Systema Naturae

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Systema Naturae_table_infobox_0

Systema NaturæSystema Naturae_table_caption_0
AuthorSystema Naturae_header_cell_0_0_0 Carl Linnaeus

(Carl von Linné)Systema Naturae_cell_0_0_1

CountrySystema Naturae_header_cell_0_1_0 SwedenSystema Naturae_cell_0_1_1
SubjectSystema Naturae_header_cell_0_2_0 TaxonomySystema Naturae_cell_0_2_1
GenreSystema Naturae_header_cell_0_3_0 Biological classificationSystema Naturae_cell_0_3_1
Publication dateSystema Naturae_header_cell_0_4_0 1735 (1735)Systema Naturae_cell_0_4_1
LC ClassSystema Naturae_header_cell_0_5_0 QH43 .S21Systema Naturae_cell_0_5_1

Systema Naturae (originally in Latin written Systema Naturæ with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Systema Naturae_sentence_0

Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. Systema Naturae_sentence_1

The first edition was published in 1735. Systema Naturae_sentence_2

The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places". Systema Naturae_sentence_3

The tenth edition of this book (1758) is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature. Systema Naturae_sentence_4

In 1766–1768 Linnaeus published the much enhanced 12th edition, the last under his authorship. Systema Naturae_sentence_5

Another again enhanced work in the same style and titled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin between 1788 and 1793. Systema Naturae_sentence_6

Since at least the early 1900s zoologists commonly recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series. Systema Naturae_sentence_7

It was also officially regarded by the ICZN in Opinion 296 (26 Oct 1954) as the 13th edition of Systema Naturae. Systema Naturae_sentence_8

Overview Systema Naturae_section_0

Linnaeus (later known as "Carl von Linné", after his ennoblement in 1761) published the first edition of Systema Naturae in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands. Systema Naturae_sentence_9

As was customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. Systema Naturae_sentence_10

In it, he outlined his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom (regnum animale), the plant kingdom (regnum vegetabile), and the "mineral kingdom" (regnum lapideum). Systema Naturae_sentence_11

Linnaeus's Systema Naturae lists only about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals. Systema Naturae_sentence_12

According to the historian of botany William T. Stearn, "Even in 1753 he believed that the number of species of plants in the whole world would hardly reach 10,000; in his whole career he named about 7,700 species of flowering plants." Systema Naturae_sentence_13

Linnaeus developed his classification of the plant kingdom in an attempt to describe and understand the natural world as a reflection of the logic of God's creation. Systema Naturae_sentence_14

His sexual system, where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group, was convenient but in his view artificial. Systema Naturae_sentence_15

Linnaeus believed in God's creation, and that there were no deeper relationships to be expressed. Systema Naturae_sentence_16

He is frequently quoted to have said: "God created, Linnaeus organized" (Latin: Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit). Systema Naturae_sentence_17

The classification of animals was more natural. Systema Naturae_sentence_18

For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha. Systema Naturae_sentence_19

As a result of the popularity of the work, and the number of new specimens sent to him from around the world, Linnaeus kept publishing new and ever-expanding editions of his work. Systema Naturae_sentence_20

It grew from eleven very large pages in the first edition (1735) to 2,400 pages in the 12th edition (1766–1768). Systema Naturae_sentence_21

Also, as the work progressed, he made changes: in the first edition, whales were classified as fishes, following the work of Linnaeus' friend and "father of ichthyology" Peter Artedi; in the 10th edition, published in 1758, whales were moved into the mammal class. Systema Naturae_sentence_22

In this same edition, he introduced two-part names (see binomen) for animal species, something that he had done for plant species (see binary name) in the 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. Systema Naturae_sentence_23

The system eventually developed into modern Linnaean taxonomy, a hierarchically organized biological classification. Systema Naturae_sentence_24

After Linnaeus' health declined in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae went in two directions. Systema Naturae_sentence_25

Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium, rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition. Systema Naturae_sentence_26

Meanwhile, a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. Systema Naturae_sentence_27

It was as the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus' work became widely known in England following translation from the Latin by the Lichfield Botanical Society, as A System of Vegetables (1783–1785). Systema Naturae_sentence_28

Taxonomy Systema Naturae_section_1

In his Imperium Naturæ, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. Systema Naturae_sentence_29

This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms, survives until today in the popular mind, notably in the form of parlour games: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". Systema Naturae_sentence_30

The classification was based on five levels: kingdom, class, order, genus, and species. Systema Naturae_sentence_31

While species and genus was seen as God-given (or "natural"), the three higher levels were seen by Linnaeus as constructs. Systema Naturae_sentence_32

The concept behind the set ranks being applied to all groups was to make a system that was easy to remember and navigate, a task which most say he succeeded in. Systema Naturae_sentence_33

Linnaeus's work had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes. Systema Naturae_sentence_34

Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum (1753) for plants and the 10th edition of the Systema Naturæ (1758), are accepted among the starting points of nomenclature. Systema Naturae_sentence_35

Most of his names for species and genera were published at very early dates, and thus take priority over those of other, later authors. Systema Naturae_sentence_36

In zoology there is one exception, which is a monograph on Swedish spiders, Svenska Spindlar, published by Carl Clerck in 1757, so the names established there take priority over the Linnean names. Systema Naturae_sentence_37

However, his impact on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. Systema Naturae_sentence_38

His talent for attracting skillful young students and sending them abroad to collect specimens made his work far more influential than that of his contemporaries. Systema Naturae_sentence_39

At the close of the 18th century, his system had effectively become the standard system for biological classification. Systema Naturae_sentence_40

Animal Kingdom Systema Naturae_section_2

Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups as used by Linnaeus. Systema Naturae_sentence_41

He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes; in the tenth edition (1758), these were: Systema Naturae_sentence_42

Systema Naturae_ordered_list_0

  1. Mammalia comprised the mammals. In the first edition, whales and the West Indian manatee were classified among the fishes.Systema Naturae_item_0_0
  2. Aves comprised the birds. Linnaeus was the first to remove bats from the birds and classify them under mammals.Systema Naturae_item_0_1
  3. Amphibia comprised amphibians, reptiles, and assorted fishes that are not of Osteichthyes.Systema Naturae_item_0_2
  4. Pisces comprised the bony fishes. These included the spiny-finned fishes (Perciformes) as a separate order.Systema Naturae_item_0_3
  5. Insecta comprised all arthropods. Crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods were included as the order "Aptera".Systema Naturae_item_0_4
  6. Vermes comprised the remaining invertebrates, roughly divided into "worms", molluscs, and hard-shelled organisms like echinoderms.Systema Naturae_item_0_5

Plant Kingdom Systema Naturae_section_3

The orders and classes of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ordines naturales in his Philosophia Botanica) but only for use in identification. Systema Naturae_sentence_43

They were used in that sense well into the 19th century. Systema Naturae_sentence_44

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were: Systema Naturae_sentence_45

Mineral Kingdoms Systema Naturae_section_4

Linnaeus's taxonomy of minerals has long since fallen out of use. Systema Naturae_sentence_46

In the 10th edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturæ, the Linnaean classes were: Systema Naturae_sentence_47

Systema Naturae_unordered_list_1

  • Classis 1. Petræ (rocks)Systema Naturae_item_1_6
  • Classis 2. Mineræ (minerals and ores)Systema Naturae_item_1_7
  • Classis 3. Fossilia (fossils and aggregates)Systema Naturae_item_1_8

Editions Systema Naturae_section_5

Gmelin's thirteenth (decima tertia) edition of Systema Naturae (1788–1793) should be carefully distinguished from the more limited Systema Vegetabilium first prepared and published by Johan Andreas Murray in 1774 (but labelled as "thirteenth edition"). Systema Naturae_sentence_48

Systema Naturae_table_general_1

EditionSystema Naturae_header_cell_1_0_0 LocationSystema Naturae_header_cell_1_0_1 YearSystema Naturae_header_cell_1_0_2 Complete bibliographical citationSystema Naturae_header_cell_1_0_3 Links to online versionsSystema Naturae_header_cell_1_0_4
1Systema Naturae_cell_1_1_0 LeidenSystema Naturae_cell_1_1_1 1735Systema Naturae_cell_1_1_2 Linnæus, C. 1735. Systema naturæ, sive regna tria naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. – pp. [1–12]. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak)Systema Naturae_cell_1_1_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_1_4
2Systema Naturae_cell_1_2_0 StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_2_1 1740Systema Naturae_cell_1_2_2 Linnæus, C. 1740. Systema naturæ in quo naturæ regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponuntur. Editio secunda, auctior. – pp. [1–2], 1–80. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter)Systema Naturae_cell_1_2_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_2_4
3Systema Naturae_cell_1_3_0 HalleSystema Naturae_cell_1_3_1 1740Systema Naturae_cell_1_3_2 Lange, J. J. 1740. Caroli Linnaei systema natvrae, sive Regna tria natvrae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species. Caroli Linnaei Natur-Systema, oder die in ordentlichem Zusammenhange vorgetragene drey Reiche der Natur nach ihren Classen, Ordnungen, Geschlechtern und Arten, in die deutsche Sprache übersetzet und mit einer Vorrede herausgegeben von Johann Joachim Langen. – pp. [1–8], 1–70, . Halle. (Gebauer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_3_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_3_4
4Systema Naturae_cell_1_4_0 ParisSystema Naturae_cell_1_4_1 1744Systema Naturae_cell_1_4_2 Linnæus, C. 1744. Systema naturæ in quo proponuntur naturæ regna tria secundum classes, ordines, genera & species. Editio quarta ab auctore emendata & aucta. Accesserunt nomina Gallica. – pp. i–xxvi, , 1–108. Parisiis. (David.)Systema Naturae_cell_1_4_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_4_4
5Systema Naturae_cell_1_5_0 HalleSystema Naturae_cell_1_5_1 1747Systema Naturae_cell_1_5_2 Agnethler, M. G. 1747. Caroli Linnæi systema natvræ in qvo natvræ regna tria, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponvntvr. Recvsvm et societatis, qvæ impensas contvlit, vsvi accommodatvm. Editio altera avctior et emendatior. – pp. 1–88. Halæ Magdebvrgicæ.Systema Naturae_cell_1_5_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_5_4
6Systema Naturae_cell_1_6_0 StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_6_1 1748Systema Naturae_cell_1_6_2 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Editio sexta, emendata et aucta. – pp. [1–3], 1–224, [1–18], Tab. I–VIII. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter)Systema Naturae_cell_1_6_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_6_4
7Systema Naturae_cell_1_7_0 LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_7_1 1748Systema Naturae_cell_1_7_2 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem. – pp. [A], [1–5], 1–224, [1–22], Tab. I–VIII. Lipsiae. (Kiesewetter)Systema Naturae_cell_1_7_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_7_4
8Systema Naturae_cell_1_8_0 StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_8_1 1753Systema Naturae_cell_1_8_2 Haartman, J. J. 1753. Caroli Linnæi Indelning i Ö̈rt-Riket, efter Systema Naturae, på Swenska öfwersatt af Johan J. Haartman. – pp. [1–12], 1–136, [1–8]. Stockholm. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_8_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_8_4
9Systema Naturae_cell_1_9_0 LeidenSystema Naturae_cell_1_9_1 1756Systema Naturae_cell_1_9_2 Linnæus, C. 1756. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta, tabulisque æneis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula gallica. Editio multo auctior & emendatior. – pp. [1–7], 1–227, [1–19], Tab. I–VIII. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak)Systema Naturae_cell_1_9_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_9_4
10,

Vol. 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_10_0

StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_10_1 1758Systema Naturae_cell_1_10_2 Linnæus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_10_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_10_4
10,

Vol. 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_11_0

StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_11_1 1759Systema Naturae_cell_1_11_2 Linnæus, C. 1759. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 825–1384. Holmiæ. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_11_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_11_4
11,

Vol. 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_12_0

HalleSystema Naturae_cell_1_12_1 1760Systema Naturae_cell_1_12_2 Linnaeus, C. 1760. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, cvm characteribvs, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomvs I. Praefactvs est Ioannes Ioachimvs Langivs. Ad editionem decimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. [1–8], 1–824. Halae Magdebvrgicae. (Curt). (Linnæus 1758: p. 5 recorded probably this edition as from Leipzig 1762, "nil additum" = nothing added)Systema Naturae_cell_1_12_3 (pp. [1–8], 1–338)

(pp. 339–824)Systema Naturae_cell_1_12_4

12,

Vol. 1, part 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_13_0

StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_13_1 1766Systema Naturae_cell_1_13_2 Linné, C. a 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. – pp. 1–532. Holmiæ. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_13_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_13_4
12,

Vol. 1, part 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_14_0

StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_14_1 1767Systema Naturae_cell_1_14_2 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ, Tom. I. Pars II. Editio duodecima reformata. – pp. 533–1327, [1–37]. Holmiæ. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_14_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_14_4
12,

Vol. 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_15_0

StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_15_1 1767Systema Naturae_cell_1_15_2 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. – pp. 1–735, [1–16], 1–142, [1–2]. Holmiæ. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_15_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_15_4
12,

Vol. 3Systema Naturae_cell_1_16_0

StockholmSystema Naturae_cell_1_16_1 1768Systema Naturae_cell_1_16_2 Linné, C. a 1768. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus III. – pp. 1–236, [1–20], Tab. I–III. Holmiæ. (Salvius)Systema Naturae_cell_1_16_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_16_4
12a ("13"),

Vol. 1, part. 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_17_0

ViennaSystema Naturae_cell_1_17_1 1767Systema Naturae_cell_1_17_2 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. 1–532. Vindobonae. (Trattnern)Systema Naturae_cell_1_17_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_17_4
12a ("13"),

Vol. 1, part 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_18_0

ViennaSystema Naturae_cell_1_18_1 1767Systema Naturae_cell_1_18_2 Linné, C. a . Systema naturæ. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. [1–2], 1–1327, [1–37]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern)Systema Naturae_cell_1_18_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_18_4
12a ("13"),

Vol. 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_19_0

ViennaSystema Naturae_cell_1_19_1 1770Systema Naturae_cell_1_19_2 Linné, C. a 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs II. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – 1–736, [1–6]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern)Systema Naturae_cell_1_19_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_19_4
12a ("13"),

Vol. 3Systema Naturae_cell_1_20_0

ViennaSystema Naturae_cell_1_20_1 1770Systema Naturae_cell_1_20_2 Linnaeus, C. 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs III. – 1–236, [1–19]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern)Systema Naturae_cell_1_20_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_20_4
12b,

Vol. 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_21_0

GöttingenSystema Naturae_cell_1_21_1 1772Systema Naturae_cell_1_21_2 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus I. Regnum Animale. – pp. [1–5], 1–240, [1–10]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck)Systema Naturae_cell_1_21_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_21_4
12b,

Vol. 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_22_0

GöttingenSystema Naturae_cell_1_22_1 1772Systema Naturae_cell_1_22_2 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus II. Regnum Vegetabile. – pp. 1–356, [1–32]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck)Systema Naturae_cell_1_22_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_22_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_23_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_23_1 1788Systema Naturae_cell_1_23_2 Gmelin, J. F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1–12], 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_23_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_23_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_24_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_24_1 Systema Naturae_cell_1_24_2 Gmelin, J. F. . Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. 501–1032. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_24_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_24_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 3Systema Naturae_cell_1_25_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_25_1 Systema Naturae_cell_1_25_2 Gmelin, J. F. . Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars III. – pp. 1033–1516. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_25_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_25_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 4Systema Naturae_cell_1_26_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_26_1 Systema Naturae_cell_1_26_2 Gmelin, J. F. . Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars IV. – pp. 1517–2224. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_26_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_26_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 5Systema Naturae_cell_1_27_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_27_1 Systema Naturae_cell_1_27_2 Gmelin, J. F. . Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars V. – pp. 2225–3020. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_27_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_27_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 6Systema Naturae_cell_1_28_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_28_1 Systema Naturae_cell_1_28_2 Gmelin, J. F. . Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VI. – pp. 3021–3910. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_28_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_28_4
13,

Vol. 1, part 7Systema Naturae_cell_1_29_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_29_1 Systema Naturae_cell_1_29_2 Gmelin, J. F. . Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VII. – pp. , 3911–4120. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_29_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_29_4
13,

Vol. 2, part 1Systema Naturae_cell_1_30_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_30_1 1791Systema Naturae_cell_1_30_2 Gmelin, J. F. 1791. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus II. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. , I–XL, 1–884. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_30_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_30_4
13,

Vol. 2, part 2Systema Naturae_cell_1_31_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_31_1 ?Systema Naturae_cell_1_31_2 Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. II. Pars II. – pp. , 885–1661, . Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_31_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_31_4
13,

Vol. 3Systema Naturae_cell_1_32_0

LeipzigSystema Naturae_cell_1_32_1 1793Systema Naturae_cell_1_32_2 Gmelin, J. F. 1793. Caroli a Linné (...) systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus III. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. 1–476. Lipsiae. (Beer)Systema Naturae_cell_1_32_3 Systema Naturae_cell_1_32_4

The dates of publication for Gmelin's edition were the following: Systema Naturae_sentence_49

Systema Naturae_unordered_list_2

  • Part 1: pp. [1–12], 1–500 (25 July 1788)Systema Naturae_item_2_9
  • Part 2: pp. 501–1032 (20 April 1789)Systema Naturae_item_2_10
  • Part 3: pp. 1033–1516 (20 November 1789)Systema Naturae_item_2_11
  • Part 4: pp. 1517–2224 (21 May 1790)Systema Naturae_item_2_12
  • Part 5: pp. 2225–3020 (6 December 1790)Systema Naturae_item_2_13
  • Part 6: pp. 3021–3910 (14 May 1791)Systema Naturae_item_2_14
  • Part 7: pp. 3911–4120 (2 July 1792)Systema Naturae_item_2_15

See also Systema Naturae_section_6

Systema Naturae_unordered_list_3


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