing. Swing music_sentence_22

His approach to rhythm often used accents on the lead-in instead of the main beat, and mixed meters, to build a sense of anticipation to the rhythm and make his playing swing. Swing music_sentence_23

He also used "stops" or musical silences to build tension in his phrasing. Swing music_sentence_24

Hines' style was a seminal influence on the styles of swing-era pianists Teddy Wilson, Art Tatum, Jess Stacy, Nat "King" Cole, Erroll Garner, Mary Lou Williams, and Jay McShann. Swing music_sentence_25

Black territory dance bands in the southwest were developing dynamic styles that often went in the direction of blues-based simplicity, using riffs in a call-response pattern to build a strong, danceable rhythm and provide a musical platform for extended solos. Swing music_sentence_26

The rhythm-heavy tunes for dancing were called "stomps." Swing music_sentence_27

The requirement for volume led to continued use of the sousaphone over the string bass with the larger ensembles, which dictated a more conservative approach to rhythm based on 2/4 time signatures. Swing music_sentence_28

Meanwhile, string bass players such as Walter Page were developing their technique to the point where they could hold down the bottom end of a full-sized dance orchestra. Swing music_sentence_29

The growth of radio broadcasting and the recording industry in the 1920s allowed some of the more popular dance bands to gain national exposure. Swing music_sentence_30

The most popular style of dance orchestra was the "sweet" style, often with strings. Swing music_sentence_31

Paul Whiteman developed a style he called "symphonic jazz," grafting a classical approach over his interpretation of jazz rhythms in an approach he hoped would be the future of jazz. Swing music_sentence_32

Whiteman's Orchestra enjoyed great commercial success and was a major influence on the sweet bands. Swing music_sentence_33

Jean Goldkette's Victor Recording Orchestra featured many of the top white jazz musicians of the day including Bix Beiderbecke, Jimmy Dorsey, Frank Trumbauer, Pee Wee Russell, Eddie Lang, and Joe Venuti. Swing music_sentence_34

The Victor Recording Orchestra won the respect of the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra in a Battle of the Bands; Henderson's cornetist Rex Stewart credited the Goldkette band with being the most influential white band in the development of swing music before Benny Goodman's. Swing music_sentence_35

As a dance music promoter and agent, Goldkette also helped organize and promote McKinney's Cotton Pickers and Glen Gray's Orange Blossoms (later the Casa Loma Orchestra), two other Detroit-area bands that were influential in the early swing era. Swing music_sentence_36

Early swing Swing music_section_2

As the 1920s turned to the 1930s, the new concepts in rhythm and ensemble playing that comprised the swing style were transforming the sounds of large and small bands. Swing music_sentence_37

Starting in 1928, The Earl Hines Orchestra was broadcast throughout much of the midwest from the Grand Terrace Cafe in Chicago, where Hines had the opportunity to expound upon his new approaches to rhythm and phrasing with a big band. Swing music_sentence_38

Hines' arranger Jimmy Mundy would later contribute to the catalog of the Benny Goodman Orchestra. Swing music_sentence_39

The Duke Ellington Orchestra had its new sounds broadcast nationally from New York's Cotton Club, followed by the Cab Calloway Orchestra and the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra. Swing music_sentence_40

Also in New York, the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra featured the new style at the Roseland Ballroom and the swing powerhouse Chick Webb Orchestra started its extended stay at the Savoy Ballroom in 1931. Swing music_sentence_41

Bennie Moten and the Kansas City Orchestra showcased the riff-propelled, solo-oriented form of swing that had been developing in the hothouse of Kansas City. Swing music_sentence_42

Emblematic of the evolving music was the change in the name of Moten's signature tune, from "Moten Stomp" to "Moten Swing." Swing music_sentence_43

Moten's orchestra had a highly successful tour in late 1932. Swing music_sentence_44

Audiences raved about the new music, and at the Pearl Theatre in Philadelphia in December 1932, the doors were let open to the public who crammed into the theatre to hear the new sound, demanding seven encores from Moten's orchestra. Swing music_sentence_45

With the early 1930s came the financial difficulties of the Great Depression that curtailed recording of the new music and drove some bands out of business, including the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra and McKinney's Cotton Pickers in 1934. Swing music_sentence_46

Henderson's next business was selling arrangements to up-and-coming bandleader Benny Goodman. Swing music_sentence_47

"Sweet" dance music remained most popular with white audiences but the Casa Loma Orchestra and the Benny Goodman Orchestra went against that grain, targeting the new swing style to younger audiences. Swing music_sentence_48

1935–1946: The swing era Swing music_section_3

Main article: Swing era Swing music_sentence_49

In 1935 the Benny Goodman Orchestra had won a spot on the radio show "Let's Dance" and started showcasing an updated repertoire featuring Fletcher Henderson arrangements. Swing music_sentence_50

Goodman's slot was on after midnight in the East, and few people heard it. Swing music_sentence_51

It was on earlier on the West Coast and developed the audience that later led to Goodman's Palomar Ballroom triumph. Swing music_sentence_52

At the Palomar engagement starting on August 21, 1935, audiences of young white dancers favored Goodman's rhythm and daring arrangements. Swing music_sentence_53

The sudden success of the Goodman orchestra transformed the landscape of popular music in America. Swing music_sentence_54

Goodman's success with "hot" swing brought forth imitators and enthusiasts of the new style throughout the world of dance bands, which launched the "swing era" that lasted until 1946. Swing music_sentence_55

A typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely-tied woodwind and brass sections playing call-response to each other. Swing music_sentence_56

The level of improvisation that the audience might expect varied with the arrangement, song, band, and band-leader. Swing music_sentence_57

Typically included in big band swing arrangements were an introductory chorus that stated the theme, choruses arranged for soloists, and climactic out-choruses. Swing music_sentence_58

Some arrangements were built entirely around a featured soloist or vocalist. Swing music_sentence_59

Some bands used string or vocal sections, or both. Swing music_sentence_60

Swing-era repertoire included the Great American Songbook of Tin Pan Alley standards, band originals, traditional jazz tunes such as the “King Porter Stomp”, with which the Goodman orchestra had a smash hit, and blues. Swing music_sentence_61

Hot swing music is strongly associated with the jitterbug dancing that became a national craze accompanying the swing craze. Swing music_sentence_62

Swing dancing originated in the late 1920s as the "Lindy Hop," and would later incorporate other styles including The Suzie Q, Truckin', Peckin' Jive, The Big Apple, and The Shag in various combinations of moves. Swing music_sentence_63

A subculture of jitterbuggers, sometimes growing quite competitive, congregated around ballrooms that featured hot swing music. Swing music_sentence_64

A dance floor full of jitterbuggers had cinematic appeal; they were sometimes featured in newsreels and movies. Swing music_sentence_65

Some of the top jitterbuggers gathered in professional dance troupes such as Whitey's Lindy Hoppers (featured in A Day At the Races, Everybody Dance, and Hellzapoppin'). Swing music_sentence_66

Swing dancing would outlive the swing era, becoming associated with R&B and early Rock&Roll. Swing music_sentence_67

As with many new popular musical styles, swing met with some resistance because of its improvisation, tempo, occasionally risqué lyrics, and frenetic dancing. Swing music_sentence_68

Audiences used to traditional "sweet" arrangements, such as those offered by Guy Lombardo, Sammy Kaye, Kay Kyser and Shep Fields, were taken aback by the rambunctiousness of swing music. Swing music_sentence_69

Swing was sometimes regarded as light entertainment, more of an industry to sell records to the masses than a form of art, among fans of both jazz and "serious" music. Swing music_sentence_70

Some jazz critics such as Hugues Panassié held the polyphonic improvisation of New Orleans jazz to be the pure form of jazz, with swing a form corrupted by regimentation and commercialism. Swing music_sentence_71

Panassié was also an advocate of the theory that jazz was a primal expression of the black American experience and that white musicians, or black musicians who became interested in more sophisticated musical ideas, were generally incapable of expressing its core values. Swing music_sentence_72

In his 1941 autobiography, W. Swing music_sentence_73 C. Handy wrote that "prominent white orchestra leaders, concert singers and others are making commercial use of Negro music in its various phases. Swing music_sentence_74

That's why they introduced "swing" which is not a musical form" (no comment on Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, Duke Ellington, or Count Basie). Swing music_sentence_75

The Dixieland revival started in the late 1930s as a self-conscious re-creation of New Orleans jazz in reaction against the orchestrated style of big band swing. Swing music_sentence_76

Some swing bandleaders saw opportunities in the Dixieland revival. Swing music_sentence_77

Tommy Dorsey's Clambake Seven and Bob Crosby's Bobcats were examples of Dixieland ensembles within big swing bands. Swing music_sentence_78

Between the poles of hot and sweet, middlebrow interpretations of swing led to great commercial success for bands such as those led by Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and Tommy Dorsey. Swing music_sentence_79

Miller's trademark clarinet-led reed section was decidedly "sweet," but the Miller catalog had no shortage of bouncy, medium-tempo dance tunes and some up-tempo tunes such as Mission to Moscow and the Lionel Hampton composition “Flying Home”. Swing music_sentence_80

"The Sentimental Gentleman of Swing" Tommy Dorsey made a nod to the hot side by hiring jazz trumpeter and Goodman alumnus Bunny Berigan, then hiring Jimmie Lunceford's arranger Sy Oliver to spice up his catalog in 1939. Swing music_sentence_81

New York became a touchstone for national success of big bands, with nationally broadcast engagements at the Roseland and Savoy ballrooms a sign that a swing band had arrived on the national scene. Swing music_sentence_82

With its Savoy engagement in 1937, the Count Basie Orchestra brought the riff-and-solo oriented Kansas City style of swing to national attention. Swing music_sentence_83

The Basie orchestra collectively and individually would influence later styles that would give rise to the smaller "jump" bands and bebop. Swing music_sentence_84

The Chick Webb Orchestra remained closely identified with the Savoy Ballroom, having originated the tune “Stompin' at the Savoy,” and became feared in the Savoy's Battles of the Bands. Swing music_sentence_85

It humiliated Goodman's band, and had memorable encounters with the Ellington and Basie bands. Swing music_sentence_86

The Goodman band's 1938 Carnegie Hall Concert turned into a summit of swing, with guests from the Basie and Ellington bands invited for a jam session after the Goodman band's performance. Swing music_sentence_87

Coleman Hawkins arrived back from an extended stay in Europe to New York in 1939, recorded his famous version of “Body and Soul”, and fronted his own big band. Swing music_sentence_88

1940 saw top-flight musicians such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Don Byas, Charlie Christian, and Gene Ramey, whose careers in swing had brought them to New York, beginning to coalesce and develop the ideas that would become bebop. Swing music_sentence_89

1940s: Decline Swing music_section_4

The early 1940s saw emerging trends in popular music and jazz that would, once they had run their course, result in the end of the swing era. Swing music_sentence_90

Vocalists were becoming the star attractions of the big bands. Swing music_sentence_91

Vocalist Ella Fitzgerald, after joining the Chick Webb Orchestra in 1936, propelled the band to great popularity and the band continued under her name after Webb's death in 1939. Swing music_sentence_92

In 1940 vocalist Vaughn Monroe was leading his own big band and Frank Sinatra was becoming the star attraction of the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra, inciting mass hysteria among bobby-soxers. Swing music_sentence_93

Vocalist Peggy Lee joined the Goodman Orchestra in 1941 for a two-year stint, quickly becoming its star attraction on its biggest hits. Swing music_sentence_94

Some big bands were moving away from the swing styles that dominated the late 1930s, for both commercial and creative reasons. Swing music_sentence_95

Some of the more commercial big bands catered to more "sweet" sensibilities with string sections. Swing music_sentence_96

Some bandleaders such as John Kirby, Raymond Scott, and Claude Thornhill were fusing swing with classical repertoire. Swing music_sentence_97

Lower manpower requirements and simplicity favored the rise of small band swing. Swing music_sentence_98

The Savoy Sultans and other smaller bands led by Louis Jordan, Lucky Millinder, Louis Prima, and Tony Pastor were showcasing an exuberant "jump swing" style that would lead to the postwar rise of R&B. Swing music_sentence_99

In a 1939 Downbeat interview, Duke Ellington expressed dissatisfaction with the creative state of swing music; within a few years he and other bandleaders would be delving into more ambitious, and less danceable, forms of orchestral jazz and the creative forefront for soloists would be moving into smaller ensembles and bebop. Swing music_sentence_100

The Earl Hines Orchestra in 1943 featured a collection of young, forward-looking musicians who were at the core of the bebop movement and would in the following year be in the Billy Eckstine Orchestra, the first big band to showcase bebop. Swing music_sentence_101

As the swing era went into decline, it secured legacies in vocalist-centered popular music, "progressive" big band jazz, R&B, and bebop. Swing music_sentence_102

The trend away from big band swing was accelerated by wartime conditions and royalty conflicts. Swing music_sentence_103

In 1941 the American Society of Composers and Producers (ASCAP) demanded bigger royalties from broadcasters and the broadcasters refused. Swing music_sentence_104

Consequently, ASCAP banned the large repertoire they controlled from airplay, severely restricting what the radio audience could hear. Swing music_sentence_105

ASCAP also demanded pre-approval of set lists and even written solos for live broadcasts, to assure that not even a quoted fragment of ASCAP repertoire was broadcast. Swing music_sentence_106

Those restrictions made broadcast swing much less appealing for the year in which the ban was in place. Swing music_sentence_107

Big band swing remained popular during the war years, but the resources required to support it became problematic. Swing music_sentence_108

Wartime restriction on travel, coupled with rising expenses, curtailed road touring. Swing music_sentence_109

The manpower requirements for big swing bands placed a burden on the scarce resources available for touring and were impacted by the military draft. Swing music_sentence_110

In July 1942 the American Federation of Musicians called a ban on recording until record labels agreed to pay royalties to musicians. Swing music_sentence_111

That stopped recording of instrumental music for major labels for over a year, with the last labels agreeing to new contract terms in November 1944. Swing music_sentence_112

In the meantime, vocalists continued to record backed by vocal groups and the recording industry released earlier swing recordings from their vaults, increasingly reflecting the popularity of big band vocalists. Swing music_sentence_113

In 1943 Columbia Records re-released the 1939 recording of “All or Nothing at All” by the Harry James Orchestra with Frank Sinatra, giving Sinatra top billing ("Acc. Swing music_sentence_114

Harry James and his Orchestra"). Swing music_sentence_115

The recording found the commercial success that had eluded its original release. Swing music_sentence_116

Small band swing was recorded for small specialty labels not affected by the ban. Swing music_sentence_117

These labels had limited distribution centered in large urban markets, which tended to limit the size of the ensembles with which recording could be a money-making proposition. Swing music_sentence_118

Another blow fell on the market for dance-oriented swing in 1944 when the federal government levied a 30% excise tax on "dancing" nightclubs, undercutting the market for dance music in smaller venues. Swing music_sentence_119

The war's end saw the elements that had been unified under big band swing scattered into separate styles and markets. Swing music_sentence_120

Some "progressive" big bands such as those led by Stan Kenton and Boyd Raeburn stayed oriented towards jazz, but not jazz for dancing. Swing music_sentence_121

Much of the top instrumental talent of the period were performing in small band formats ranging from R&B to bebop. Swing music_sentence_122

The hard core dancing niche formerly occupied by hot big band swing was occupied by small "jump" bands and R&B. Swing music_sentence_123

Popular music was centered on vocalists, and a full-time big band to back up a vocalist was increasingly seen as an unnecessary expense. Swing music_sentence_124

By 1947 the economics of popular music led to the disbanding of many established big bands. Swing music_sentence_125

Big band music would experience a resurgence during the 1950s, but the connection between the later big band music and the swing era was tenuous. Swing music_sentence_126

1950s–1960s Swing music_section_5

Swingin' pop Swing music_section_6

Swing bands and sales continued to decline from 1953 to 1954. Swing music_sentence_127

In 1955, a list of top recording artists from the previous year was publicly released. Swing music_sentence_128

The list revealed that big band sales have decreased since the early 1950s. Swing music_sentence_129

However, big band music saw a revival in the 1950s and 1960s. Swing music_sentence_130

One impetus was the demand for studio and stage orchestras as backups for popular vocalists, and in radio and television broadcasts. Swing music_sentence_131

Ability to adapt performing styles to various situations was an essential skill among these bands-for-hire, with a somewhat sedated version of swing in common use for backing up vocalists. Swing music_sentence_132

The resurgent commercial success of Frank Sinatra with a mildly swinging backup during the mid-1950s solidified the trend. Swing music_sentence_133

It became a sound associated with pop vocalists such as Bobby Darin, Dean Martin, Judy Garland, and Nat King Cole, as well as jazz-oriented vocalists like Ella Fitzgerald and Keely Smith. Swing music_sentence_134

Many of these singers were also involved in the "less swinging" vocal pop music of this period. Swing music_sentence_135

The bands in these contexts performed in relative anonymity, receiving secondary credit beneath the top billing. Swing music_sentence_136

Some, such as the Nelson Riddle and Gordon Jenkins Orchestras, became well known in their own right, with Riddle particularly associated with the success of Sinatra and Cole. Swing music_sentence_137

Swingin' pop remained popular into the mid-1960s, becoming one current of the "easy listening" genre including Johnny Mathis, Andy Williams, Burt Bacharach, Dionne Warwick, Ray Conniff, and Henry Mancini. Swing music_sentence_138

Big band jazz Swing music_section_7

Big band jazz made a comeback as well. Swing music_sentence_139

The Stan Kenton and Woody Herman bands maintained their popularity during lean years of the late 1940s and beyond, making their mark with innovative arrangements and high-level jazz soloists (Shorty Rogers, Art Pepper, Kai Winding, Stan Getz, Al Cohn, Zoot Sims, Serge Chaloff, Gene Ammons, Sal Nistico). Swing music_sentence_140

Lionel Hampton was a leader in the R&B genre during the late 1940s then re-entered big band jazz in the early 1950s, remaining a popular attraction through the 1960s. Swing music_sentence_141

Count Basie and Duke Ellington had both downsized their big bands during the first half of the 1950s, then reconstituted them by 1956. Swing music_sentence_142

Ellington's venture back into big band jazz was encouraged by its reception at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival. Swing music_sentence_143

The Basie and Ellington bands flourished creatively and commercially through the 1960s and beyond, with both veteran leaders receiving high acclaim for their contemporary work and performing until they were physically unable. Swing music_sentence_144

Drummer Buddy Rich, after briefly leading one big band during the late 1940s and performing in various jazz and big band gigs, formed his definitive big band in 1966. Swing music_sentence_145

His name became synonymous with the dynamic, exuberant style of his big band. Swing music_sentence_146

Other big jazz bands that drove the 1950s–60s revival include those led by Thad Jones, Mel Lewis, Quincy Jones, and Oliver Nelson. Swing music_sentence_147

Big band jazz remains a major component of college jazz instruction curricula. Swing music_sentence_148

Cross-genre swing Swing music_section_8

In country music Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, and Bob Wills combined elements of swing and blues to create a Western swing. Swing music_sentence_149

Mullican left the Cliff Bruner band to pursue solo career that included many songs that maintained a swing structure. Swing music_sentence_150

Artists like Willie Nelson and Asleep at the Wheel have continued the swing elements of country music. Swing music_sentence_151

Asleep at the Wheel has also recorded the Count Basie tunes “One O'Clock Jump”, “Jumpin' at the Woodside”, and “Song of the Wanderer” using a steel guitar as a stand-in for a horn section. Swing music_sentence_152

Nat King Cole followed Sinatra into pop music, bringing with him a similar combination of swing and ballads. Swing music_sentence_153

Like Mullican, he was important in bringing piano to the fore of popular music. Swing music_sentence_154

Gypsy swing is an outgrowth of the jazz violin swing of Joe Venuti and Eddie Lang. Swing music_sentence_155

In Europe it was heard in the music of guitarist Django Reinhardt and violinist Stéphane Grappelli. Swing music_sentence_156

Their repertoire overlaps 1930s swing, including French popular music, gypsy songs, and compositions by Reinhardt, but gypsy swing bands are formulated differently. Swing music_sentence_157

There is no brass or percussion; guitars and bass form the backbone, with violin, accordion, clarinet or guitar taking the lead. Swing music_sentence_158

Gypsy swing groups generally have no more than five players. Swing music_sentence_159

Although they originated in different continents, similarities have often been noted between gypsy swing and Western swing]l, leading to various fusions. Swing music_sentence_160

Rock music hitmakers like Fats Domino, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry, Gene Vincent and Elvis Presley included swing-era standards in their repertoire. Swing music_sentence_161

Presley and Domino made the crooning ballads “Are You Lonesome Tonight” and “My Blue Heaven” into a rock and roll-era hits. Swing music_sentence_162

The doo-wop vocal group The Marcels had a big hit with their lively version of the swing-era ballad “Blue Moon”. Swing music_sentence_163

1960s–2000: Big Band nostalgia and swing revival Swing music_section_9

Main article: Swing revival Swing music_sentence_164

Though swing music was no longer mainstream, fans could attend "Big Band Nostalgia" tours from the 1970s into the 1980s. Swing music_sentence_165

The tours featured bandleaders and vocalists of the swing era who were semi-retired, such as Harry James and vocalist Dick Haymes. Swing music_sentence_166

Historically-themed radio broadcasts featuring period comedy, melodrama, and music also played a role in sustaining interest in the music of the swing era. Swing music_sentence_167

Dan Hicks and His Hot Licks, and later David Grisman, presented adaptations of Gypsy Swing, rekindling interest in the musical form. Swing music_sentence_168

Other swing revivals occurred during the 1970s. Swing music_sentence_169

The jazz, R&B, and swing revival vocal group Manhattan Transfer and Bette Midler included swing era hits on albums during the early 1970s. Swing music_sentence_170

In Seattle the New Deal Rhythm Band and the Horns O Plenty Orchestra revived 1930s swing with a dose of comedy behind vocalists Phil "De Basket" Shallat, Cheryl "Benzene" Bentyne, and six-foot-tall "Little Janie" Lambert. Swing music_sentence_171

Bentyne would leave the New Deal Rhythm Band in 1978 for her long career with Manhattan Transfer. Swing music_sentence_172

Founding leader of the New Deal Rhythm Band John Holte led swing revival bands in the Seattle area until 2003. Swing music_sentence_173

A Swing Revival occurred during the 1990s and 2000s led by Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, The Cherry Poppin' Daddies, Squirrel Nut Zippers, Lavay Smith, and Brian Setzer. Swing music_sentence_174

Many of the bands played neo-swing which combined swing with rockabilly, ska, and rock. Swing music_sentence_175

The music brought a revival in swing dancing. Swing music_sentence_176

In 2001 Robbie Williams's album Swing When You're Winning consisted mainly of popular swing covers. Swing music_sentence_177

The album sold more than 7 million copies worldwide. Swing music_sentence_178

In November 2013, Robbie Williams released Swings Both Ways. Swing music_sentence_179

1990s to present: swing house, electro swing and swing pop Swing music_section_10

Another modern development consists of fusing swing (original, or remixes of classics) with hip hop and house techniques. Swing music_sentence_180

"Swing house" was particularly popular during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Swing music_sentence_181

Influences incorporated into it include Louis Jordan and Louis Prima. Swing music_sentence_182

Electro swing is mainly popular in Europe, and electro swing artists incorporate influences such as tango and Django Reinhardt's gypsy swing. Swing music_sentence_183

Leading artists include Caravan Palace and Parov Stelar. Swing music_sentence_184

Both genres are connected with a revival of swing dances, such as the Lindy hop. Swing music_sentence_185

Notable musicians Swing music_section_11

Swing music_unordered_list_0

See also Swing music_section_12

Swing music_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing music.