This article is about the Iranian capital city.
For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation).
|City Council Chairman||Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani|
|Urban||1,200 km (500 sq mi)|
|Metro||2,235 km (863 sq mi)|
|Elevation||900 to 1,830 m (2,952 to 6,003 ft)|
|Density||11,800/km (31,000/sq mi)|
|Population rank in Iran||1st|
|Time zone||UTC+03:30 (IRST)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC+04:30 (IRDT)|
|Area code(s)||(+98) 021|
With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East (after Cairo).
It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.
Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran.
Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1786, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties.
The capital has been moved several times throughout history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Persia.
Large-scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century.
Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, and the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower which was completed in 2007.
The Tabiat Bridge, a newly built landmark, was completed in 2014.
The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language.
Tehran has an international airport (Imam Khomeini Airport), a domestic airport (Mehrabad Airport), a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, trolleybuses, and a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due mainly to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes.
To date, no definitive plans have been approved.
October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was officially chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907.
There are various theories pertaining to the origin of the name Tehran.
One plausible theory is that the word "Tehran" is derived from Tiran/Tirgan, "The Abode of Tir" (Tir being the Zoroastrian deity equivalent to the Greek deity Mercury).
The ancient Parthian town of Tiran was a neighbour to the town of Mehran ("The Abode of Mehr/Mithra", the Zoroastrian sun god).
Both of these were mere villages in the suburbs of the great city of Ray/Rhages.
Mehran is still extant and forms a residential district inside the Greater Tehran, as is also Ray—which forms the southern suburbs of Tehran.
Another theory is that Tehran means "a warm place", as opposed to "a cool place" (e.g. Shemiran)—a cooler district in northern Tehran.
Some texts in this regard claim that the word Tehran in Persian means "warm mountain slope" (دامنه گرم).
The official City of Tehran website says that "Tehran" comes from the Persian words "Tah" meaning "end or bottom" and "Ran" meaning "[mountain] slope"—literally, bottom of the mountain slope.
Given Tehran's geographic position at the bottom of the slope of the Alborz Mountains, this appears to be the most plausible explanation of the origin of the name of the city (دامنه ی بین دو کوه).
See also: Timeline of Tehran
The settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years.
Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, which has been absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran.
It appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk (Bivarasp), and the place where Arash shot his arrow from.
Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad.
In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, which was flourishing nearby.
Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers.
Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population mainly consisted of Iranians of all classes.
In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, and massacred many of its inhabitants.
Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran.
In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region.
Early modern era
Italian traveler Pietro della Valle passed through Tehran overnight in 1618, and in his memoirs, he mentioned the city as Taheran.
English traveler Thomas Herbert entered Tehran in 1627, and mentioned it as Tyroan.
Herbert stated that the city had about 3,000 houses.
In the early 18th century, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ordered a palace and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital; but he later moved his government to Shiraz.
Agha Mohammad Khan's choice of his capital was based on a similar concern for the control of both northern and southern Iran.
Thus, he probably viewed Tehran's lack of a substantial urban structure as a blessing, because it minimized the chances of resistance to his rule by the notables and by the general public.
Moreover, he had to remain within close reach of Azerbaijan and Iran's integral northern and southern Caucasian territories—at that time not yet irrevocably lost per the treaties of Golestan and Turkmenchay to the neighboring Russian Empire—which would follow in the course of the 19th century.
After 50 years of Qajar rule, the city still barely had more than 80,000 inhabitants.
The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure.
Architecture, however, found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle.
The second major planning exercise in Tehran took place under the supervision of Dar ol Fonun.
The 1878 plan of Tehran included new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometres, which mimicked the Renaissance cities of Europe.
Late modern era
On June 2, 1907, the parliament passed a law on local governance known as the Baladie (municipal law), providing a detailed outline on issues such as the role of councils within the city, the members' qualifications, the election process, and the requirements to be entitled to vote.
As a result, the monarch was exiled and replaced with his son Ahmad, and the parliament was re-established.
After World War I, the constituent assembly elected Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty as the new monarch, who immediately suspended the Baladie law of 1907, replacing the decentralized and autonomous city councils with centralist approaches of governance and planning.
From the 1920s to the 1930s, under the rule of Reza Shah, the city was essentially rebuilt from scratch.
That followed a systematic demolition of several old buildings, including parts of the Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat, and Tupkhane Square, which were replaced with modern buildings influenced by classical Iranian architecture, particularly the building of the National Bank, the Police Headquarters, the Telegraph Office, and the Military Academy.
The changes in urban fabric started with the street-widening act of 1933, which served as a framework for changes in all other cities.
The Grand Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished to be replaced with wide straight avenues.
As a result, the traditional texture of the city was replaced with intersecting cruciform streets that created large roundabouts, located on major public spaces such as the bazaar.
As an attempt to create a network for easy transportation within the city, the old citadel and city walls were demolished in 1937, replaced by wide streets cutting through the urban fabric.
The new city map of Tehran in 1937 was heavily influenced by modernist planning patterns of zoning and gridiron networks.
The establishment of the planning organization of Iran in 1948 resulted in the first socio-economic development plan to cover from 1949 to 1955.
These plans not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 land reforms that Reza Shah's son and successor Mohammad Reza Shah named the White Revolution, Tehran's chaotic growth was further accentuated.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah.
Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades.
In order to resolve the problem of social exclusion, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was approved in 1968.
The consortium of Iranian architect Abd-ol-Aziz Farmanfarmaian and the American firm of Victor Gruen Associates identified the main problems blighting the city to be high-density suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment, and rural-urban migration.
Tehran's most famous landmark, the Azadi Tower, was built by the order of the Shah in 1971.
Formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, it was built in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran.
During the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, Tehran was the target of repeated Scud missile attacks and airstrikes.
The 435-meter-high Milad Tower, which was part of the proposed development projects in pre-revolutionary Iran, was completed in 2007, and has thence become a famous landmark of Tehran.
Location and subdivisions
The metropolis of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative centre.
Although administratively separate, the cities of Ray and Shemiran are often considered part of Greater Tehran.
While the center of the city houses government ministries and headquarters, commercial centers are more located towards further north.
Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz mountains to its north and the country's central desert to the south.
It can be generally described as mild in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, and cold and wet in winter.
As the city has a large area, with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran.
For instance, the 17.3 km (10.7 mi) Valiasr Street runs from Tehran's railway station at 1,117 m (3,665 ft) elevation above sea level in the south of the city to Tajrish Square at 1712.6 m (5612.3 ft) elevation above sea level in the north.
However, the elevation can even rise up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at the end of Velenjak in northern Tehran.
Summer is long, hot, and dry with little rain, but relative humidity is generally low, making the heat tolerable.
Average high temperatures are between 32 and 37 °C (90 and 99 °F), and it can occasionally drop to 14 °C (57 °F) in the mountainous north of the city at night.
Most of the light annual precipitation occurs from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet.
The hottest month is July, with a mean minimum temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 34 °C (93 °F), and the coldest is January, with a mean minimum temperature of −5 °C (23 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 1 °C (34 °F).
The weather of Tehran can sometimes be unpredictably harsh.
The record high temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) and the record low is −20 °C (−4 °F).
On January 5 and 6, 2008, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures covered the city in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and close down the capital from January 6 through January 7.
Tehran has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century.
This is most likely afforestation projects, which include expanding parks and lakes.
The northern parts of Tehran are, still, more lush than the southern parts.
In February 2005, heavy snow covered all parts of the city.
Snow depth was recorded as 15 cm (6 in) in the southern part of the city and 100 cm (39 in) in the northern part of city.
One newspaper reported that it had been the worst weather in 34 years.
10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 municipal workers were deployed to keep the main roads open.
On February 3, 2014, Tehran received a heavy snowfall, specifically in the northern parts of the city, with a depth of 2 metres (6.6 ft).
In one week of successive snowfalls, roads were made impassable in some areas, with the temperature ranging from −8 °C (18 °F) to −16 °C (3 °F).
This event also knocked down numerous trees and power lines.
It struck between 5:00 and 6:00 PM, dropping temperatures from 33 °C (91 °F) to 19 °C (66 °F) within an hour.
The dramatic temperature drop was accompanied by wind gusts reaching nearly 118 kilometres per hour (73 mph) .
A plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years, due mainly to the environmental issues of the region.
Tehran is rated as one of the world's most polluted cities, and is also located near two major fault lines.
The city suffers from severe air pollution.
80% of the city's pollution is due to cars.
The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution.
Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of noise pollution in Tehran.
Tehran is also considered as one of the strongest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the Middle East.
Enhanced concentration of carbon dioxide over the city (that are likely originated from the anthropogenic urban sources in the city) is easily detectable from the satellite observations throughout the year.
In 2010, the government announced that "for security and administrative reasons, the plan to move the capital from Tehran has been finalized."
The officials are engaged in a battle to reduce air pollution.
It has, for instance, encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas.
Furthermore, the government has set up a "Traffic Zone" covering the city centre during peak traffic hours.
Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit.
There have also been plans to raise people's awareness of the hazards of pollution.
One method that is being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO).
See also: Demographics of Tehran
Further information: Ethnicities in Iran
The city of Tehran has a population of approximately 10 million in 2016.
With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country.
Iranian Azeris form the second-largest ethnic group of the city, comprising about 1/4 of the total population, while ethnic Mazanderanis are the third-largest, comprising about 17% of the total population.
According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of the University of Tehran, in many districts of Tehran across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of the people were born in Tehran, 98% knew Persian, 75% identified themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% had some degree of proficiency in a European language.
Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethnic-social composition in the early 1980s.
After the political, social, and economic consequences of the 1979 Revolution and the years that followed, a number of Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran.
With the start of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), the second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during the Iraqi air offensives on the capital.
With most major powers backing Iraq at the time, economic isolation gave yet more reason for many inhabitants to leave the city (and the country).
Having left all they had and have struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over.
During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.
The unstable situation and the war in neighbouring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who arrived in their millions, with Tehran being a magnet for much seeking work, who subsequently helped the city to recover from war wounds, working for far less pay than local construction workers.
Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of the UNHCR, but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their own countries.
See also: Transport in Iran
Highways and streets
See also: List of Expressways in Tehran
The metropolis of Tehran is equipped with a large network of highways and interchanges.
A number of streets in Tehran are named after international figures, including:
- Henri Corbin Street, central Tehran
- Simon Bolivar Boulevard, northwestern Tehran
- Edward Browne Street, near the University of Tehran
- Gandhi Street, northern Tehran
- Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway, western Tehran
- Iqbal Lahori Street, eastern Tehran
- Patrice Lumumba Street, western Tehran
- Nelson Mandela Boulevard, northern Tehran
- Bobby Sands Street, western side of the British Embassy
See also: Automotive industry in Iran
According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran was designed to have a capacity of about 300,000 cars, but more than five million cars are on the roads.
The automation industry has recently developed, but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically.
According to local media, Tehran has more than 200,000 taxis plying the roads daily, with several types of taxi available in the city.
Airport taxis have a higher cost per kilometer as opposed to regular green and yellow taxis in the city.
Buses have served the city since the 1920s.
The city's four major bus stations include the South Terminal, the East Terminal, the West Terminal, and the northcentral Beyhaghi Terminal.
This was the first trolleybus system in Iran.
In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Imam Hossein Square.
Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway located in the middle of the wide carriageway along Damavand Street, stopping only at purpose-built stops located about every 500 metres along the routes, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such).
The other three trolleybus routes run south and operate in mixed-traffic.
Both route sections are served by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services.
A 3.2-kilometer extension from Shoosh Square to Rah Ahan Square was opened in March 2010.
Tehran's bus rapid transit (BRT) was officially inaugurated in 2008.
It has 10 lines with some 215 stations in different areas of the city.
As of 2011, the BRT system had a network of 100 kilometres (62 miles), transporting 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis.
Founded in 2017, it is available in the central and north-west regions of the capital city of Tehran.
The company has plans to expand across the city in the future
In the first phase, the application covers the flat areas of Tehran and they would be out of use in poor weather condition.
Railway and subway
Tehran has a central railway station that connects services round the clock to various cities in the country, along with a Tehran–Europe train line also running.
The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction of Tehran's subway system were started in the 1970s.
The first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened in 2001.
|1||2001||70 km (43 mi)||32||Metro|
|2||2000||26 km (16 mi)||22||Metro|
|3||2012||37 km (23 mi)||24||Metro|
|4||2008||22 km (14 mi)||22||Metro|
|5||1999||43 km (27 mi)||11||Commuter rail|
|6||2019||9 km (5.6 mi)||3||Metro|
|7||2017||13.5 km (8.4 mi)||8||Metro|
|Metro Subtotal:||177.5 km (110 mi)||111|
|Total:||220.5 km (137 mi)||122|
See also: Airlines of Iran
Mehrabad Airport, an old airport in western Tehran that doubles as a military base, is mainly used for domestic and charter flights.
Khomeini Airport, located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles the main international flights.
Parks and green spaces
See also: List of Tehran metropolis parks
There are over 2,100 parks within the metropolis of Tehran, with one of the oldest being Jamshidie Park, which was first established as a private garden for Qajar prince Jamshid Davallu, and was then dedicated to the last empress of Iran, Farah Pahlavi.
The total green space within Tehran stretches over 12,600 hectares, covering over 20 percent of the city's area.
The Parks and Green Spaces Organization of Tehran was established in 1960, and is responsible for the protection of the urban nature present in the city.
Tehran's Birds Garden is the largest bird park of Iran.
There is also a zoo located on the Tehran–Karaj Expressway, housing over 290 species within an area of about five hectares.
See also: Energy in Iran
See also: Water supply and sanitation in Iran
Greater Tehran with its population of more than 13 million is supplied by surface water from the Lar dam on the Lar River in the Northeast of the city, the Latyan dam on the Jajrood River in the North, the Karaj River in the Northwest, as well as by groundwater in the vicinity of the city.
According to the national energy roadmap, the government plans to promote green technology to increase the nominal capacity of power plants from 74 gigawatts to over 120 gigawatts by the end of 2025.
Tehran is the largest and the most important educational centre of Iran.
There are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran.
Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events.
Other major universities located in Tehran include Tehran University of Art, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), K. , N. Toosi University of TechnologyShahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Iran's Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahed University, and Tarbiat Modarres University.
Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.
Main article: Culture of Tehran
See also: Architecture of Tehran
There are also remains of Rashkan Castle, dating back to the ancient Parthian Empire, of which some artifacts are housed at the National Museum; and the Bahram fire temple, which remains since the Sassanian Empire.
Tehran only had a small population until the late 18th century but began to take a more considerable role in Iranian society after it was chosen as the capital city.
Despite the regular occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and after, some historic buildings have remained from that era.
Tehran is Iran's primate city, and is considered to have the most modernized infrastructure in the country.
However, the gentrification of old neighbourhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns.
Previously a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been built in recent decades in order to service its growing population.
There have been no major quakes in Tehran since 1830.
Tehran International Tower is the tallest (and only) skyscraper in Iran.
It is 54-stories tall and located in the northern district of Yusef Abad.
Originally constructed in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, it combines elements of the architecture of the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras with post-classical Iranian architecture.
It was eventually destroyed and replaced with a bank building in 1947, following the reforms under the reign of Reza Shah.
Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become the most famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes in the Middle East, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet.
The hall was inaugurated in October 1967, named after prominent Persian poet Rudaki.
The City Theater of Tehran, one of Iran's biggest theatre complexes which contains several performance halls, was opened in 1972.
It was built at the initiative and presidency of empress Farah Pahlavi, and was designed by architect Ali Sardar Afkhami, constructed within five years.
The first movie theater of Tehran was established by Mirza Ebrahim Khan in 1904.
Until the early 1930s, there were 15 theaters in Tehran Province and 11 in other provinces.
In present-day Tehran, most of the movie theatres are located downtown.
Several film festivals are held in Tehran, including Fajr Film Festival, Children and Youth Film Festival, House of Cinema Festival, Mobile Film and Photo Festival, Nahal Festival, Roshd Film Festival, Tehran Animation Festival, Tehran Short Film Festival, and Urban Film Festival.
There are a variety of concert halls in Tehran.
An organization like Roudaki Culture and Art Foundation has 5 different venues where performing more than 500 concerts per year.
Vahdat Hall, Roudaki Hall, Ferdowsi Hall, Hafez Hall and Azadi Theater are the top 5 venues in Tehran, where perform classical, Pop, Traditional, Rock or Solo concerts.
See also: Sport in Iran
Football and volleyball are the city's most popular sports, while wrestling, basketball, and futsal are also major parts of the city's sporting culture.
Tochal's resort is the world's fifth-highest ski resort at over 3,730 meters (12,240 feet) above sea level at its highest point.
It is also the world's nearest ski resort to a capital city.
The resort was opened in 1976, shortly before the 1979 Revolution.
It is equipped with an 8-kilometre-long (5 mi) gondola lift that covers a huge vertical distance.
There are two parallel chair ski lifts in Tochal that reach 3,900 meters (12,800 feet) high near Tochal's peak (at 4,000 m/13,000 ft), rising higher than the gondola's 7th station, which is higher than any of the European ski resorts.
This was the first time the Asian Games were hosted in West Asia.
Tehran played host to 3,010 athletes from 25 countries/NOCs, which was at the time the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games.
The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF), and the intention of hosting the games every two years.
The city had also hosted the final of the 1968 AFC Asian Cup.
Several FIVB Volleyball World League courses have also been hosted in Tehran.
The first football club of Tehran, named Iran Club, was founded in 1920 and dissolved within two years in 1923.
Today, Tehran's oldest existing football club is Rah Ahan, which was founded in 1937.
The following table lists Tehran's six major football clubs.
|Ararat F.C.||Association football||1944||Tehran Province League|
|Esteghlal F.C.||Association football||1945||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
|Steel Azin F.C.||Association football||2007||Iran Football's 3rd Division|
|Persepolis F.C.||Association football||1967||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
|Paykan F.C.||Association football||1967||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
Smaller clubs based in Tehran are listed below.
See also: Iranian cuisine
There are many restaurants and cafes in Tehran, both modern and classic, serving both Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine.
Main article: Graffiti in Tehran
Many styles of graffiti are seen in Tehran.
Some are political and revolutionary slogans painted by governmental organizations, and some are works of art by ordinary citizens, representing their views on both social and political issues.
However, unsanctioned street art is forbidden in Iran, and such works are usually short-lived.
They were removed from the walls by the paramilitary Basij forces.
In recent years, Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city.
Several graffiti festivals have also taken place in Tehran, including the one organized by the Tehran University of Art in October 2014.
Twin towns – sister cities
Tehran is twinned with:
Tehran cooperates with:
- Iran International Exhibitions Company
- Islamic City Council of Tehran
- Tehran City Council (1968–1979)
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tehran.