Terminology of the British Isles

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The terminology of the British Isles refers to the words and phrases that are used to describe the (sometimes overlapping) geographical and political areas of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and the smaller islands which surround them. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_0

The terms are often a source of confusion, partly owing to the similarity between some of the actual words used but also because they are often used loosely. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_1

Many of the words carry geographical and political connotations which are affected by the history of the islands. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_2

The purpose of this article is to explain the meanings of and relationships among the terms in use; many of these classifications are contentious (See the British Isles naming dispute). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_3

Summary Terminology of the British Isles_section_0

The use of terms depend on context; words and phrases can be grouped into geographical, political, linguistic and sporting terms. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_4

In brief, the main terms and their simple explanations are as follows: Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_5

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_0

  • Geographical terms:Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_0
  • Political terms:Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_5
    • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the constitutional monarchy occupying the island of Great Britain, the small nearby islands (but not the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands), and the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland. Usually, it is shortened to United Kingdom or the UK, or Britain. "Great Britain" is sometimes used as a short form and is the name used by the UK in some international organisations. The abbreviation GB is frequently used for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in international agreements, e.g. Universal Postal Union and Road Traffic Convention, as well as in the ISO 3166 country codes (GB and GBR). "England" was also formerly used synecdochically to refer to the whole United Kingdom but this usage became rare early in the 20th century (though it persists in other languages).Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_6
    • Ireland is the sovereign republic occupying the larger portion of the island of Ireland. To distinguish the state from the island, or to distinguish either of these from Northern Ireland, it is also called "the Republic of Ireland" or simply "the Republic". Occasionally, its Irish-language name, Éire (or Eire without the diacritic), will be used in an English-language context to distinguish it from "Northern Ireland", even though the word Éire translates as "Ireland".Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_7
    • England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are the four countries of the United Kingdom, though they are also referred to, especially in sporting contexts, as the home nations of the United Kingdom.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_8
    • England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland are legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_9
    • Great Britain means the countries of England, Wales and Scotland considered as a unit.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_10
    • British Islands consists of the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. These are the polities within the British Isles that have the British monarch as head of state.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_11
  • Linguistic terms:Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_12
    • The two sovereign states in the region, the United Kingdom and Ireland, are frequently referred to as countries. So too are England, Wales, Scotland and, to a lesser extent, Northern Ireland (as is the whole island of Ireland).Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_13
    • British is an adjective pertaining to the United Kingdom; for example, a citizen of the UK is called a British citizen—but for citizenship purposes "British" includes the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_14
    • Anglo- is often used as an adjectival prefix referring to the United Kingdom (notwithstanding that its original meaning is "English") particularly in the field of diplomatic relations. It can also refer to the English language, to anglophone peoples and can have a variety of other shades of meaning.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_15
    • Wales is sometimes called the Principality of Wales, although this has no modern constitutional basis.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_16
    • Northern Ireland is often referred to as a province or called Ulster, after the traditional Irish province of Ulster within which it is located.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_17
  • SportTerminology of the British Isles_item_0_18
    • Forms of national representation vary from sport to sport. England, Scotland and Wales often compete separately as nations. In some sports—such as rugby and cricket—the island of Ireland competes as a nation; in others, most notably association football, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland field separate teams. In these contexts England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland/Northern Ireland are sometimes described as the home nations.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_19
    • Rugby union players from both Ireland and Great Britain play for British and Irish Lions representing the four "Home Unions" of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_20
    • Great Britain is sometimes used to mean United Kingdom. For example, at the Olympic Games, the team called "Great Britain" represents Great Britain and Northern Ireland. However, athletes from Northern Ireland have, by virtue of their entitlement to dual nationality, the choice of participating in either the Great Britain team or the Republic of Ireland team.Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_21
    • In the majority of individual sports (e.g. tennis and athletics), at international level competitors are identified as GB if they are from Great Britain or Northern Ireland. A small number of sports (e.g. golf, darts, snooker) identify participants as representing their constituent country. In the Commonwealth Games, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales each compete as separate nations, as do each of the three Crown Dependencies (Ireland is not part of the Commonwealth and is not eligible to participate).Terminology of the British Isles_item_0_22

Visual guide Terminology of the British Isles_section_1

Below is a visual reference guide to some of the main concepts and territories described in this article: Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_6

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_1

  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_23
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  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_25
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_26
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_27
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_28
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_29
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_30
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_31
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_32
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_33
  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_1_34

Terminology in detail Terminology of the British Isles_section_2

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_2

Terminology of the British Isles_description_list_3

  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_3_37
    • Terminology of the British Isles_item_3_38
      • England and Wales is a political and administrative term referring to the two home countries of England and Wales, which share the same legal system. Between 1746 and 1967 the term "England" did legally include Wales.Terminology of the British Isles_item_3_39

Terminology of the British Isles_description_list_4

  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_4_40
    • The historical Kingdom of Great Britain is Britain for the period 1707–1801.Terminology of the British Isles_item_4_41

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_5

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_6

Terminology of the British Isles_description_list_7

  • Terminology of the British Isles_item_7_44
  • N.B.: While "United Kingdom" is normally abbreviated UK, the official ISO 3166 two-letter country code is GB and the three letter code is GBR (Ukraine has the two letter code UA and the three letter code UKR). Due to a pre-existing convention originating in the UK's JANET academic computer network, the UK's Internet top-level domain is .uk, a break from the TCP/IP practice of following ISO 3166 (a .gb domain has also been used to a limited extent in the past but is now defunct). GB is also used on car number plates to indicate the United Kingdom.Terminology of the British Isles_item_7_46

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_8

  • Ireland (Irish: Éire) refers, geographically, to the island of Ireland, or to any of the following:Terminology of the British Isles_item_8_47

Terminology of the British Isles_description_list_9

  • Historically:Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_48
    • The Kingdom of Ireland was Ireland for the period 1541–1801. (The King of Ireland remained Head of State in the Irish Free State and Ireland/Éire until the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 abolished that status).Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_49
    • The Irish Republic, established by the Irish Declaration of Independence, was a 32-county republic encompassing the entire island, during the period 1919–22—though its de facto rule did not encompass all of the island. During this period, according to British law, Ireland remained part of the UK though its independence was recognised by Russia.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_50
    • Southern Ireland was a proposed Home Rule 26-county state under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. It never came into practical existence, being superseded by:Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_51
    • The Irish Free State is Ireland excepting Northern Ireland during the period 1922–37.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_52
  • Present:Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_53
    • Ireland (Irish: Éire) is the political entity consisting of the island of Ireland excepting Northern Ireland, 1937–present. This is the name of the state according to the Irish Constitution and the United Nations.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_54
    • The Republic of Ireland is a commonly used description of Ireland excepting Northern Ireland, 1949–present. It is also the name used by the international Association Football team.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_55
  • In sportTerminology of the British Isles_item_9_56
    • In Gaelic games, no distinction is recognised between the GAA counties of the Republic and those of Northern Ireland. County teams play in their provincial championships (where the six counties of Ulster within Northern Ireland and three within the Republic all play in the Ulster championship) and the winners of these play in the All-Ireland championship. Even within Northern Ireland, a tricolour, the flag of the Republic of Ireland, is flown at all games. At bigger games, where an anthem is played, it is always the national anthem of the Republic. In the case of the International Rules series against Australia, an Irish national team is chosen from all 32 counties.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_57
    • In Association Football, the teams correspond to political entities: Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In accordance with UEFA and FIFA's rules, each of these countries has its own football league: the Irish League and the League of Ireland respectively.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_58
    • In rugby union, rugby league, field hockey, cricket, boxing, golf, athletics and others the Ireland team is drawn from the whole island (i.e. both the Republic and Northern Ireland). Many sports organisations are subdivided along provincial lines e.g. Gaelic Athletic Association, golf.Terminology of the British Isles_item_9_59

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_10

  • The British Isles is a term used to mean the island of Great Britain plus the island of Ireland and many smaller surrounding islands, including the Isle of Man and, in some contexts, the Channel Islands (Guernsey and Jersey). See British Isles naming dispute for details of the conflict over use of this term.Terminology of the British Isles_item_10_60
  • Great Britain and Ireland, or variants like "Britain and Ireland" or "The UK and Ireland" are sometimes used as alternatives to the term British Isles.Terminology of the British Isles_item_10_61
  • Anglo-Celtic Isles is an alternative term (in limited use) for the geographic region comprising Britain & Ireland, more commonly referred to as the 'British Isles'. 'Anglo-Celtic Islands' is a derivative of this. It is intended as a geographic term free of any political implication and uses the macro-cultural grouping term Anglo-Celtic, referring to the peoples from which the majority of the island group's population are descended—the Anglo-Saxons and the Celts (it can also be inclusive of the Anglo-Normans).Terminology of the British Isles_item_10_62
  • Islands of the North Atlantic is another suggested replacement term for 'British Isles', without the same political connotations. However, its convolution and impracticality due to implying inclusion of fellow North Atlantic islands such as Iceland have made it unworkable and it has not come into common use. The term was used as part of the Strand 3 level of negotiations for the Belfast agreement. (Its acronym, IONA, is also the name of the small but historically important island of Iona off the coast of Scotland.)Terminology of the British Isles_item_10_63
  • British Islands (a legal term not in common usage) is the UK, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.Terminology of the British Isles_item_10_64
  • Brittany, itself a corruption of 'Britain', and sometimes formerly known as 'Little Britain' is a historical Duchy in the West of France, now a French region; for this modern administrative sense, see Brittany (administrative region).Terminology of the British Isles_item_10_65

Geographical distinctions Terminology of the British Isles_section_3

The British Isles Terminology of the British Isles_section_4

Great Britain Terminology of the British Isles_section_5

Ireland Terminology of the British Isles_section_6

Isle of Man Terminology of the British Isles_section_7

Channel Islands Terminology of the British Isles_section_8

Political terms in more detail Terminology of the British Isles_section_9

The United Kingdom Terminology of the British Isles_section_10

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official full title of the state. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_7

This name appears on official documentation such as British passports. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_8

For convenience, the name is usually shortened to United Kingdom, UK or Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_9

The United Kingdom is a sovereign state. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_10

Its four constituent countries are sometimes considered to be of different status. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_11

This view may be supported by the existence of devolved governments with different levels of power in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales (see Asymmetrical federalism). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_12

Wales is also often erroneously described as a principality of the United Kingdom. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_13

The title of Prince of Wales is usually given to the heir apparent to the British throne but it has no political or other role in respect of Wales. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_14

The International Organization for Standardisation (ISO) has defined Wales as a "country" rather than a "principality" since 2011, following a recommendation by the British Standards Institute and the Welsh Government. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_15

Northern Ireland is sometimes described by United Kingdom citizens as a province of the United Kingdom, which derives from the Irish province of Ulster, of which Northern Ireland is a part. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_16

Northern Ireland also had, until 1972, a far greater degree of self-government than the other constituent parts of the UK. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_17

Great Britain is both a geographical and a political entity. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_18

Geographically, it is one island, but as a political entity it also includes the smaller offshore islands that are administered as part of its constituent nations – England, Wales and Scotland – such as England's Isle of Wight, Wales' Anglesey and Scotland's Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_19

The abbreviation GB is sometimes officially used for the United Kingdom, for example in the Olympics, or as the vehicle registration plate country identification code for UK-registered cars (see also British car number plates). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_20

SCO in Scotland, CYM for Wales (Cymru), NI for Northern Ireland, or ENG for England can also be used. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_21

The internet code .gb, although allocated to the UK, is virtually unused and UK web domains use .uk. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_22

The four constituent parts of the UK are also known, particularly in sporting contexts, as Home Nations or the "Four Nations". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_23

The BBC refers to its UK-wide broadcasting operation as Nations and Regions ("regions" referring to geographic regions of England. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_24

Thus the naming conventions tend towards describing distinct regions or nations which exist within a single sovereign state. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_25

In sport, the home nations mostly have their own separate national teams – England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, for example in football. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_26

Sporting contests between the Four Nations are known as "Home internationals" (an example is the British Home Championship in football). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_27

The governing body for football in Northern Ireland is called the Irish Football Association (the IFA), having been in existence since some forty years before Partition. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_28

Its counterpart in the Republic (plus Derry City FC) is the Football Association of Ireland (the FAI). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_29

The Northern Ireland national team retained the name "Ireland" for some fifty years after partition. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_30

Since around 1970 the two teams have been consistently referred to as "Northern Ireland" and "Republic of Ireland" respectively. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_31

The UK competes as Great Britain at the Olympic Games. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_32

According to the Olympic Charter the Olympic Council of Ireland represents the entire island of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_33

Olympic athletes from Northern Ireland may choose whether to represent the UK or the Republic of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_34

Since the Good Friday Agreement and the subsequent implementation legislation, sporting organisation (and several other organisations, e.g. tourism, Irish Gaelic and Ulster Scots language boards) on the island of Ireland has increasingly been cross-border. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_35

Citizens of the UK are called British, Britons, Brits, (colloquial) or Britisher (archaic). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_36

The term Unionists may also be used, sometimes pejoratively, for example by supporters of Scottish independence when referring to supporters of the Union. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_37

Some older slang names for Britons are Tommy (for British soldiers) and Anglo. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_38

Anglo properly refers only to England, but it is sometimes used as a broader reference as an element in compound adjectives: for example, "Anglo-French relations" may be used in newspaper articles when referring to relations between the political entities France and the United Kingdom. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_39

Anglo-Saxon may be used (particularly in Continental European languages) when referring to the whole English-speaking world. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_40

Ireland Terminology of the British Isles_section_11

Main article: Names of the Irish state Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_41

Since the adoption of the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, Ireland has been the English name of the state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_42

The name Éire is used when writing in Irish. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_43

Since the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, the term "Republic of Ireland" is the term used as the additional description of the state. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_44

This term is useful in avoiding ambiguity between the name of the island and the name of the state. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_45

However, the term "Ireland" is always used in formal diplomatic contexts such as the European Union or the United Nations. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_46

The passport of the Republic of Ireland bears the name Éire – Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_47

Before the introduction of the 1937 constitution and the new name, the Irish Free State occupied the same territory as the modern state of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_48

The Irish Free State became an autonomous dominion of the British Empire in 1922 when it seceded from the United Kingdom through the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_49

The King ceased to be its Head of State in 1936 and the state ceased to be a Dominion and left the Commonwealth in 1948. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_50

Traditionally, the island of Ireland is divided into four provincesLeinster, Connacht, Munster and Ulster, with each of the provinces further divided into counties. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_51

The Republic of Ireland takes up 83% of the island, twenty-six of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_52

Northern Ireland takes up the remaining area, six of the traditional nine counties of Ulster. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_53

On the island of Ireland the naming of places often raises political issues. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_54

The usage of "Ireland" as the official name of the state causes offence to some Unionists in Northern Ireland, who believe it implies that the state still has a territorial claim to the whole island – the terminology of "Republic of Ireland" or "Éire" is much preferred by Northern Irish unionists when referring to that political state. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_55

Similarly, some Nationalists in Northern Ireland also prefer to reserve the usage of "Ireland" to refer to the whole island. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_56

In Northern Ireland, Irishness is a highly contested identity, with fundamentally different perceptions of national identity between unionists (who generally perceive themselves as being British) and nationalists (who generally consider both communities to be part of the Irish nation). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_57

The Republic of Ireland is often referred to by the Nationalist and Republican communities by the term "the Twenty-six Counties", with the connotation that the state constituted as such forms only a portion of the ideal political unit of the Irish Republic, which would consist of all of the thirty-two counties into which the island is divided. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_58

The term "the Six Counties" (of Northern Ireland) is also used. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_59

Other Nationalist terms in use include "the North of Ireland" and "the North". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_60

These latter are terms also used by the Irish national broadcaster RTÉ. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_61

More extreme terms for Northern Ireland include "the occupied six counties" or "occupied Ireland", which are often used by people who reject the idea of Northern Ireland as a separate entity from the Republic of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_62

The Irish passport is available to Irish citizens and can also be applied for abroad through Irish Consular services and the local Irish Embassy. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_63

As per the Irish nationality law, any person born on the island of Ireland before 2005, or otherwise a first generation descendant of such a person, is allowed to apply for an Irish passport. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_64

As such, people born in Northern Ireland and their children may be Irish citizens and hold an Irish passport if they choose. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_65

British Islands Terminology of the British Isles_section_12

Main article: British Islands Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_66

Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the legal term British Islands (as opposed to the geographical term British Isles) refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the Channel Islands; and the Isle of Man. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_67

Special British passports are issued to citizens of the Crown dependencies. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_68

On the front of passports issued to residents of the Crown dependencies, the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" are replaced with "British Islands" followed by the name of the issuing state or island. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_69

This design applies to Jersey passport, Guernsey passport and Isle of Man passport. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_70

Pre-Brexit, Crown dependency also bore the title "European Union" for border control purposes, like British passports. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_71

Crown dependency citizens who have no family ties to the United Kingdom were granted a special limited 'Islander Status' under EU law (article 6 of Protocol 3 in the Treaty of Accession of the UK to the European Community). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_72

Historical aspects Terminology of the British Isles_section_13

Further information: Britain (name) Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_73

Some suggest an early known for the term might be from ancient Greek writings. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_74

Though some of the original texts have been lost, excerpts were quoted or paraphrased by later authors. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_75

Parts of the Massaliote Periplus, a merchants' handbook describing searoutes of the sixth century BC, were used in translation in the writings of Avienus around AD 400. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_76

Ireland was referred to as Ierne (Insula sacra, the sacred island, as the Greeks interpreted it) "inhabited by the race of Hiberni" (gens hiernorum), and Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_77

Several sources from around 150 BC to AD 70 include fragments of the travel writings of the ancient Greek Pytheas around 320 BC, use the terms Albion and Ierne and have been described as referring to the British Isles, including Ireland, as the Prettanic or Brettanic Islands (Βρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι) or as αἱ Βρεττανιαι, literally "the Britains". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_78

Greek writers called the peoples of these islands the Πρεττανοί, later Bρεττανοί (alternative spellings of this and of all relative words have a single tau or a double nu), a name that possibly corresponds to the Priteni. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_79

These names may have derived from a "Celtic language" term which may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls who may have used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_80

The Romans called the inhabitants of Gaul (modern France) Galli or Celtae, the latter term deriving from the Greek name Κελτοί for a central European people. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_81

Antiquarians of the seventeenth century who found language connections developed the idea of a race of Celts inhabiting the islands, but this term was not used by the Greeks or Romans for the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, nor is there any record of the inhabitants of the British Isles referring to themselves as such. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_82

Nevertheless, Roman administration later incorporated the province of Britannia into the praetorian prefecture of Gaul, in common with Hispania, which had Celtiberians. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_83

Armorica, where the Bretons would settle, was part of Gallia Celtica, so there were tertiary relations between the Britons and Gallic Celts at least. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_84

In addition, the Parisii of Gallia Celtica are thought to have founded Aldborough in Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_85

Belgae and Silures also came from Gallic areas, although not strictly "Celtic", but from Gallia Belgica and Aquitainia. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_86

Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, Britain, and has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_87

The latter referred to the early Brythonic speaking inhabitants of the Scottish highlands and the north of Scotland, who are known as the Cruithne in Scottish Gaelic, and who the Romans called Picts or Caledonians. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_88

Romans Terminology of the British Isles_section_14

Caesar's invasions of Britain brought descriptions of the peoples of what he called Britannia pars interior, "inland Britain", in 55 BC. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_89

Throughout Book 4 of his Geography, Strabo is consistent in spelling the island Britain (transliterated) as Prettanikē; he uses the terms Prettans or Brettans loosely to refer to the islands as a group – a common generalisation used by classical geographers. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_90

For example, in Geography 2.1.18, …οι νοτιώτατοι των Βρεττανών βορειότεροι τούτων εισίν ("…the most southern of the Brettans are further north than this"). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_91

He was writing around AD 10, although the earliest surviving copy of his work dates from the 6th century. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_92

Pliny the Elder writing around AD 70 uses a Latin version of the same terminology in section 4.102 of his Naturalis Historia. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_93

He writes of Great Britain: Albion ipsi nomen fuit, cum Britanniae vocarentur omnes de quibus mox paulo dicemus. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_94

("Albion was its own name, when all [the islands] were called the Britannias; I will speak of them in a moment"). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_95

In the following section, 4.103, Pliny enumerates the islands he considers to make up the Britannias, listing Great Britain, Ireland, and many smaller islands. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_96

In his Geography written in the mid 2nd century and probably describing the position around AD 100, Ptolemy includes both Great Britain (Albion) and Ireland (Iwernia) in the so called Bretanic island group. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_97

He entitles Book II, Chapter 1 of as Iwernia, Bretanic Island, and Chapter 2 as Alwion [sic], Bretanic Island. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_98

The name Albion for Great Britain fell from favour, and the island was described in Greek as Πρεττανία or Βρεττανία, in Latin Britannia, an inhabitant as Βρεττανός, Britannus, with the adjective Βρεττανικός, Britannicus, equating to "British". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_99

With the Roman conquest of Britain the name Britannia was used for the province of Roman Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_100

The Emperor Claudius was honoured with the agnomen Britannicus as if he were the conqueror, and coins were struck from AD 46 inscribed DE BRITAN, DE BRITANN, DE BRITANNI, or DE BRITANNIS. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_101

With the visit of Hadrian in AD 121 coins introduced a female figure with the label BRITANNIA as a personification or goddess of the place. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_102

These and later Roman coins introduced the seated figure of Britannia which would be reintroduced in the 17th century. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_103

In the later years of Roman rule Britons who left Latin inscriptions, both at home and elsewhere in the Empire, often described themselves as Brittanus or Britto, and where describing their citizenship gave it as cives of a British tribe or of a patria (homeland) of Britannia, not Roma. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_104

From the 4th century, many Britons migrated from Roman Britain across the English Channel and founded Brittany. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_105

Mediaeval period Terminology of the British Isles_section_15

While Latin remained the language of learning, from the early mediaeval period records begin to appear in native languages. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_106

The earliest indigenous source to use a collective term for the archipelago is the Life of Saint Columba, a hagiography recording the missionary activities of the sixth century Irish monk Saint Columba among the peoples of what is now Scotland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_107

It was written in the late seventh century by Adomnán of Iona, an Irish monk living on the Inner Hebridean island. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_108

The collective term for the archipelago used within this work is Oceani Insulae meaning "Islands of the Ocean" (Book 2, 46 in the Sharpe edition = Book 2, 47 in Reeves edition), it is used sparingly and no Priteni-derived collective reference is made. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_109

Another early native source to use a collective term is the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede written in the early eighth century. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_110

The collective term for the archipelago used within this work is insularum meaning "islands" (Book 1, 8) and it too is used sparingly. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_111

He stated that Britain "studies and confesses one and the same knowledge of the highest truth in the tongues of five nations, namely the Angles, the Britons, the Scots, the Picts, and the Latins", distinguishing between the Brythonic languages of the "ancient Britons" or Old Welsh speakers and other language groups. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_112

Brythonic, Saxon and Viking kingdoms such as Strathclyde, Wessex, and Jórvík amalgamated, leading to the formation of Scotland, and England. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_113

Wales was sometimes united under princes or kings such as Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_114

Between 854 and 1171, a kingship of Ireland was established by kings of the regional kingdoms such as Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid, Toirdelbach Ua Briain, Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, and Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, something not achieved in Britain until 1707. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_115

In subsequent Norman Ireland, local lords gained considerable autonomy from the Lordship of Ireland until it became the Kingdom of Ireland under direct English rule. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_116

Renaissance mapmakers Terminology of the British Isles_section_16

Abraham Ortelius makes clear his understanding that England, Scotland and Ireland were politically separate in 1570 by the full title of his map: Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae, sive Britannicar. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_117

insularum descriptio ('A representation of England, Scotland and Ireland, or the Britannic islands'). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_118

George Lily's 1546 map divides Britain into the two kingdoms of England and Scotland, with Ireland alongside. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_119

Some maps from this period also appear to mark Wales, and sometimes Cornwall, as separate areas within Britain, while the history of England created by Polydore Vergil for Henry VIII states, "The whole country of Britain is divided into four parts, whereof the one is inhabited by Englishmen, the other of Scots, the third Welshmen and the fourth of Cornish people." Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_120

Maps of the Mediaeval, Renaissance and later periods often referred to Albion. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_121

This archaic term was originally used by Ptolemy and Pliny to mean the island of Great Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_122

In later centuries its meaning changed to refer only to the area we now call Scotland (Albany, or Alba in Gaelic). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_123

Albion has survived as a poetic name for Britain but it is not in everyday use. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_124

18th and 19th centuries Terminology of the British Isles_section_17

Following the Acts of Union 1707, a fashion arose, particularly in Scotland, for referring to Scotland as North Britain, while England was sometimes dubbed South Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_125

These terms gained in popularity during the 19th century. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_126

The most lasting example of this usage was in the name of the North British Railway, which became part of the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923, and in the name of the North British Hotel in Edinburgh, opened by the North British Railway in 1902, which retained the name until it reopened in 1991 as The Balmoral. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_127

Evolution of kingdoms and states Terminology of the British Isles_section_18

The diagram on the right gives an indication of the further evolution of kingdoms and states. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_128

In 1603 the Scottish King James VI inherited the English throne as "James I of England". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_129

He styled himself as King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, although both kingdoms on Great Britain retained their sovereignty and independent parliaments, the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_130

(The term "Great Britain" in English itself dates from Middle English as early as c. 1338, a translation of 12th-century Medieval Latin: Britannia maior and Anglo-Norman: Bretannie maiur or grant Bretaigne and derived from Ptolemy's Geography.) Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_131

The 1707 Act of Union united England and Scotland in the Kingdom of Great Britain under the Parliament of Great Britain, then in 1800 Ireland was brought under British government control by the Act of Union creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_132

Irish unrest culminated in the Irish War of Independence and the 1922 separation of the Irish Free State, which later became a republic with the name Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_133

The majority Protestant northeast continued to be part of what became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_134

British overseas territories such as Bermuda, Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands have various relationships with the UK. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_135

The Commonwealth of Nations, initially formalised in 1931 (the British Commonwealth until 1949), is an association of independent states roughly corresponding to the former British Empire. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_136

(This has no connection with the Commonwealth of England, a short-lived republic replacing the previous kingdoms during the English Interregnum (1649–1660).) Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_137

Adjectives Terminology of the British Isles_section_19

The adjectives used to describe the contents and attributes of the various constituent parts of the British Isles also cause confusion. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_138

In the absence of a single adjective to refer to the United Kingdom, British is generally used to refer to the United Kingdom as a whole. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_139

However, in a specifically physical geographical sense, British is used to refer to the island of Great Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_140

The adjectival phrase Great British is very rarely used to refer to Great Britain, other than to contrive a pun on the word great, as in "Great British Food". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_141

Irish, refers to people or a characteristic "of Ireland". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_142

As such, its meaning is contextual on the meaning of "Ireland" being used: it can relate both to the Irish state, and to the island of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_143

Northern Ireland, as a constituent part of the United Kingdom, can thus be both British or Irish, reflected in the ability for residents of Northern Ireland to take either British or Irish citizenship. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_144

In order to be more specific, Northern Irish is therefore in common usage. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_145

Members of the Nationalist communities would not describe themselves as British and would only use the terms Irish, or specifically Northern Irish where needed. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_146

The term Ulster can also be used as an adjective (e.g. "Royal Ulster Constabulary"), but this is more likely to be used by Unionists and has political connotations in the same fashion as its use as a proper noun (because only six of the traditional nine counties of Ulster, namely Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, are included in Northern Ireland with the remaining three counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan forming part of the Republic). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_147

The term Ulsterman (or Ulsterwoman) is common and holds no such political connotation. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_148

Likewise, Nationalists might describe, say, a lake in Northern Ireland as Irish. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_149

Note that the geographical term Irish Sea thus far appears to have escaped political connotations, even though territorial control of the waters of the Irish Sea is divided between both the Republic of Ireland and the UK, and also includes a British Crown dependency, the Isle of Man—as yet there appears to be no controversy with the term’s usage to mirror that of "British Isles". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_150

The "Northern" in "Northern Ireland" is not completely accurate. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_151

The most northerly point on the island, Malin Head, is in the Republic of Ireland—in County Donegal's Inishowen Peninsula. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_152

Problems with use of terms Terminology of the British Isles_section_20

British Isles Terminology of the British Isles_section_21

Main article: British Isles naming dispute Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_153

The dictionary definition of British Isles is that it is a geographical term that refers to the whole of Ireland and Great Britain as well as the surrounding islands. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_154

It is sometimes incorrectly used as if identical to the UK; or to refer to Great Britain and the surrounding islands, excluding the island of Ireland entirely. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_155

The BBC and The Times have style guides that mandate the dictionary definition but occasional misuse can be found on their web sites. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_156

The term British Isles can also be considered irritating or offensive by some on the grounds that the modern association of the term British with the United Kingdom makes its application to Ireland inappropriate. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_157

The term British Isles can also be considered to imply a proprietary title on the entire archipelago. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_158

The policy of the government of Ireland is that no branch of government should use the term, and although it is on occasion used in a geographical sense in Irish parliamentary debates, this is often done in a way that excludes the Republic of Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_159

In October 2006, The Times quoted a spokesman for the Irish Embassy in London as saying that they would discourage its use. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_160

During a stop-over visit to the Republic of Ireland in 1989, the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, indicated that he assumed Ireland's head of state was Queen Elizabeth II, given that she was the British Queen and his officials said that Ireland was a part of the British Isles. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_161

In Northern Ireland, some nationalists reject the term and instead use these islands, these isles or "Britain and Ireland" as an alternative. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_162

There have been several suggestions for replacements for the term British Isles. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_163

Although there is no single accepted replacement, the terms Great Britain and Ireland, The British Isles and Ireland and Britain and Ireland are all used. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_164

England Terminology of the British Isles_section_22

The word "England" is often used synecdochically to refer to Great Britain—or the United Kingdom as a whole—which often causes offence, particularly to those from the non-English parts of Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_165

In a similar way, references to England as an island, to an "English passport", or to Scottish or Welsh places as being in England are examples of this usage of the term "England". Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_166

Because of the offence likely to be taken by Scots, Welsh and Irish at this usage, most politicians and official figures have avoided this usage since the early 20th century. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_167

However, there are frequent examples of this usage from earlier times. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_168

For a long time it was common for fans of the England football team to wave the British Union Flag—with the use of the specifically English St George's Cross flag only gaining popularity at the Euro 96 tournament. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_169

The colloquial usage of "England" as a synonym for "Britain" is still widespread outside the UK. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_170

In Germany, the term "England" is often used to mean Great Britain or even the entire United Kingdom. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_171

In many other languages, such as Chinese, Japanese or Korean, the word for "English" is synonymous with "British"—see the article on Alternative words for British for more detail. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_172

Europe Terminology of the British Isles_section_23

The term "Europe" may be used in one of several different contexts by British and Irish people: either to refer to the whole of the European continent, to refer to only to Mainland Europe, sometimes called "continental Europe" or simply "the Continent" by some people in the archipelago. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_173

Europe may also be used in reference to the European Union (or, historically, to the European Economic Community). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_174

A comedic treatment of the different uses of this word appears in an episode of the BBC sitcom To the Manor Born. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_175

When tradesmen are taking measurements in metric, and Audrey fforbes-Hamilton objects on the grounds that the house was built "in feet and inches", a tradesman says "We're in Europe now", referring to the European Economic Community. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_176

Audrey fforbes-Hamilton retorts "Well you may be, but I'm staying here!" Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_177

- implying that to her, the word "Europe" referred only to mainland Europe, excluding Britain and Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_178

Great Britain Terminology of the British Isles_section_24

The word "Great" means "larger", in comparison with Brittany in modern-day France. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_179

One historical term for the peninsula in France that largely corresponds to the modern French province is Lesser or Little Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_180

That region was settled by many British immigrants during the period of Anglo-Saxon migration into Britain, and named "Little Britain" by them. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_181

The French term "Bretagne" now refers to the French "Little Britain", not to the British "Great Britain", which in French is called Grande-Bretagne. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_182

In classical times, the Graeco-Roman geographer Ptolemy in his Almagest also called the larger island megale Brettania (great Britain). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_183

At that time, it was in contrast to the smaller island of Ireland, which he called mikra Brettania (little Britain). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_184

In his later work Geography, Ptolemy refers to Great Britain as Albion and to Ireland as Iwernia. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_185

These "new" names were likely to have been the native names for the islands at the time. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_186

The earlier names, in contrast, were likely to have been coined before direct contact with local peoples was made. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_187

Britain Terminology of the British Isles_section_25

The word Britain is ambiguous, being used variously to mean Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and for some, England. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_188

Use of Britain can be contentious, with many people in Northern Ireland objecting to its application to their province. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_189

While some organisations including the BBC and British Government prefer to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain, others prefer, where precision is not required, to use Britain to mean the United Kingdom. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_190

Ireland Terminology of the British Isles_section_26

The word Ireland has two meanings. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_191

Terminology of the British Isles_ordered_list_11

  1. It is the official name of the state that occupies five sixths of the island, in Irish law 'described' as "the Republic of Ireland".Terminology of the British Isles_item_11_66
  2. It is a geographical term for the whole island, which may be referred to as "the island of Ireland" to avoid ambiguity.Terminology of the British Isles_item_11_67

Ulster Terminology of the British Isles_section_27

The terminology and usage of the name Ulster in Irish and British culture varies. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_192

Many within the unionist community and much of the press refer to Northern Ireland as Ulster – whereas the nationalist community refer to the traditional Irish province of Ulster, which is a nine-county entity that incorporates the three counties of Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan (which are in the Republic) along with the counties of Armagh, Antrim, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone in Northern Ireland. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_193

Thus, the word Ulster has two usages: Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_194

Terminology of the British Isles_ordered_list_12

  1. It is the name of one of the four Provinces of Ireland, consisting of the nine northern counties of the island, that was partitioned between the United Kingdom (six counties) and the Republic of Ireland (three counties).Terminology of the British Isles_item_12_68
  2. It is an alternative name for Northern Ireland, used by many in the Unionist community. It consists of the six north-eastern counties of the island that remain part of the United Kingdom.Terminology of the British Isles_item_12_69

Further information Terminology of the British Isles_section_28

Isle of Man and Channel Islands Terminology of the British Isles_section_29

The Isle of Man and the two bailiwicks of the Channel Islands are Crown dependencies; that is, non-sovereign nations, self-governing but whose sovereignty is held by the British Crown. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_195

They control their own internal affairs, but not their defence or foreign relations. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_196

They are not part of the United Kingdom or part of the European Union. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_197

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_13

Celtic names Terminology of the British Isles_section_30

There are five Celtic languages in current use in the region. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_198

Each has names for the islands and countries of the British Isles. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_199

They are divided into two branches: Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_200

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_14

Some of the above are: Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_201

Terminology of the British Isles_table_general_0

EnglishTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_0 CornwallTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_1 WalesTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_2 IrelandTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_3 Northern

IrelandTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_4

Republic of

IrelandTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_5

ScotlandTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_6 MannTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_7 EnglandTerminology of the British Isles_header_cell_0_0_8
Cornish

(Kernewek)Terminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_0

KernowTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_1 KembraTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_2 IwerdhonTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_3 Iwerdhon GledhTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_4 Repoblek

IwerdhonTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_5

AlbanTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_6 ManowTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_7 Pow an SawsonTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_1_8
Welsh

(Cymraeg)Terminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_0

CernywTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_1 CymruTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_2 IwerddonTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_3 Gogledd IwerddonTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_4 Gweriniaeth

IwerddonTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_5

Yr AlbanTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_6 ManawTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_7 LloegrTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_2_8
Irish

(Gaeilge)Terminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_0

an ChornTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_1 an Bhreatain BheagTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_2 ÉireTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_3 Tuaisceart ÉireannTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_4 Poblacht na

hÉireannTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_5

AlbainTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_6 ManainnTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_7 SasanaTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_3_8
Scottish Gaelic

(Gàidhlig)Terminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_0

a' ChòrnTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_1 a' ChuimrighTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_2 ÈirinnTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_3 Èirinn a TuathTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_4 Poblachd na

h-ÈireannTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_5

AlbaTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_6 ManainnTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_7 SasannTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_4_8
Manx

(Gaelg)Terminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_0

y ChornTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_1 BretynTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_2 NerinTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_3 Nerin HwoaieTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_4 Pobblaght

NerinTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_5

NalbinTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_6 ManninTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_7 SostynTerminology of the British Isles_cell_0_5_8

The English word Welsh is from a common Germanic root meaning "Romanised foreigner" (cognate with Wallonia and Wallachia, and also cognate with the word used in Mediaeval German to refer to the French and Italians). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_202

The English names Albion and Albany are related to Alba and used poetically for either England or Scotland, or the whole island of Great Britain. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_203

English Erin is a poetic name for Ireland derived from Éire (or rather, from its dative form Éirinn). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_204

Terms for the British Isles in the Irish language Terminology of the British Isles_section_31

In Irish, the term Oileáin Bhriotanacha is a translation of the English term British Isles. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_205

Another translation is Oileáin Bhreataineacha, which was used in the 1937 translation from English to Irish of a 1931 geography book. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_206

Earlier dictionaries give Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa as the translation, literally meaning West European Isles. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_207

Today the most common term Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór is used, meaning, literally, Ireland and Great Britain, as provided by terminological dictionaries. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_208

Slang Terminology of the British Isles_section_32

Blighty is a slang word for Britain derived from the Hindustani word bilāyatī ("foreign"). Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_209

Depending on the user, it is meant either affectionately or archly. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_210

It was often used by British soldiers abroad in the First World War to refer to home. Terminology of the British Isles_sentence_211

See also Terminology of the British Isles_section_33

Terminology of the British Isles_unordered_list_15


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminology of the British Isles.