Ultimate tensile strength

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The ultimate tensile strength is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the engineering stress versus strain. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_0

The highest point of the stress–strain curve is the ultimate tensile strength and has units of stress. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_1

Tensile strengths are rarely used in the design of ductile members, but they are important in brittle members. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_2

They are tabulated for common materials such as alloys, composite materials, ceramics, plastics, and wood. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_3

Definition Ultimate tensile strength_section_0

The ultimate tensile strength of a material is an intensive property; therefore its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_4

However, depending on the material, it may be dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_5

Some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_6

Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, experience some plastic deformation and possibly necking before fracture. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_7

Tensile strength is defined as a stress, which is measured as force per unit area. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_8

For some non-homogeneous materials (or for assembled components) it can be reported just as a force or as a force per unit width. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_9

In the International System of Units (SI), the unit is the pascal (Pa) (or a multiple thereof, often megapascals (MPa), using the SI prefix mega); or, equivalently to pascals, newtons per square metre (N/m²). Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_10

A United States customary unit is pounds per square inch (lb/in² or psi), or kilo-pounds per square inch (ksi, or sometimes kpsi), which is equal to 1000 psi; kilo-pounds per square inch are commonly used in one country (US), when measuring tensile strengths. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_11

Ductile materials Ultimate tensile strength_section_1

Many materials can display linear elastic behavior, defined by a linear stress–strain relationship, as shown in figure 1 up to point 3. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_12

The elastic behavior of materials often extends into a non-linear region, represented in figure 1 by point 2 (the "yield point"), up to which deformations are completely recoverable upon removal of the load; that is, a specimen loaded elastically in tension will elongate, but will return to its original shape and size when unloaded. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_13

Beyond this elastic region, for ductile materials, such as steel, deformations are plastic. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_14

A plastically deformed specimen does not completely return to its original size and shape when unloaded. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_15

For many applications, plastic deformation is unacceptable, and is used as the design limitation. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_16

After the yield point, ductile metals undergo a period of strain hardening, in which the stress increases again with increasing strain, and they begin to neck, as the cross-sectional area of the specimen decreases due to plastic flow. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_17

In a sufficiently ductile material, when necking becomes substantial, it causes a reversal of the engineering stress–strain curve (curve A, figure 2); this is because the engineering stress is calculated assuming the original cross-sectional area before necking. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_18

The reversal point is the maximum stress on the engineering stress–strain curve, and the engineering stress coordinate of this point is the ultimate tensile strength, given by point 1. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_19

Ultimate tensile strength is not used in the design of ductile static members because design practices dictate the use of the yield stress. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_20

It is, however, used for quality control, because of the ease of testing. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_21

It is also used to roughly determine material types for unknown samples. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_22

The ultimate tensile strength is a common engineering parameter to design members made of brittle material because such materials have no yield point. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_23

Testing Ultimate tensile strength_section_2

Main article: Tensile testing Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_24

Typically, the testing involves taking a small sample with a fixed cross-sectional area, and then pulling it with a tensometer at a constant strain (change in gauge length divided by initial gauge length) rate until the sample breaks. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_25

When testing some metals, indentation hardness correlates linearly with tensile strength. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_26

This important relation permits economically important nondestructive testing of bulk metal deliveries with lightweight, even portable equipment, such as hand-held Rockwell hardness testers. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_27

This practical correlation helps quality assurance in metalworking industries to extend well beyond the laboratory and universal testing machines. Ultimate tensile strength_sentence_28

Typical tensile strengths Ultimate tensile strength_section_3

Ultimate tensile strength_table_general_0

Typical tensile strengths of some materialsUltimate tensile strength_table_caption_0
MaterialUltimate tensile strength_header_cell_0_0_0 Yield strength
(MPa)Ultimate tensile strength_header_cell_0_0_1
Ultimate tensile strength
(MPa)Ultimate tensile strength_header_cell_0_0_2
(g/cm³)Ultimate tensile strength_header_cell_0_0_3
Steel, structural ASTM A36 steelUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_1_0 250Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_1_1 400–550Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_1_2 7.8Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_1_3
Steel, 1090 mildUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_2_0 247Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_2_1 841Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_2_2 7.58Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_2_3
Chromium-vanadium steel AISI 6150Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_3_0 620Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_3_1 940Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_3_2 7.8Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_3_3
Steel, 2800 Maraging steelUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_4_0 2617Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_4_1 2693Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_4_2 8.00Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_4_3
Steel, AerMet 340Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_5_0 2160Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_5_1 2430Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_5_2 7.86Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_5_3
Steel, Sandvik Sanicro 36Mo logging cable precision wireUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_6_0 1758Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_6_1 2070Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_6_2 8.00Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_6_3
Steel, AISI 4130, water quenched 855 °C (1570 °F), 480 °C (900 °F) temperUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_7_0 951Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_7_1 1110Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_7_2 7.85Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_7_3
Steel, API 5L X65Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_8_0 448Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_8_1 531Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_8_2 7.8Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_8_3
Steel, high strength alloy ASTM A514Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_9_0 690Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_9_1 760Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_9_2 7.8Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_9_3
Acrylic, clear cast sheet (PMMA)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_10_0 72Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_10_1 87Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_10_2 1.16Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_10_3
High-density polyethylene (HDPE)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_11_0 26–33Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_11_1 37Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_11_2 0.85Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_11_3
PolypropyleneUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_12_0 12–43Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_12_1 19.7–80Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_12_2 0.91Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_12_3
Steel, stainless AISI 302 – cold-rolledUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_13_0 520Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_13_1 860Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_13_2 8.19Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_13_3
Cast iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_14_0 130Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_14_1 200Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_14_2 7.3Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_14_3
"Liquidmetal" alloyUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_15_0 1723Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_15_1 550–1600Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_15_2 6.1Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_15_3
Beryllium 99.9% BeUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_16_0 345Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_16_1 448Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_16_2 1.84Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_16_3
Aluminium alloy 2014-T6Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_17_0 414Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_17_1 483Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_17_2 2.8Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_17_3
Polyester resin (unreinforced)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_18_0 55Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_18_1 55Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_18_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_18_3
Polyester and chopped strand mat laminate 30% E-glassUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_19_0 100Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_19_1 100Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_19_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_19_3
S-Glass epoxy compositeUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_20_0 2358Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_20_1 2358Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_20_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_20_3
Aluminium alloy 6061-T6Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_21_0 241Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_21_1 300Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_21_2 2.7Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_21_3
Copper 99.9% CuUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_22_0 70Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_22_1 220Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_22_2 8.92Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_22_3
Cupronickel 10% Ni, 1.6% Fe, 1% Mn, balance CuUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_23_0 130Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_23_1 350Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_23_2 8.94Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_23_3
BrassUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_24_0 200 +Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_24_1 500Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_24_2 8.73Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_24_3
TungstenUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_25_0 941Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_25_1 1510Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_25_2 19.25Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_25_3
GlassUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_26_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_26_1 33Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_26_2 2.53Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_26_3
E-GlassUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_27_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_27_1 1500 for laminates,

3450 for fibers aloneUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_27_2

2.57Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_27_3
S-GlassUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_28_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_28_1 4710Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_28_2 2.48Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_28_3
Basalt fiberUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_29_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_29_1 4840Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_29_2 2.7Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_29_3
MarbleUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_30_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_30_1 15Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_30_2 2.6Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_30_3
ConcreteUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_31_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_31_1 2–5Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_31_2 2.7Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_31_3
Carbon fiberUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_32_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_32_1 1600 for laminates,

4137 for fibers aloneUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_32_2

1.75Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_32_3
Carbon fiber (Toray T1100G) (the strongest human-made fibres)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_33_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_33_1 7000 fibre aloneUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_33_2 1.79Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_33_3
Human hairUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_34_0 140–160Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_34_1 200–250Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_34_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_34_3
BambooUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_35_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_35_1 350–500Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_35_2 0.4Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_35_3
Spider silk (see note below)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_36_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_36_1 1000Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_36_2 1.3Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_36_3
Spider silk, Darwin's bark spiderUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_37_0 1652Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_37_1 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_37_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_37_3
Silkworm silkUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_38_0 500Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_38_1 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_38_2 1.3Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_38_3
Aramid (Kevlar or Twaron)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_39_0 3620Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_39_1 3757Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_39_2 1.44Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_39_3
UHMWPEUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_40_0 24Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_40_1 52Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_40_2 0.97Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_40_3
UHMWPE fibers (Dyneema or Spectra)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_41_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_41_1 2300–3500Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_41_2 0.97Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_41_3
VectranUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_42_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_42_1 2850–3340Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_42_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_42_3
Polybenzoxazole (Zylon)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_43_0 2700Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_43_1 5800Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_43_2 1.56Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_43_3
Wood, pine (parallel to grain)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_44_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_44_1 40Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_44_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_44_3
Bone (limb)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_45_0 104–121Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_45_1 130Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_45_2 1.6Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_45_3
Nylon, molded, type 6/6Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_46_0 450Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_46_1 750Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_46_2 1.15Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_46_3
Nylon fiber, drawnUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_47_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_47_1 900Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_47_2 1.13Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_47_3
Epoxy adhesiveUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_48_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_48_1 12–30Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_48_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_48_3
RubberUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_49_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_49_1 16Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_49_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_49_3
BoronUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_50_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_50_1 3100Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_50_2 2.46Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_50_3
Silicon, monocrystalline (m-Si)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_51_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_51_1 7000Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_51_2 2.33Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_51_3
Ultra-pure silica glass fiber-optic strandsUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_52_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_52_1 4100Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_52_2 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_52_3
Sapphire (Al2O3)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_53_0 400 at 25 °C, 275 at 500 °C, 345 at 1000 °CUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_53_1 1900Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_53_2 3.9–4.1Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_53_3
Boron nitride nanotubeUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_54_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_54_1 33000Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_54_2 2.62Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_54_3
DiamondUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_55_0 1600Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_55_1 2800Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_55_2 3.5Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_55_3
GrapheneUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_56_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_56_1 intrinsic 130000; engineering 50000-60000Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_56_2 1.0Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_56_3
First carbon nanotube ropesUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_57_0 ?Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_57_1 3600Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_57_2 1.3Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_57_3
Carbon nanotube (see note below)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_58_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_58_1 11000–63000Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_58_2 0.037–1.34Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_58_3
Carbon nanotube compositesUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_59_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_59_1 1200Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_59_2 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_59_3
High-strength carbon nanotube filmUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_60_0 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_60_1 9600Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_60_2 N/AUltimate tensile strength_cell_0_60_3
Iron (pure mono-crystal)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_61_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_61_1 3Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_61_2 7.874Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_61_3
Limpet Patella vulgata teeth (Goethite)Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_62_0 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_62_1 4900

3000–6500Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_62_2

Ultimate tensile strength_cell_0_62_3

Ultimate tensile strength_description_list_0

  • ^a Many of the values depend on manufacturing process and purity or composition.Ultimate tensile strength_item_0_0
  • ^b Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have the highest tensile strength of any material yet measured, with one measurement of 63 GPa, still well below one theoretical value of 300 GPa. The first nanotube ropes (20 mm in length) whose tensile strength was published (in 2000) had a strength of 3.6 GPa. The density depends on the manufacturing method, and the lowest value is 0.037 or 0.55 (solid).Ultimate tensile strength_item_0_1
  • ^c The strength of spider silk is highly variable. It depends on many factors including kind of silk (Every spider can produce several for sundry purposes.), species, age of silk, temperature, humidity, swiftness at which stress is applied during testing, length stress is applied, and way the silk is gathered (forced silking or natural spinning). The value shown in the table, 1000 MPa, is roughly representative of the results from a few studies involving several different species of spider however specific results varied greatly.Ultimate tensile strength_item_0_2
  • ^d Human hair strength varies by ethnicity and chemical treatments.Ultimate tensile strength_item_0_3

Ultimate tensile strength_table_general_1

Typical properties for annealed elementsUltimate tensile strength_table_caption_1
ElementUltimate tensile strength_header_cell_1_0_0 Young's

modulus (GPa)Ultimate tensile strength_header_cell_1_0_1

Offset or

yield strength (MPa)Ultimate tensile strength_header_cell_1_0_2


strength (MPa)Ultimate tensile strength_header_cell_1_0_3

siliconUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_1_0 107Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_1_1 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_1_2 5000–9000Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_1_3
tungstenUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_2_0 411Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_2_1 550Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_2_2 550–620Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_2_3
ironUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_3_0 211Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_3_1 80–100Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_3_2 350Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_3_3
titaniumUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_4_0 120Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_4_1 100–225Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_4_2 246–370Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_4_3
copperUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_5_0 130Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_5_1 117Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_5_2 210Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_5_3
tantalumUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_6_0 186Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_6_1 180Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_6_2 200Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_6_3
tinUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_7_0 47Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_7_1 9–14Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_7_2 15–200Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_7_3
zinc alloyUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_8_0 85–105Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_8_1 200–400Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_8_2 200–400Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_8_3
nickelUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_9_0 170Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_9_1 140–350Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_9_2 140–195Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_9_3
silverUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_10_0 83Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_10_1 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_10_2 170Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_10_3
goldUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_11_0 79Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_11_1 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_11_2 100Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_11_3
aluminiumUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_12_0 70Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_12_1 15–20Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_12_2 40–50Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_12_3
leadUltimate tensile strength_cell_1_13_0 16Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_13_1 Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_13_2 12Ultimate tensile strength_cell_1_13_3

See also Ultimate tensile strength_section_4

Ultimate tensile strength_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate tensile strength.