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This article is about the State of Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_0

For the river, see Tennessee River. Tennessee_sentence_1

For other uses, see Tennessee (disambiguation). Tennessee_sentence_2

"Tenn" redirects here. Tennessee_sentence_3

For the Japanese MC, see Tenn (MC). Tennessee_sentence_4


CountryTennessee_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesTennessee_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodTennessee_header_cell_0_2_0 Southwest TerritoryTennessee_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionTennessee_header_cell_0_3_0 June 1, 1796 (16th)Tennessee_cell_0_3_1

(and largest city)Tennessee_header_cell_0_4_0

Largest metroTennessee_header_cell_0_5_0 Greater NashvilleTennessee_cell_0_5_1
GovernorTennessee_header_cell_0_7_0 Bill Lee (R)Tennessee_cell_0_7_1
Lieutenant GovernorTennessee_header_cell_0_8_0 Randy McNally (R)Tennessee_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureTennessee_header_cell_0_9_0 General AssemblyTennessee_cell_0_9_1
Upper houseTennessee_header_cell_0_10_0 SenateTennessee_cell_0_10_1
Lower houseTennessee_header_cell_0_11_0 House of RepresentativesTennessee_cell_0_11_1
JudiciaryTennessee_header_cell_0_12_0 Tennessee Supreme CourtTennessee_cell_0_12_1
U.S. senatorsTennessee_header_cell_0_13_0 Lamar Alexander (R)

Marsha Blackburn (R)Tennessee_cell_0_13_1

U.S. House delegationTennessee_header_cell_0_14_0 7 Republicans
2 Democrats (list)Tennessee_cell_0_14_1
TotalTennessee_header_cell_0_16_0 42,143 sq mi (109,247 km)Tennessee_cell_0_16_1
LandTennessee_header_cell_0_17_0 41,217 sq mi (106,846 km)Tennessee_cell_0_17_1
WaterTennessee_header_cell_0_18_0 926 sq mi (2,401 km)  2.2%Tennessee_cell_0_18_1
Area rankTennessee_header_cell_0_19_0 36thTennessee_cell_0_19_1
LengthTennessee_header_cell_0_21_0 440 mi (710 km)Tennessee_cell_0_21_1
WidthTennessee_header_cell_0_22_0 120 mi (195 km)Tennessee_cell_0_22_1
ElevationTennessee_header_cell_0_23_0 900 ft (270 m)Tennessee_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevation (Clingmans Dome)Tennessee_header_cell_0_24_0 6,643 ft (2,025 m)Tennessee_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevation (Mississippi River at Mississippi border)Tennessee_header_cell_0_25_0 178 ft (54 m)Tennessee_cell_0_25_1
Population (2019)Tennessee_header_cell_0_26_0
TotalTennessee_header_cell_0_27_0 6,829,174Tennessee_cell_0_27_1
RankTennessee_header_cell_0_28_0 16thTennessee_cell_0_28_1
DensityTennessee_header_cell_0_29_0 159.4/sq mi (61.5/km)Tennessee_cell_0_29_1
Density rankTennessee_header_cell_0_30_0 20thTennessee_cell_0_30_1
Median household incomeTennessee_header_cell_0_31_0 $52,340Tennessee_cell_0_31_1
Income rankTennessee_header_cell_0_32_0 42ndTennessee_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)Tennessee_header_cell_0_33_0 Tennessean

Big Bender (archaic) Volunteer (historical significance)Tennessee_cell_0_33_1

Official languageTennessee_header_cell_0_35_0 EnglishTennessee_cell_0_35_1
Spoken languageTennessee_header_cell_0_36_0 Language spoken at homeTennessee_cell_0_36_1
Time zonesTennessee_header_cell_0_37_0
East TennesseeTennessee_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)Tennessee_cell_0_38_1
Summer (DST)Tennessee_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Tennessee_cell_0_39_1
Middle and WestTennessee_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Tennessee_cell_0_40_1
Summer (DST)Tennessee_header_cell_0_41_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Tennessee_cell_0_41_1
USPS abbreviationTennessee_header_cell_0_42_0 TNTennessee_cell_0_42_1
ISO 3166 codeTennessee_header_cell_0_43_0 US-TNTennessee_cell_0_43_1
Traditional abbreviationTennessee_header_cell_0_44_0 Tenn.Tennessee_cell_0_44_1
LatitudeTennessee_header_cell_0_45_0 34°59′ N to 36°41′ NTennessee_cell_0_45_1
LongitudeTennessee_header_cell_0_46_0 81°39′ W to 90°19′ WTennessee_cell_0_46_1
WebsiteTennessee_header_cell_0_47_0 Tennessee_cell_0_47_1


Tennessee state symbolsTennessee_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaTennessee_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianTennessee_header_cell_1_2_0 Tennessee cave salamanderTennessee_cell_1_2_1
BirdTennessee_header_cell_1_3_0 Mockingbird

Bobwhite quailTennessee_cell_1_3_1

ButterflyTennessee_header_cell_1_4_0 Zebra swallowtailTennessee_cell_1_4_1
FishTennessee_header_cell_1_5_0 Channel catfish

Smallmouth bassTennessee_cell_1_5_1

FlowerTennessee_header_cell_1_6_0 Iris

Passion flower Tennessee echinaceaTennessee_cell_1_6_1

InsectTennessee_header_cell_1_7_0 Firefly

Lady beetle Honey beeTennessee_cell_1_7_1

MammalTennessee_header_cell_1_8_0 Tennessee Walking Horse


ReptileTennessee_header_cell_1_9_0 Eastern box turtleTennessee_cell_1_9_1
TreeTennessee_header_cell_1_10_0 Tulip poplar

Eastern red cedarTennessee_cell_1_10_1

Inanimate insigniaTennessee_header_cell_1_11_0
BeverageTennessee_header_cell_1_12_0 MilkTennessee_cell_1_12_1
DanceTennessee_header_cell_1_13_0 Square danceTennessee_cell_1_13_1
FirearmTennessee_header_cell_1_14_0 Barrett M82Tennessee_cell_1_14_1
FoodTennessee_header_cell_1_15_0 TomatoTennessee_cell_1_15_1
FossilTennessee_header_cell_1_16_0 Pterotrigonia (Scabrotrigonia) thoracicaTennessee_cell_1_16_1
GemstoneTennessee_header_cell_1_17_0 Tennessee River pearlTennessee_cell_1_17_1
MineralTennessee_header_cell_1_18_0 AgateTennessee_cell_1_18_1
PoemTennessee_header_cell_1_19_0 "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee" by William LawrenceTennessee_cell_1_19_1
RockTennessee_header_cell_1_20_0 LimestoneTennessee_cell_1_20_1
SloganTennessee_header_cell_1_21_0 "Tennessee—America at its best"Tennessee_cell_1_21_1
TartanTennessee_header_cell_1_22_0 Tennessee_cell_1_22_1
State route markerTennessee_header_cell_1_23_0
State quarterTennessee_header_cell_1_24_0

Tennessee (/ˌtɛnəˈsiː/ (listen), locally /ˈtɛnəsi/), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state in the southeastern United States. Tennessee_sentence_5

Tennessee is the 36th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 states. Tennessee_sentence_6

It is bordered by eight states, with Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, and Missouri to the northwest. Tennessee_sentence_7

The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River forms its western border. Tennessee_sentence_8

Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2019 population of 670,820 and a 2019 metro population of 1,934,317. Tennessee_sentence_9

Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 651,073 and metro population of 1,346,045 in 2019. Tennessee_sentence_10

The state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. Tennessee_sentence_11

What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, and later part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee_sentence_12

Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee_sentence_13

Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. Tennessee_sentence_14

Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee_sentence_15

Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, and more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Tennessee_sentence_16

Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting. Tennessee_sentence_17

This reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century, although unlike in the Deep South, Tennessee Republicans always expected at least a third of the vote in statewide elections via East Tennessee and Highland Rim Unionists. Tennessee_sentence_18

In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge. Tennessee_sentence_19

This city was established just outside of Knoxville to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II. Tennessee_sentence_20

After the war, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory became and remains a key center for scientific research. Tennessee_sentence_21

In 2016, the element tennessine was named for the state, largely in recognition of the roles played by Oak Ridge, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Tennessee in the element’s discovery. Tennessee_sentence_22

Tennessee's major industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Tennessee_sentence_23

Poultry, soybeans, and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, and electrical equipment. Tennessee_sentence_24

The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is located in the eastern part of the state, and a section of the Appalachian Trail roughly follows the Tennessee–North Carolina border. Tennessee_sentence_25

Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium and Chattanooga Choo-Choo Hotel in Chattanooga; Dollywood in Pigeon Forge; Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies and Ober Gatlinburg in Gatlinburg; the Parthenon, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, and Ryman Auditorium in Nashville; the Jack Daniel's Distillery in Lynchburg; Elvis Presley's Graceland residence and tomb, the Memphis Zoo, the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis; and Bristol Motor Speedway in Bristol. Tennessee_sentence_26

Etymology Tennessee_section_0

The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. Tennessee_sentence_27

In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi (or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_28

The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River), and appears on maps as early as 1725. Tennessee_sentence_29

It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport. Tennessee_sentence_30

The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Tennessee_sentence_31

Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. Tennessee_sentence_32

It has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". Tennessee_sentence_33

According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost. Tennessee_sentence_34

The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. Tennessee_sentence_35

The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "" in 1765. Tennessee_sentence_36

In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_37

(Tennessee County was the predecessor to present-day Montgomery and Robertson counties.) Tennessee_sentence_38

When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee_sentence_39

Nickname Tennessee_section_1

Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans. Tennessee_sentence_40

Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to The Columbia Encyclopedia, the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican–American War from 1846 to 1848. Tennessee_sentence_41

This explanation is more likely, because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone, largely in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and then Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee_sentence_42

Geography Tennessee_section_2

See also: List of counties in Tennessee and Geology of Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_43

Tennessee borders eight other states: Kentucky and Virginia to the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas and Missouri on the Mississippi River to the west. Tennessee_sentence_44

Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states. Tennessee_sentence_45

The state is trisected by the Tennessee River. Tennessee_sentence_46

The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m). Tennessee_sentence_47

Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessee's eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River. Tennessee_sentence_48

The state line between Tennessee and North Carolina crosses the summit. Tennessee_sentence_49

The state's lowest point is the Mississippi River at the Mississippi state line: 178 feet (54 m). Tennessee_sentence_50

The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro. Tennessee_sentence_51

The state of Tennessee is geographically, culturally, economically, and legally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_52

The state constitution allows no more than two justices of the five-member Tennessee Supreme Court to be from one Grand Division and a similar rule applies to certain commissions and boards. Tennessee_sentence_53

Tennessee features six principal physiographic regions: the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Nashville Basin, and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Tennessee_sentence_54

Tennessee is home to the most caves in the United States, with more than ten thousand documented. Tennessee_sentence_55

About half the state is in the Tennessee Valley drainage basin of the Tennessee River. Tennessee_sentence_56

Approximately the northern half of Middle Tennessee, including Nashville and Clarksville, and a small portion of East Tennessee is in the Cumberland River basin. Tennessee_sentence_57

A small part of north-central Tennessee in Sumner, Macon, and Clay counties is in the Green River watershed. Tennessee_sentence_58

All three of these basins are tributaries of the Ohio River watershed. Tennessee_sentence_59

Most of West Tennessee is in the Lower Mississippi River watershed. Tennessee_sentence_60

The entirety of the state is in the Mississippi River watershed, except for a small area in Bradley and Polk counties traversed by the Conasauga River, which is part of the Mobile Bay watershed. Tennessee_sentence_61

East Tennessee Tennessee_section_3

Main article: East Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_62

The Blue Ridge area lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, which borders North Carolina. Tennessee_sentence_63

This region of Tennessee is characterized by the high mountains and rugged terrain of the western Blue Ridge Mountains, which are subdivided into several subranges, namely the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bald Mountains, the Unicoi Mountains, the Unaka Mountains and Roan Highlands, and the Iron Mountains. Tennessee_sentence_64

The average elevation of the Blue Ridge area is 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea level. Tennessee_sentence_65

Clingmans Dome, the state's highest point, is located in this region. Tennessee_sentence_66

The Blue Ridge area was never more than sparsely populated, and today much of it is protected by the Cherokee National Forest, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and several federal wilderness areas and state parks. Tennessee_sentence_67

Stretching west from the Blue Ridge for approximately 55 miles (89 km) is the Ridge and Valley region, in which numerous tributaries join to form the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley. Tennessee_sentence_68

This area of Tennessee is covered by fertile valleys separated by wooded ridges, such as Bays Mountain and Clinch Mountain. Tennessee_sentence_69

The western section of the Tennessee Valley, where the depressions become broader and the ridges become lower, is called the Great Valley. Tennessee_sentence_70

In this valley are numerous towns and two of the region's three urban areas, Knoxville, the third largest city in the state, and Chattanooga, the fourth largest city in the state. Tennessee_sentence_71

The third urban area, the Tri-Cities, comprising Bristol, Johnson City, and Kingsport and their environs, is located to the northeast of Knoxville. Tennessee_sentence_72

The Cumberland Plateau rises to the west of the Tennessee Valley; this area is covered with flat-topped mountains separated by sharp valleys. Tennessee_sentence_73

The elevation of the Cumberland Plateau ranges from 1,500 to about 2,000 feet (460 to about 610 m) above sea level. Tennessee_sentence_74

East Tennessee has several important transportation links with Middle and West Tennessee, as well as the rest of the nation and the world, including several major airports and interstates. Tennessee_sentence_75

Knoxville's McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) and Chattanooga's Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), as well as the Tri-Cities' Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), provide air service to numerous destinations. Tennessee_sentence_76

I-24, I-81, I-40, I-75, and I-26 along with numerous state highways and other important roads, traverse the Grand Division and connect Chattanooga, Knoxville, and the Tri-Cities, along with other cities and towns such as Cleveland, Athens, and Sevierville. Tennessee_sentence_77

Middle Tennessee Tennessee_section_4

Main article: Middle Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_78

West of the Cumberland Plateau is the Highland Rim, an elevated plain that surrounds the Nashville Basin. Tennessee_sentence_79

The northern section of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco production, is sometimes called the Pennyroyal Plateau; it is located primarily in Southwestern Kentucky. Tennessee_sentence_80

The Nashville Basin is characterized by rich, fertile farm country and great diversity of natural wildlife. Tennessee_sentence_81

Middle Tennessee was a common destination of settlers crossing the Appalachians from Virginia in the late 18th century and early 19th century. Tennessee_sentence_82

An important trading route called the Natchez Trace, created and used for many generations by American Indians, connected Middle Tennessee to the lower Mississippi River town of Natchez. Tennessee_sentence_83

The route of the Natchez Trace was used as the basis for a scenic highway called the Natchez Trace Parkway. Tennessee_sentence_84

Some of the last remaining large American chestnut trees grow in this region. Tennessee_sentence_85

They are being used to help breed blight-resistant trees. Tennessee_sentence_86

Middle Tennessee is one of the primary state population and transportation centers along with the heart of state government. Tennessee_sentence_87

Nashville (the capital), Clarksville, and Murfreesboro are its largest cities. Tennessee_sentence_88

Interstates 24, 40, 65, and 840 service the Division, with the first three meeting in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_89

West Tennessee Tennessee_section_5

Main article: West Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_90

West of the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which includes the Mississippi embayment. Tennessee_sentence_91

The Gulf Coastal Plain is, in terms of area, the predominant land region in Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_92

It is part of the large geographic land area that begins at the Gulf of Mexico and extends north into southern Illinois. Tennessee_sentence_93

In Tennessee, the Gulf Coastal Plain is divided into three sections that extend from the Tennessee River in the east to the Mississippi River in the west. Tennessee_sentence_94

The easternmost section, about 10 miles (16 km) in width, consists of hilly land that runs along the western bank of the Tennessee River. Tennessee_sentence_95

To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to the Mississippi River; this area is called the Tennessee Bottoms or bottom land. Tennessee_sentence_96

In Memphis, the Tennessee Bottoms end in steep bluffs overlooking the river. Tennessee_sentence_97

To the west of the Tennessee Bottoms is the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, less than 300 feet (91 m) above sea level. Tennessee_sentence_98

This area of lowlands, flood plains, and swamp land is sometimes referred to as the Delta region. Tennessee_sentence_99

Memphis is the economic center of West Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_100

Most of West Tennessee remained Indian land until the Chickasaw Cession of 1818, when the Chickasaw ceded their land between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River. Tennessee_sentence_101

The portion of the Chickasaw Cession that lies in Kentucky is known today as the Jackson Purchase. Tennessee_sentence_102

Public lands Tennessee_section_6

See also: List of Tennessee state parks Tennessee_sentence_103

Areas under the control and management of the National Park Service include the following: Tennessee_sentence_104


Fifty-four state parks, covering some 132,000 acres (530 km) as well as parts of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Cherokee National Forest, and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park are in Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_105

Sportsmen and visitors are attracted to Reelfoot Lake, originally formed by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes; stumps and other remains of a once dense forest, together with the lotus bed covering the shallow waters, give the lake an eerie beauty. Tennessee_sentence_106

Climate Tennessee_section_7

Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, with the exception of some of the higher elevations in the Appalachians, which are classified as having a mountain temperate or humid continental climate due to cooler temperatures. Tennessee_sentence_107

The Gulf of Mexico is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. Tennessee_sentence_108

Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool winters with generous precipitation throughout the year, with highest average monthly precipitation generally in the winter and spring months, between December and April. Tennessee_sentence_109

The driest months, on average, are August to October. Tennessee_sentence_110

On average the state receives 50 inches (130 cm) of precipitation annually. Tennessee_sentence_111

Snowfall ranges from 5 inches (13 cm) in West Tennessee to over 80 inches (200 cm) in the highest mountains in East Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_112

Summers in the state are generally hot and humid, with most of the state averaging a high of around 90 °F (32 °C) during the summer months. Tennessee_sentence_113

Winters tend to be mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations. Tennessee_sentence_114

Generally, for areas outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for most of the state. Tennessee_sentence_115

The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) at Perryville on August 9, 1930, while the lowest recorded temperature is −32 °F (−36 °C) at Mountain City on December 30, 1917. Tennessee_sentence_116

While the state is far enough from the coast to avoid any direct impact from a hurricane, the location of the state makes it likely to be impacted from the remnants of tropical cyclones which weaken over land and can cause significant rainfall, such as Tropical Storm Chris in 1982 and Hurricane Opal in 1995. Tennessee_sentence_117

The state averages about fifty days of thunderstorms per year, some of which can be severe with large hail and damaging winds. Tennessee_sentence_118

Tornadoes are possible throughout the state, with West and Middle Tennessee the most vulnerable. Tennessee_sentence_119

Occasionally, strong or violent tornadoes occur, such as the devastating April 2011 tornadoes that killed twenty people in North Georgia and Southeast Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_120

On average, the state has 15 tornadoes per year. Tennessee_sentence_121

Tornadoes in Tennessee can be severe, and Tennessee leads the nation in the percentage of total tornadoes which have fatalities. Tennessee_sentence_122

Winter storms are an occasional problem, such as the infamous Blizzard of 1993, although ice storms are a more likely occurrence. Tennessee_sentence_123

Fog is a persistent problem in parts of the state, especially in East Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_124


Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Tennessee Cities (F)Tennessee_cell_2_0_0
CityTennessee_header_cell_2_1_0 JanTennessee_header_cell_2_1_1 FebTennessee_header_cell_2_1_2 MarTennessee_header_cell_2_1_3 AprTennessee_header_cell_2_1_4 MayTennessee_header_cell_2_1_5 JunTennessee_header_cell_2_1_6 JulTennessee_header_cell_2_1_7 AugTennessee_header_cell_2_1_8 SepTennessee_header_cell_2_1_9 OctTennessee_header_cell_2_1_10 NovTennessee_header_cell_2_1_11 DecTennessee_header_cell_2_1_12
BristolTennessee_header_cell_2_2_0 44/25Tennessee_cell_2_2_1 49/27Tennessee_cell_2_2_2 57/34Tennessee_cell_2_2_3 66/41Tennessee_cell_2_2_4 74/51Tennessee_cell_2_2_5 81/60Tennessee_cell_2_2_6 85/64Tennessee_cell_2_2_7 84/62Tennessee_cell_2_2_8 79/56Tennessee_cell_2_2_9 68/43Tennessee_cell_2_2_10 58/35Tennessee_cell_2_2_11 48/27Tennessee_cell_2_2_12
ChattanoogaTennessee_header_cell_2_3_0 49/30Tennessee_cell_2_3_1 54/33Tennessee_cell_2_3_2 63/40Tennessee_cell_2_3_3 72/47Tennessee_cell_2_3_4 79/56Tennessee_cell_2_3_5 86/65Tennessee_cell_2_3_6 90/69Tennessee_cell_2_3_7 89/68Tennessee_cell_2_3_8 82/62Tennessee_cell_2_3_9 72/48Tennessee_cell_2_3_10 61/40Tennessee_cell_2_3_11 52/33Tennessee_cell_2_3_12
KnoxvilleTennessee_header_cell_2_4_0 47/30Tennessee_cell_2_4_1 52/33Tennessee_cell_2_4_2 61/40Tennessee_cell_2_4_3 71/48Tennessee_cell_2_4_4 78/57Tennessee_cell_2_4_5 85/65Tennessee_cell_2_4_6 88/69Tennessee_cell_2_4_7 87/68Tennessee_cell_2_4_8 81/62Tennessee_cell_2_4_9 71/50Tennessee_cell_2_4_10 60/41Tennessee_cell_2_4_11 50/34Tennessee_cell_2_4_12
MemphisTennessee_header_cell_2_5_0 49/31Tennessee_cell_2_5_1 55/36Tennessee_cell_2_5_2 63/44Tennessee_cell_2_5_3 72/52Tennessee_cell_2_5_4 80/61Tennessee_cell_2_5_5 89/69Tennessee_cell_2_5_6 92/73Tennessee_cell_2_5_7 91/71Tennessee_cell_2_5_8 85/64Tennessee_cell_2_5_9 75/52Tennessee_cell_2_5_10 62/43Tennessee_cell_2_5_11 52/34Tennessee_cell_2_5_12
NashvilleTennessee_header_cell_2_6_0 46/28Tennessee_cell_2_6_1 52/31Tennessee_cell_2_6_2 61/39Tennessee_cell_2_6_3 70/47Tennessee_cell_2_6_4 78/57Tennessee_cell_2_6_5 85/65Tennessee_cell_2_6_6 90/70Tennessee_cell_2_6_7 89/69Tennessee_cell_2_6_8 82/61Tennessee_cell_2_6_9 71/49Tennessee_cell_2_6_10 59/40Tennessee_cell_2_6_11 49/32Tennessee_cell_2_6_12

Major cities Tennessee_section_8

See also: List of municipalities in Tennessee and List of largest cities and towns in Tennessee by population Tennessee_sentence_125

The capital and largest city is Nashville, though Knoxville, Kingston, and Murfreesboro have all served as state capitals in the past. Tennessee_sentence_126

Nashville's 13-county metropolitan area has been the state's largest since c. 1990. Tennessee_sentence_127

Memphis was the largest city in the state until 2018 when it was surpassed by Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_128

Chattanooga and Knoxville, both in the east near the Great Smoky Mountains, are about a third that size. Tennessee_sentence_129

The city of Clarksville is a fifth significant population center, 45 miles (72 km) northwest of Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_130

Murfreesboro is the sixth-largest city in Tennessee, consisting of 146,900 residents. Tennessee_sentence_131

History Tennessee_section_9

Main article: History of Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_132

Early history Tennessee_section_10

Further information: Province of Carolina, Province of North Carolina, Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, and Southwest Territory Tennessee_sentence_133

The area now known as Tennessee was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians nearly 12,000 years ago. Tennessee_sentence_134

The names of the cultural groups who inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic (8000–1000 BC), Woodland (1000 BC – 1000 AD), and Mississippian (1000–1600 AD), whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley before Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters. Tennessee_sentence_135

The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Tennessee_sentence_136

Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a local Indian village, which evolved to the state's current name. Tennessee_sentence_137

At that time, Tennessee was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Tennessee_sentence_138

Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Indian tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. Tennessee_sentence_139

As European colonists spread into the area, the Indian populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw and Choctaw, and ultimately, the Cherokee in 1838. Tennessee_sentence_140

The first British settlement in what is now Tennessee was built in 1756 by settlers from the colony of South Carolina at Fort Loudoun, near present-day Vonore. Tennessee_sentence_141

Fort Loudoun became the westernmost British outpost to that date. Tennessee_sentence_142

The fort was designed by John William Gerard de Brahm and constructed by forces under British Captain Raymond Demeré. Tennessee_sentence_143

After its completion, Captain Raymond Demeré relinquished command on August 14, 1757, to his brother, Captain Paul Demeré. Tennessee_sentence_144

Hostilities erupted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees, and a siege of Fort Loudoun ended with its surrender on August 7, 1760. Tennessee_sentence_145

The following morning, Captain Paul Demeré and a number of his men were killed in an ambush nearby, and most of the rest of the garrison was taken prisoner. Tennessee_sentence_146

In the 1760s, long hunters from Virginia explored much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first permanent European settlers began arriving late in the decade. Tennessee_sentence_147

The majority of 18th century settlers were English or of primarily English descent but nearly 20% of them were also Scotch-Irish. Tennessee_sentence_148

These settlers formed the Watauga Association, a community built on lands leased from the Cherokee peoples. Tennessee_sentence_149

During the American Revolutionary War, Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present-day Elizabethton) was attacked (1776) by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee who were aligned with the British Loyalists. Tennessee_sentence_150

These renegade Cherokee were referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga. Tennessee_sentence_151

They opposed North Carolina's annexation of the Washington District and the concurrent settling of the Transylvania Colony further north and west. Tennessee_sentence_152

The lives of many settlers were spared from the initial warrior attacks through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin, Nancy Ward. Tennessee_sentence_153

The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a 1780 staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Appalachian Mountains, to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina. Tennessee_sentence_154

Three counties of the Washington District (now part of Tennessee) broke off from North Carolina in 1784 and formed the State of Franklin. Tennessee_sentence_155

Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties (now numbering eight) had re-joined North Carolina by 1789. Tennessee_sentence_156

North Carolina ceded the area to the federal government in 1790, after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory. Tennessee_sentence_157

In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain (in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville). Tennessee_sentence_158

The Trace was called the "North Carolina Road" or "Avery's Trace", and sometimes "The Wilderness Road" (although it should not be confused with Daniel Boone's "Wilderness Road" through the Cumberland Gap). Tennessee_sentence_159

Statehood and increasing settlement Tennessee_section_11

Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Tennessee_sentence_160

Tennessee was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796 as the 16th state. Tennessee_sentence_161

It was the first state created from territory under the jurisdiction of the United States federal government. Tennessee_sentence_162

Apart from the former Thirteen Colonies only Vermont and Kentucky predate Tennessee's statehood, and neither was ever a federal territory. Tennessee_sentence_163

The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, states that the beginning point for identifying the boundary is the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically runs the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina from Tennessee past the Native American towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_164

Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi River. Tennessee_sentence_165

As more white settlers moved into Tennessee, they came into increasing conflict with Native American tribes. Tennessee_sentence_166

During the administration of U.S. Tennessee_sentence_167 President Martin Van Buren, nearly 17,000 Cherokees, along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees, were uprooted from their homes between 1838 and 1839 and were forced by the U.S. military to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee, such as Fort Cass, toward the more distant Indian Territory west of Arkansas, now the state of Oklahoma. Tennessee_sentence_168

During this relocation an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way west. Tennessee_sentence_169

In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi,"the Trail Where We Cried". Tennessee_sentence_170

The Cherokees were not the only Native Americans forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other American Indian peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes". Tennessee_sentence_171

The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw nation. Tennessee_sentence_172

Civil War and Reconstruction Tennessee_section_12

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Tennessee in the American Civil War Tennessee_sentence_173

In February 1861, secessionists in Tennessee's state government—led by Governor Isham Harris—sought voter approval for a convention to sever ties with the United States, but Tennessee voters rejected the referendum by a 54–46% margin. Tennessee_sentence_174

The strongest opposition to secession came from East Tennessee, which later tried to form a separate Union-aligned state. Tennessee_sentence_175

Following the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter in April and Lincoln's call for troops from Tennessee and other states in response, Governor Isham Harris began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. Tennessee_sentence_176

The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. Tennessee_sentence_177

On June 8, 1861, with people in Middle Tennessee having significantly changed their position, voters approved a second referendum calling for secession, becoming the last state to do so. Tennessee_sentence_178

But the Union-backing State of Scott was also established at this time, and remained a de facto enclave of the United States throughout the war. Tennessee_sentence_179

Many major battles of the American Civil War were fought in Tennessee—most of them Union victories. Tennessee_sentence_180

Ulysses S. Grant and the U.S. Tennessee_sentence_181 Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in February 1862. Tennessee_sentence_182

They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Tennessee_sentence_183

Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River in front of the city. Tennessee_sentence_184

The Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections. Tennessee_sentence_185

This control was confirmed at the Battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863 and by the subsequent Tullahoma Campaign. Tennessee_sentence_186

Despite the strength of Unionist sentiment in East Tennessee (with the exception of Sullivan County, which was heavily pro-Confederate), Confederates held the area. Tennessee_sentence_187

The Confederates, led by General James Longstreet, did attack General Burnside's Fort Sanders at Knoxville and lost. Tennessee_sentence_188

It was a big blow to East Tennessee Confederate momentum, but Longstreet won the Battle of Bean's Station a few weeks later. Tennessee_sentence_189

The Confederates besieged Chattanooga during the Chattanooga Campaign in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. Tennessee_sentence_190

Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Perryville, Kentucky, to another Confederate defeat at Chattanooga. Tennessee_sentence_191

The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee in November 1864 and were checked at Franklin, then completely dispersed by George Thomas at Nashville in December. Tennessee_sentence_192

Meanwhile, President Abraham Lincoln appointed displaced senator and native Tennessean Andrew Johnson military governor of the state. Tennessee_sentence_193

When the Emancipation Proclamation was announced, Tennessee was largely held by Union forces. Tennessee_sentence_194

Thus it was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Tennessee_sentence_195

Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Tennessee_sentence_196

Old and young, men, women, and children camped near Union troops. Tennessee_sentence_197

Thousands of former slaves ended up fighting on the Union side, nearly 200,000 in total across the South. Tennessee_sentence_198

Tennessee's legislature approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting slavery on February 22, 1865. Tennessee_sentence_199

Voters in the state approved the amendment in March. Tennessee_sentence_200

It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (abolishing slavery in every state) on April 7, 1865. Tennessee_sentence_201

In 1864, Andrew Johnson, a War Democrat from Tennessee, was elected Vice President under Abraham Lincoln. Tennessee_sentence_202

He became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Tennessee_sentence_203

Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Tennessee_sentence_204

Because Tennessee had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period. Tennessee_sentence_205

After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Tennessee_sentence_206

Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, White Democrats regained political power in Tennessee and other states across the South in the late 1870s and 1880s. Tennessee_sentence_207

Over the next decade, the state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans. Tennessee_sentence_208

In 1889 the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor Whites. Tennessee_sentence_209

Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tennessee_sentence_210

Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century. Tennessee_sentence_211

Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state. Tennessee_sentence_212

In 1900, African Americans made up nearly 24% of the state's population, and numbered 480,430 citizens who lived mostly in the central and western parts of the state. Tennessee_sentence_213

In 1897, Tennessee celebrated its centennial of statehood (though one year late of the 1896 anniversary) with a great exposition in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_214

A full-scale replica of the Parthenon was constructed for the celebration, located in what is now Nashville's Centennial Park. Tennessee_sentence_215

20th century Tennessee_section_13

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided women the right to vote. Tennessee_sentence_216

Disenfranchising voter registration requirements continued to keep most African Americans and many poor whites, both men and women, off the voter rolls. Tennessee_sentence_217

The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression, a desire for rural electrification, the need to control annual spring flooding and improve shipping capacity on the Tennessee River were all factors that drove the federal creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. Tennessee_sentence_218

Through the power of the TVA projects, Tennessee quickly became the nation's largest public utility supplier. Tennessee_sentence_219

During World War II, the availability of abundant TVA electrical power led the Manhattan Project to locate one of the principal sites for production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material in East Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_220

The planned community of Oak Ridge was built from scratch to provide accommodations for the facilities and workers. Tennessee_sentence_221

These sites are now Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, and the East Tennessee Technology Park. Tennessee_sentence_222

Despite recognized effects of limiting voting by poor whites, successive legislatures expanded the reach of the disfranchising laws until they covered the state. Tennessee_sentence_223

Political scientist V. Tennessee_sentence_224 O. Tennessee_sentence_225 Key, Jr. argued in 1949: Tennessee_sentence_226

In 1953 state legislators amended the state constitution, removing the poll tax. Tennessee_sentence_227

In many areas both blacks and poor whites still faced subjectively applied barriers to voter registration that did not end until after passage of national civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Tennessee_sentence_228

Tennessee celebrated its bicentennial in 1996. Tennessee_sentence_229

With a yearlong statewide celebration entitled "Tennessee 200", it opened a new state park (Bicentennial Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_230

The state has had major disasters, such as the Great Train Wreck of 1918, one of the worst train accidents in U.S. history, and the Sultana explosion on the Mississippi River near Memphis, the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history. Tennessee_sentence_231

21st century Tennessee_section_14

In 2002, businessman Phil Bredesen was elected to become the 48th governor in January 2003. Tennessee_sentence_232

Also in 2002, Tennessee amended the state constitution to allow for the establishment of a lottery. Tennessee_sentence_233

Tennessee's Bob Corker was the only freshman Republican elected to the United States Senate in the 2006 midterm elections. Tennessee_sentence_234

The state constitution was amended to reject same-sex marriage. Tennessee_sentence_235

In January 2007, Ron Ramsey became the first Republican elected as Speaker of the State Senate since Reconstruction, as a result of the realignment of the Democratic and Republican parties in the South since the late 20th century, with Republicans now elected by conservative voters, who previously had supported Democrats. Tennessee_sentence_236

In 2010, during the 2010 midterm elections, Bill Haslam was elected to succeed Bredesen, who was term-limited, to become the 49th Governor of Tennessee in January 2011. Tennessee_sentence_237

In April and May 2010, flooding in Middle Tennessee devastated Nashville and other parts of Middle Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_238

In 2011, parts of East Tennessee, including Hamilton and Bradley counties, were devastated by the April 2011 tornado outbreak. Tennessee_sentence_239

In 2018, Republican businessman Bill Lee was elected to succeed term-limited Haslam, and he became the 50th Governor of Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_240

Demographics Tennessee_section_15

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Tennessee was 6,829,174 on July 1, 2019, an increase of 483,069 people since the 2010 United States Census, or 7.61%. Tennessee_sentence_241

This includes a natural increase since the last census of 124,385 (584,236 births minus 459,851 deaths), and an increase from net migration of 244,537 people into the state. Tennessee_sentence_242

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 66,412, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 178,125. Tennessee_sentence_243

Twenty percent of Tennesseans were born outside the South in 2008, compared to a figure of 13.5% in 1990. Tennessee_sentence_244

In recent years, Tennessee has received an influx of people relocating from California, Florida, New York, New Jersey and the New England States for the low cost of living, and the booming healthcare and automobile industries. Tennessee_sentence_245

Metropolitan Nashville is one of the fastest-growing areas in the country due in part to these factors. Tennessee_sentence_246

The center of population of Tennessee is located in Rutherford County, in the city of Murfreesboro. Tennessee_sentence_247

Ethnicity Tennessee_section_16


Racial compositionTennessee_header_cell_3_0_0 1970Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_1 1990Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_2 2000Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_3 2010Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_4 2019 est.Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_5
WhiteTennessee_cell_3_1_0 83.9%Tennessee_cell_3_1_1 83.0%Tennessee_cell_3_1_2 80.2%Tennessee_cell_3_1_3 77.6%Tennessee_cell_3_1_4 77.6%Tennessee_cell_3_1_5
BlackTennessee_cell_3_2_0 15.8%Tennessee_cell_3_2_1 16.0%Tennessee_cell_3_2_2 16.4%Tennessee_cell_3_2_3 16.7%Tennessee_cell_3_2_4 16.8%Tennessee_cell_3_2_5
AsianTennessee_cell_3_3_0 0.1%Tennessee_cell_3_3_1 0.7%Tennessee_cell_3_3_2 1.0%Tennessee_cell_3_3_3 1.4%Tennessee_cell_3_3_4 1.8%Tennessee_cell_3_3_5
NativeTennessee_cell_3_4_0 0.1%Tennessee_cell_3_4_1 0.2%Tennessee_cell_3_4_2 0.3%Tennessee_cell_3_4_3 0.3%Tennessee_cell_3_4_4 0.3%Tennessee_cell_3_4_5
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderTennessee_cell_3_5_0

-Tennessee_cell_3_5_1 Tennessee_cell_3_5_2 Tennessee_cell_3_5_3 0.1%Tennessee_cell_3_5_4 0.1%Tennessee_cell_3_5_5
Other raceTennessee_cell_3_6_0 -Tennessee_cell_3_6_1 0.2%Tennessee_cell_3_6_2 1.0%Tennessee_cell_3_6_3 2.2%Tennessee_cell_3_6_4 1.4%Tennessee_cell_3_6_5
Two or more racesTennessee_cell_3_7_0 -Tennessee_cell_3_7_1 Tennessee_cell_3_7_2 1.1%Tennessee_cell_3_7_3 1.7%Tennessee_cell_3_7_4 2.2%Tennessee_cell_3_7_5

In 2010, 4.6% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race), up from 2.2% in 2000. Tennessee_sentence_248

Between 2000 and 2010, the Hispanic population in Tennessee grew by 134.2%, the third highest of any state. Tennessee_sentence_249

That same year Non-Hispanic whites were 75.6% of the population, compared to 63.7% of the population nationwide. Tennessee_sentence_250

In 2010, approximately 4.4% of Tennessee's population was foreign-born, an increase of about 118.5% since 2000. Tennessee_sentence_251

Of the foreign-born population, approximately 31.0% were naturalized citizens and 69.0% non-citizens. Tennessee_sentence_252

The foreign-born population was approximately 49.9% from Latin America, 27.1% from Asia, 11.9% from Europe, 7.7% from Africa, 2.7% from Northern America, and 0.6% from Oceania. Tennessee_sentence_253

In 2010, the five most common self-reported ethnic groups in the state were: American (26.5%), English (8.2%), Irish (6.6%), German (5.5%), and Scotch-Irish (2.7%). Tennessee_sentence_254

Most Tennesseans who self-identify as having American ancestry are of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. Tennessee_sentence_255

An estimated 21–24% of Tennesseans are of predominantly English ancestry. Tennessee_sentence_256

In the 1980 census 1,435,147 Tennesseans claimed "English" or "mostly English" ancestry out of a state population of 3,221,354 making them 45% of the state at the time. Tennessee_sentence_257

According to the 2010 census, 6.4% of Tennessee's population were reported as under age 5, 23.6% under 18, and 13.4% were 65 or older. Tennessee_sentence_258

On June 19, 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs granted state recognition to six Native American tribes, which was later repealed by the state's Attorney General because the action by the commission was illegal. Tennessee_sentence_259

The tribes were as follows: Tennessee_sentence_260


  • The Cherokee Wolf Clan in western Tennessee, with members in Carroll County, Benton, Decatur, Henderson, Henry, Weakley, Gibson and Madison counties.Tennessee_item_1_14
  • The Chikamaka Band, based historically on the South Cumberland Plateau, said to have members in Franklin, Grundy, Marion, Sequatchie, Warren and Coffee counties.Tennessee_item_1_15
  • Central Band of Cherokee, also known as the Cherokee of Lawrence County.Tennessee_item_1_16
  • United Eastern Lenape Nation of Winfield.Tennessee_item_1_17
  • The Tanasi Council, said to have members in Shelby, Dyer, Gibson, Humphreys and Perry counties; andTennessee_item_1_18
  • Remnant Yuchi Nation, with members in Sullivan, Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Unicoi, Johnson and Washington counties.Tennessee_item_1_19

Birth data Tennessee_section_17

As of 2011, 36.3% of Tennessee's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Tennessee_sentence_261

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Tennessee_sentence_262


Live births by single race/ethnicity of motherTennessee_table_caption_4
RaceTennessee_header_cell_4_0_0 2013Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_1 2014Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_2 2015Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_3 2016Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_4 2017Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_5 2018Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_6
White:Tennessee_cell_4_1_0 59,804 (74.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_1_1 61,391 (75.2%)Tennessee_cell_4_1_2 61,814 (75.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_1_3 ...Tennessee_cell_4_1_4 ...Tennessee_cell_4_1_5 ...Tennessee_cell_4_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteTennessee_cell_4_2_0 54,377 (68.0%)Tennessee_cell_4_2_1 55,499 (68.0%)Tennessee_cell_4_2_2 55,420 (67.8%)Tennessee_cell_4_2_3 53,866 (66.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_2_4 53,721 (66.3%)Tennessee_cell_4_2_5 53,256 (66.0%)Tennessee_cell_4_2_6
BlackTennessee_cell_4_3_0 17,860 (22.3%)Tennessee_cell_4_3_1 17,791 (21.8%)Tennessee_cell_4_3_2 17,507 (21.4%)Tennessee_cell_4_3_3 15,889 (19.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_3_4 16,050 (19.8%)Tennessee_cell_4_3_5 15,921 (19.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_3_6
AsianTennessee_cell_4_4_0 2,097 (2.6%)Tennessee_cell_4_4_1 2,180 (2.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_4_2 2,153 (2.6%)Tennessee_cell_4_4_3 1,875 (2.3%)Tennessee_cell_4_4_4 1,905 (2.4%)Tennessee_cell_4_4_5 1,877 (2.3%)Tennessee_cell_4_4_6
American IndianTennessee_cell_4_5_0 231 (0.3%)Tennessee_cell_4_5_1 240 (0.3%)Tennessee_cell_4_5_2 211 (0.2%)Tennessee_cell_4_5_3 77 (0.1%)Tennessee_cell_4_5_4 150 (0.2%)Tennessee_cell_4_5_5 148 (0.2%)Tennessee_cell_4_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Tennessee_cell_4_6_0 6,854 (8.6%)Tennessee_cell_4_6_1 6,986 (8.6%)Tennessee_cell_4_6_2 7,264 (8.9%)Tennessee_cell_4_6_3 7,631 (9.4%)Tennessee_cell_4_6_4 7,684 (9.5%)Tennessee_cell_4_6_5 7,824 (9.7%)Tennessee_cell_4_6_6
Total TennesseeTennessee_cell_4_7_0 79,992 (100%)Tennessee_cell_4_7_1 81,602 (100%)Tennessee_cell_4_7_2 81,685 (100%)Tennessee_cell_4_7_3 80,807 (100%)Tennessee_cell_4_7_4 81,016 (100%)Tennessee_cell_4_7_5 80,751 (100%)Tennessee_cell_4_7_6


  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Tennessee_item_2_20

Religion Tennessee_section_18

The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee as of 2014: Tennessee_sentence_263


  • Christian 81%Tennessee_item_3_21
  • Islam 1%Tennessee_item_3_30
  • Jewish 1%Tennessee_item_3_31
  • Other religions 3%Tennessee_item_3_32
  • Non-religious 14%Tennessee_item_3_33
    • Atheist 1%Tennessee_item_3_34
    • Agnostic 3%Tennessee_item_3_35
    • Nothing in particular 11%Tennessee_item_3_36

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,483,356; the United Methodist Church with 375,693; the Roman Catholic Church with 222,343; and the Churches of Christ with 214,118. Tennessee_sentence_264

As of January 1, 2009, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) reported 43,179 members, 10 stakes, 92 Congregations (68 wards and 24 branches), two missions, and two temples in Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_265

Tennessee is home to several Protestant denominations, such as the National Baptist Convention (headquartered in Nashville); the Church of God in Christ and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (both headquartered in Memphis); the Church of God and The Church of God of Prophecy (both headquartered in Cleveland). Tennessee_sentence_266

The Free Will Baptist denomination is headquartered in Antioch; its main Bible college is in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_267

The Southern Baptist Convention maintains its general headquarters in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_268

Publishing houses of several denominations are located in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_269

Economy Tennessee_section_19

See also: List of Tennessee locations by per capita income Tennessee_sentence_270


  • Total employment: 2,592,600Tennessee_item_4_37
  • Total employee establishments: 135,352Tennessee_item_4_38

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2011 Tennessee's real gross state product was $233.997 billion. Tennessee_sentence_271

In 2003, the per capita personal income was $28,641, 36th in the nation, and 91% of the national per capita personal income of $31,472. Tennessee_sentence_272

In 2004, the median household income was $38,550, 41st in the nation, and 87% of the national median of $44,472. Tennessee_sentence_273

For 2012, the state held an asset surplus of $533 million, one of only eight states in the nation to report a surplus. Tennessee_sentence_274

Major outputs for the state include textiles, cotton, cattle, and electrical power. Tennessee_sentence_275

Tennessee has more than 82,000 farms, roughly 59 percent of which accommodate beef cattle. Tennessee_sentence_276

Although cotton was an early crop in Tennessee, large-scale cultivation of the fiber did not begin until the 1820s with the opening of the land between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers. Tennessee_sentence_277

The upper wedge of the Mississippi Delta extends into southwestern Tennessee, and it was in this fertile section that cotton took hold. Tennessee_sentence_278

Soybeans are also heavily planted in West Tennessee, focusing on the northwest corner of the state. Tennessee_sentence_279

Large corporations with headquarters in Tennessee include FedEx, AutoZone and International Paper, all based in Memphis; Pilot Corporation and Regal Entertainment Group, based in Knoxville; Eastman Chemical Company, based in Kingsport; Hospital Corporation of America and Caterpillar Financial, based in Nashville; and Unum, based in Chattanooga. Tennessee_sentence_280

Tennessee is also a major hub for the automotive industry. Tennessee_sentence_281

Four automobile manufacturers have factories in Tennessee: Nissan in Smyrna, General Motors in Spring Hill, Van Hool in Morristown, and Volkswagen in Chattanooga. Tennessee_sentence_282

Nissan moved its North American corporate headquarters from California to Franklin, Tennessee in 2005, and Mitsubishi Motors did the same in 2019. Tennessee_sentence_283

Other major manufacturers include a $2 billion polysilicon production facility owned by Wacker Chemie in Bradley County and a $1.2 billion polysilicon production facility owned by Hemlock Semiconductor in Clarksville. Tennessee_sentence_284

Tennessee is a right to work state, as are most of its Southern neighbors. Tennessee_sentence_285

Unionization has historically been low and continues to decline as in most of the U.S. generally. Tennessee_sentence_286

As of August 2019, the state has an unemployment rate of 3.5%, which is ranked 28th in the country. Tennessee_sentence_287

As of 2015, 16.7% of the population of Tennessee lives below the poverty line, which is higher than the national average of 14.7%. Tennessee_sentence_288

Taxation Tennessee_section_20

Tennessee has a reputation as low-tax state and is usually ranked as one of the five states with the lowest tax burden on residents. Tennessee_sentence_289

It is one of nine states that do not have a general income tax; the sales tax is the primary means of funding the government. Tennessee_sentence_290

The Hall income tax is a tax imposed on most dividends and interest. Tennessee_sentence_291

The tax rate was 6% from 1937 to 2016, but is in the process of being completely phased out by January 1, 2021. Tennessee_sentence_292

The first $1,250 of individual income and $2,500 of joint income is exempt from this tax. Tennessee_sentence_293

The state's sales and use tax rate for most items is 7%, the second-highest in the nation, along with Mississippi, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Indiana. Tennessee_sentence_294

Food is taxed at a lower rate of 4%, but candy, dietary supplements and prepared food are taxed at 7%. Tennessee_sentence_295

Local sales taxes are collected in most jurisdictions at rates varying from 1.5% to 2.75%, bringing the total sales tax to between 8.5% and 9.75%, with an average rate of about 9.5%, the nation's highest average sales tax. Tennessee_sentence_296

Intangible property tax is assessed on the shares of stock of stockholders of any loan, investment, insurance, or for-profit cemetery companies. Tennessee_sentence_297

The assessment ratio is 40% of the value times the jurisdiction's tax rate. Tennessee_sentence_298

Since January 1, 2016, Tennessee has had no inheritance tax. Tennessee_sentence_299

While sales tax remains the main source of state government funding, property taxes are the primary source of revenue for local governments. Tennessee_sentence_300

Tourism Tennessee_section_21

Tourism contributes billions of dollars every year to the state's economy, and Tennessee is ranked among the Top 10 destinations in the nation. Tennessee_sentence_301

In 2014 a record 100 million people visited the state resulting in $17.7 billion in tourism related spending within the state, an increase of 6.3% over 2013; tax revenue from tourism equaled $1.5 billion. Tennessee_sentence_302

Each county in Tennessee saw at least $1 million from tourism while 19 counties received at least $100 million (Davidson, Shelby, and Sevier counties were the top three). Tennessee_sentence_303

Tourism-generated jobs for the state reached 152,900, a 2.8% increase. Tennessee_sentence_304

International travelers to Tennessee accounted for $533 million in spending. Tennessee_sentence_305

In 2013 tourism within the state from local citizens accounted for 39.9% of tourists, the second highest originating location for tourists to Tennessee is the state of Georgia, accounting for 8.4% of tourists. Tennessee_sentence_306

Forty-four percent of stays in the state were "day trips", 25% stayed one night, 15% stayed two nights, and 11% stayed four or more nights. Tennessee_sentence_307

The average stay was 2.16 nights, compared to 2.03 nights for the U.S. as a whole. Tennessee_sentence_308

The average person spent $118 per day: 29% on transportation, 24% on food, 17% on accommodation, and 28% on shopping and entertainment. Tennessee_sentence_309

Tennessee is home to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the most visited national park in the United States. Tennessee_sentence_310

The park anchors a large tourism industry based primarily in nearby Gatlinburg and Pigeon Forge, which consists of such attractions as Dollywood, the most visited ticketed attraction in Tennessee, Ober Gatlinburg, and Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies. Tennessee_sentence_311

Major attractions in Memphis include Graceland, the home of Elvis Presley, Beale Street, the National Civil Rights Museum, the Memphis Zoo, and the Stax Museum of American Soul Music. Tennessee_sentence_312

Nashville contains many attractions related to its musical heritage, including Lower Broadway, the Country Music Hall of Fame, the Ryman Auditorium, Grand Ole Opry, and the Gaylord Opryland Resort. Tennessee_sentence_313

Other major attractions in Nashville include the Tennessee State Museum, Parthenon, and the Belle Meade Plantation. Tennessee_sentence_314

Major attractions in Chattanooga include Lookout Mountain, the Chattanooga Choo-Choo Hotel, Ruby Falls, and the Tennessee Aquarium, the largest freshwater aquarium in the United States. Tennessee_sentence_315

Other major attractions include the American Museum of Science and Energy in Oak Ridge, the Bristol Motor Speedway in Bristol, Jack Daniel's Distillery in Lynchburg, and the Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers in Polk County. Tennessee_sentence_316

Tennessee is home to five National Scenic Byways, including the Natchez Trace Parkway, the East Tennessee Crossing Byway, the Great River Road, The Trace, and the Cherohala Skyway. Tennessee_sentence_317

Four Civil War battlefields in Tennessee are preserved by the National Park Service: Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, Stones River National Battlefield, Shiloh National Military Park, and Fort Donelson National Battlefield. Tennessee_sentence_318

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area is within the Cumberland Mountains in northeastern Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_319

Other major attractions preserved by the National Park Service include Cumberland Gap National Historical Park and Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail. Tennessee_sentence_320

Energy and mineral production Tennessee_section_22

Further information: List of power stations in Tennessee and List of power stations operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority Tennessee_sentence_321

Tennessee's electric utilities are regulated monopolies, as in many other states. Tennessee_sentence_322

As of 2019, the Tennessee Valley Authority owned over 90% of generating capacity. Tennessee_sentence_323

Nuclear power is the largest source of electricity generation in Tennessee, producing about 43.7% of its power in 2019. Tennessee_sentence_324

The same year, 22.9% of the power was produced by coal, 20.3% from natural gas, 12.1% from hydroelectric power, and 1.6% from other renewables. Tennessee_sentence_325

About 56% of the electricity generated in Tennessee produces no greenhouse gas emissions. Tennessee_sentence_326

Tennessee is a net consumer of electricity, receiving power from other TVA facilities in neighboring states such as the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. Tennessee_sentence_327

Tennessee is home to the two newest civilian nuclear power reactors in the United States, at Watts Bar Nuclear Plant in Rhea County. Tennessee_sentence_328

Unit 1 began operation in 1996 and Unit 2 began operation in 2016, making it the first and only new nuclear power reactor to begin operation in the United States in the 21st century. Tennessee_sentence_329

As of 2020, officials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the TVA are studying advancements in nuclear power as an energy source, including small modular reactors, in a joint effort. Tennessee_sentence_330

Tennessee was also an early leader in hydroelectric power, first with the now defunct Chattanooga and Tennessee Electric Power Company; later, the United States Army Corps of Engineers and the TVA constructed several hydroelectric dams on Tennessee rivers. Tennessee_sentence_331

Today, Tennessee is the third-largest hydroelectric power-producing state east of the Rocky Mountains. Tennessee_sentence_332

Tennessee has very little petroleum and natural gas reserves, but is home to one oil refinery, in Memphis. Tennessee_sentence_333

Bituminous coal is mined in small quantities in the Cumberland Plateau and Cumberland Mountains. Tennessee_sentence_334

There are sizable reserves of lignite coal in West Tennessee that remain untapped. Tennessee_sentence_335

Coal production in Tennessee peaked in 1972, and today less than 0.1% of coal production in the United States comes from Tennessee mines. Tennessee_sentence_336

Tennessee is the leading producer of ball clay in the United States. Tennessee_sentence_337

Other major mineral products produced in Tennessee include sand, gravel, crushed stone, Portland cement, marble, sandstone, common clay, lime, and zinc. Tennessee_sentence_338

The Copper Basin, in Tennessee's southeastern corner in Polk County, was one of the most productive copper mining districts in the United States between the 1840s and 1980s. Tennessee_sentence_339

Mines in the basin supplied about 90% of the copper used by the Confederacy during the Civil War, and also marketed chemical byproducts of the mining, including sulfuric acid. Tennessee_sentence_340

Mining activities in the basin resulted in a major environmental disaster, which left the landscape in the basin barren for more than a century. Tennessee_sentence_341

Iron ore was another major mineral mined in Tennessee until the early 20th century. Tennessee_sentence_342

Tennessee was also a top producer of phosphate until the early 1990s. Tennessee_sentence_343

Culture Tennessee_section_23

Music Tennessee_section_24

Main articles: Music of Tennessee and Music of East Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_344

Tennessee has played a critical role in the development of many forms of American popular music, including rock and roll, blues, country, and rockabilly. Tennessee_sentence_345

Beale Street in Memphis is considered by many to be the birthplace of the blues, with musicians such as W. Tennessee_sentence_346 C. Handy performing in its clubs as early as 1909. Tennessee_sentence_347

Memphis was historically home to Sun Records, where musicians such as Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison, and Charlie Rich began their recording careers, and where rock and roll took shape in the 1950s. Tennessee_sentence_348

The 1927 Victor recording sessions in Bristol generally mark the beginning of the country music genre and the rise of the Grand Ole Opry in the 1930s helped make Nashville the center of the country music recording industry. Tennessee_sentence_349

Multiple brick-and-mortar museums recognize Tennessee's role in nurturing various forms of popular music: the Memphis Rock N' Soul Museum, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum and National Museum of African American Music in Nashville, and the International Rock-A-Billy Museum in Jackson. Tennessee_sentence_350

Moreover, the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, an online site recognizing the development of rockabilly in which Tennessee played a crucial role, is based in Nashville. Tennessee_sentence_351

Literature Tennessee_section_25

Main article: Tennessee literature Tennessee_sentence_352

Notable writers with ties to Tennessee include Cormac McCarthy, Peter Taylor, James Agee, Francis Hodgson Burnett, Thomas S. Stribling, Ida B. Tennessee_sentence_353 Wells, Nikki Giovanni, Shelby Foote, Ann Patchett, Ishmael Reed, and Randall Jarrell. Tennessee_sentence_354

Sports Tennessee_section_26

Tennessee is home to four major professional sports franchises: the Tennessee Titans have played in the National Football League since 1997, the Memphis Grizzlies have played in the National Basketball Association since 2001, the Nashville Predators have played in the National Hockey League since 1998, and Nashville SC has played in Major League Soccer since 2020. Tennessee_sentence_355

The state is also home to eight teams playing in minor leagues. Tennessee_sentence_356

Four Minor League Baseball teams call the state their home. Tennessee_sentence_357

The Memphis Redbirds and Nashville Sounds, each of the Pacific Coast League, compete at the Triple-A level, the highest before Major League Baseball. Tennessee_sentence_358

The Chattanooga Lookouts and Tennessee Smokies play in the Double-A Southern League. Tennessee_sentence_359

The Knoxville Ice Bears are a minor league ice hockey team of the Southern Professional Hockey League. Tennessee_sentence_360

Memphis 901 FC, a soccer team, joined the USL Championship in 2019. Tennessee_sentence_361

Chattanooga Red Wolves SC became an inaugural member of the third-level USL League One in 2019. Tennessee_sentence_362

Chattanooga FC began play in the National Independent Soccer Association in 2020. Tennessee_sentence_363

In Knoxville, the Tennessee Volunteers college team has played in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association since the conference was formed in 1932. Tennessee_sentence_364

The football team has won 13 SEC championships and 28 bowls, including four Sugar Bowls, three Cotton Bowls, an Orange Bowl and a Fiesta Bowl. Tennessee_sentence_365

Meanwhile, the men's basketball team has won four SEC championships and reached the NCAA Elite Eight in 2010. Tennessee_sentence_366

In addition, the women's basketball team has won a host of SEC regular-season and tournament titles along with eight national titles. Tennessee_sentence_367

In Nashville, the Vanderbilt Commodores are also charter members of the SEC. Tennessee_sentence_368

The Tennessee–Vanderbilt football rivalry began in 1892, having since played more than a hundred times. Tennessee_sentence_369

In June 2014, the Vanderbilt Commodores baseball team won its first men's national championship by winning the 2014 College World Series. Tennessee_sentence_370

The state is home to 10 other NCAA Division I programs. Tennessee_sentence_371

Two of these participate in the top level of college football, the Football Bowl Subdivision. Tennessee_sentence_372

The Memphis Tigers are members of the American Athletic Conference, and the Middle Tennessee Blue Raiders from Murfreesboro play in Conference USA. Tennessee_sentence_373

In addition to the Commodores, Nashville is also home to the Belmont Bruins and Tennessee State Tigers, both members of the Ohio Valley Conference (OVC), and the Lipscomb Bisons, members of the Atlantic Sun Conference. Tennessee_sentence_374

Tennessee State plays football in Division I's second level, the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), while Belmont and Lipscomb do not have football teams. Tennessee_sentence_375

Belmont and Lipscomb have an intense rivalry in men's and women's basketball known as the Battle of the Boulevard, with both schools' men's and women's teams playing two games each season against each other (a rare feature among non-conference rivalries). Tennessee_sentence_376

The OVC also includes the Austin Peay Governors from Clarksville, the UT Martin Skyhawks from Martin, and the Tennessee Tech Golden Eagles from Cookeville. Tennessee_sentence_377

These three schools, along with fellow OVC member Tennessee State, play each season in football for the Sgt. Tennessee_sentence_378 York Trophy. Tennessee_sentence_379

The Chattanooga Mocs and Johnson City's East Tennessee State Buccaneers are full members, including football, of the Southern Conference. Tennessee_sentence_380

Tennessee is also home to Bristol Motor Speedway which features NASCAR Cup Series racing two weekends a year, routinely selling out more than 160,000 seats on each date; it also was the home of the Nashville Superspeedway, which held Nationwide and IndyCar races until it was shut down in 2012. Tennessee_sentence_381

Tennessee's only graded stakes horse race, the Iroquois Steeplechase, is also held in Nashville each May. Tennessee_sentence_382

The FedEx St. Jude Classic is a PGA Tour golf tournament held at Memphis since 1958. Tennessee_sentence_383

The U.S. Tennessee_sentence_384 National Indoor Tennis Championships has been held at Memphis since 1976 (men's) and 2002 (women's). Tennessee_sentence_385

Sports teams Tennessee_section_27


ClubTennessee_header_cell_5_0_0 SportTennessee_header_cell_5_0_1 LeagueTennessee_header_cell_5_0_2
Tennessee TitansTennessee_cell_5_1_0 American footballTennessee_cell_5_1_1 National Football LeagueTennessee_cell_5_1_2
Memphis GrizzliesTennessee_cell_5_2_0 BasketballTennessee_cell_5_2_1 National Basketball AssociationTennessee_cell_5_2_2
Nashville PredatorsTennessee_cell_5_3_0 Ice hockeyTennessee_cell_5_3_1 National Hockey LeagueTennessee_cell_5_3_2
Nashville SCTennessee_cell_5_4_0 SoccerTennessee_cell_5_4_1 Major League SoccerTennessee_cell_5_4_2
Memphis RedbirdsTennessee_cell_5_5_0 BaseballTennessee_cell_5_5_1 Pacific Coast League (Triple-A)Tennessee_cell_5_5_2
Nashville SoundsTennessee_cell_5_6_0 BaseballTennessee_cell_5_6_1 Pacific Coast League (Triple-A)Tennessee_cell_5_6_2
Chattanooga LookoutsTennessee_cell_5_7_0 BaseballTennessee_cell_5_7_1 Southern League (Double-A)Tennessee_cell_5_7_2
Tennessee SmokiesTennessee_cell_5_8_0 BaseballTennessee_cell_5_8_1 Southern League (Double-A)Tennessee_cell_5_8_2
Knoxville Ice BearsTennessee_cell_5_9_0 Ice hockeyTennessee_cell_5_9_1 Southern Professional Hockey LeagueTennessee_cell_5_9_2
Memphis 901 FCTennessee_cell_5_10_0 SoccerTennessee_cell_5_10_1 USL ChampionshipTennessee_cell_5_10_2
Chattanooga Red Wolves SCTennessee_cell_5_11_0 SoccerTennessee_cell_5_11_1 USL League OneTennessee_cell_5_11_2
Chattanooga FCTennessee_cell_5_12_0 SoccerTennessee_cell_5_12_1 National Independent Soccer AssociationTennessee_cell_5_12_2

Transportation Tennessee_section_28

Interstate highways Tennessee_section_29

Interstate 40 crosses the state in an east–west orientation. Tennessee_sentence_386

Its branch interstate highways include I-240 in Memphis; I-440 in Nashville; I-840 in Nashville; I-140 from Knoxville to Alcoa; and I-640 in Knoxville. Tennessee_sentence_387

I-26, although technically an east–west interstate, runs from the North Carolina border below Johnson City to its terminus at Kingsport. Tennessee_sentence_388

I-24 is an east–west interstate that runs from Chattanooga to Clarksville. Tennessee_sentence_389

In a north–south orientation are highways I-55, I-65, I-75, and I-81. Tennessee_sentence_390

Interstate 65 crosses the state through Nashville, while Interstate 75 serves Chattanooga and Knoxville and Interstate 55 serves Memphis. Tennessee_sentence_391

Interstate 81 enters the state at Bristol and terminates at its junction with I-40 near Dandridge. Tennessee_sentence_392

I-155 is a branch highway from I-55. Tennessee_sentence_393

The only spur highway of I-75 in Tennessee is I-275, which is in Knoxville. Tennessee_sentence_394

An extension of I-69 is proposed to travel through the western part of the state, from South Fulton to Memphis. Tennessee_sentence_395

A branch interstate, I-269 also exists from Millington to Collierville. Tennessee_sentence_396

Airports Tennessee_section_30

Major airports within the state include Memphis International Airport (MEM), Nashville International Airport (BNA), McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) outside of Knoxville in Blount County, Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), and McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport (MKL), in Jackson. Tennessee_sentence_397

Because Memphis International Airport is the major hub for FedEx Corporation, it is the world's largest air cargo operation. Tennessee_sentence_398

Railroads Tennessee_section_31

For passenger rail service, Memphis and Newbern, are served by the Amtrak City of New Orleans line on its run between Chicago, Illinois, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Tennessee_sentence_399

Nashville is served by the Music City Star commuter rail service. Tennessee_sentence_400

Cargo services in Tennessee are primarily served by CSX Transportation, which has a hump yard in Nashville called Radnor Yard. Tennessee_sentence_401

Norfolk Southern Railway operates lines in East Tennessee, through cities including Knoxville and Chattanooga, and operates a classification yard near Knoxville, the John Sevier Yard. Tennessee_sentence_402

BNSF operates a major intermodal facility in Memphis. Tennessee_sentence_403

Governance Tennessee_section_32

Main article: Government of Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_404

Similar to the United States Federal Government, Tennessee's government has three parts. Tennessee_sentence_405

The Executive Branch is led by Tennessee's governor, who holds office for a four-year term and may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. Tennessee_sentence_406

The governor is the only official who is elected statewide. Tennessee_sentence_407

Unlike most states, the state does not elect the lieutenant governor directly; the Tennessee Senate elects its Speaker, who serves as lieutenant governor. Tennessee_sentence_408

The governor is supported by 22 cabinet-level departments, most headed by a commissioner who serves at the pleasure of the governor: Tennessee_sentence_409

The Executive Branch also includes several agencies, boards and commissions, some of which are under the auspices of one of the cabinet-level departments. Tennessee_sentence_410

The bicameral Legislative Branch, known as the Tennessee General Assembly, consists of the 33-member Senate and the 99-member House of Representatives. Tennessee_sentence_411

Senators serve four-year terms, and House members serve two-year terms. Tennessee_sentence_412

Each chamber chooses its own speaker. Tennessee_sentence_413

The speaker of the state Senate also holds the title of lieutenant governor. Tennessee_sentence_414

Constitutional officials in the legislative branch are elected by a joint session of the legislature. Tennessee_sentence_415

The highest court in Tennessee is the state Supreme Court. Tennessee_sentence_416

It has a chief justice and four associate justices. Tennessee_sentence_417

No more than two justices can be from the same Grand Division. Tennessee_sentence_418

The Supreme Court of Tennessee also appoints the Attorney General, a practice not found in any of the other 49 states. Tennessee_sentence_419

Both the Court of Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals have 12 judges. Tennessee_sentence_420

A number of local, circuit, and federal courts provide judicial services. Tennessee_sentence_421

Tennessee's current state constitution was adopted in 1870. Tennessee_sentence_422

The state had two earlier constitutions. Tennessee_sentence_423

The first was adopted in 1796, the year Tennessee joined the union, and the second was adopted in 1834. Tennessee_sentence_424

The 1870 Constitution outlaws martial law within its jurisdiction. Tennessee_sentence_425

This may be a result of the experience of Tennessee residents and other Southerners during the period of military control by Union (Northern) forces of the U.S. government after the American Civil War. Tennessee_sentence_426

Politics Tennessee_section_33

See also: List of Governors of Tennessee, United States congressional delegations from Tennessee, Tennessee's congressional districts, and Political party strength in Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_427


Presidential elections resultsTennessee_table_caption_6
YearTennessee_header_cell_6_0_0 RepublicanTennessee_header_cell_6_0_1 DemocraticTennessee_header_cell_6_0_2
2016Tennessee_cell_6_1_0 60.72% 1,522,925Tennessee_cell_6_1_1 34.72% 870,695Tennessee_cell_6_1_2
2012Tennessee_cell_6_2_0 59.42% 1,462,330Tennessee_cell_6_2_1 39.04% 960,709Tennessee_cell_6_2_2
2008Tennessee_cell_6_3_0 56.85% 1,479,178Tennessee_cell_6_3_1 41.79% 1,087,437Tennessee_cell_6_3_2
2004Tennessee_cell_6_4_0 56.80% 1,384,375Tennessee_cell_6_4_1 42.53% 1,036,477Tennessee_cell_6_4_2
2000Tennessee_cell_6_5_0 51.15% 1,061,949Tennessee_cell_6_5_1 47.28% 981,720Tennessee_cell_6_5_2
1996Tennessee_cell_6_6_0 45.59% 863,530Tennessee_cell_6_6_1 48.00% 909,146Tennessee_cell_6_6_2
1992Tennessee_cell_6_7_0 42.43% 841,300Tennessee_cell_6_7_1 47.08% 933,521Tennessee_cell_6_7_2
1988Tennessee_cell_6_8_0 57.89% 947,233Tennessee_cell_6_8_1 41.55% 679,794Tennessee_cell_6_8_2
1984Tennessee_cell_6_9_0 57.84% 990,212Tennessee_cell_6_9_1 41.57% 711,714Tennessee_cell_6_9_2
1980Tennessee_cell_6_10_0 48.70% 787,761Tennessee_cell_6_10_1 48.41% 783,051Tennessee_cell_6_10_2
1976Tennessee_cell_6_11_0 42.94% 633,969Tennessee_cell_6_11_1 55.94% 825,879Tennessee_cell_6_11_2
1972Tennessee_cell_6_12_0 67.70% 813,147Tennessee_cell_6_12_1 29.75% 357,293Tennessee_cell_6_12_2
1968Tennessee_cell_6_13_0 37.85% 472,592Tennessee_cell_6_13_1 28.13% 351,233Tennessee_cell_6_13_2
1964Tennessee_cell_6_14_0 44.49% 508,965Tennessee_cell_6_14_1 55.50% 634,947Tennessee_cell_6_14_2
1960Tennessee_cell_6_15_0 52.92% 556,577Tennessee_cell_6_15_1 45.77% 481,453Tennessee_cell_6_15_2

Tennessee politics, like that of most U.S. states, are dominated by the Republican and the Democratic parties. Tennessee_sentence_428

Historian Dewey W. Grantham traces divisions in the state to the period of the American Civil War; for decades afterward, the eastern third of the state was heavily Republican and the western two thirds mostly voted Democratic. Tennessee_sentence_429

This division was related to the state's pattern of farming, plantations and slaveholding. Tennessee_sentence_430

The eastern section was made up of yeoman farmers, but Middle and West Tennessee farmers cultivated crops such as tobacco and cotton which were dependent on the use of slave labor. Tennessee_sentence_431

These areas became defined as Democratic after the war. Tennessee_sentence_432

During Reconstruction, freedmen and former free people of color were granted the right to vote; most joined the Republican Party. Tennessee_sentence_433

Numerous African Americans were elected to local offices, and some to state office. Tennessee_sentence_434

Following Reconstruction, Tennessee continued to have competitive party politics, but in the 1880s, the white-dominated state government passed four laws, the last of which imposed a poll tax requirement for voter registration. Tennessee_sentence_435

These served to disenfranchise most African Americans, and their power in state and local politics was markedly reduced. Tennessee_sentence_436

In 1900 African Americans comprised 23.8 percent of the state's population, concentrated in Middle and West Tennessee. Tennessee_sentence_437

In the early 1900s, the state legislature approved a form of commission government for cities based on at-large voting for a few positions on a Board of Commission; several cities adopted this as another means to limit African-American political participation. Tennessee_sentence_438

In 1913 the state legislature enacted a bill enabling cities to adopt this structure without legislative approval. Tennessee_sentence_439

After disenfranchisement of blacks, the Republican Party in Tennessee became a primarily white sectional party supported only in the eastern part of the state. Tennessee_sentence_440

In the 20th century, except for two nationwide Republican landslides of the 1920s (in 1920, when Tennessee narrowly supported Warren G. Harding over Ohio Governor James Cox, and in 1928, when it more decisively voted for Herbert Hoover over New York Governor Al Smith), the state was part of the Democratic Solid South until the 1950s. Tennessee_sentence_441

In that postwar decade, it twice voted for Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, former Allied Commander of the Armed Forces during World War II. Tennessee_sentence_442

Since then, more of the state's voters have shifted to supporting Republicans, and Democratic presidential candidates have carried Tennessee only four times. Tennessee_sentence_443

By 1960 African Americans comprised 16.45% of the state's population. Tennessee_sentence_444

It was not until after the mid-1960s and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that they were able to vote in full again, but new devices, such as at-large commission city governments, had been adopted in several jurisdictions to limit their political participation. Tennessee_sentence_445

Former Gov. Tennessee_sentence_446

Winfield Dunn and former U.S. Sen. Bill Brock wins in 1970 helped make the Republican Party competitive among whites for the statewide victory. Tennessee_sentence_447

Tennessee has selected governors from different parties since 1970. Tennessee_sentence_448

In the early 21st century, Republican voters control most of the state, especially in the more rural and suburban areas outside of the cities; Democratic strength is mostly confined to the urban cores of the four major cities, and is particularly strong in the cities of Nashville and Memphis. Tennessee_sentence_449

The latter area includes a large African-American population. Tennessee_sentence_450

Historically, Republicans had their greatest strength in East Tennessee before the 1960s. Tennessee_sentence_451

Tennessee's 1st and 2nd congressional districts, based in the Tri-Cities and Knoxville, respectively, are among the few historically Republican districts in the South. Tennessee_sentence_452

Those districts' residents supported the Union over the Confederacy during the Civil War; they identified with the GOP after the war and have stayed with that party ever since. Tennessee_sentence_453

The first has been in Republican hands continuously since 1881, and Republicans (or their antecedents) have held it for all but four years since 1859. Tennessee_sentence_454

The second has been held continuously by Republicans or their antecedents since 1859. Tennessee_sentence_455

In the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore, a Democratic U.S. Tennessee_sentence_456 Senator from Tennessee, failed to carry his home state, an unusual occurrence but indicative of strengthening Republican support. Tennessee_sentence_457

Republican George W. Bush received increased support in 2004, with his margin of victory in the state increasing from 4% in 2000 to 14% in 2004. Tennessee_sentence_458

Democratic presidential nominees from Southern states, such as Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, and Bill Clinton, usually fare better than their Northern counterparts do in Tennessee, especially among split-ticket voters outside the metropolitan areas. Tennessee_sentence_459

Tennessee sends nine members to the U.S. Tennessee_sentence_460 House of Representatives, of whom there are seven Republicans and two Democrats. Tennessee_sentence_461

Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey is the first Republican speaker of the state Senate in 140 years. Tennessee_sentence_462

In the 2008 elections, the Republican party gained control of both houses of the Tennessee state legislature for the first time since Reconstruction. Tennessee_sentence_463

In 2008, some 30% of the state's electorate identified as independents. Tennessee_sentence_464

The Baker v. Carr (1962) decision of the U.S. Tennessee_sentence_465 Supreme Court established the principle of "one man, one vote", requiring state legislatures to redistrict to bring Congressional apportionment in line with decennial censuses. Tennessee_sentence_466

It also required both houses of state legislatures to be based on population for representation and not geographic districts such as counties. Tennessee_sentence_467

This case arose out of a lawsuit challenging the longstanding rural bias of apportionment of seats in the Tennessee legislature. Tennessee_sentence_468

After decades in which urban populations had been underrepresented in many state legislatures, this significant ruling led to an increased (and proportional) prominence in state politics by urban and, eventually, suburban, legislators and statewide officeholders in relation to their population within the state. Tennessee_sentence_469

The ruling also applied to numerous other states long controlled by rural minorities, such as Alabama, Vermont, and Montana. Tennessee_sentence_470

Law enforcement Tennessee_section_34

State agencies Tennessee_section_35

The state of Tennessee maintains four dedicated law enforcement entities: the Tennessee Highway Patrol, the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA), the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Tennessee_sentence_471

The Highway Patrol is the primary law enforcement entity that concentrates on highway safety regulations and general non-wildlife state law enforcement and is under the jurisdiction of the Tennessee Department of Safety. Tennessee_sentence_472

The TWRA is an independent agency tasked with enforcing all wildlife, boating, and fisheries regulations outside of state parks. Tennessee_sentence_473

The TBI maintains state-of-the-art investigative facilities and is the primary state-level criminal investigative department. Tennessee_sentence_474

Tennessee State Park Rangers are responsible for all activities and law enforcement inside the Tennessee State Parks system. Tennessee_sentence_475

Local Tennessee_section_36

Local law enforcement is divided between County Sheriff's Offices and Municipal Police Departments. Tennessee_sentence_476

Tennessee's Constitution requires that each County have an elected Sheriff. Tennessee_sentence_477

In 94 of the 95 counties the Sheriff is the chief law enforcement officer in the county and has jurisdiction over the county as a whole. Tennessee_sentence_478

Each Sheriff's Office is responsible for warrant service, court security, jail operations and primary law enforcement in the unincorporated areas of a county as well as providing support to the municipal police departments. Tennessee_sentence_479

Incorporated municipalities are required to maintain a police department to provide police services within their corporate limits. Tennessee_sentence_480

The three counties in Tennessee to adopt metropolitan governments have taken different approaches to resolving the conflict that a Metro government presents to the requirement to have an elected Sheriff. Tennessee_sentence_481


  • Nashville/Davidson County converted law enforcement duties entirely to the Metro Nashville Police Chief. In this instance the Sheriff is no longer the chief law enforcement officer for Davidson County. The Davidson County Sheriff's duties focus on warrant service and jail operations. The Metropolitan Police Chief is the chief law enforcement officer and the Metropolitan Police Department provides primary law enforcement for the entire county.Tennessee_item_5_39
  • Lynchburg/Moore County took a much simpler approach and abolished the Lynchburg Police Department when it consolidated and placed all law enforcement responsibility under the sheriff's office.Tennessee_item_5_40
  • Hartsville/Trousdale County, although the smallest county in Tennessee, adopted a system similar to Nashville's, which retains the sheriff's office but also has a metropolitan police department.Tennessee_item_5_41

Firearms Tennessee_section_37

Main article: Gun laws in Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_482

Gun laws in Tennessee regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition. Tennessee_sentence_483

Concealed carry and open-carry of a handgun is permitted with a Tennessee handgun carry permit or an equivalent permit from a reciprocating state. Tennessee_sentence_484

As of July 1, 2014, a permit is no longer required to possess a loaded handgun in a motor vehicle. Tennessee_sentence_485

Capital punishment Tennessee_section_38

Capital punishment has existed in Tennessee at various times since statehood. Tennessee_sentence_486

Before 1913, the method of execution was hanging. Tennessee_sentence_487

From 1913 to 1915, there was a hiatus on executions but they were reinstated in 1916 when electrocution became the new method. Tennessee_sentence_488

From 1972 to 1978, after the Supreme Court ruled (Furman v. Georgia) capital punishment unconstitutional, there were no further executions. Tennessee_sentence_489

Capital punishment was restarted in 1978, although those prisoners awaiting execution between 1960 and 1978 had their sentences mostly commuted to life in prison. Tennessee_sentence_490

From 1916 to 1960 the state executed 125 inmates. Tennessee_sentence_491

For a variety of reasons there were no further executions until 2000. Tennessee_sentence_492

Since 2000, Tennessee has executed seven prisoners. Tennessee_sentence_493

Tennessee has 59 prisoners on death row (as of October 2018). Tennessee_sentence_494

Lethal injection was approved by the legislature in 1998, though those who were sentenced to death before January 1, 1999, may request electrocution. Tennessee_sentence_495

In May 2014, the Tennessee General Assembly passed a law allowing the use of the electric chair for death row executions when lethal injection drugs are not available. Tennessee_sentence_496

Tribal Tennessee_section_39

The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians is the only federally recognized Native American Indian tribe in the state. Tennessee_sentence_497

It owns 79 acres (32 ha) in Henning, which was placed into federal trust by the tribe in 2012. Tennessee_sentence_498

This is governed directly by the tribe. Tennessee_sentence_499

Media Tennessee_section_40

Education Tennessee_section_41

Tennessee has a rich variety of public, private, charter, and specialized education facilities ranging from pre-school through university. Tennessee_sentence_500

In 2015, state legislators began efforts on the "Drive to 55" movement, which plans to increase the number of college-educated residents to at least 55% of the state's population. Tennessee_sentence_501

Then Governor Bill Haslam signed legislation that started the Tennessee Promise program. Tennessee_sentence_502

Tennessee Promise, if students meet its requirements, allows in-state high school graduates to enroll in two-year post-secondary education programs such as associate's degrees and certificates at community colleges and trade schools in Tennessee tuition-free, funded by the state lottery. Tennessee_sentence_503

Colleges and universities Tennessee_section_42

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_504

Public higher education is under the oversight of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission which provides guidance to two public university systems—the University of Tennessee system and the Tennessee Board of Regents. Tennessee_sentence_505

In addition a number of private colleges and universities are located throughout the state. Tennessee_sentence_506

Local school districts Tennessee_section_43

Main articles: List of school districts in Tennessee and List of high schools in Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_507

Public primary and secondary education systems are operated by county, city, or special school districts to provide education at the local level. Tennessee_sentence_508

These school districts operate under the direction of the Tennessee Department of Education. Tennessee_sentence_509

Private schools are found in many counties. Tennessee_sentence_510

Museums Tennessee_section_44

Main article: List of museums in Tennessee Tennessee_sentence_511

Over 250 public and private museums are located in Tennessee, including renowned museums such as the Brooks Museum, Pink Palace Museum and Planetarium, Country Music Hall of Fame, and Discovery Park of America. Tennessee_sentence_512

State symbols Tennessee_section_45

Main article: List of Tennessee state symbols Tennessee_sentence_513

State symbols, found in Tennessee Code Annotated; Title 4, Chapter 1, Part 3, include: Tennessee_sentence_514

See also Tennessee_section_46


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee.