Tambourine

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See also Tambourine (disambiguation), tamborim and timbrel. Tambourine_sentence_0

"Buben" redirects here. Tambourine_sentence_1

For the "Buben group" of Soviet spies, see Louis F. Budenz. Tambourine_sentence_2

Tambourine_table_infobox_0

TambourineTambourine_table_caption_0
Percussion instrumentTambourine_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesTambourine_header_cell_0_1_0 Riq, BubenTambourine_cell_0_1_1
ClassificationTambourine_header_cell_0_2_0 Hand percussionTambourine_cell_0_2_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationTambourine_header_cell_0_3_0 112.122(+211.311, with drumhead)

(Indirectly struck idiophone, sometimes including struck membranophone)Tambourine_cell_0_3_1

Related instrumentsTambourine_header_cell_0_4_0

The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zills". Tambourine_sentence_3

Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourine_sentence_4

Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets. Tambourine_sentence_5

They can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit (and played with drum sticks), or they can be held in the hand and played by tapping or hitting the instrument. Tambourine_sentence_6

Tambourines come in many shapes with the most common being circular. Tambourine_sentence_7

It is found in many forms of music: Turkish folk music, Greek folk music, Italian folk music, classical music, Persian music, samba, gospel music, pop music, country music, and rock music. Tambourine_sentence_8

History Tambourine_section_0

The origin of the tambourine is unknown, but it appears in historical writings as early as 1700 BC and was used by ancient musicians in West Africa, the Middle East, Turkey, Greece and India. Tambourine_sentence_9

The tambourine passed to Europe by way of merchants or musicians. Tambourine_sentence_10

Tambourines were used in ancient Egypt, where they were known as the tof to the Hebrews, in which the instrument was mainly used in religious contexts. Tambourine_sentence_11

The word tambourine finds its origins in French tambourin, which referred to a long narrow drum used in Provence, the word being a diminutive of tambour "drum," altered by influence of Arabic tunbur "drum". Tambourine_sentence_12

from the Middle Persian word tambūr "lute, drum". Tambourine_sentence_13

Tambourine_unordered_list_0

  • Tambourine_item_0_0
  • Tambourine_item_0_1
  • Tambourine_item_0_2
  • Tambourine_item_0_3

Playing Tambourine_section_1

The tambourine can be held in the hand or mounted on a stand, and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it sharply with the hand or a stick or using the tambourine to strike the leg or hip. Tambourine_sentence_14

Tambourine rolls Tambourine_section_2

See also: Drum roll Tambourine_sentence_15

There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll. Tambourine_sentence_16

The easiest method is to rapidly rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist. Tambourine_sentence_17

Thumb roll Tambourine_section_3

An advanced playing technique is known as the thumb or finger roll. Tambourine_sentence_18

The middle finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine, producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument. Tambourine_sentence_19

The thumb or middle finger of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument approximately one centimeter from the rim with some pressure applied. Tambourine_sentence_20

If performed correctly, the finger should bounce along the head rapidly, producing the roll. Tambourine_sentence_21

Usually, the end of the roll is articulated using the heel of the hand or another finger. Tambourine_sentence_22

Beeswax or rosin is commonly smeared around the edges of the head to assist in the technique. Tambourine_sentence_23

These materials increase friction making it easier to execute. Tambourine_sentence_24

A continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a "figure of 8" pattern around the head. Tambourine_sentence_25

Popular music Tambourine_section_4

Europe Tambourine_section_5

Various European folk traditions include the tambourine. Tambourine_sentence_26

The Romani people used the tambourine as a percussion instrument, and it was often passed around the audience to collect money after a performance. Tambourine_sentence_27

In the late 1700s, the tambourine had a surge in popularity in England, with some composers of salon music writing parts for tambourine, indicating as many as 30 different playing strokes or moves. Tambourine_sentence_28

The tambourines of this era often had a circular hole in the frame for the thumb, as one of the moves was to spin the tambourine on the upright thumb. Tambourine_sentence_29

In the late 19th century, The Salvation Army codified the tambourine as one of their important rhythm instruments. Tambourine_sentence_30

They preferred the term "timbrel" which was taken from the Bible. Tambourine_sentence_31

By 1945, Salvation Army performances often entailed elaborate tambourine choreography performed by squads in para-military style, more for visual appeal than for musicality. Tambourine_sentence_32

African American influence Tambourine_section_6

African American slaves were denied drums which might be used for long-distance communication. Tambourine_sentence_33

To supply rhythm in music, they turned to smaller percussion instruments such as the bones and the tambourine, as well as clapping and body percussion. Tambourine_sentence_34

The tambourine could accompany the singing of spirituals, and it was used for celebrations and dancing. Tambourine_sentence_35

The tambourine became one of the main instruments of the American minstrel show in the early 1800s, often performed by whites in blackface such as Ned Christy, or sometimes by actual black performers. Tambourine_sentence_36

On stage, the tambourine and bones players in minstrelsy stood to the far left and far right of the Interlocutor (master of ceremonies) and were titled Brother Tambo and Brother Bones: because of their position they were called the end men. Tambourine_sentence_37

The tambourine was also used in some vaudeville acts, including the 1840s dance and musical performances of Master Juba who was able to elicit a wide range of sounds from the instrument including the chugging of a steam train. Tambourine_sentence_38

Used for Pentecostal praise in revival meetings in the early 20th century, by the 1920s the tambourine was firmly established as the primary percussion instrument of gospel music. Tambourine_sentence_39

The tambourine was played by gospel groups and choirs, and carried prominently by singers who did not otherwise play an instrument, notably by Bessie Jones and Luther Magby. Tambourine_sentence_40

At the same time, the tambourine expanded from gospel music to various forms of African American popular music including blues and jazz. Tambourine_sentence_41

For instance, singer and guitarist Blind Roosevelt Graves was accompanied by his brother Uaroy on tambourine and voice, singing both sacred and secular songs. Tambourine_sentence_42

Singer-songwriter Josh White got his start as a child performing for handouts in the street with an exuberant tambourine performance, beating the instrument's drumhead on his elbows, knees, and head. Tambourine_sentence_43

In the 1950s as gospel elements were incorporated into rhythm and blues by African American singers such as Ray Charles, the tambourine often accompanied the changes. Tambourine_sentence_44

It continued its foray into popular music within the music of Motown. Tambourine_sentence_45

Motown singers and musicians often grew up with gospel music, and they carried the tambourine into pop performance. Tambourine_sentence_46

The Supremes performed with two tambourines – more for choreography than percussion – played by Florence Ballard and Mary Wilson standing apart from Diana Ross. Tambourine_sentence_47

Jack Ashford's distinctive tambourine playing was a dominant part of the rhythm section on many Motown records, for instance on the Miracles tune "Going to a Go-Go", and Marvin Gaye's "How Sweet It Is". Tambourine_sentence_48

Inspired by African American examples, musicians of all races have used the tambourine in modern pop music. Tambourine_sentence_49

It was featured in "Green Tambourine", a busking-oriented song from the Lemon Pipers, a 1960s white American band. Tambourine_sentence_50

Similarly, the Byrds released "Mr. Tambourine_sentence_51 Tambourine Man" in 1964, a folk rock and psychedelic rock song about a dealer of illegal drugs. Tambourine_sentence_52

The tambourine part of the song serves to drive the beat forward. Tambourine_sentence_53

Singers who rarely play an instrument are likely to play the tambourine at concerts: among the most well-known examples are Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones, Jim Morrison of the Doors, Janis Joplin leading Big Brother and the Holding Company, and Stevie Nicks as part of Fleetwood Mac and as a solo performer. Tambourine_sentence_54

Very often, the instrument used in pop music is the headless tambourine or "jingle ring", lacking a drum head. Tambourine_sentence_55

The singer should, however, play the tambourine with the overall song arrangement in mind; in some cases, band members have purposely hidden the tambourine from an irresponsible lead singer who disregards the interplay of rhythm. Tambourine_sentence_56

On the other hand, skilled performers such as Jagger have brought a fine sense of timing to their tambourine playing. Tambourine_sentence_57

In the Rolling Stones' 1964 U.S. single of "Time Is on My Side", the less-known version, Jagger lays the tambourine on the front of the beat while Charlie Watts holds the snare to the back of the beat, which allows the longer decay time of the tambourine to synchronise with the snare at the end. Tambourine_sentence_58

The result is an intentional feeling of running to catch up. Tambourine_sentence_59

In jazz, the tambourine was used prominently but non-traditionally by percussionist Joe Texidor who backed Rahsaan Roland Kirk in 1969 on Volunteered Slavery. Tambourine_sentence_60

In 1960 when Nina Simone wanted to play the old minstrel song "Li'l Liza Jane" at the Newport Jazz Festival, she said "Where's my tambourine? Tambourine_sentence_61

", as heard on the album Nina Simone at Newport. Tambourine_sentence_62

Jazz drummer Herlin Riley often takes the stage while beating and shaking a tambourine, and he is featured on the tambourine in Wynton Marsalis's jazz oratorio Blood on the Fields, which tells the story of slavery in the US. Tambourine_sentence_63

Jazz, pop and rock drummers sometimes mount a headless tambourine in the drum kit. Tambourine_sentence_64

Some position the tambourine above the toms in the same manner as a cymbal, for instance, Nathan Followill of Kings of Leon, and Larry Mullen Jr of U2. Tambourine_sentence_65

Bill Ward of Black Sabbath connected a tambourine to a foot pedal, for his left foot to operate like a hi-hat. Tambourine_sentence_66

John Bonham of Led Zeppelin simply mounted a tambourine above the hi-hat for extra sonic colour. Tambourine_sentence_67

The Subdudes, a roots rock group from New Orleans, opted for a tambourine player, Steve Amedée, instead of a drummer. Tambourine_sentence_68

In classical music Tambourine_section_7

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the earliest western composers to include the tambourine in his compositions. Tambourine_sentence_69

Since the late eighteenth century it has become more common in western orchestral music, as exemplified in some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's dance pieces from the Nutcracker Suite. Tambourine_sentence_70

Gustav Holst's seven-movement orchestral suite The Planets also features the tambourine in several places, especially in the "Jupiter" movement. Tambourine_sentence_71

Georges Bizet's Carmen opera includes the famous "Habanera" aria which has a series of tambourine strikes in each chorus. Tambourine_sentence_72

Similar instruments Tambourine_section_8

Buben Tambourine_section_9

Buben (Бубен in Russian, Бубон in Ukrainian, boben in Slovenian, buben in Czech, bęben in Polish) is a musical instrument of the percussion family similar to a tambourine. Tambourine_sentence_73

A buben consists of a wooden or metal hoop with a tight membrane stretched over one of its sides (some bubens have no membrane at all). Tambourine_sentence_74

Certain kinds of bubens are equipped with clanking metal rings, plates, cymbals, or little bells. Tambourine_sentence_75

It is held in the hand and can be played in numerous ways, from stroking or shaking the jingles to striking it sharply with hand. Tambourine_sentence_76

It is used for rhythmical accompaniment during dances, soloist or choral singing. Tambourine_sentence_77

Buben is often used by some folk and professional bands, as well as orchestras. Tambourine_sentence_78

The name is related to Greek language βόμβος (low and hollow sound) and βομβύλη (a breed of bees) and related to Indo-Aryan bambharas (bee) and English bee. Tambourine_sentence_79

Buben is known to have existed in many countries since time immemorial, especially in the East. Tambourine_sentence_80

There are many kinds of bubens, including def, daf, or qaval (Azerbaijan), daf or khaval (Armenia), daira (Georgia), doira (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), daire or def (Iran), bendeir (Arab countries), pandero (Spain). Tambourine_sentence_81

In Kievan Rus, drums and military timpani were referred to as buben. Tambourine_sentence_82

Daf Tambourine_section_10

Main article: Daf Tambourine_sentence_83

A daf (دف) is a large-sized tambourine or Perso-Arabic frame drum used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran, Azerbaijan, the Arab world, Turkey (where it is called tef), Uzbekistan (where it's called childirma), the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as the Dafli) and Turkmenistan. Tambourine_sentence_84

Daf typically indicates the beat and tempo of the music being played, thus acts like the conductor in the monophonic oriental music. Tambourine_sentence_85

The Persian poet Rudaki, who widely used names of the musical instruments in his poems, mentions the daf and the tambourine (taboorak) in a Ruba'i: A common use of tambourine (Daf) is by Albanians. Tambourine_sentence_86

They are often played by women and bridesmaids in wedding cases to lead the ceremony when bride walks down the aisle. Tambourine_sentence_87

Pandeiro Tambourine_section_11

Main article: Pandeiro Tambourine_sentence_88

Originated in Galicia or Portugal, the pandeiro was brought to Brazil by the Portuguese settlers. Tambourine_sentence_89

It is a hand percussion instrument consisting of a single tension-headed drum with jingles in the frame. Tambourine_sentence_90

It is very typical of more traditional Brazilian music. Tambourine_sentence_91

Panderoa Tambourine_section_12

The Basque pandero is a folk instrument currently played along with the trikitixa (basque diatonic accordion) in a duo most of the times. Tambourine_sentence_92

Sometimes the players, who play in festivities to enliven the atmosphere or less frequently at onstage performances, sing along. Tambourine_sentence_93

At times the pandero accompanies the alboka or txistu too. Tambourine_sentence_94

Yet these kinds of duos have not always been the case. Tambourine_sentence_95

As attested , the youth gathered to dance to the rhythm of the bare pandero, with no other music instrument implicated but the player's (a woman's) voice. Tambourine_sentence_96

Riq Tambourine_section_13

Main article: Riq Tambourine_sentence_97

The riq (also spelled riqq or rik) is a type of tambourine used as a traditional instrument in Arabic music. Tambourine_sentence_98

It is an important instrument in both folk and classical music throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Tambourine_sentence_99

Widely known as "Shakers". Tambourine_sentence_100

Dayereh Tambourine_section_14

Main article: Dayereh Tambourine_sentence_101

A dayereh (or doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, daire) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran (Persia), the Balkans, and many central Asian countries such as Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tambourine_sentence_102

It is a percussion instrument, and is something intermediate between a drum and a tambourine. Tambourine_sentence_103

Kanjira Tambourine_section_15

Main article: Kanjira Tambourine_sentence_104

The kanjira or ganjira is a South Indian frame drum of the tambourine family. Tambourine_sentence_105

It is mostly used in Carnatic music concerts (South Indian classical music) as a supporting instrument for the mridangam. Tambourine_sentence_106

Nepal also has a variety of tambourines, going by the names Daanf, Damphu (डम्फू), Hring, and Khaijadi (खैंजडी). Tambourine_sentence_107

Tar Tambourine_section_16

Main article: Tar (drum) Tambourine_sentence_108

Tar (Arabic: طار‎) is a single-headed frame drum of Turkish origin, but is commonly played in North Africa and the Middle East. Tambourine_sentence_109

Timbrel Tambourine_section_17

Main article: Timbrel Tambourine_sentence_110

Timbrel or tabret (the tof of the ancient Hebrews, the deff of Islam, the adufe of the Moors of Spain), the principal musical instrument of percussion of the Israelites, similar to the modern tambourine. Tambourine_sentence_111

Rabana Tambourine_section_18

Main article: Raban Tambourine_sentence_112

A Rabana (plural Raban) is a one-sided traditional tambourine played with the hands, used in Sri Lanka. Tambourine_sentence_113

Rebana Tambourine_section_19

Main article: Rebana Tambourine_sentence_114

Rebana is a Malay tambourine that is used in Islamic devotional music in Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore. Tambourine_sentence_115

See also Tambourine_section_20

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tambourine.