Tango music

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For other uses, see Tango (disambiguation). Tango music_sentence_0

Tango music_table_infobox_0

TangoTango music_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsTango music_header_cell_0_1_0 Tango music_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsTango music_header_cell_0_2_0 ArgentinaTango music_cell_0_2_1
SubgenresTango music_header_cell_0_3_0
Fusion genresTango music_header_cell_0_4_0
Regional scenesTango music_header_cell_0_5_0
Other topicsTango music_header_cell_0_6_0

Tango is a style of music in 4 or 4 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay (collectively, the "Rioplatenses"). Tango music_sentence_1

It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, flute, piano, double bass, and at least two bandoneóns. Tango music_sentence_2

Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango music_sentence_3

Tango may be purely instrumental or may include a vocalist. Tango music_sentence_4

Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Tango music_sentence_5

Origins Tango music_section_0

Even though present forms of tango developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid-19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th-century tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco tango dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. Tango music_sentence_6

All sources stress the influence of African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in the style's final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a later stage. Tango music_sentence_7

Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no later than 1906 in Philadelphia. Tango music_sentence_8

Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris (possibly in April 1908, with the Orchestre Tzigane du Restaurant du Rat Mort), as there were no recording studios in Argentina at the time. Tango music_sentence_9

Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires, then later in Montevideo. Tango music_sentence_10

The first generation of tango players from Buenos Aires was called "Guardia Vieja" (the Old Guard). Tango music_sentence_11

It took time to move into wider circles; in the early 20th century, it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women (in 1914). Tango music_sentence_12

The complex dances that arose from such rich music reflect how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. Tango music_sentence_13

The music was played on portable instruments: flute, guitar, and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century. Tango music_sentence_14

The organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Tango music_sentence_15

Eduardo Arolas was the major driver of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins, and two bandoneóns. Tango music_sentence_16

Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, and attempts were made to restrict its influence. Tango music_sentence_17

In spite of the scorn, some, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Tango music_sentence_18

Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I; he wrote the poem "Tango", which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". Tango music_sentence_19

One song that would become the most widely known of all tango melodies also dates from this time. Tango music_sentence_20

The first two sections of "La Cumparsita" were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Tango music_sentence_21

Argentine roots of Tango Tango music_section_1

Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay pampas, and Uruguayan candombe. Tango music_sentence_22

In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century. Tango music_sentence_23

The first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. Tango music_sentence_24

The origins of Milonga seem to be in the pampa with strong African influences, especially though the local candombe (which would be related to its contemporary candombe in Buenos Aires and Montevideo). Tango music_sentence_25

It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Tango music_sentence_26

Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, Cuba, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper that quotes the song "La Coqueta" (an Argentine tango). Tango music_sentence_27

In 1876, a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became very popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines' carnival held in February of that year. Tango music_sentence_28

It is played with harp, violin, and flute, in addition to the Afro-Argentine candombe drums ("Llamador" and "Repicador"). Tango music_sentence_29

This has been seriously considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango. Tango music_sentence_30

The first tango "group" was composed of two Afro-Argentines: "the black" Casimiro Alcorta (violin) and "the mulatto" Sinforoso (clarinet). Tango music_sentence_31

They played small concerts in Buenos Aires from the early 1870s until the early 1890s. Tango music_sentence_32

Alcorta is the author of "Entrada Prohibida" (Prohibited Entry), sung by the brothers Teisseire. Tango music_sentence_33

He is also credited with the tango "Concha sucia", which was later adapted and sung by F. Canaro as "Cara sucia" (Dirty Face). Tango music_sentence_34

Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco" (anonymous, attributed to clarinetist Lino Galeano in 1885); "Señora casera" (anonymous, 1880); "Andate a la recoleta" (anonymous, 1880); "El Porteñito" (by the Spaniard Gabriel Diez in 1880); "Tango Nº1" (Jose Machado, 1883); "Dame la lata" (Juan Perez, 1888); "Que polvo con tanto viento" (anonymous, 1890); "No me tires con la tapa de la olla" (A.A. 1893); and "El Talar" (Prudencio Aragon, 1895). Tango music_sentence_35

One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D'Herbil. Tango music_sentence_36

She wrote such pieces as "Y a mí qué" (What Do I Care), "Che no calotiés!" Tango music_sentence_37

(Hey, No Stealing! Tango music_sentence_38

), and others, between 1872 and 1885. Tango music_sentence_39

The first recorded musical score is "La Canguela" (1889). Tango music_sentence_40

The first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine. Tango music_sentence_41

As for the transition between the old "Tango criollo" (Milonga from the pampas, evolved with touches of Afro-Argentine candombe, and some Habanera), and the Tango of the Old Guard, there are the following songs: Tango music_sentence_42

Tango music_unordered_list_0

  • Ángel Villoldo - "El choclo", 1903; "El Pimpolla", 1904; "La Vida del Carretero", 1905; and "El Negro Alegre", 1907Tango music_item_0_0
  • Gabino Ezeiza - "El Tango Patagones", 1905Tango music_item_0_1
  • Higinio Cazón - "El Taita", 1905Tango music_item_0_2

Moreover, the first tango recorded by an orchestra was "Don Juan", whose author is Ernesto Ponzio. Tango music_sentence_43

It was recorded by the orchestra of Vicente Greco. Tango music_sentence_44

1920s and 1930s, Carlos Gardel Tango music_section_2

Tango soon began to gain popularity in Europe, beginning in France. Tango music_sentence_45

Superstar Carlos Gardel soon became a sex symbol who brought tango to new audiences, especially in the United States, due to his sensual depictions of the dance in film. Tango music_sentence_46

In the 1920s, tango moved out of the lower-class brothels and became a more respectable form of music and dance. Tango music_sentence_47

Bandleaders like Roberto Firpo and Francisco Canaro dropped the flute and added a double bass in its place. Tango music_sentence_48

Lyrics were still typically macho, blaming women for countless heartaches, and the dance moves were still sexual and aggressive. Tango music_sentence_49

Carlos Gardel became especially associated with the transition from a lower-class "gangster" music to a respectable middle-class dance. Tango music_sentence_50

He helped develop tango-canción in the 1920s and became one of the most popular tango artists of all time. Tango music_sentence_51

He was also one of the precursors of the "Golden Age of Tango". Tango music_sentence_52

Gardel's death was followed by a division into movements within tango. Tango music_sentence_53

Evolutionists like Aníbal Troilo and Carlos di Sarli were opposed to traditionalists like Rodolfo Biagi and Juan d'Arienzo. Tango music_sentence_54

Golden Age Tango music_section_3

The "Golden Age" of tango music and dance is generally agreed to have been the period from about 1935 to 1952, roughly contemporaneous with the big band era in the United States. Tango music_sentence_55

Tango was performed by orquestas típicas, bands often including over a dozen performers. Tango music_sentence_56

Some of the many popular and influential orchestras included those of Mariano Mores, Juan d'Arienzo, Francisco Canaro, and Aníbal Troilo. Tango music_sentence_57

D'Arienzo was called the "Rey del compás" or "King of the beat", for the insistent, driving rhythm which can be heard on many of his recordings. Tango music_sentence_58

"El flete" is an excellent example of D'Arienzo's approach. Tango music_sentence_59

Canaro's early milongas are generally the slowest and easiest to dance to; and for that reason, they are the most frequently played at tango dances (milongas); "Milonga Sentimental" is a classic example. Tango music_sentence_60

Beginning in the Golden Age and continuing afterwards, the orchestras of Osvaldo Pugliese and Carlos di Sarli made many recordings. Tango music_sentence_61

Di Sarli had a lush, grandiose sound, and emphasized strings and piano over the bandoneón, which is heard in "A la gran muñeca" and "Bahía Blanca" (the name of his home town). Tango music_sentence_62

Pugliese's first recordings were not too different from those of other dance orchestras, but he developed a complex, rich, and sometimes discordant sound, which is heard in his signature pieces "Gallo ciego", "Emancipación", and "La yumba". Tango music_sentence_63

Pugliese's later music was played for an audience and not intended for dancing, although it is often used for stage choreography for its dramatic potential, and sometimes played late at night at milongas. Tango music_sentence_64

Eventually, tango transcended its Latin boundaries as European bands adopted it into their dance repertoires. Tango music_sentence_65

Non-traditional instruments were often added, such as the accordion (in place of the bandoneon), saxophone, clarinet, ukulele, mandolin, electric organ, etc., as well as lyrics in non-Spanish languages. Tango music_sentence_66

European tango became a mainstream worldwide dance and popular music style, alongside foxtrot, slow waltz, and rumba. Tango music_sentence_67

It somewhat diverged from its Argentinian origin and developed characteristic European styles. Tango music_sentence_68

Famous European band leaders who adopted tango included, to name a few, Otto Dobrindt [], Marek Weber, Oskar Joost, Barnabas von Geczy [], Jose Lucchesi, Kurt Widmann [], Adalbert Lutter [], Paul Godwin, Alexander Tsfasman, as well as famous singers Leo Monosson, Zarah Leander, Rudi Schuricke, Tino Rossi, Janus Poplawski [], Mieczysław Fogg, Pyotr Leshchenko, and others. Tango music_sentence_69

The popularity of European tango precipitously declined with the advent of rock-n-roll in the 1950s–60s. Tango music_sentence_70

Tango nuevo Tango music_section_4

The later age of tango has been dominated by Ástor Piazzolla, whose "Adiós nonino" became the most influential work of tango music since Carlos Gardel's "El día que me quieras" was released in 1935. Tango music_sentence_71

During the 1950s, Piazzolla consciously tried to create a more academic form with new sounds breaking the classic forms of tango, drawing the derision of purists and old-time performers. Tango music_sentence_72

The 1970s saw Buenos Aires developing a fusion of jazz and tango. Tango music_sentence_73

Litto Nebbia and Siglo XX were especially popular within this movement. Tango music_sentence_74

In the 1970s and 1980s, the vocal octet Buenos Aires 8 recorded classic tangos in elaborate arrangements, with complex harmonies and jazz influence, and also recorded an album with compositions by Piazzolla. Tango music_sentence_75

The so-called post-Piazzolla generation (1980–) includes musicians such as Dino Saluzzi, Rodolfo Mederos, Gustavo Beytelmann, and Juan Jose Mosalini. Tango music_sentence_76

Piazzolla and his followers developed nuevo tango, a musical genre that incorporated jazz and classical influences into a more experimental style. Tango music_sentence_77

In the late 1990s, composer and pianist Fernando Otero continued to add elements to the innovation process which had started decades ago, expanding the orchestration and form while including improvisation and atonal aspects in his work. Tango music_sentence_78

1990s–2000s tango Tango music_section_5

In the second half of the 1990s, a new movement of tango composers and tango orchestras playing new songs was born in Buenos Aires. Tango music_sentence_79

It was mainly influenced by the old orchestra style rather than by Piazzolla’s renewal and experiments with electronic music. Tango music_sentence_80

Over the first two decades of the 21st century, the movement has grown with the creation of countless bands playing new tangos. Tango music_sentence_81

The most prominent figures leading this phenomenon have been the Orquesta Típica Fernandez Fierro, whose creator, Julian Peralta, would later start Astillero and the Orquesta Típica Julián Peralta. Tango music_sentence_82

Other bands have also become part of the movement, such as Orquesta Rascacielos, Altertango, Ciudad Baigón, as well as singer-songwriters Alfredo "Tape" Rubín, Victoria di Raimondo, Juan Serén, Natalí de Vicenzo, and Pacha González. Tango music_sentence_83

Neotango Tango music_section_6

Tango development did not stop with tango nuevo. Tango music_sentence_84

21st-century tango is referred to as neotango. Tango music_sentence_85

These recent trends can be described as "electro tango" or "tango fusion", where the electronic influences range from subtle to dominant. Tango music_sentence_86

Tanghetto and Carlos Libedinsky are good examples of the subtle use of electronic elements. Tango music_sentence_87

The music still has its tango feeling, the complex rhythmic and melodious entanglement that makes tango so unique. Tango music_sentence_88

Gotan Project is a group that formed in 1999 in Paris, consisting of musicians Philippe Cohen Solal, Eduardo Makaroff, and Christoph H. Muller. Tango music_sentence_89

Their releases include Vuelvo al Sur/El capitalismo foráneo (2000), La Revancha del Tango (2001), Inspiración Espiración (2004), and Lunático (2006). Tango music_sentence_90

Their sound features electronic elements like samples, beats, and sounds on top of a tango groove. Tango music_sentence_91

Some dancers enjoy dancing to this music, although many traditional dancers regard it as a definite break in style and tradition. Tango music_sentence_92

Bajofondo Tango Club is another example of electro-tango. Tango music_sentence_93

Further examples can be found on the CDs Tango?, Hybrid Tango, Tangophobia Vol. 1, Tango Crash (with a major jazz influence), Latin Tango by Rodrigo Favela (featuring classic and modern elements), NuTango, Tango Fusion Club Vol. 1 by the creator of the milonga called "Tango Fusion Club" in Munich, Felino by the Norwegian group Electrocutango, and Electronic Tango, a compilation CD. Tango music_sentence_94

In 2004, the music label World Music Network released a collection under the title The Rough Guide to Tango Nuevo. Tango music_sentence_95

Musical impact and classical interpreters Tango music_section_7

Although tango music was strictly circumscribed to the tango interpreters, it was the classically trained Argentinian pianist Arminda Canteros (1911–2002) who used to play tangos to satisfy the requests of her father, who could not understand classical music. Tango music_sentence_96

She developed her own style and had a weekly program of tango music for a radio station in Rosario, Argentina in the 1930s and 1940s. Tango music_sentence_97

Since tango playing was considered the epitome of machismo, she had to take the masculine pseudonym "Juancho" for the broadcasts. Tango music_sentence_98

Canteros settled in New York City in 1970, where in 1989, she recorded the album Tangos, at the age of 78. Tango music_sentence_99

Following Cantero’s example, another Argentinian female pianist brought tango music to the concert halls: Cecilia Pillado played a complete tango recital at the Berliner Philharmonie in 1997 and recorded that program for her CD Cexilia’s Tangos. Tango music_sentence_100

Since then, tango has become part of the repertoire for great classical musicians like the baritone Jorge Chaminé with his Tangos, recorded with bandoneónist Olivier Manoury. Tango music_sentence_101

Additionally, al Tango, Yo-Yo Ma, Martha Argerich, Daniel Barenboim, Gidon Kremer, Plácido Domingo, and Marcelo Álvarez have performed and recorded tangos. Tango music_sentence_102

Some classical composers have written tangos, such as Isaac Albéniz in España (1890), Erik Satie in Le Tango perpétuel (1914), amd Igor Stravinsky in Histoire du Soldat (1918). Tango music_sentence_103

Nikolai Myaskovsky composed an Argentinian death tango for the poem "War and Peace". Tango music_sentence_104

Kurt Weill continued this style in The Threepenny Opera (1928) (Die Dreigroschenoper), with "Tango Ballade", or "Zuhälterballade", a fateful song about underworld life (a symphonic version commissioned by Otto Klemperer); a bit later, he composed "Youkali" (Tango-Habanera), with French lyrics. Tango music_sentence_105

Also noteworthy was the accordionist John Serry Sr., who composed "Tango of Love" and "Petite Tango" for accordion quartet (1955). Tango music_sentence_106

The list of composers who wrote inspired by tango music also includes John Cage in "Perpetual Tango" (1984), John Harbison in "Tango Seen from Ground Level" (1991), and Milton Babbitt in "It Takes Twelve to Tango" (1984). Tango music_sentence_107

The influence of Piazzolla has fallen on a number of contemporary composers. Tango music_sentence_108

The "Tango Mortale" in Arcadiana by Thomas Adès is an example. Tango music_sentence_109

Many popular songs in the United States have borrowed melodies from tango: the earliest published tango, "El Choclo", lent its melody to the fifties hit "Kiss of Fire". Tango music_sentence_110

Similarly, "Adiós Muchachos" became "I Get Ideas", and "Strange Sensation" was based on "La Cumparsita". Tango music_sentence_111

Showing tango music's continued popularity, multiple international radio stations broadcast nonstop tango music today. Tango music_sentence_112

See also Tango music_section_8

Tango music_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tango music.