Sydney, Nova Scotia

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For other uses, see Sydney (disambiguation). Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_0

Sydney, Nova Scotia_table_infobox_0


Mi'kmaq: Cibou Gaelic: Baile ShidniSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_0_0

CountrySydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaSydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_2_0 Nova ScotiaSydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_2_1
CountySydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_3_0 Cape BretonSydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_3_1
MunicipalitySydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_4_0 Cape Breton Regional MunicipalitySydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_4_1
FoundedSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_5_0 1785Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_5_1
Incorporated CitySydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_6_0 1904Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_6_1
DissolvedSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_7_0 1 August 1995Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_7_1
Named forSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_8_0 Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount SydneySydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_8_1
AreaSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_9_0
TotalSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_10_0 29.43 km (11.36 sq mi)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_10_1
Highest elevationSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_11_0 66 m (217 ft)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_11_1
Lowest elevationSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_12_0 0 m (0 ft)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_12_1
Population (2016)Sydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_13_0
TotalSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_14_0 29,904Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_14_1
DensitySydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_15_0 1,000/km (2,600/sq mi)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_15_1
Metro densitySydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_16_0 718.50/km (1,860.9/sq mi)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_16_1
Sydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_17_0 "Metro" population based on a 43 km or 17 sq mi sample that is larger than the old boundaries for the former City of Sydney, pre-1995.Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_17_1
Time zoneSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_18_0 UTC−04:00 (AST)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_18_1
Summer (DST)Sydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC−03:00 (ADT)Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_19_1
Canadian Postal codeSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_20_0 B1L – SSydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_20_1
Area code(s)Sydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_21_0 902 & 782Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_21_1
Telephone ExchangeSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_22_0 202, 217, 270, 284, 304, 317, 322, 371, 408, 509, 537, 539, 549 560–5, 567, 574, 577, 578, 595, 979Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_22_1
HighwaysSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_23_0 Hwy 125
Trunk 4
Trunk 22
Trunk 28
Route 305
Route 327Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_23_1
WebsiteSydney, Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_24_0 Q932261#P856Sydney, Nova Scotia_cell_0_24_1

Sydney is a community on the east coast of Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, Canada within the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_1

Sydney was founded in 1785 by the British, was incorporated as a city in 1904, and dissolved on 1 August 1995, when it was amalgamated into the regional municipality. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_2

Sydney served as the Cape Breton Island colony's capital, until 1820, when the colony merged with Nova Scotia and the capital moved to Halifax. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_3

A rapid population expansion occurred just after the turn of the 20th century, when Sydney was home to one of North America's main steel mills. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_4

During both the First and Second World Wars, it was a major staging area for England-bound convoys. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_5

The post-war period witnessed a major decline in the number of people employed at the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation steel mill, and the Nova Scotia and Canadian governments had to nationalize it in 1967 to save the region's biggest employer, forming the new crown corporation called the Sydney Steel Corporation. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_6

The city's population has steadily decreased since the early 1970s due to the plant's fortunes, and SYSCO was finally closed in 2001. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_7

Today, the main industries are in customer support call centres and tourism. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_8

Together with Sydney Mines, North Sydney, New Waterford, and Glace Bay, Sydney forms the region traditionally referred to as Industrial Cape Breton. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_9

History Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_0

Early history 1700s to 1899 Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_1

Prior to a permanent settlement being established, there was significant activity along the shore. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_10

During the American Revolution, on 1 November 1776, John Paul Jones – the father of the American Navy – set sail in command of Alfred to free hundreds of American prisoners working in the coal mines in eastern Cape Breton. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_11

Although winter conditions prevented the freeing of the prisoners, the mission did result in the capture of the Mellish, a vessel carrying a vital supply of winter clothing intended for John Burgoyne's troops in Canada. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_12

A few years into the war (1781) there was a naval engagement between two French ships and a British convoy off Sydney, Nova Scotia, near Spanish River, Cape Breton. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_13

The convoy, which consisted of 18 merchant vessels, including nine colliers and four supply ships, was bound for Spanish River on Cape Breton Island to pick up coal for delivery to Halifax. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_14

The British convoy escorts suffered considerable damage with one ship, Jack captured. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_15

The French ships also suffered damage. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_16

In the end the convoy was still able to load coal and transport it to Halifax. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_17

Six French sailors were killed and 17 British, with many more wounded. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_18

Sydney was founded after the war by Colonel Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres, and named in honour of Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, who was serving as the Home Secretary in the British cabinet. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_19

Lord Sydney appointed Col. DesBarres lieutenant-governor of the new colony of Cape Breton Island. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_20

In November 1784 the 600-ton ship Blenheim landed a group that consisted primarily of English citizens and disbanded soldiers. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_21

A group of Loyalists from the state of New York (which included David Mathews, the former mayor of New York City under the British), fleeing the aftermath of the American Revolution, were added to the immigrants upon their arrival in the neighbouring colony of Nova Scotia. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_22

DesBarres arrived at Sydney on 7 January 1785. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_23

He held the first meeting of his executive council on 21 February 1785, where he was proclaimed lieutenant-governor in a formal manner and the first minutes of the new colony were taken. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_24

The site DesBarres chose for the new settlement was along the Southwest Arm of Sydney Harbour, a drowned valley of the Sydney River, which forms part of Spanish Bay. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_25

Between 1784 and 1820, Sydney was the capital of the British colony of Cape Breton Island. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_26

The colony was disbanded and merged with neighbouring Nova Scotia as part of the British government's desire to develop the abundant coal fields surrounding Sydney Harbour; the leases being held by the Duke of York. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_27

In 1826, the leases were transferred to the General Mining Association and industrial development around Sydney began to take shape. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_28

Sydney was incorporated as a town in 1885. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_29

Steel city 1900–1945 Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_2

By the early 20th century Sydney became home to one of the world's largest steel plants, fed by the numerous coal mines in the area under the ownership of the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_30

Sydney's economy was a significant part of Industrial Cape Breton with its steel plant and harbour and railway connections adjoining the coal mining towns of Glace Bay, New Waterford, Sydney Mines and Reserve Mines. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_31

The economic boom brought about by industrialization saw the community incorporate as a city in 1904. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_32

The growth continued until the 1930s, with the Great Depression causing a slow down in production and growth. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_33

World War Two brought prosperity again for the plant, and the coal mines. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_34

Sydney Harbour played an important role during World War II once a Royal Canadian Navy base, HMCS Protector, was established to stage supply convoys bound for Europe. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_35

These convoys tended to be slower and had the prefix SC for Slow Convoy. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_36

Convoy SC 7 typified the dangers inherent with the Nazi U-boats off the coast of Cape Breton and Newfoundland during the Battle of the Atlantic, when 20 of the 35 merchant cargo vessels were sunk on their journey to England. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_37

Sydney Harbour was one of the hotspots of the Battle of the St. Lawrence. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_38

Two notable shipping attacks occurred during this battle: the sinking of the train ferry SS Caribou in October 1942 on its way from North Sydney to Port aux Basques, Newfoundland; and the sinking of the Sydney-based HMCS Shawinigan on 24 November 1944 in the Cabot Strait, near Cape North, on Cape Breton Island. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_39

Sydney's coal shipping and steel manufacturing made a significant contribution to the Allied war effort, however federal Minister of Industry, C. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_40 D. Howe favoured Central Canada's steel industry given its proximity to a larger workforce and less exposure to coastal attack. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_41

Post-war years 1950–2014 Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_3

By the late 1960s the coal and steel industries had fallen on hard times. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_42

Friday, 13 October 1967, became known as "Black Friday," so named after Hawker Siddeley Canada, the plant's owners, announced they were closing it in April 1968. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_43

Both the provincial and federal government were involved in negotiating with the steel plant's owners, when Cape Breton's citizens held the largest protest in the city's history on 19 November 1967: "The Parade of Concern." Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_44

Around 20,000 people marched about a mile from the plant's gates to a horse racetrack to show their support for the steel plant. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_45

Newly appointed Nova Scotia premier G.I. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_46 Smith and federal Health Minister, and Cape Breton MP, Allan J. MacEachen spoke to the crowd and assured them that their respective governments were going to help. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_47

Four days later the Smith government announced that they were taking over the plant starting in 1968. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_48

Both the steel and coal industries continued under government ownership for the rest of the 20th century. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_49

By the early 1990s, both industries were in trouble again, and were permanently closed by the end of 2001. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_50

Forced to diversify its economy after the closures of the steel plant and coal industries, Sydney has examined a variety of economic development possibilities including tourism and culture, light manufacturing and information technology. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_51

Cleaning up the former steel plant, and the toxic Sydney Tar Ponds it left behind in Muggah's Creek, were a source of controversy due to its health effects on residents, although it has provided some employment since SYSCO closed. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_52

The tar pond cleanup was completed in 2013 with the opening of Open Hearth Park, which sits on the direct site of the former steel plant and has hosted events such as an Aerosmith concert in September 2014. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_53

Geography Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_4

Demographics Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_5

Statistics Canada classifies Sydney as a medium population centre, which for census purposes includes the neighbouring communities of Westmount, a significant portion of Sydney River, and other portions of the former Cape Breton County. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_54

The 2011 population of the Sydney census area, was 31,597, making it the largest population centre on Cape Breton Island. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_55

Economy Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_6

Transportation Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_7

Media Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_8

Sydney is the island's largest commercial centre and home to the Cape Breton Post daily newspaper, as well as one television station, CJCB-TV, a member of the CTV Television Network. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_56

CJCB was the first television station in Nova Scotia, going on air on 9 October 1954. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_57

It was also the eastern terminus of the original country-wide microwave network that went live on 1 July 1958, with the Canada's first coast to coast television broadcast. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_58

From its beginnings until 1972, CJCB-TV was the area's CBC affiliate. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_59

Sydney's first radio station was CJCB-AM, founded by Nate Nathanson, and went on the air on 14 February 1929. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_60

The Nathanson family would go on to open an FM radio station in 1957, CJCB-FM, and the above-mentioned television station. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_61

CBC began operating its own station, CBI-AM, in November 1948. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_62

It was part of the CBC's Trans-Canada Network, while CJCB became a CBC affiliate for its Dominion Network. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_63

In 1962, the CBC combined the two networks, making CBI the only CBC station, and CJCB became an independent. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_64

In 1978, the CBC opened CBI-FM, which belonged to the CBC Stereo network. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_65

After 1997, CBI-AM belongs to CBC Radio One and CBI-FM belongs to CBC Music. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_66

Besides the CBC and CJCB stations, there are other FM radio stations serving the area, most coming into the market in the early 21st century. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_67

Education Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_9

Sydney is part of the Cape Breton – Victoria Regional School Board and is home to one public English language secondary school: Sydney Academy, which is linked to several elementary and intermediate schools. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_68

Holy Angels, a female-only Catholic high school founded in the late 1800s, closed at the end of the 2011 school year. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_69

A French language school, Étoile de l'Acadie, is also located in Sydney and is part of the Conseil scolaire acadien provincial school board. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_70

In 1951, the original campus of what became Cape Breton University was founded as the Xavier Junior College, affiliated with St. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_71 Francis Xavier University and was located in Sydney. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_72

Sydney also has other post secondary and private career colleges, including the Cape Breton Business College founded in 1958 and the Canadian Coast Guard College founded in 1965. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_73

Culture Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_10

Music Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_11

The annual Celtic Colours International Festival is held throughout Cape Breton Island in October, with some of the concerts taking place in Sydney. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_74

Sydney was selected to host the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2016 ECMA Galas. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_75

Sports Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_12

Semi-professional hockey has a long tradition in Sydney. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_76

In December 1912, a group formed a professional hockey club to challenge for the Stanley Cup. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_77

The short-lived Sydney Millionaires, who received that nickname because the players were the highest paid in the Maritimes, won the 1913 Maritime Professional Hockey League championship. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_78

Their victory allowed them to challenge the Quebec Bulldogs, the then current cup holder, in Quebec City. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_79

On 10 March 1913, the Millionaires lost the second and final game of the Stanley Cup, and folded shortly thereafter. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_80

From 1988 to 1996, Sydney was home to the Cape Breton Oilers of the American Hockey League, the primary farm team of the National Hockey League's Edmonton Oilers. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_81

They won that league's championship, the Calder Cup, in 1993. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_82

The franchise moved to Hamilton, Ontario, after the 1995–96 season, becoming the Hamilton Bulldogs. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_83

Founded in 1997, the Cape Breton Eagles of the QMJHL play their home games at Centre 200. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_84

Eagles alumni include three-time Stanley Cup champion Marc-André Fleury. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_85

The Cape Breton Highlanders of the National Basketball League of Canada played from 2016 to 2019. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_86

Sydney hosted events for the 1987 Canada Winter Games, held throughout Cape Breton County. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_87

The 2003 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships were co-hosted by Sydney and Halifax. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_88

Tennis has a long history in Sydney. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_89

The Sydney Lawn Tennis Club (now the Cromarty Tennis Club) was incorporated by an Act of the Nova Scotia Legislature on 28 April 1893. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_90

The Cape Breton Junior Regionals, Masters Championships, and the Cape Breton Open tennis tournaments are held annually. Sydney, Nova Scotia_sentence_91

Notable people Sydney, Nova Scotia_section_13

Sydney, Nova Scotia_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page:, Nova Scotia.