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This article is about the Iranian capital city. Tehran_sentence_0

For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). Tehran_sentence_1




CountryTehran_header_cell_0_1_0 Iran IranTehran_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceTehran_header_cell_0_2_0 TehranTehran_cell_0_2_1
CountyTehran_header_cell_0_3_0 Tehran

Ray ShemiranatTehran_cell_0_3_1

DistrictTehran_header_cell_0_4_0 CentralTehran_cell_0_4_1
MayorTehran_header_cell_0_6_0 Pirouz HanachiTehran_cell_0_6_1
City Council ChairmanTehran_header_cell_0_7_0 Mohsen Hashemi RafsanjaniTehran_cell_0_7_1
UrbanTehran_header_cell_0_9_0 1,200 km (500 sq mi)Tehran_cell_0_9_1
MetroTehran_header_cell_0_10_0 2,235 km (863 sq mi)Tehran_cell_0_10_1
ElevationTehran_header_cell_0_11_0 900 to 1,830 m (2,952 to 6,003 ft)Tehran_cell_0_11_1
DensityTehran_header_cell_0_13_0 11,800/km (31,000/sq mi)Tehran_cell_0_13_1
UrbanTehran_header_cell_0_14_0 9,033,000Tehran_cell_0_14_1
MetroTehran_header_cell_0_15_0 16,000,378Tehran_cell_0_15_1
Population rank in IranTehran_header_cell_0_16_0 1stTehran_cell_0_16_1
Demonym(s)Tehran_header_cell_0_17_0 Tehrani (en)Tehran_cell_0_17_1
Time zoneTehran_header_cell_0_18_0 UTC+03:30 (IRST)Tehran_cell_0_18_1
Summer (DST)Tehran_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+04:30 (IRDT)Tehran_cell_0_19_1
Area code(s)Tehran_header_cell_0_20_0 (+98) 021Tehran_cell_0_20_1
ClimateTehran_header_cell_0_21_0 BSkTehran_cell_0_21_1
WebsiteTehran_header_cell_0_22_0 Tehran_cell_0_22_1

Tehran (/tɛəˈræn, -ˈrɑːn, ˌteɪə-/; Persian: تهران‎ Ťehrân [tehˈɾɒːn (listen)) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. Tehran_sentence_2

With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East (after Cairo). Tehran_sentence_3

It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. Tehran_sentence_4

In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city. Tehran_sentence_5

It was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab, Turkic, and Mongol invasions. Tehran_sentence_6

Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran_sentence_7

Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1786, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. Tehran_sentence_8

The capital has been moved several times throughout history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Persia. Tehran_sentence_9

Large-scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran_sentence_10

Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, and Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran_sentence_11

Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, and the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower which was completed in 2007. Tehran_sentence_12

The Tabiat Bridge, a newly built landmark, was completed in 2014. Tehran_sentence_13

The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran_sentence_14

Tehran has an international airport (Imam Khomeini Airport), a domestic airport (Mehrabad Airport), a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, trolleybuses, and a large network of highways. Tehran_sentence_15

There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due mainly to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. Tehran_sentence_16

To date, no definitive plans have been approved. Tehran_sentence_17

A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. Tehran_sentence_18

According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. Tehran_sentence_19

October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was officially chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907. Tehran_sentence_20

Etymology Tehran_section_0

There are various theories pertaining to the origin of the name Tehran. Tehran_sentence_21

One plausible theory is that the word "Tehran" is derived from Tiran/Tirgan, "The Abode of Tir" (Tir being the Zoroastrian deity equivalent to the Greek deity Mercury). Tehran_sentence_22

The ancient Parthian town of Tiran was a neighbour to the town of Mehran ("The Abode of Mehr/Mithra", the Zoroastrian sun god). Tehran_sentence_23

Both of these were mere villages in the suburbs of the great city of Ray/Rhages. Tehran_sentence_24

Mehran is still extant and forms a residential district inside the Greater Tehran, as is also Ray—which forms the southern suburbs of Tehran. Tehran_sentence_25

Another theory is that Tehran means "a warm place", as opposed to "a cool place" (e.g. Shemiran)—a cooler district in northern Tehran. Tehran_sentence_26

Some texts in this regard claim that the word Tehran in Persian means "warm mountain slope" (دامنه گرم). Tehran_sentence_27

The official City of Tehran website says that "Tehran" comes from the Persian words "Tah" meaning "end or bottom" and "Ran" meaning "[mountain] slope"—literally, bottom of the mountain slope. Tehran_sentence_28

Given Tehran's geographic position at the bottom of the slope of the Alborz Mountains, this appears to be the most plausible explanation of the origin of the name of the city (دامنه ی بین دو کوه). Tehran_sentence_29

History Tehran_section_1

See also: Timeline of Tehran Tehran_sentence_30

The settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran_sentence_31

Classical era Tehran_section_2

Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media (Old Persian: 𐎶𐎠𐎭 Māda) in northwestern Iran. Tehran_sentence_32

By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages (Old Persian: 𐎼𐎥𐎠 Ragā). Tehran_sentence_33

In the Avesta's Videvdat (i, 15), Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. Tehran_sentence_34

In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province (Bistun 2, 10–18). Tehran_sentence_35

From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, who was putting down the rebellion in Parthia (Bistun 3, 1–10). Tehran_sentence_36

In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Tehran_sentence_37

Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, which has been absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran_sentence_38

Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, which is located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem that is based on the ancient legends of Iran. Tehran_sentence_39

It appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk (Bivarasp), and the place where Arash shot his arrow from. Tehran_sentence_40

Medieval period Tehran_section_3

During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan. Tehran_sentence_41

Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, and Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Tehran_sentence_42

Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad. Tehran_sentence_43

In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, which was flourishing nearby. Tehran_sentence_44

Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Tehran_sentence_45

Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population mainly consisted of Iranians of all classes. Tehran_sentence_46

The Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Tehran_sentence_47

Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. Tehran_sentence_48

In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, and massacred many of its inhabitants. Tehran_sentence_49

Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. Tehran_sentence_50

In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. Tehran_sentence_51

In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region. Tehran_sentence_52

Early modern era Tehran_section_4

Italian traveler Pietro della Valle passed through Tehran overnight in 1618, and in his memoirs, he mentioned the city as Taheran. Tehran_sentence_53

English traveler Thomas Herbert entered Tehran in 1627, and mentioned it as Tyroan. Tehran_sentence_54

Herbert stated that the city had about 3,000 houses. Tehran_sentence_55

In the early 18th century, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ordered a palace and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital; but he later moved his government to Shiraz. Tehran_sentence_56

Eventually, Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan chose Tehran as the capital of Iran in 1786. Tehran_sentence_57

Agha Mohammad Khan's choice of his capital was based on a similar concern for the control of both northern and southern Iran. Tehran_sentence_58

He was aware of the loyalties of the inhabitants of former capitals Isfahan and Shiraz to the Safavid and Zand dynasties respectively, and was wary of the power of the local notables in these cities. Tehran_sentence_59

Thus, he probably viewed Tehran's lack of a substantial urban structure as a blessing, because it minimized the chances of resistance to his rule by the notables and by the general public. Tehran_sentence_60

Moreover, he had to remain within close reach of Azerbaijan and Iran's integral northern and southern Caucasian territories—at that time not yet irrevocably lost per the treaties of Golestan and Turkmenchay to the neighboring Russian Empire—which would follow in the course of the 19th century. Tehran_sentence_61

After 50 years of Qajar rule, the city still barely had more than 80,000 inhabitants. Tehran_sentence_62

Up until the 1870s, Tehran consisted of a walled citadel, a roofed bazaar, and the three main neighbourhoods of Udlajan, Chale-Meydan, and Sangelaj, where the majority resided. Tehran_sentence_63

The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Tehran_sentence_64

Architecture, however, found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle. Tehran_sentence_65

The second major planning exercise in Tehran took place under the supervision of Dar ol Fonun. Tehran_sentence_66

The 1878 plan of Tehran included new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometres, which mimicked the Renaissance cities of Europe. Tehran_sentence_67

Late modern era Tehran_section_5

The growing social awareness of civil rights resulted in the Constitutional Revolution and the first constitution of Iran in 1906. Tehran_sentence_68

On June 2, 1907, the parliament passed a law on local governance known as the Baladie (municipal law), providing a detailed outline on issues such as the role of councils within the city, the members' qualifications, the election process, and the requirements to be entitled to vote. Tehran_sentence_69

The then Qajar monarch Mohammad Ali Shah abolished the constitution and bombarded the parliament with the help of the Russian-controlled Cossack Brigade on June 23, 1908. Tehran_sentence_70

That followed the capture of the city by the revolutionary forces of Ali-Qoli Khan (Sardar Asad II) and Mohammad Vali Khan (Sepahsalar e Tonekaboni) on July 13, 1909. Tehran_sentence_71

As a result, the monarch was exiled and replaced with his son Ahmad, and the parliament was re-established. Tehran_sentence_72

After World War I, the constituent assembly elected Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty as the new monarch, who immediately suspended the Baladie law of 1907, replacing the decentralized and autonomous city councils with centralist approaches of governance and planning. Tehran_sentence_73

From the 1920s to the 1930s, under the rule of Reza Shah, the city was essentially rebuilt from scratch. Tehran_sentence_74

That followed a systematic demolition of several old buildings, including parts of the Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat, and Tupkhane Square, which were replaced with modern buildings influenced by classical Iranian architecture, particularly the building of the National Bank, the Police Headquarters, the Telegraph Office, and the Military Academy. Tehran_sentence_75

The changes in urban fabric started with the street-widening act of 1933, which served as a framework for changes in all other cities. Tehran_sentence_76

The Grand Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished to be replaced with wide straight avenues. Tehran_sentence_77

As a result, the traditional texture of the city was replaced with intersecting cruciform streets that created large roundabouts, located on major public spaces such as the bazaar. Tehran_sentence_78

As an attempt to create a network for easy transportation within the city, the old citadel and city walls were demolished in 1937, replaced by wide streets cutting through the urban fabric. Tehran_sentence_79

The new city map of Tehran in 1937 was heavily influenced by modernist planning patterns of zoning and gridiron networks. Tehran_sentence_80

During World War II, Soviet and British troops entered the city. Tehran_sentence_81

In 1943, Tehran was the site of the Tehran Conference, attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Tehran_sentence_82


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The establishment of the planning organization of Iran in 1948 resulted in the first socio-economic development plan to cover from 1949 to 1955. Tehran_sentence_83

These plans not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 land reforms that Reza Shah's son and successor Mohammad Reza Shah named the White Revolution, Tehran's chaotic growth was further accentuated. Tehran_sentence_84

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah. Tehran_sentence_85

Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades. Tehran_sentence_86

In order to resolve the problem of social exclusion, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was approved in 1968. Tehran_sentence_87

The consortium of Iranian architect Abd-ol-Aziz Farmanfarmaian and the American firm of Victor Gruen Associates identified the main problems blighting the city to be high-density suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment, and rural-urban migration. Tehran_sentence_88

Eventually, the whole plan was marginalized by the 1979 Revolution and the subsequent Iran–Iraq War. Tehran_sentence_89

Tehran's most famous landmark, the Azadi Tower, was built by the order of the Shah in 1971. Tehran_sentence_90

It was designed by Hossein Amanat, an architect who won a competition to design the monument, combining elements of classical Sassanian architecture with post-classical Iranian architecture. Tehran_sentence_91

Formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, it was built in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran. Tehran_sentence_92

During the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, Tehran was the target of repeated Scud missile attacks and airstrikes. Tehran_sentence_93

The 435-meter-high Milad Tower, which was part of the proposed development projects in pre-revolutionary Iran, was completed in 2007, and has thence become a famous landmark of Tehran. Tehran_sentence_94

The 270-meter pedestrian overpass of Tabiat Bridge is a newly built landmark, designed by award winning architect Leila Araghian, which was completed in 2014. Tehran_sentence_95

Geography Tehran_section_6

Location and subdivisions Tehran_section_7

The metropolis of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative centre. Tehran_sentence_96

20 of the 22 municipal districts are located in Tehran County's Central District, while the districts 1 and 20 are respectively located in the counties of Shemiranat and Ray. Tehran_sentence_97

Although administratively separate, the cities of Ray and Shemiran are often considered part of Greater Tehran. Tehran_sentence_98


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Northern Tehran is the wealthiest part of the city, consisting of various districts such as Zaferanie, Jordan, Elahie, Pasdaran, Kamranie, Ajodanie, Farmanie, Darrous, Qeytarie, and Qarb Town. Tehran_sentence_99

While the center of the city houses government ministries and headquarters, commercial centers are more located towards further north. Tehran_sentence_100

Climate Tehran_section_8

Tehran has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with continental climate characteristics and a Mediterranean climate precipitation pattern. Tehran_sentence_101

Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz mountains to its north and the country's central desert to the south. Tehran_sentence_102

It can be generally described as mild in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, and cold and wet in winter. Tehran_sentence_103

As the city has a large area, with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran. Tehran_sentence_104

For instance, the 17.3 km (10.7 mi) Valiasr Street runs from Tehran's railway station at 1,117 m (3,665 ft) elevation above sea level in the south of the city to Tajrish Square at 1712.6 m (5612.3 ft) elevation above sea level in the north. Tehran_sentence_105

However, the elevation can even rise up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at the end of Velenjak in northern Tehran. Tehran_sentence_106

Summer is long, hot, and dry with little rain, but relative humidity is generally low, making the heat tolerable. Tehran_sentence_107

Average high temperatures are between 32 and 37 °C (90 and 99 °F), and it can occasionally drop to 14 °C (57 °F)  in the mountainous north of the city at night. Tehran_sentence_108

Most of the light annual precipitation occurs from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. Tehran_sentence_109

The hottest month is July, with a mean minimum temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 34 °C (93 °F), and the coldest is January, with a mean minimum temperature of −5 °C (23 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 1 °C (34 °F). Tehran_sentence_110

The weather of Tehran can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. Tehran_sentence_111

The record high temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) and the record low is −20 °C (−4 °F). Tehran_sentence_112

On January 5 and 6, 2008, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures covered the city in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and close down the capital from January 6 through January 7. Tehran_sentence_113

Tehran has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century. Tehran_sentence_114

This is most likely afforestation projects, which include expanding parks and lakes. Tehran_sentence_115

The northern parts of Tehran are, still, more lush than the southern parts. Tehran_sentence_116

In February 2005, heavy snow covered all parts of the city. Tehran_sentence_117

Snow depth was recorded as 15 cm (6 in) in the southern part of the city and 100 cm (39 in) in the northern part of city. Tehran_sentence_118

One newspaper reported that it had been the worst weather in 34 years. Tehran_sentence_119

10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 municipal workers were deployed to keep the main roads open. Tehran_sentence_120

On February 3, 2014, Tehran received a heavy snowfall, specifically in the northern parts of the city, with a depth of 2 metres (6.6 ft). Tehran_sentence_121

In one week of successive snowfalls, roads were made impassable in some areas, with the temperature ranging from −8 °C (18 °F)  to  −16 °C (3 °F). Tehran_sentence_122

On June 3, 2014, a severe thunderstorm with powerful microbursts created a haboob, engulfing the city in sand and dust and causing five deaths, with more than 57 injured. Tehran_sentence_123

This event also knocked down numerous trees and power lines. Tehran_sentence_124

It struck between 5:00 and 6:00 PM, dropping temperatures from 33 °C (91 °F)  to 19 °C (66 °F)  within an hour. Tehran_sentence_125

The dramatic temperature drop was accompanied by wind gusts reaching nearly 118 kilometres per hour (73 mph) . Tehran_sentence_126

Environmental issues Tehran_section_9

See also: Environmental issues in Tehran, Environmental issues in Iran, and List of earthquakes in Iran Tehran_sentence_127

A plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years, due mainly to the environmental issues of the region. Tehran_sentence_128

Tehran is rated as one of the world's most polluted cities, and is also located near two major fault lines. Tehran_sentence_129

The city suffers from severe air pollution. Tehran_sentence_130

80% of the city's pollution is due to cars. Tehran_sentence_131

The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution. Tehran_sentence_132

Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of noise pollution in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_133

Tehran is also considered as one of the strongest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the Middle East. Tehran_sentence_134

Enhanced concentration of carbon dioxide over the city (that are likely originated from the anthropogenic urban sources in the city) is easily detectable from the satellite observations throughout the year. Tehran_sentence_135

In 2010, the government announced that "for security and administrative reasons, the plan to move the capital from Tehran has been finalized." Tehran_sentence_136

There are plans to relocate 163 state firms and several universities from Tehran to avoid damages from a potential earthquake. Tehran_sentence_137

The officials are engaged in a battle to reduce air pollution. Tehran_sentence_138

It has, for instance, encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas. Tehran_sentence_139

Furthermore, the government has set up a "Traffic Zone" covering the city centre during peak traffic hours. Tehran_sentence_140

Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit. Tehran_sentence_141

There have also been plans to raise people's awareness of the hazards of pollution. Tehran_sentence_142

One method that is being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Tehran_sentence_143

Demographics Tehran_section_10

See also: Demographics of Tehran Tehran_sentence_144

Further information: Ethnicities in Iran Tehran_sentence_145

The city of Tehran has a population of approximately 10 million in 2016. Tehran_sentence_146

With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. Tehran_sentence_147

The present-day dominant language of Tehran is the Tehrani variety of the Persian language, and the majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians. Tehran_sentence_148

However, before, the native language of the Tehran–Ray region was not Persian, which is linguistically Southwest Iranian and originates in Fars, but a now extinct Northwestern Iranian language. Tehran_sentence_149

Iranian Azeris form the second-largest ethnic group of the city, comprising about 1/4 of the total population, while ethnic Mazanderanis are the third-largest, comprising about 17% of the total population. Tehran_sentence_150

Tehran's other ethnic communities include Kurds, Armenians, Georgians, Bakhtyaris, Talysh, Baloch, Assyrians, Arabs, Jews, and Circassians. Tehran_sentence_151

According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of the University of Tehran, in many districts of Tehran across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of the people were born in Tehran, 98% knew Persian, 75% identified themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% had some degree of proficiency in a European language. Tehran_sentence_152

Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethnic-social composition in the early 1980s. Tehran_sentence_153

After the political, social, and economic consequences of the 1979 Revolution and the years that followed, a number of Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran. Tehran_sentence_154

The majority of Iranian emigrations have left for the United States, Germany, Sweden, and Canada. Tehran_sentence_155

With the start of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), the second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during the Iraqi air offensives on the capital. Tehran_sentence_156

With most major powers backing Iraq at the time, economic isolation gave yet more reason for many inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Tehran_sentence_157

Having left all they had and have struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. Tehran_sentence_158

During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq. Tehran_sentence_159

The unstable situation and the war in neighbouring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who arrived in their millions, with Tehran being a magnet for much seeking work, who subsequently helped the city to recover from war wounds, working for far less pay than local construction workers. Tehran_sentence_160

Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of the UNHCR, but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their own countries. Tehran_sentence_161

Afghan refugees are mostly Dari-speaking Tajik and Hazara, speaking a variety of Persian, and Iraqi refugees are mainly Mesopotamian Arabic-speakers who are often of Iranian heritage. Tehran_sentence_162

Religion Tehran_section_11

See also: Religion in Iran and List of religious centers in Tehran Tehran_sentence_163

The majority of Tehranis are officially Twelver Shia Muslims, which has also been the state religion since the 16th-century Safavid conversion. Tehran_sentence_164

Other religious communities in the city include followers of the Sunni and Mystic branches of Islam, various Christian denominations, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Baháʼí Faith. Tehran_sentence_165

There are many religious centres scattered around the city, from old to newly built centres, including mosques, churches, synagogues, and Zoroastrian fire temples. Tehran_sentence_166

The city also has a very small third-generation Indian Sikh community that has a local gurdwara that was visited by the Indian Prime Minister in 2012. Tehran_sentence_167


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Economy Tehran_section_12

See also: Economy of Tehran, Industry of Iran, and Communications in Iran Tehran_sentence_168

Infrastructure Tehran_section_13

Transport Tehran_section_14

See also: Transport in Iran Tehran_sentence_169

Tehran has one of the highest betweenness and closeness centrality among the cities of Iran, regarding national road and air routes. Tehran_sentence_170

Highways and streets Tehran_section_15

See also: List of Expressways in Tehran Tehran_sentence_171

The metropolis of Tehran is equipped with a large network of highways and interchanges. Tehran_sentence_172


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A number of streets in Tehran are named after international figures, including: Tehran_sentence_173


Cars Tehran_section_16

See also: Automotive industry in Iran Tehran_sentence_174

According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran was designed to have a capacity of about 300,000 cars, but more than five million cars are on the roads. Tehran_sentence_175

The automation industry has recently developed, but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically. Tehran_sentence_176

According to local media, Tehran has more than 200,000 taxis plying the roads daily, with several types of taxi available in the city. Tehran_sentence_177

Airport taxis have a higher cost per kilometer as opposed to regular green and yellow taxis in the city. Tehran_sentence_178

Buses Tehran_section_17

See also: Trolleybuses in Tehran and Tehran Bus Rapid Transit Tehran_sentence_179

Buses have served the city since the 1920s. Tehran_sentence_180

Tehran's transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybuses, and bus rapid transit (BRT). Tehran_sentence_181

The city's four major bus stations include the South Terminal, the East Terminal, the West Terminal, and the northcentral Beyhaghi Terminal. Tehran_sentence_182

The trolleybus system was opened in 1992, using a fleet of 65 articulated trolleybuses built by Czechia's Škoda. Tehran_sentence_183

This was the first trolleybus system in Iran. Tehran_sentence_184

In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Imam Hossein Square. Tehran_sentence_185

Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway located in the middle of the wide carriageway along Damavand Street, stopping only at purpose-built stops located about every 500 metres along the routes, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such). Tehran_sentence_186

The other three trolleybus routes run south and operate in mixed-traffic. Tehran_sentence_187

Both route sections are served by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services. Tehran_sentence_188

A 3.2-kilometer extension from Shoosh Square to Rah Ahan Square was opened in March 2010. Tehran_sentence_189

Tehran's bus rapid transit (BRT) was officially inaugurated in 2008. Tehran_sentence_190

It has 10 lines with some 215 stations in different areas of the city. Tehran_sentence_191

As of 2011, the BRT system had a network of 100 kilometres (62 miles), transporting 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis. Tehran_sentence_192

Bicycle Tehran_section_18

Bdood is a dockless bike-sharing company in Iran. Tehran_sentence_193

Founded in 2017, it is available in the central and north-west regions of the capital city of Tehran. Tehran_sentence_194

The company has plans to expand across the city in the future Tehran_sentence_195

In the first phase, the application covers the flat areas of Tehran and they would be out of use in poor weather condition. Tehran_sentence_196

Riders can use 29 parking lots for the bikes across Enqelab Avenue, Keshavarz Boulevard, Beheshti Street and Motahhari Avenue in which the bikes are available 24/7 for riders. Tehran_sentence_197

Railway and subway Tehran_section_19

See also: Iranian Railways and Tehran Metro Tehran_sentence_198

Tehran has a central railway station that connects services round the clock to various cities in the country, along with a Tehran–Europe train line also running. Tehran_sentence_199

The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction of Tehran's subway system were started in the 1970s. Tehran_sentence_200

The first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened in 2001. Tehran_sentence_201


List of Tehran Metro LinesTehran_table_caption_1
LineTehran_header_cell_1_0_0 OpeningTehran_header_cell_1_0_1 LengthTehran_header_cell_1_0_2 StationsTehran_header_cell_1_0_3 TypeTehran_header_cell_1_0_4
1Tehran_cell_1_1_0 2001Tehran_cell_1_1_1 70 km (43 mi)Tehran_cell_1_1_2 32Tehran_cell_1_1_3 MetroTehran_cell_1_1_4
2Tehran_cell_1_2_0 2000Tehran_cell_1_2_1 26 km (16 mi)Tehran_cell_1_2_2 22Tehran_cell_1_2_3 MetroTehran_cell_1_2_4
3Tehran_cell_1_3_0 2012Tehran_cell_1_3_1 37 km (23 mi)Tehran_cell_1_3_2 24Tehran_cell_1_3_3 MetroTehran_cell_1_3_4
4Tehran_cell_1_4_0 2008Tehran_cell_1_4_1 22 km (14 mi)Tehran_cell_1_4_2 22Tehran_cell_1_4_3 MetroTehran_cell_1_4_4
5Tehran_cell_1_5_0 1999Tehran_cell_1_5_1 43 km (27 mi)Tehran_cell_1_5_2 11Tehran_cell_1_5_3 Commuter railTehran_cell_1_5_4
6Tehran_cell_1_6_0 2019Tehran_cell_1_6_1 9 km (5.6 mi)Tehran_cell_1_6_2 3Tehran_cell_1_6_3 MetroTehran_cell_1_6_4
7Tehran_cell_1_7_0 2017Tehran_cell_1_7_1 13.5 km (8.4 mi)Tehran_cell_1_7_2 8Tehran_cell_1_7_3 MetroTehran_cell_1_7_4
Metro Subtotal:Tehran_cell_1_8_0 177.5 km (110 mi)Tehran_cell_1_8_2 111Tehran_cell_1_8_3 Tehran_cell_1_8_4
Total:Tehran_cell_1_9_0 220.5 km (137 mi)Tehran_cell_1_9_2 122Tehran_cell_1_9_3 Tehran_cell_1_9_4

Airport Tehran_section_20

See also: Airlines of Iran Tehran_sentence_202

Tehran is served by the international airports of Mehrabad and Khomeini. Tehran_sentence_203

Mehrabad Airport, an old airport in western Tehran that doubles as a military base, is mainly used for domestic and charter flights. Tehran_sentence_204

Khomeini Airport, located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles the main international flights. Tehran_sentence_205

Parks and green spaces Tehran_section_21

See also: List of Tehran metropolis parks Tehran_sentence_206

There are over 2,100 parks within the metropolis of Tehran, with one of the oldest being Jamshidie Park, which was first established as a private garden for Qajar prince Jamshid Davallu, and was then dedicated to the last empress of Iran, Farah Pahlavi. Tehran_sentence_207

The total green space within Tehran stretches over 12,600 hectares, covering over 20 percent of the city's area. Tehran_sentence_208

The Parks and Green Spaces Organization of Tehran was established in 1960, and is responsible for the protection of the urban nature present in the city. Tehran_sentence_209

Tehran's Birds Garden is the largest bird park of Iran. Tehran_sentence_210

There is also a zoo located on the Tehran–Karaj Expressway, housing over 290 species within an area of about five hectares. Tehran_sentence_211

Energy Tehran_section_22

See also: Energy in Iran Tehran_sentence_212

Water Tehran_section_23

See also: Water supply and sanitation in Iran Tehran_sentence_213

Greater Tehran with its population of more than 13 million is supplied by surface water from the Lar dam on the Lar River in the Northeast of the city, the Latyan dam on the Jajrood River in the North, the Karaj River in the Northwest, as well as by groundwater in the vicinity of the city. Tehran_sentence_214

Solar Energy Tehran_section_24

Solar panels have been installed in Tehran's Pardisan Park for green electricity production, said Masoumeh Ebtekar, head of the Department of Environment. Tehran_sentence_215

According to the national energy roadmap, the government plans to promote green technology to increase the nominal capacity of power plants from 74 gigawatts to over 120 gigawatts by the end of 2025. Tehran_sentence_216

Education Tehran_section_25

See also: Education in Iran, List of colleges and universities in Tehran, and Science in Iran Tehran_sentence_217

Tehran is the largest and the most important educational centre of Iran. Tehran_sentence_218

There are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran. Tehran_sentence_219

Since the establishment of Dar ol Fonun by the order of Amir Kabir in the mid-19th century, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Tehran_sentence_220

Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Tehran_sentence_221

Samuel M. Jordan, whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran was named after, was one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran, which was one of the first modern high schools in the Middle East. Tehran_sentence_222

Among major educational institutions located in Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences are the most prestigious. Tehran_sentence_223

Other major universities located in Tehran include Tehran University of Art, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), K. Tehran_sentence_224 N. Toosi University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Iran's Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahed University, and Tarbiat Modarres University. Tehran_sentence_225

Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries. Tehran_sentence_226

Culture Tehran_section_26

Main article: Culture of Tehran Tehran_sentence_227

Architecture Tehran_section_27

See also: Architecture of Tehran Tehran_sentence_228

The oldest surviving architectural monuments of Tehran are from the Qajar and Pahlavi eras. Tehran_sentence_229

Although, considering the area of Greater Tehran, monuments dating back to the Seljuk era remain as well; notably the Toqrol Tower in Ray. Tehran_sentence_230

There are also remains of Rashkan Castle, dating back to the ancient Parthian Empire, of which some artifacts are housed at the National Museum; and the Bahram fire temple, which remains since the Sassanian Empire. Tehran_sentence_231

Tehran only had a small population until the late 18th century but began to take a more considerable role in Iranian society after it was chosen as the capital city. Tehran_sentence_232

Despite the regular occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and after, some historic buildings have remained from that era. Tehran_sentence_233

Tehran is Iran's primate city, and is considered to have the most modernized infrastructure in the country. Tehran_sentence_234

However, the gentrification of old neighbourhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns. Tehran_sentence_235


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Previously a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been built in recent decades in order to service its growing population. Tehran_sentence_236

There have been no major quakes in Tehran since 1830. Tehran_sentence_237

Tehran International Tower is the tallest (and only) skyscraper in Iran. Tehran_sentence_238

It is 54-stories tall and located in the northern district of Yusef Abad. Tehran_sentence_239

The Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty, has long been the most famous symbol of Tehran. Tehran_sentence_240

Originally constructed in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, it combines elements of the architecture of the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras with post-classical Iranian architecture. Tehran_sentence_241

The Milad Tower, which is the sixth tallest tower and the 24th-tallest freestanding structure in the world, is the city's other famous landmark tower. Tehran_sentence_242

Leila Araghian's Tabiat Bridge, the largest pedestrian overpass in Tehran, was completed in 2014 and is also considered a landmark. Tehran_sentence_243

Theater Tehran_section_28

Under the reign of the Qajars, Tehran was home to the royal theatre of Tekye Dowlat, located to the southeast of the Golestan Palace, in which traditional and religious performances were observed. Tehran_sentence_244

It was eventually destroyed and replaced with a bank building in 1947, following the reforms under the reign of Reza Shah. Tehran_sentence_245

Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become the most famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes in the Middle East, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Tehran_sentence_246

The hall was inaugurated in October 1967, named after prominent Persian poet Rudaki. Tehran_sentence_247

It is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company. Tehran_sentence_248

The City Theater of Tehran, one of Iran's biggest theatre complexes which contains several performance halls, was opened in 1972. Tehran_sentence_249

It was built at the initiative and presidency of empress Farah Pahlavi, and was designed by architect Ali Sardar Afkhami, constructed within five years. Tehran_sentence_250

The annual events of Fajr Theater Festival and Tehran Puppet Theater Festival take place in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_251

Cinema Tehran_section_29

The first movie theater of Tehran was established by Mirza Ebrahim Khan in 1904. Tehran_sentence_252

Until the early 1930s, there were 15 theaters in Tehran Province and 11 in other provinces. Tehran_sentence_253

In present-day Tehran, most of the movie theatres are located downtown. Tehran_sentence_254

The complexes of Kourosh Cinema, Mellat Gallery and Cineplex, Azadi Cinema, and Cinema Farhang are among the most popular cinema complexes in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_255

Several film festivals are held in Tehran, including Fajr Film Festival, Children and Youth Film Festival, House of Cinema Festival, Mobile Film and Photo Festival, Nahal Festival, Roshd Film Festival, Tehran Animation Festival, Tehran Short Film Festival, and Urban Film Festival. Tehran_sentence_256

Concerts Tehran_section_30

There are a variety of concert halls in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_257

An organization like Roudaki Culture and Art Foundation has 5 different venues where performing more than 500 concerts per year. Tehran_sentence_258

Vahdat Hall, Roudaki Hall, Ferdowsi Hall, Hafez Hall and Azadi Theater are the top 5 venues in Tehran, where perform classical, Pop, Traditional, Rock or Solo concerts. Tehran_sentence_259

Sports Tehran_section_31

See also: Sport in Iran Tehran_sentence_260

Football and volleyball are the city's most popular sports, while wrestling, basketball, and futsal are also major parts of the city's sporting culture. Tehran_sentence_261

12 ski resorts operate in Iran, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours from the city of Tehran. Tehran_sentence_262

Tochal's resort is the world's fifth-highest ski resort at over 3,730 meters (12,240 feet) above sea level at its highest point. Tehran_sentence_263

It is also the world's nearest ski resort to a capital city. Tehran_sentence_264

The resort was opened in 1976, shortly before the 1979 Revolution. Tehran_sentence_265

It is equipped with an 8-kilometre-long (5 mi) gondola lift that covers a huge vertical distance. Tehran_sentence_266

There are two parallel chair ski lifts in Tochal that reach 3,900 meters (12,800 feet) high near Tochal's peak (at 4,000 m/13,000 ft), rising higher than the gondola's 7th station, which is higher than any of the European ski resorts. Tehran_sentence_267

From the Tochal peak, there are views of the Alborz range, including the 5,610-metre-high (18,406 ft) Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano. Tehran_sentence_268

Tehran is the site of the national stadium of Azadi, the biggest stadium by capacity in West Asia, where many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held. Tehran_sentence_269

The stadium is a part of the Azadi Sport Complex, which was originally built to host the 7th Asian Games in September 1974. Tehran_sentence_270

This was the first time the Asian Games were hosted in West Asia. Tehran_sentence_271

Tehran played host to 3,010 athletes from 25 countries/NOCs, which was at the time the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games. Tehran_sentence_272

That followed hosting the 6th AFC Asian Cup in June 1976, and then the first West Asian Games in November 1997. Tehran_sentence_273

The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF), and the intention of hosting the games every two years. Tehran_sentence_274

The city had also hosted the final of the 1968 AFC Asian Cup. Tehran_sentence_275

Several FIVB Volleyball World League courses have also been hosted in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_276

Football clubs Tehran_section_32

The first football club of Tehran, named Iran Club, was founded in 1920 and dissolved within two years in 1923. Tehran_sentence_277

Today, Tehran's oldest existing football club is Rah Ahan, which was founded in 1937. Tehran_sentence_278

Persepolis and Esteghlal, which are the city's biggest clubs and two of the biggest clubs in Asia, compete in the Tehran derby. Tehran_sentence_279

Tehran is also home to the football club of Ararat, a popular Armenian football team based at the Ararat Stadium. Tehran_sentence_280

The following table lists Tehran's six major football clubs. Tehran_sentence_281


ClubTehran_header_cell_2_0_0 SportTehran_header_cell_2_0_1 FoundedTehran_header_cell_2_0_2 LeagueTehran_header_cell_2_0_3
Ararat F.C.Tehran_cell_2_1_0 Association footballTehran_cell_2_1_1 1944Tehran_cell_2_1_2 Tehran Province LeagueTehran_cell_2_1_3
Esteghlal F.C.Tehran_cell_2_2_0 Association footballTehran_cell_2_2_1 1945Tehran_cell_2_2_2 Iran Pro League (IPL)Tehran_cell_2_2_3
Steel Azin F.C.Tehran_cell_2_3_0 Association footballTehran_cell_2_3_1 2007Tehran_cell_2_3_2 Iran Football's 3rd DivisionTehran_cell_2_3_3
Persepolis F.C.Tehran_cell_2_4_0 Association footballTehran_cell_2_4_1 1967Tehran_cell_2_4_2 Iran Pro League (IPL)Tehran_cell_2_4_3
Paykan F.C.Tehran_cell_2_5_0 Association footballTehran_cell_2_5_1 1967Tehran_cell_2_5_2 Iran Pro League (IPL)Tehran_cell_2_5_3

Smaller clubs based in Tehran are listed below. Tehran_sentence_282


ClubTehran_header_cell_3_0_0 SportTehran_header_cell_3_0_1 LeagueTehran_header_cell_3_0_2
Baadraan F.C.Tehran_cell_3_1_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_1_1 Azadegan LeagueTehran_cell_3_1_2
Parseh F.C.Tehran_cell_3_2_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_2_1 Azadegan LeagueTehran_cell_3_2_2
Niroo Zamini F.C.Tehran_cell_3_3_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_3_1 2nd DivisionTehran_cell_3_3_2
Kaveh F.C.Tehran_cell_3_4_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_4_1 2nd DivisionTehran_cell_3_4_2
Moghavemat F.C.Tehran_cell_3_5_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_5_1 2nd DivisionTehran_cell_3_5_2
Oghab F.C.Tehran_cell_3_6_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_6_1 3rd DivisionTehran_cell_3_6_2
Entezam F.C.Tehran_cell_3_7_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_7_1 3rd DivisionTehran_cell_3_7_2
Naftoon F.C.Tehran_cell_3_8_0 Association footballTehran_cell_3_8_1 3rd DivisionTehran_cell_3_8_2

Food Tehran_section_33

See also: Iranian cuisine Tehran_sentence_283

There are many restaurants and cafes in Tehran, both modern and classic, serving both Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. Tehran_sentence_284

Pizzerias, sandwich bars, and kebab shops make up the majority of food shops in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_285


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Graffiti Tehran_section_34

Main article: Graffiti in Tehran Tehran_sentence_286

Many styles of graffiti are seen in Tehran. Tehran_sentence_287

Some are political and revolutionary slogans painted by governmental organizations, and some are works of art by ordinary citizens, representing their views on both social and political issues. Tehran_sentence_288

However, unsanctioned street art is forbidden in Iran, and such works are usually short-lived. Tehran_sentence_289

During the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, many graffiti works were created by people supporting the Green Movement. Tehran_sentence_290

They were removed from the walls by the paramilitary Basij forces. Tehran_sentence_291

In recent years, Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city. Tehran_sentence_292

Several graffiti festivals have also taken place in Tehran, including the one organized by the Tehran University of Art in October 2014. Tehran_sentence_293

Twin towns – sister cities Tehran_section_35

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iran Tehran_sentence_294

Tehran is twinned with: Tehran_sentence_295

Cooperation agreements Tehran_section_36

Tehran cooperates with: Tehran_sentence_296


Panoramic views Tehran_section_37

See also Tehran_section_38


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tehran.