Tafsir

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For other uses, see Tafsir (disambiguation). Tafsir_sentence_0

Tafsir (Arabic: تفسير‎, romanized: tafsīr [taf.ˈsiːr) refers to exegesis, usually of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_1

An author of a tafsir is a mufassir (Arabic: مُفسّر‎; plural: Arabic: مفسّرون‎, romanized: mufassirūn). Tafsir_sentence_2

A Quranic tafsir attempts to provide elucidation, explanation, interpretation, context or commentary for clear understanding and conviction of God's will. Tafsir_sentence_3

Principally, a tafsir deals with the issues of linguistics, jurisprudence, and theology. Tafsir_sentence_4

In terms of perspective and approach, tafsir can be broadly divided into two categories, namely tafsir bi-al-ma'thur (lit. Tafsir_sentence_5

received tafsir), which is transmitted from the early days of Islam through the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions, and tafsir bi-al-ra'y (lit. Tafsir_sentence_6

tafsir by opinion), which is arrived through personal reflection or independent rational thinking. Tafsir_sentence_7

There are different characteristics and traditions for each of the tafsirs representing respective schools and doctrines, such as Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, and Sufism. Tafsir_sentence_8

There are also general distinctions between classic tafsirs compiled by authoritative figures of Muslim scholarship during the formative ages of Islam, and modern tafsir which seeks to address a wider audience, including the common people. Tafsir_sentence_9

Etymology Tafsir_section_0

The word tafsīr is derived from the three-letter Arabic verbal root of ف-س-ر F-S-R (fassara, 'interpreted'). Tafsir_sentence_10

In its literal meaning, the word refers to interpreting, explaining, expounding, or disclosing. Tafsir_sentence_11

In Islamic contexts, it is defined as understanding and uncovering God's will which has been conveyed by the Quranic text, by means of the Arabic language and one's own knowledge. Tafsir_sentence_12

History Tafsir_section_1

The first examples of tafsir can be traced back to Muhammad. Tafsir_sentence_13

According to Islamic belief, as the Quran was revealed to him, he recited the verses to his companions, usually explaining their meanings to teach them, as it was one of Muhammad's responsibilities. Tafsir_sentence_14

Elements of Muhammad's explanations including clarifying verses whose intents are not understood, the indication of names, places, times etc. which have not been mentioned in the verse, restriction of meanings which have been given as absolute and reconciliation of expressions which seem contradictory. Tafsir_sentence_15

Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that Muhammad has commented on the whole of the Quran, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives (hadith), thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_16

After the death of Muhammad, his companions (sahabah) undertook the task of interpretation, thus starting a new age in tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_17

Most of the sahabah, including Abu Bakr, refrained from commenting based on their personal views, and only narrated comments by Muhammad. Tafsir_sentence_18

Others including ibn Abbas used their own knowledge from the Arabic language to interpret the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_19

At this stage, tafsir was selective and concise regarding its coverage, and only certain words, phrases and verses were explained. Tafsir_sentence_20

The Quran was still not fully interpreted, and commentaries were not separated from the hadith collection nor written separately, mainly due to other occupations such as the collection of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_21

By the time of the next generations ensuing the sahabah, scholars in the age of the successors (tabi'in) started using a wide range of sources for tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_22

The whole of the Quran is interpreted, and narrations are separated from tafsir into separate books and literature. Tafsir_sentence_23

Grammatical explanations and historical data are preserved within these books; personal opinions are recorded, whether accepted or rejected. Tafsir_sentence_24

During this time, a whole range of schools of tafsir came into existence in different scholastic centers, including Mecca, Medina and Iraq. Tafsir_sentence_25

Iraqi schools of tafsir came to be known for an approach relied on personal judgment aside from the transmitted reports, and Jewish apocryphal reports were also widely employed. Tafsir_sentence_26

Notable compilers on this age including Sufyan al-Thawri. Tafsir_sentence_27

Until this age, tafsir had been transmitted orally and had not been collected independently in a book, rather, they had been gathered by muhaddithun (lit. Tafsir_sentence_28

scholars of hadith) in their hadith books, under the topic of tafsir, along with other narrations of Muhammad. Tafsir_sentence_29

This indicates that tafsir, in its formative age, used to be a special domain within hadith. Tafsir_sentence_30

Widening of the scope of tafsir and emergence of mufassirun in the age of the successors lead to the development of an independent discipline of tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_31

Conditions Tafsir_section_2

An author of tafsir is a mufassir (Arabic: مُفسّر‎; plural: Arabic: مفسّرون‎, romanized: mufassirūn). Tafsir_sentence_32

According to Sunni Islamic scholar Al-Suyuti, mufassirs are required to master 15 fields from different disciplines such as linguistics, rhetoric, theology and jurisprudence before one can authoritatively interpret the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_33

The foremost discipline that constitutes the basis of tafsir learning is Arabic language. Tafsir_sentence_34

Arabic in this context specifically means Classical Arabic. Tafsir_sentence_35

One of the earliest Islamic scholars Mujahid ibn Jabr said, “It is not permissible for one who holds faith in Allah and the Day of Judgment to speak on the Qur'an without learning classical Arabic.” Especially relevant expertise is how one learns the meaning of each word. Tafsir_sentence_36

In this respect, it should be known that classical Arabic must be mastered in its entirety because one word may have various meanings; a person may only know two or three of them whereas the meaning of that word in the Qur'an may be altogether different. Tafsir_sentence_37

Other fields related to Arabic language includes Philology of Arabic. Tafsir_sentence_38

It is important because any change in the diacritical marks affects the meaning, and understanding the diacritical marks depends on the science of Arabic philology. Tafsir_sentence_39

Morphology of Arabic language is also important because changes in the configuration of verb and noun forms change the meaning. Tafsir_sentence_40

Ibn Faris said, “A person who misses out on Arabic morphology has missed out on a lot.” Lastly, Al-Ishtiqaaq is the science of etymology which explains the reciprocal relation and radical composition between the root and derived word. Tafsir_sentence_41

It should be learned because sometimes one word derives from two root words, the meaning of each root word being different. Tafsir_sentence_42

For example, a word masih derives from the root word masah which means “to feel something and to touch something with a wet hand,” but also derives from the root word masaahat which means “to measure.” Tafsir_sentence_43

Another relevant discipline is the science of interpreting the Arabic sentence. Tafsir_sentence_44

Ilm al-Ma’ani is the science by which one figures the syntax through the meaning of a sentence. Tafsir_sentence_45

Ilm al-Bayaan is the science by which one learns the similes, metaphors, metonymies, zuhoor (evident meanings) and khafa (hidden meanings) of the Arabic language. Tafsir_sentence_46

Ilm al-Badi’ is the science by which one learns to interpret sentences in which the beauty and eloquence of the spoken and written word are considered hidden. Tafsir_sentence_47

The above-mentioned three sciences are categorized as Ilm-ul-Balagha (science of rhetoric). Tafsir_sentence_48

It is one of the most principal sciences to a mufassir as it is deemed by Muslims that there are literal and non-literal meanings of the Quran, and one is able to reveal the miraculous nature of the Quran through these three sciences. Tafsir_sentence_49

A field from Quranic teaching is called Ilm al-Qira'at. Tafsir_sentence_50

This is a system of dialecticism of the different readings of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_51

This science is important because one qira'at (way of reading) of the Quran may differ in meaning from another, and one learns to favor one reading over another based on the difference in the meanings. Tafsir_sentence_52

General sciences of Islamic theology and Islamic study are also imperative. Tafsir_sentence_53

Ilm al-Aqa'id and Ilm al-Kalam are comprehensive sciences in Islamic theology and philosophy. Tafsir_sentence_54

They are important because upon these understandings, one may understand issues such as invalidity of attributing the literal meaning of some ayah to God. Tafsir_sentence_55

In this case, one will be required to interpret the ayah as in ‘the hand of Allah is over their hand’. Tafsir_sentence_56

Other key issues required to be addressed through comprehension of theology and philosophy includes that of free will and determinism, or the infallibility of the prophets. Tafsir_sentence_57

Comprehension of Fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence, is important because one cannot gain an overview of any issue until he has understood its particulars. Tafsir_sentence_58

Usul al-Fiqh, principles of Islamic jurisprudence, is also required so one understands the methodology of legal derivation and interpretation. Tafsir_sentence_59

Other distinctive systems linked with tafsir study including Asbaab al-Nuzul, which is the field by which one learns the circumstances in which an ayah is revealed. Tafsir_sentence_60

It is important because the meaning of the ayah is more clearly understood once the circumstances in which it was revealed are known. Tafsir_sentence_61

Sometimes, the meaning of an ayah is wholly dependent on its historical background. Tafsir_sentence_62

Another is Ilm-ul-Naskh, which is knowledge of the abrogated ayah. Tafsir_sentence_63

In general, due to the Quran made up of revelations that revealed to Muhammad in the course of more than twenty years, certain verses are considered meant to be temporary and subsequently repealed by the following ones. Tafsir_sentence_64

Ilm-ul-Nashkh is a science of identifying the abrogations, and it is important because abrogated rulings must be separated from the applied rulings. Tafsir_sentence_65

Ilm al-Hadith is knowledge of the hadith which explain mujmal (general) ayah, and Ilm al-Ladunni is the endowed knowledge which is considered granted by God to his closest servants. Tafsir_sentence_66

This is for example a knowledge obtained directly from Allah through inspiration. Tafsir_sentence_67

They are the servants indicated in the hadith: "Allah will grant one who acts upon whatever he knows from a knowledge he never knew." Tafsir_sentence_68

Principles Tafsir_section_3

There are several frames of reference in which tafsir can be categorized. Tafsir_sentence_69

The main issue of framing constitutes its methodology. Tafsir_sentence_70

Tafsir can be broadly divided into two categories from the viewpoint of methodology employed in order to approach the interpretation. Tafsir_sentence_71

These categories are called tafsir bi-al-ma'thur (Arabic: التفسير بالمأثور‎, lit. Tafsir_sentence_72

'received tafsir', also known as tafsir bi-al-riwaya Arabic: تفسير بالرواية‎) and tafsir bi-al-ra'y (Arabic: التفسير بالرأي‎, lit. Tafsir_sentence_73

'tafsir by opinion', also known as tafsir bi-al-diraya Arabic: تفسير بالدراية‎). Tafsir_sentence_74

Tafsir bi-al-ma'thur (tafsir bi-al-riwaya) Tafsir_section_4

Tafsir bi-al-ma'thur, or commonly known as tafsir bi-al-riwaya, is the method of commenting on the Quran using traditional sources. Tafsir_sentence_75

Tafsir bi-al-riwaya connotes tafsir using another portion of the Quran, or sayings of Muhammad, or saying of his companions. Tafsir_sentence_76

This classical tafsir method is agreed upon by all scholars, and is the most used method throughout history, partly because other methods have been criticized. Tafsir_sentence_77

Criticism of non-riwaya method is mostly based on two grounds; for one, Muhammad has condemned those who interpret the Quran from their own point of view, and for two, most companions of Muhammad have refrained from presenting their own ideas. Tafsir_sentence_78

Some important examples of tafsir bi-al-riwaya are Jāmiʿ al-Bayān by al-Tabari and Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem by ibn Kathir. Tafsir_sentence_79

The sources used for tafsir bi-al-riwaya can be ordered by the rank of authority, as the Quran, Hadith, the report by Sahaba and Tabi'iun, classical Arabic literature, and Isra'iliyat. Tafsir_sentence_80

The most authoritative source of the interpretation is the Quran itself. Tafsir_sentence_81

Interpretation of the Quran employing other Quranic reference is very common because of the close interrelatedness of the verses of the Quran with one another. Tafsir_sentence_82

The Quranic verses explain and interpret one another, which leads many to believe that it has the highest level of authenticity. Tafsir_sentence_83

Many verses or words in the Quran are explained or further clarified in other verses of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_84

One example of the hadith which extensively employs this source of method is Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an by Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i. Tafsir_sentence_85

The authoritative source of method second to the Quran is Hadith, by using narratives of Muhammad to interpret the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_86

In this approach the most important external aids used are the collected oral traditions upon which Muslim scholars based Islamic history and law. Tafsir_sentence_87

Authority of this method is considered established by the statement made in the Quran that Muhammad is responsible for explanation and guidance. Tafsir_sentence_88

While some narratives are of revelation origin, others can be the result of reasonings made by Muhammad. Tafsir_sentence_89

One important aspect of these narratives is their origin. Tafsir_sentence_90

Narratives used for tafsir, and in general, must be of authentic origin (sahih). Tafsir_sentence_91

Narratives of such origin are considered requisite for tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_92

Other source of the interpretation includes the accounts of Ṣaḥābah, companions of Muhammad, or tabi‘un, the generation after sahabah, and Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in, the generation after tabi'un. Tafsir_sentence_93

Their authority is based on an account in hadith Sahih Bukhari, which accordingly, Muhammad said; Tafsir_sentence_94

If nothing is found in the Quran or the Hadīth, the commentator has recourse to what the Ṣaḥābah reported about various verses. Tafsir_sentence_95

These are generally considered above personal opinion, because these people grew up with everyday interaction with Muhammad, and had often asked about the meanings of verses or circumstances of their revelation; and they were very knowledgeable in both Arabic literature and Islamic thought. Tafsir_sentence_96

Another non-scripture based source of the interpretation is classical Arabic literature. Tafsir_sentence_97

Classical Arabic poetry and the text of the Quran are two resources which can be used as foundational reference in ascertaining the meaning and signification of the remaining literal and figurative diction of the Quran and its style of expression. Tafsir_sentence_98

Using Arabic poetry for defining words is a long used practice, in fact there are very few scholars who haven't used this source. Tafsir_sentence_99

Less authoritative source of the interpretation is Isra'iliyat, which is the body of narratives originating from Judeo-Christian traditions, rather than from other well-accepted sources. Tafsir_sentence_100

The Isra'iliyat are mostly non-biblical explanatory stories and traditions (Hebrew: midrashim) giving extra information or interpretation about events or individuals recorded in the Hebrew scriptures. Tafsir_sentence_101

Scholars starting with the Sahabah have studied narrative accounts of other Abrahamic religions to further explain and clarify verses, especially parables, in the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_102

While some may be accurate, these narratives are not subject to hadith authenticity criteria, and are generally not favored for use. Tafsir_sentence_103

Tafsir bi-al-ra'y (tafsir bi-al-diraya) Tafsir_section_5

Tafsir bi-al-ra'y, or commonly known as tafsir bi-al-diraya, is the method of using one's independent rational reasoning and mind (ijtihad) to form an opinion-oriented interpretation. Tafsir_sentence_104

The most distinctive feature of tafsir bi-al-diraya is the inclusion of the opinions of the commentator, thus forming the more objective view on Quranic verses. Tafsir_sentence_105

The relative paucity of traditional sources is also a practical reason why the scope of the methodology is augmented. Tafsir_sentence_106

This is considered sanctioned by the Quran itself, as written in the surah Sad verse 29: Tafsir_sentence_107

This method is not interpretation by mere opinion however, but rather opinions must be based on the main sources. Tafsir_sentence_108

Performing Quranic interpretation using solely one's own opinion is believed to be prohibited by some Muslims. Tafsir_sentence_109

This is based on an authenticated hadith of Muhammad which states "He who says (something) concerning the Qur'ân without knowledge, he has taken his seat of fire". Tafsir_sentence_110

However, this hadith can alternatively be interpreted to refer to the importance of first properly studying and learning the Quran before attempting to teach or preach it to others. Tafsir_sentence_111

Accordingly, the method of independent reasoning (ijtihad) has several qualifications and conditions that need to be satisfied. Tafsir_sentence_112

Due to the nature of orientation toward opinions, this method is rejected by certain scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah, and prohibited by Wahhabi Islamic doctrine. Tafsir_sentence_113

Some important examples of such tafsirs include Anwar al-Tanzil by al-Baydawi and Mafatih al-Ghayb by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. Tafsir_sentence_114

Some parameters used by these scholars including linguistic resources, historical sources, methodological concepts such as maqasid or socio-cultural environment taken into consideration. Tafsir_sentence_115

In terms of linguistic resources, literary elements of the Arabic language, including morphology, eloquence, syntax are an integral part of tafsir, as they constitute the basis of understanding and interpretation. Tafsir_sentence_116

Arabic has a systematic way of shaping words so one can know the meaning by knowing the root and the form the word was coined from. Tafsir_sentence_117

If any word can be given a meaning that is compatible with the rules of grammar, Quranic text can be interpreted that way. Tafsir_sentence_118

In terms of historical resources, scholars may choose to interpret verses according to external factors, including their historical context and their place of revelation. Tafsir_sentence_119

Historical context (Asbab al-nuzul) is particularly important to interpret verses according to how the Quran was revealed, when and under which circumstances, and much commentary was dedicated to history. Tafsir_sentence_120

The early tafsirs are considered to be some of the best sources for Islamic history. Tafsir_sentence_121

Classification of the place of revelation, whether it was revealed in Mecca or Medina, is important as well. Tafsir_sentence_122

This is because in general Meccan verses tend to have an iman (loosely translated as faith) nature that includes believing in Allah, Muhammad, and the day of judgment, whether it be theological foundations or basic faith principles. Tafsir_sentence_123

On the other hand, Medinan verses constitute legislation, social obligations, and constitution of a state. Tafsir_sentence_124

On the more conceptual level, the idea of maqasid (goals or purpose) can be taken into account. Tafsir_sentence_125

Verses may be interpreted to preserve the general goals of shariah, which may be considered simply as bringing happiness to a person in this life and the hereafter. Tafsir_sentence_126

That way, any interpretation that threatens to compromise the preservation of religion, life, lineage, intellect or property may be discarded or ruled otherwise in order to secure these goals. Tafsir_sentence_127

Further, the socio-cultural environment may also taken into consideration. Tafsir_sentence_128

This includes understanding and interpreting the Quran while taking into account the cultural and social environment to which it has been revealed; or according to the scholars' own time. Tafsir_sentence_129

Often than not, the distinction can be made between the 'amm (general) verses that aimed at universal conditions for Muslims, and khass (specific) verses that applied to specific conditions, time or need. Tafsir_sentence_130

This is considered an integral part of analyzing the universality of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_131

Scholars usually do not favor to confine verses to a single time interval, but rather interpret according to the needs of their time. Tafsir_sentence_132

Schools Tafsir_section_6

See also: List of tafsir works Tafsir_sentence_133

Islamic theology is divided into myriad of schools and branches, and each of the schools' comments on the Quran with their own point of view. Tafsir_sentence_134

Sunni Tafsir_section_7

Regarding sunni tafsir, it seems that Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari and Ibn Taimiyya serve as transition points. Tafsir_sentence_135

The time of Tabari marks the classical period, which encompassed important Sunni tafsirs, such as Tafsir al-Thalabi, Tafsir of Al-Zamakhshari and Tafsir al-Tabari. Tafsir_sentence_136

Tafsir al-Tabari is one of the most important tafsir works in Sunni Islam. Tafsir_sentence_137

This work provides exegetical material for the whole Quran, also contains conflicting information, which Tabari tries either to harmonize or argues in support of the one he feels more correct. Tafsir_sentence_138

Further he includes different readings, which according to him, both might be correct and gives his own opinion after each argumentation. Tafsir_sentence_139

Both linguistical and theological subjects are discussed throughout his work. Tafsir_sentence_140

The post-classical period is marked by the exegetic methodology of Ibn Kathir. Tafsir_sentence_141

Although ibn Kathir claimed to rely on the works of Tabari, he introduced new methods for his exegesis, based on the teachings of Ibn Taimiyya. Tafsir_sentence_142

His monovalency and rejection of Isra'iliyyat are significant for his tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_143

It is much more selective, than previous tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_144

Intellectual disciplines of grammar, law and theology brought into debate did no longer played a role in Quranic exegesis. Tafsir_sentence_145

In contemporary scholarship translations of previous tafsirs into English language are usually abridged versions of their longer original. Tafsir_sentence_146

One widespread version of Tafsir Ibn Kathir is published under the editorship of Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman. Tafsir_sentence_147

Such translations are often omitting content, to guide the readers against "wrong" content, following the puritanian approaches. Tafsir_sentence_148

Ibn Kathir gained widespread popularity, probably due to his straight approach in his own work, and the lack of alternative translations of traditional tafsirs. Tafsir_sentence_149

Abridged translations into Western language also appeared for Tafsir Tabari. Tafsir_sentence_150

One French version provided by Pierre Godé appeared in 1983. Tafsir_sentence_151

He edited the work in a way, that the author appears 'orthodox'. Tafsir_sentence_152

An English translation of Tabari by J. Cooper appeared in 1986. Tafsir_sentence_153

Shia Tafsir_section_8

Tafsir by Shia Islam similarly deals with the issues concerned by Sunnis, and employs similar methodology as well, except for the adherence toward certain beliefs and creeds Shiism espouses. Tafsir_sentence_154

Distinctive features of Shia tafsirs include expounding of the concept of imamate, the heavier weight put on verses that considered to be the foundation of successorship to Muhammad within the Prophet's family begins with Ali, and the heavier authority put on interpretations attributed to The Twelve Imams. Tafsir_sentence_155

These characteristics result in distinction being made between the esoteric and the exoteric meaning of the Quran, and the esoteric meaning attributed to the imams preferred over the exoteric meaning. Tafsir_sentence_156

Certain Shia tafsirs are influenced by Mu'tazili thoughts as well, specifically on the theological issues. Tafsir_sentence_157

On the other hand, tafsir by Zaidi school of jurisprudence, which espouses the doctrine closest with Sunnis of all Shia sects, produces tafsir resembling Sunni tafsir in its quality. Tafsir_sentence_158

Some Zaidi tafsirs are considered popular among Sunnis as well. Tafsir_sentence_159

Some of the important examples of Shia mufassirs and its tafsir are Al-Tibbyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran by Shaykh Tusi (460/1067), and Majma al-Bayan lif'ulum al-Quran by Shaykh Tabarsi (d. 548/1153). Tafsir_sentence_160

Other Tafsir_section_9

Mu’tazilah Tafsir_section_10

The Mu'tazila tradition of tafsir has received little attention in modern scholarship, owing to several reasons. Tafsir_sentence_161

First, several exegetical works by Mu'tazila scholars have been studied as books on theology rather than as works of tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_162

Secondly, the large Mu'tazilite tafsir at-Tahdib fi tafsir al-Qur'an by al-Hakim al-Jishumi has not been edited, and there is no complete copy of it available at any single location, which limits its accessibility to scholars. Tafsir_sentence_163

Ahmadiyya Tafsir_section_11

The Ahmadiyya movement has published a number of Quran commentaries, these include Tafseer-e-Kabeer by Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad (Urdu-10 Volumes) and Haqaiq al-furqan by Hakeem Noor-ud-Din (Urdu-4 volumes). Tafsir_sentence_164

Ahmadi interpretation of the Quran reflects their distinctive worldviews on Islamic philosophy and theology, such as rejection of abrogation of the verses and particular emphasis on harmony between the Quran as the word of God and science as the work of God. Tafsir_sentence_165

Sufistic approach Tafsir_section_12

It is an interpretation of the Quran which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpreter. Tafsir_sentence_166

In this respect, its method is different from the conventional exegesis. Tafsir_sentence_167

Esoteric interpretations do not usually contradict the conventional (in this context called exoteric) interpretations; instead, they discuss the inner levels of meaning of the Quran. Tafsir_sentence_168

A hadith from Muhammad which states that the Quran has an inner meaning, and that this inner meaning conceals a yet deeper inner meaning, and so on (up to seven levels of meaning), has sometimes been used in support of this view. Tafsir_sentence_169

Islamic opinion imposes strict limitations on esoteric interpretations especially when interior meaning is against exterior one. Tafsir_sentence_170

Esoteric interpretations are found mainly in Sufism and in the sayings (hadiths) of Shi'a Imams and the teachings of the Isma'ili sect. Tafsir_sentence_171

But Muhammad and the imams gave importance to its exterior as much as to its interior; they were as much concerned with its revelation as they were with its interpretation. Tafsir_sentence_172

These are generally not independently written, however, they are found in the books of Sufis. Tafsir_sentence_173

Some examples are Hakaik al-tafsir by Sulemi, and Tafseer-e-Rafai by Faqeer Syed Muhammad Rafai Arab. Tafsir_sentence_174

Scientific approach Tafsir_section_13

Scholars deeply influenced by the natural and social sciences followed the materialists of Europe or the pragmatists. Tafsir_sentence_175

Under the influence of those secular theories, they declared that the religion's realities cannot go against scientific knowledge. Tafsir_sentence_176

What the religion claims to exist, but which the sciences reject should be interpreted in a way that conforms with the science; as for those things which the science is silent about, like the resurrection etc., they should be brought within the purview of the laws of matter; the pillars upon which the divine religious laws are based — like revelation, angel, Satan, prophethood, apostleship, Imamah (Imamate) etc. - are spiritual things, and the spirit is a development of the matter. Tafsir_sentence_177

As for the Quran itself, one should not explain it in the light of the old philosophy and theories, because they were not based on observations and tests — they were just a sort of mental exercise which has been totally discredited now by the modern science. Tafsir_sentence_178

Found by Ghazali and built upon by Razi, it is one of today's most abundant way of tafsir. Tafsir_sentence_179

A common example is Mafatih al-Ghayb by Fakhruddin al-Razi. Tafsir_sentence_180

Fiqhi approach Tafsir_section_14

Quranistic approach Tafsir_section_15

Turkish Islamic theologian Yaşar Nuri Öztürk denounced contemporary Islamic practices as altered. Tafsir_sentence_181

He distinguished between that is called Islam, consisting mainly of customs and traditions introduced in the Umayyad period. Tafsir_sentence_182

In 1992 he published a tafsir-like exegetical work of 760 pages, called Kur'an'daki Islam. Tafsir_sentence_183

He deals with each Sura in one chapter structured around certain verses of the specific sura or words occurring in the text, which need to be explained. Tafsir_sentence_184

Unspecified Tafsir_section_16

A newer work which incorporates and quotes the work of a multitude of previous scholars and analyzes the relevant Arabic root words (based on all available classic Arabic meanings), and references all relevant passages of the Quran, was done by Abdul Mannan Omar. Tafsir_sentence_185

See also Tafsir_section_17

Tafsir_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tafsir.