"Buben" redirects here.
For the "Buben group" of Soviet spies, see Louis F. Budenz.
|Other names||Riq, Buben|
|Hornbostel–Sachs classification||112.122(+211.311, with drumhead)|
Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all.
Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets.
They can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit (and played with drum sticks), or they can be held in the hand and played by tapping or hitting the instrument.
Tambourines come in many shapes with the most common being circular.
The origin of the tambourine is unknown, but it appears in historical writings as early as 1700 BC and was used by ancient musicians in West Africa, the Middle East, Turkey, Greece and India.
The tambourine passed to Europe by way of merchants or musicians.
Tambourines were used in ancient Egypt, where they were known as the tof to the Hebrews, in which the instrument was mainly used in religious contexts.
The word tambourine finds its origins in French tambourin, which referred to a long narrow drum used in Provence, the word being a diminutive of tambour "drum," altered by influence of Arabic tunbur "drum".
from the Middle Persian word tambūr "lute, drum".
The tambourine can be held in the hand or mounted on a stand, and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it sharply with the hand or a stick or using the tambourine to strike the leg or hip.
See also: Drum roll
There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll.
The easiest method is to rapidly rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist.
An advanced playing technique is known as the thumb or finger roll.
The middle finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine, producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument.
The thumb or middle finger of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument approximately one centimeter from the rim with some pressure applied.
If performed correctly, the finger should bounce along the head rapidly, producing the roll.
Usually, the end of the roll is articulated using the heel of the hand or another finger.
These materials increase friction making it easier to execute.
A continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a "figure of 8" pattern around the head.
Various European folk traditions include the tambourine.
The Romani people used the tambourine as a percussion instrument, and it was often passed around the audience to collect money after a performance.
In the late 1700s, the tambourine had a surge in popularity in England, with some composers of salon music writing parts for tambourine, indicating as many as 30 different playing strokes or moves.
The tambourines of this era often had a circular hole in the frame for the thumb, as one of the moves was to spin the tambourine on the upright thumb.
In the late 19th century, The Salvation Army codified the tambourine as one of their important rhythm instruments.
They preferred the term "timbrel" which was taken from the Bible.
By 1945, Salvation Army performances often entailed elaborate tambourine choreography performed by squads in para-military style, more for visual appeal than for musicality.
African American influence
The tambourine could accompany the singing of spirituals, and it was used for celebrations and dancing.
The tambourine became one of the main instruments of the American minstrel show in the early 1800s, often performed by whites in blackface such as Ned Christy, or sometimes by actual black performers.
On stage, the tambourine and bones players in minstrelsy stood to the far left and far right of the Interlocutor (master of ceremonies) and were titled Brother Tambo and Brother Bones: because of their position they were called the end men.
The tambourine was also used in some vaudeville acts, including the 1840s dance and musical performances of Master Juba who was able to elicit a wide range of sounds from the instrument including the chugging of a steam train.
For instance, singer and guitarist Blind Roosevelt Graves was accompanied by his brother Uaroy on tambourine and voice, singing both sacred and secular songs.
Singer-songwriter Josh White got his start as a child performing for handouts in the street with an exuberant tambourine performance, beating the instrument's drumhead on his elbows, knees, and head.
It continued its foray into popular music within the music of Motown.
Motown singers and musicians often grew up with gospel music, and they carried the tambourine into pop performance.
Jack Ashford's distinctive tambourine playing was a dominant part of the rhythm section on many Motown records, for instance on the Miracles tune "Going to a Go-Go", and Marvin Gaye's "How Sweet It Is".
Inspired by African American examples, musicians of all races have used the tambourine in modern pop music.
The tambourine part of the song serves to drive the beat forward.
Singers who rarely play an instrument are likely to play the tambourine at concerts: among the most well-known examples are Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones, Jim Morrison of the Doors, Janis Joplin leading Big Brother and the Holding Company, and Stevie Nicks as part of Fleetwood Mac and as a solo performer.
Very often, the instrument used in pop music is the headless tambourine or "jingle ring", lacking a drum head.
The singer should, however, play the tambourine with the overall song arrangement in mind; in some cases, band members have purposely hidden the tambourine from an irresponsible lead singer who disregards the interplay of rhythm.
On the other hand, skilled performers such as Jagger have brought a fine sense of timing to their tambourine playing.
In the Rolling Stones' 1964 U.S. single of "Time Is on My Side", the less-known version, Jagger lays the tambourine on the front of the beat while Charlie Watts holds the snare to the back of the beat, which allows the longer decay time of the tambourine to synchronise with the snare at the end.
The result is an intentional feeling of running to catch up.
", as heard on the album Nina Simone at Newport.
Jazz drummer Herlin Riley often takes the stage while beating and shaking a tambourine, and he is featured on the tambourine in Wynton Marsalis's jazz oratorio Blood on the Fields, which tells the story of slavery in the US.
Jazz, pop and rock drummers sometimes mount a headless tambourine in the drum kit.
In classical music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the earliest western composers to include the tambourine in his compositions.
A buben consists of a wooden or metal hoop with a tight membrane stretched over one of its sides (some bubens have no membrane at all).
Certain kinds of bubens are equipped with clanking metal rings, plates, cymbals, or little bells.
It is held in the hand and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it sharply with hand.
It is used for rhythmical accompaniment during dances, soloist or choral singing.
Buben is often used by some folk and professional bands, as well as orchestras.
Buben is known to have existed in many countries since time immemorial, especially in the East.
There are many kinds of bubens, including def, daf, or qaval (Azerbaijan), daf or khaval (Armenia), daira (Georgia), doira (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), daire or def (Iran), bendeir (Arab countries), pandero (Spain).
Main article: Daf
A daf (دف) is a large-sized tambourine or Perso-Arabic frame drum used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran, Azerbaijan, the Arab world, Turkey (where it is called tef), Uzbekistan (where it's called childirma), the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as the Dafli) and Turkmenistan.
Daf typically indicates the beat and tempo of the music being played, thus acts like the conductor in the monophonic oriental music.
They are often played by women and bridesmaids in wedding cases to lead the ceremony when bride walks down the aisle.
Main article: Pandeiro
It is a hand percussion instrument consisting of a single tension-headed drum with jingles in the frame.
It is very typical of more traditional Brazilian music.
Sometimes the players, who play in festivities to enliven the atmosphere or less frequently at onstage performances, sing along.
Yet these kinds of duos have not always been the case.
As attested , the youth gathered to dance to the rhythm of the bare pandero, with no other music instrument implicated but the player's (a woman's) voice.
Main article: Riq
It is an important instrument in both folk and classical music throughout the Arabic-speaking world.
Widely known as "Shakers".
Main article: Dayereh
A dayereh (or doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, daire) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran (Persia), the Balkans, and many central Asian countries such as Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Main article: Kanjira
Nepal also has a variety of tambourines, going by the names Daanf, Damphu (डम्फू), Hring, and Khaijadi (खैंजडी).
Main article: Tar (drum)
Main article: Timbrel
Timbrel or tabret (the tof of the ancient Hebrews, the deff of Islam, the adufe of the Moors of Spain), the principal musical instrument of percussion of the Israelites, similar to the modern tambourine.
Main article: Raban
A Rabana (plural Raban) is a one-sided traditional tambourine played with the hands, used in Sri Lanka.
Main article: Rebana
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tambourine.