Texas

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This article is about the State of Texas. Texas_sentence_0

For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). Texas_sentence_1

"Texan" redirects here. Texas_sentence_2

For other uses, see Texan (disambiguation). Texas_sentence_3

Texas_table_infobox_0

TexasTexas_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryTexas_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesTexas_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodTexas_header_cell_0_2_0 Republic of TexasTexas_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionTexas_header_cell_0_3_0 December 29, 1845 (28th)Texas_cell_0_3_1
CapitalTexas_header_cell_0_4_0 AustinTexas_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityTexas_header_cell_0_5_0 HoustonTexas_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroTexas_header_cell_0_6_0 Dallas–Fort Worth MetroplexTexas_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentTexas_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorTexas_header_cell_0_8_0 Greg Abbott (R)Texas_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorTexas_header_cell_0_9_0 Dan Patrick (R)Texas_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureTexas_header_cell_0_10_0 Texas LegislatureTexas_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseTexas_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateTexas_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseTexas_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesTexas_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryTexas_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of Texas (Civil)

Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (Criminal)Texas_cell_0_13_1

U.S. senatorsTexas_header_cell_0_14_0 John Cornyn (R)

Ted Cruz (R)Texas_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationTexas_header_cell_0_15_0 23 Republicans

13 Democrats (list)Texas_cell_0_15_1

AreaTexas_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalTexas_header_cell_0_17_0 268,596 sq mi (695,662 km)Texas_cell_0_17_1
LandTexas_header_cell_0_18_0 261,232 sq mi (676,587 km)Texas_cell_0_18_1
WaterTexas_header_cell_0_19_0 7,365 sq mi (19,075 km)  2.7%Texas_cell_0_19_1
Area rankTexas_header_cell_0_20_0 2ndTexas_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsTexas_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthTexas_header_cell_0_22_0 801 mi (1,289 km)Texas_cell_0_22_1
WidthTexas_header_cell_0_23_0 773 mi (1,244 km)Texas_cell_0_23_1
ElevationTexas_header_cell_0_24_0 1,700 ft (520 m)Texas_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Guadalupe Peak)Texas_header_cell_0_25_0 8,751 ft (2,667.4 m)Texas_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Gulf of Mexico)Texas_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)Texas_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Texas_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalTexas_header_cell_0_28_0 28,995,881Texas_cell_0_28_1
RankTexas_header_cell_0_29_0 2ndTexas_cell_0_29_1
DensityTexas_header_cell_0_30_0 108/sq mi (40.6/km)Texas_cell_0_30_1
Density rankTexas_header_cell_0_31_0 26thTexas_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeTexas_header_cell_0_32_0 $59,206Texas_cell_0_32_1
Income rankTexas_header_cell_0_33_0 24thTexas_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Texas_header_cell_0_34_0 Texan

Texian (archaic) Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)Texas_cell_0_34_1

LanguageTexas_header_cell_0_35_0
Official languageTexas_header_cell_0_36_0 No official language

(see Languages spoken in Texas)Texas_cell_0_36_1

Spoken languageTexas_header_cell_0_37_0 Predominantly English;

Spanish is spoken by a sizable minorityTexas_cell_0_37_1

Time zonesTexas_header_cell_0_38_0
Majority of stateTexas_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Texas_cell_0_39_1
Summer (DST)Texas_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Texas_cell_0_40_1
El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson countiesTexas_header_cell_0_41_0 UTC−07:00 (Mountain)Texas_cell_0_41_1
Summer (DST)Texas_header_cell_0_42_0 UTC−06:00 (MDT)Texas_cell_0_42_1
USPS abbreviationTexas_header_cell_0_43_0 TXTexas_cell_0_43_1
ISO 3166 codeTexas_header_cell_0_44_0 US-TXTexas_cell_0_44_1
Traditional abbreviationTexas_header_cell_0_45_0 Tex.Texas_cell_0_45_1
LatitudeTexas_header_cell_0_46_0 25°50′ N to 36°30′ NTexas_cell_0_46_1
LongitudeTexas_header_cell_0_47_0 93°31′ W to 106°39′ WTexas_cell_0_47_1
WebsiteTexas_header_cell_0_48_0 Texas_cell_0_48_1

Texas_table_infobox_1

Texas state symbolsTexas_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaTexas_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdTexas_header_cell_1_2_0 Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)Texas_cell_1_2_1
FishTexas_header_cell_1_3_0 Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)Texas_cell_1_3_1
FlowerTexas_header_cell_1_4_0 Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)Texas_cell_1_4_1
InsectTexas_header_cell_1_5_0 Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)Texas_cell_1_5_1
MammalTexas_header_cell_1_6_0 Texas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)Texas_cell_1_6_1
ReptileTexas_header_cell_1_7_0 Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)Texas_cell_1_7_1
TreeTexas_header_cell_1_8_0 Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)Texas_cell_1_8_1
Inanimate insigniaTexas_header_cell_1_9_0
FoodTexas_header_cell_1_10_0 ChiliTexas_cell_1_10_1
InstrumentTexas_header_cell_1_11_0 GuitarTexas_cell_1_11_1
ShellTexas_header_cell_1_12_0 Lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)Texas_cell_1_12_1
ShipTexas_header_cell_1_13_0 USS TexasTexas_cell_1_13_1
SloganTexas_header_cell_1_14_0 The Friendly StateTexas_cell_1_14_1
SoilTexas_header_cell_1_15_0 Houston BlackTexas_cell_1_15_1
SportTexas_header_cell_1_16_0 RodeoTexas_cell_1_16_1
OtherTexas_header_cell_1_17_0 Molecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)Texas_cell_1_17_1
State route markerTexas_header_cell_1_18_0
State quarterTexas_header_cell_1_19_0

Texas (/ˈtɛksəs/, also locally /ˈtɛksɪz/; Spanish: Texas or Tejas, pronounced [ˈtexas (listen)) is a state in the South Central Region of the United States. Texas_sentence_4

It is the second largest U.S. Texas_sentence_5

state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas_sentence_6

Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast. Texas_sentence_7

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Texas_sentence_8

Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas_sentence_9

Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. Texas_sentence_10

The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal. Texas_sentence_11

The origin of Texas's name is from the word táyshaʼ, which means "friends" in the Caddo language. Texas_sentence_12

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and the Southwestern regions. Texas_sentence_13

Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than ten percent of Texas's land area is desert. Texas_sentence_14

Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Texas_sentence_15

Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend. Texas_sentence_16

The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Texas_sentence_17

Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas. Texas_sentence_18

France held a short-lived colony. Texas_sentence_19

Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming the Republic of Texas. Texas_sentence_20

In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state. Texas_sentence_21

The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. Texas_sentence_22

A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. Texas_sentence_23

After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Texas_sentence_24

Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil. Texas_sentence_25

Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. Texas_sentence_26

In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. Texas_sentence_27

It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. Texas_sentence_28

With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. Texas_sentence_29

As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. Texas_sentence_30

With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas_sentence_31

Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product. Texas_sentence_32

If Texas were a sovereign state, it would have the 10th largest economy in the world. Texas_sentence_33

Etymology Texas_section_0

The name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ (/tʼajʃaʔ/) "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. Texas_sentence_34

The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. Texas_sentence_35

During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas ("New Philippines") and Nuevo Reino de Filipinas ("New Kingdom of the Philippines"), or as provincia de los Tejas ("province of the Tejas"), later also provincia de Texas (or de Tejas), ("province of Texas"). Texas_sentence_36

It was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, and declared a republic in 1836. Texas_sentence_37

The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. State of Texas. Texas_sentence_38

The English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, and based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Texas_sentence_39

Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. Texas_sentence_40

A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas_sentence_41

History Texas_section_1

Main article: History of Texas Texas_sentence_42

Pre-European era Texas_section_2

Further information: Pre-Columbian Mexico Texas_sentence_43

Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas. Texas_sentence_44

Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. Texas_sentence_45

These were: Texas_sentence_46

Texas_unordered_list_0

When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, there were several races of Native peoples divided into many smaller tribes. Texas_sentence_47

They were Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan, and Uto-Aztecan. Texas_sentence_48

The Uto-Aztecan Puebloan peoples lived neared the Rio Grande in the western portion of the state, the Athabaskan-speaking Apache tribes lived throughout the interior, the Caddoans controlled much of the Red River region and the Atakapans were mostly centered along the Gulf Coast. Texas_sentence_49

At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas. Texas_sentence_50

This entire culture group, primarily centered in northeastern Mexico, is now extinct. Texas_sentence_51

It is difficult to say who lived in the northwestern region of the state originally. Texas_sentence_52

By the time the region came to be explored, it belonged to the fairly well-known Comanche, another Uto-Aztecan people who had transitioned into a powerful horse culture, but it is believed that they came later and did not live there during the 16th century. Texas_sentence_53

It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans. Texas_sentence_54

No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area. Texas_sentence_55

Native American tribes who lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Aranama, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita. Texas_sentence_56

The name Texas derives from táyshaʔ, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies". Texas_sentence_57

The region was primarily controlled by the Spanish for the first couple centuries of contact, until the Texas Revolution. Texas_sentence_58

They were not particularly kind to their native populations—even less so with the Caddoans, who were not trusted as their culture was split between the Spanish and the French. Texas_sentence_59

When the Spanish briefly managed to conquer the Louisiana colony, they decided to switch tactics and attempt being exceedingly friendly to the Indians, which they continued even after the French took back the colony. Texas_sentence_60

After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the United States inherited this odd circumstance. Texas_sentence_61

The Caddoans preferred the company of Americans and almost the entire population of them migrated into the states of Louisiana and Arkansas. Texas_sentence_62

The Spanish felt jilted after having spent so much time and effort and began trying to lure the Caddo back, even promising them more land. Texas_sentence_63

Seemingly without actually knowing how they came by it, the United States (who had begun convincing tribes to self-segregate from whites by selling everything and moving west ever since they gained the Louisiana Purchase) faced an overflow of native peoples in Missouri and Arkansas and were able to negotiate with the Caddoans to allow several displaced peoples to settle on unused lands in eastern Texas. Texas_sentence_64

They included the Muscogee, Houma Choctaw, Lenape and Mingo Seneca, among others, who all came to view the Caddoans as saviors, making those peoples highly influential. Texas_sentence_65

Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land. Texas_sentence_66

Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game. Texas_sentence_67

Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers. Texas_sentence_68

During the Texas Revolution, the U.S. became heavily involved. Texas_sentence_69

Prior treaties with the Spanish forbade either side from militarizing its native population in any potential conflict between the two nations. Texas_sentence_70

At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread. Texas_sentence_71

The Caddoans were always clueless when questioned, The Texan and American authorities in the region could never find hard evidence linking them to it and often it was so far-flung from Caddoan lands, it barely made any sense. Texas_sentence_72

It seems most likely that these were false-flag attacks meant to start a cascading effect to force the natives under Caddoan influence into armed conflict without breaking any treaties—preferably on the side of the Spanish. Texas_sentence_73

While no proof was found as to who the culprit was, those in charge of Texas at the time attempted multiple times to publicly blame and punish the Caddoans for the incidents with the U.S. government trying to keep them in check. Texas_sentence_74

Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense. Texas_sentence_75

By the 1830s, the U.S. had drafted the Indian Removal Act, which was used to facilitate the Trail of Tears. Texas_sentence_76

Fearing retribution of other native peoples, Indian Agents all over the eastern U.S. began desperately trying to convince all their native peoples to uproot and move west. Texas_sentence_77

This included the Caddoans of Louisiana and Arkansas. Texas_sentence_78

Following the Texas Revolution, the Texans chose to make peace with their Native peoples but did not honor former land claims or agreements. Texas_sentence_79

This began the movement of Native populations north into what would become Indian Territory—modern-day Oklahoma. Texas_sentence_80

Colonization Texas_section_3

Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French colonization of Texas, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), New Spain, Spanish Texas, Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Mexican War of Independence, Treaty of Córdoba, First Mexican Empire, Mexican Texas, Provisional Government of Mexico (1823–24), 1824 Constitution of Mexico, First Mexican Republic, Siete Leyes, and Centralist Republic of Mexico Texas_sentence_81

The first historical document related to Texas was a map of the Gulf Coast, created in 1519 by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda. Texas_sentence_82

Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in what is now Texas. Texas_sentence_83

Cabeza de Vaca reported that in 1528, when the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us." Texas_sentence_84

Cabeza de Vaca also made observations about the way of life of the Ignaces Natives of Texas: Texas_sentence_85

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado describes his 1541 encounter: Texas_sentence_86

European powers ignored the area until accidentally settling there in 1685. Texas_sentence_87

Miscalculations by René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle resulted in his establishing the colony of Fort Saint Louis at Matagorda Bay rather than along the Mississippi River. Texas_sentence_88

The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives. Texas_sentence_89

In 1690 Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed a competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas. Texas_sentence_90

After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico. Texas_sentence_91

When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in 1716 Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas. Texas_sentence_92

Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in the area. Texas_sentence_93

Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to the area. Texas_sentence_94

It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces. Texas_sentence_95

In 1749, the Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai. Texas_sentence_96

The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785 and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes. Texas_sentence_97

With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes. Texas_sentence_98

By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity. Texas_sentence_99

When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, American authorities insisted the agreement also included Texas. Texas_sentence_100

The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in 1819, at what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana. Texas_sentence_101

Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement. Texas_sentence_102

Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River. Texas_sentence_103

In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico. Texas_sentence_104

Due to its low population, Mexico made the area part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas. Texas_sentence_105

Hoping more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain. Texas_sentence_106

Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior. Texas_sentence_107

The first grant, to Moses Austin, was passed to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death. Texas_sentence_108

Austin's settlers, the Old Three Hundred, made places along the Brazos River in 1822. Texas_sentence_109

Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States. Texas_sentence_110

The population of Texas grew rapidly. Texas_sentence_111

In 1825, Texas had about 3,500 people, with most of Mexican descent. Texas_sentence_112

By 1834, the population had grown to about 37,800 people, with only 7,800 of Mexican descent. Texas_sentence_113

Most of these early settlers who arrived with Austin and soon after were persons less than fortunate in life, as Texas was devoid of the comforts found elsewhere in Mexico and the United States during that time. Texas_sentence_114

Early Texas settler David B. Edwards described his fellow Texans as being "banished from the pleasures of life". Texas_sentence_115

Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery. Texas_sentence_116

Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in 1830 to prohibit continued immigration from the United States. Texas_sentence_117

Illegal immigration from the United States into Mexico continued to increase the population of Texas anyway. Texas_sentence_118

New laws also called for the enforcement of customs duties angering native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants alike. Texas_sentence_119

The Anahuac Disturbances in 1832 were the first open revolt against Mexican rule, and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's president. Texas_sentence_120

Texians sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers out of East Texas. Texas_sentence_121

They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. Texas_sentence_122

Texians met at the Convention of 1832 to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues. Texas_sentence_123

The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of 1833. Texas_sentence_124

Republic Texas_section_4

Main articles: Texas Revolution, Convention of 1836, Texas Declaration of Independence, Treaties of Velasco, and Republic of Texas Texas_sentence_125

Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. Texas_sentence_126

In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety. Texas_sentence_127

The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales. Texas_sentence_128

This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region. Texas_sentence_129

Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government. Texas_sentence_130

The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836. Texas_sentence_131

During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt. Texas_sentence_132

The Mexican expedition was initially successful. Texas_sentence_133

General José de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad massacre. Texas_sentence_134

Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo. Texas_sentence_135

News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers. Texas_sentence_136

The newly elected Texian delegates to the Convention of 1836 quickly signed a Declaration of Independence on March 2, forming the Republic of Texas. Texas_sentence_137

After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded. Texas_sentence_138

The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army. Texas_sentence_139

After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto. Texas_sentence_140

Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war. Texas_sentence_141

The Constitution of the Republic of Texas prohibited the government from restricting slavery or freeing slaves, required free people of African descent to leave the country, and prohibited Native Americans from becoming citizens. Texas_sentence_142

While Texas had won its independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic. Texas_sentence_143

The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Texas_sentence_144

Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. Texas_sentence_145

The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War. Texas_sentence_146

With wide popular support, Texas first applied for annexation to the United States in 1836, but its status as a slaveholding country caused its admission to be controversial and it was initially rebuffed. Texas_sentence_147

This status, and Mexican diplomacy in support of its claims to the territory, also complicated Texas's ability to form foreign alliances and trade relationships. Texas_sentence_148

The Comanche Indians furnished the main Native American opposition to the Texas Republic, manifested in multiple raids on settlements. Texas_sentence_149

Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in 1842. Texas_sentence_150

The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson massacre. Texas_sentence_151

Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived. Texas_sentence_152

The cotton price crash of the 1840s depressed the country's economy, contributing to the republic's inability to defend itself, and adding momentum to Texas's eventual annexation into the United States. Texas_sentence_153

Statehood Texas_section_5

Main articles: Texas annexation, Admission to the Union, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Mexican–American War, and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Texas_sentence_154

As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States. Texas_sentence_155

Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union. Texas_sentence_156

Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of 1844. Texas_sentence_157

On December 29, 1845, Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union. Texas_sentence_158

The population of the new state was quite small at first, and there was a strong mix between the English-speaking American settlers who dominated in the state's eastern/northeastern portions and the Spanish-speaking former Mexicans (Tejanos) who dominated in the state's southern and western portions. Texas_sentence_159

Statehood brought many new settlers. Texas_sentence_160

Because of the long Spanish presence in Mexico and various failed colonization efforts by the Spanish and Mexicans in northern Mexico, there were large herds of Longhorn cattle that roamed the state. Texas_sentence_161

Hardy by nature, but also suitable for slaughtering and consumption, they represented an economic opportunity many entrepreneurs seized upon, thus creating the cowboy culture for which Texas is famous. Texas_sentence_162

While in the early days of the republic cattle and bison were slaughtered for their hides, soon a beef industry was established with cattle being shipped all over the U.S. and the Caribbean (within a few decades, beef had become a staple of the American diet). Texas_sentence_163

After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States. Texas_sentence_164

While the United States claimed Texas's border stretched to the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River leaving the Rio Grande Valley under contested Texan sovereignty. Texas_sentence_165

While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so. Texas_sentence_166

President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, 1846. Texas_sentence_167

A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican–American War. Texas_sentence_168

The first battles of the war were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma. Texas_sentence_169

After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory, ending the fighting in Texas. Texas_sentence_170

After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war. Texas_sentence_171

In return, for US$18,250,000, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession in 1848, most of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande. Texas_sentence_172

The Compromise of 1850 set Texas's boundaries at their present form. Texas_sentence_173

U.S. Texas_sentence_174

Senator James Pearce of Maryland drafted the final proposal where Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present-day New Mexico, a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt. Texas_sentence_175

Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state. Texas_sentence_176

They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from 1850 to 1860, from 58,000 to 182,566. Texas_sentence_177

Civil War and Reconstruction (1860–1900) Texas_section_6

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Texas in the American Civil War Texas_sentence_178

Texas was at war again after the election of 1860. Texas_sentence_179

At this time, blacks comprised 30 percent of the state's population, and they were overwhelmingly enslaved. Texas_sentence_180

When Abraham Lincoln was elected, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Texas_sentence_181

Five other Lower South states quickly followed. Texas_sentence_182

A State Convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, 1861. Texas_sentence_183

On February 1, by a vote of 166–8, the Convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. Texas_sentence_184

Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, 1861. Texas_sentence_185

Texas joined the newly created Confederate States of America on March 4, 1861 ratifying the permanent C.S. Texas_sentence_186

Constitution on March 23. Texas_sentence_187

Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause. Texas_sentence_188

Texas's most notable Unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston. Texas_sentence_189

Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office. Texas_sentence_190

After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor. Texas_sentence_191

While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to the rest of the Confederacy. Texas_sentence_192

Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston. Texas_sentence_193

Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade. Texas_sentence_194

The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route, but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid-1863 after the Union capture of the Mississippi River. Texas_sentence_195

The final battle of the Civil War was fought near Brownsville, Texas at Palmito Ranch with a Confederate victory. Texas_sentence_196

Texas descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Texas_sentence_197

Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction. Texas_sentence_198

Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, almost two and a half years after the original announcement. Texas_sentence_199

President Johnson, in 1866, declared the civilian government restored in Texas. Texas_sentence_200

Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress resumed allowing elected Texas representatives into the federal government in 1870. Texas_sentence_201

Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues. Texas_sentence_202

Like most of the South, the Texas economy was devastated by the War. Texas_sentence_203

However, since the state had not been as dependent on slaves as other parts of the South, it was able to recover more quickly. Texas_sentence_204

The culture in Texas during the later 19th century exhibited many facets of a frontier territory. Texas_sentence_205

The state became notorious as a haven for people from other parts of the country who wanted to escape debt, criminal prosecution, or other problems. Texas_sentence_206

Indeed, "Gone to Texas" was a common expression for those fleeing the law in other states. Texas_sentence_207

Nevertheless, the state also attracted many businessmen and other settlers with more legitimate interests as well. Texas_sentence_208

The cattle industry continued to thrive, though it gradually became less profitable. Texas_sentence_209

Cotton and lumber became major industries creating new economic booms in various regions of the state. Texas_sentence_210

Railroad networks grew rapidly as did the port at Galveston as commerce between Texas and the rest of the U.S. (and the rest of the world) expanded. Texas_sentence_211

As with some other states before, the lumber industry quickly decimated the forests of Texas such that, by the early 20th century, the majority of the forest population in Texas was gone (later conservation efforts restored some of it, but never to the level it once was). Texas_sentence_212

Earlier 20th century Texas_section_7

In 1900, Texas suffered the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane. Texas_sentence_213

On January 10, 1901, the first major oil well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Texas_sentence_214

Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. Texas_sentence_215

The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas. Texas_sentence_216

Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in 1972. Texas_sentence_217

In 1901, the Democratic-dominated state legislature passed a bill requiring payment of a poll tax for voting, which effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites and Latinos. Texas_sentence_218

In addition, the legislature established white primaries, ensuring minorities were excluded from the formal political process. Texas_sentence_219

The number of voters dropped dramatically, and the Democrats crushed competition from the Republican and Populist parties. Texas_sentence_220

The Socialist Party became the second-largest party in Texas after 1912, coinciding with a large socialist upsurge in the United States during fierce battles in the labor movement and the popularity of national heroes like Eugene V. Debs. Texas_sentence_221

The Socialists' popularity soon waned after their vilification by the United States government for their opposition to US involvement in World War I. Texas_sentence_222

The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War. Texas_sentence_223

Migrants abandoned the worst-hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Texas_sentence_224

Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation. Texas_sentence_225

In 1940, Texas was 74 percent Anglo, 14.4 percent black, and 11.5 percent Hispanic. Texas_sentence_226

World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; 750,000 young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left the fields for much better-paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture. Texas_sentence_227

Texas manufactured 3.1 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking eleventh among the 48 states. Texas_sentence_228

Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the 1960s. Texas_sentence_229

The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently. Texas_sentence_230

These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds. Texas_sentence_231

Mid 20th to earlier 21st century Texas_section_8

On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. Texas_sentence_232

Beginning around the mid-20th century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one urban and industrialized. Texas_sentence_233

The state's population grew quickly during this period, with large levels of migration from outside the state. Texas_sentence_234

As a part of the Sun Belt, Texas experienced strong economic growth, particularly during the 1970s and early 1980s. Texas_sentence_235

Texas's economy diversified, lessening its reliance on the petroleum industry. Texas_sentence_236

By 1990, Hispanics and Latin Americans overtook blacks to become the largest minority group in the state. Texas_sentence_237

During the late 20th century, the Republican Party replaced the Democratic Party as the dominant party in the state, as the latter became more politically liberal and as demographic changes favored the former. Texas_sentence_238

Beginning in the early 21st century, metropolitan areas including Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Austin became centers for the Texas Democratic Party in statewide and national elections as liberal policies became more accepted in urban areas. Texas_sentence_239

On July 7, 2016, Dallas police officers were ambushed by Micah Xavier Johnson, killing five officers and injuring nine others in retaliation against white police officers. Texas_sentence_240

Johnson was the first person believed to have been killed by a robot used by U.S. Texas_sentence_241

law enforcement. Texas_sentence_242

From the mid 2000s-2019, the state of Texas gained an influx of business relocations and regional headquarters from companies in California. Texas_sentence_243

Texas was named the primary destination for companies leaving California for the last 12 years according to a study in 2019. Texas_sentence_244

Texas became a major destination for migration during the early 21st century and was named the most popular state to move for three consecutive years. Texas_sentence_245

In 2018, Texas was named the most popular state for relocation. Texas_sentence_246

Another study in 2019 determined Texas's growth rate at 1,000 people per day. Texas_sentence_247

During COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, the first confirmed case of the virus in Texas was announced on March 4, 2020. Texas_sentence_248

Since its arrival there have been at least 781,794 confirmed cases, 16,334 fatalities, and 695,194 estimated recoveries as of October 8, 2020. Texas_sentence_249

On April 27, 2020, Governor Greg Abbott announced phase one of re-opening the economy. Texas_sentence_250

Phase-two openings began on May 18, and phase three was announced on June 3. Texas_sentence_251

Governor Abbott expressed regret over the swift reopening of bars during the COVID-19 pandemic in Texas. Texas_sentence_252

In the 2020 U.S. presidential election, Governor Abbott announced a controversial decision to limit one mail-in ballot drop box location for each county. Texas_sentence_253

Harris County, Texas received national media attention because the county, which is larger than the size of Rhode Island and has 2.4 million registered voters, was served by only one voting drop-box location. Texas_sentence_254

A federal judge blocked the governor's order until it was appealed in court; the ruling determined a temporary stay. Texas_sentence_255

Abbott was sued by voters and voters rights groups following the order. Texas_sentence_256

Following the 2020 U.S. presidential election, the state of Texas was one of our U.S. states selected to test distributing Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine to the public. Texas_sentence_257

Abbott refused to enact further lockdowns. Texas_sentence_258

Geography Texas_section_9

Main article: Geography of Texas Texas_sentence_259

Texas is the second-largest U.S. state, after Alaska, with an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km). Texas_sentence_260

Though 10% larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan and more than twice the size of the United Kingdom, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. Texas_sentence_261

If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile and Zambia. Texas_sentence_262

Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Texas_sentence_263

Three of its borders are defined by rivers. Texas_sentence_264

The Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. Texas_sentence_265

The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. Texas_sentence_266

The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. Texas_sentence_267

The Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western border with New Mexico at 103° W. Texas_sentence_268

El Paso lies on the state's western tip at 32° N and the Rio Grande. Texas_sentence_269

With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities. Texas_sentence_270

One classification system divides Texas, in order from southeast to west, into the following: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province. Texas_sentence_271

The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state. Texas_sentence_272

Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods. Texas_sentence_273

The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest. Texas_sentence_274

The Great Plains region in central Texas spans through the state's panhandle and Llano Estacado to the state's hill country near Austin. Texas_sentence_275

This region is dominated by prairie and steppe. Texas_sentence_276

"Far West Texas" or the "Trans-Pecos" region is the state's Basin and Range Province. Texas_sentence_277

The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands. Texas_sentence_278

Texas has 3,700 named streams and 15 major rivers, with the Rio Grande as the largest. Texas_sentence_279

Other major rivers include the Pecos, the Brazos, Colorado, and Red River. Texas_sentence_280

While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built more than a hundred artificial reservoirs. Texas_sentence_281

The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both. Texas_sentence_282

The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. Texas_sentence_283

Notable extremes range from East Texas which is often considered an extension of the Deep South, to Far West Texas which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest. Texas_sentence_284

Geology Texas_section_10

Main article: Geology of Texas Texas_sentence_285

Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. Texas_sentence_286

The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoic craton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas_sentence_287

The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old. Texas_sentence_288

These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso. Texas_sentence_289

Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks. Texas_sentence_290

The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time. Texas_sentence_291

This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian subperiod to form Pangea. Texas_sentence_292

This is the buried crest of the Appalachian MountainsOuachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. Texas_sentence_293

This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco—Austin–San Antonio trend. Texas_sentence_294

The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Texas_sentence_295

Pangea began to break up in the Triassic, but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid- and late Jurassic. Texas_sentence_296

The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico's passive margin began to form. Texas_sentence_297

Today 9 to 12 miles (14 to 19 km) of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are here. Texas_sentence_298

At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. Texas_sentence_299

These salt deposits formed salt dome diapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast. Texas_sentence_300

East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocene lignite. Texas_sentence_301

The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil. Texas_sentence_302

Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. Texas_sentence_303

A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer. Texas_sentence_304

Located far from an active plate tectonic boundary, Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes. Texas_sentence_305

Wildlife Texas_section_11

See also: List of mammals of Texas, List of birds of Texas, List of reptiles of Texas, and List of amphibians of Texas Texas_sentence_306

A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas. Texas_sentence_307

It is the home to 65 species of mammals, 213 species of reptiles and amphibians, and the greatest diversity of bird life in the United States—590 native species in all. Texas_sentence_308

At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas. Texas_sentence_309

Texas plays host to several species of wasps, including an abundance of Polistes exclamans, and is an important ground for the study of Polistes annularis. Texas_sentence_310

During the spring Texas wildflowers such as the state flower, the bluebonnet, line highways throughout Texas. Texas_sentence_311

During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers. Texas_sentence_312

Climate Texas_section_12

Main article: Climate of Texas Texas_sentence_313

The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather. Texas_sentence_314

The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. Texas_sentence_315

Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. Texas_sentence_316

El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages 8.7 inches (220 mm) of annual rainfall, while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,600 mm) per year. Texas_sentence_317

Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (940 mm) per year. Texas_sentence_318

Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas. Texas_sentence_319

Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast only in rare circumstances. Texas_sentence_320

Of note is the 2004 Christmas Eve snowstorm, when 6 inches (150 mm) of snow fell as far south as Kingsville, where the average high temperature in December is 65 °F. Texas_sentence_321

Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 °C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F (38 °C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90 °F (32 °C) range. Texas_sentence_322

Night-time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14 °C) in the West Texas mountains to 80 °F (27 °C) in Galveston. Texas_sentence_323

The table below consists of averages for August (generally the warmest month) and January (generally the coldest) in selected cities in various regions of the state. Texas_sentence_324

El Paso and Amarillo are exceptions with July and December respectively being the warmest and coldest months respectively, but with August and January being only narrowly different. Texas_sentence_325

Texas_table_general_2

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in TexasTexas_table_caption_2
LocationTexas_header_cell_2_0_0 August (°F)Texas_header_cell_2_0_1 August (°C)Texas_header_cell_2_0_2 January (°F)Texas_header_cell_2_0_3 January (°C)Texas_header_cell_2_0_4
HoustonTexas_cell_2_1_0 94/75Texas_cell_2_1_1 34/24Texas_cell_2_1_2 63/54Texas_cell_2_1_3 17/12Texas_cell_2_1_4
San AntonioTexas_cell_2_2_0 96/74Texas_cell_2_2_1 35/23Texas_cell_2_2_2 63/40Texas_cell_2_2_3 17/5Texas_cell_2_2_4
DallasTexas_cell_2_3_0 96/77Texas_cell_2_3_1 36/25Texas_cell_2_3_2 57/37Texas_cell_2_3_3 16/3Texas_cell_2_3_4
AustinTexas_cell_2_4_0 97/74Texas_cell_2_4_1 36/23Texas_cell_2_4_2 61/45Texas_cell_2_4_3 16/5Texas_cell_2_4_4
El PasoTexas_cell_2_5_0 92/67Texas_cell_2_5_1 33/21Texas_cell_2_5_2 57/32Texas_cell_2_5_3 14/0Texas_cell_2_5_4
LaredoTexas_cell_2_6_0 100/77Texas_cell_2_6_1 37/25Texas_cell_2_6_2 67/46Texas_cell_2_6_3 19/7Texas_cell_2_6_4
AmarilloTexas_cell_2_7_0 89/64Texas_cell_2_7_1 32/18Texas_cell_2_7_2 50/23Texas_cell_2_7_3 10/−4Texas_cell_2_7_4
BrownsvilleTexas_cell_2_8_0 94/76Texas_cell_2_8_1 34/24Texas_cell_2_8_2 70/51Texas_cell_2_8_3 21/11Texas_cell_2_8_4

Storms Texas_section_13

Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Texas_sentence_326

Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. Texas_sentence_327

The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of 139 a year. Texas_sentence_328

These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle. Texas_sentence_329

Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June. Texas_sentence_330

Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas. Texas_sentence_331

A hurricane in 1875 killed about 400 people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in 1886 that destroyed the town. Texas_sentence_332

These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city. Texas_sentence_333

The 1900 Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8,000 people or possibly as many as 12,000. Texas_sentence_334

This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Texas_sentence_335

In 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Rockport as a Category 4 Hurricane, causing significant damage there. Texas_sentence_336

The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties. Texas_sentence_337

The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes. Texas_sentence_338

Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $198.6 billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina. Texas_sentence_339

Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed more than 600 people, Hurricane Carla in 1961, Hurricane Beulah in 1967, Hurricane Alicia in 1983, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Texas_sentence_340

Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in 1989 and again during 2001, and Claudette in 1979 among them. Texas_sentence_341

Greenhouse gases Texas_section_14

Main article: Climate change in Texas Texas_sentence_342

As of 2017 Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U.S, almost twice the amount of California, the second most polluting state. Texas_sentence_343

As of 2017 the state emits about 1,600 billion pounds (707 million metric tons) of carbon dioxide annually. Texas_sentence_344

As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases. Texas_sentence_345

Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries. Texas_sentence_346

In 2010, there were 2,553 "emission events" which poured 44.6 million pounds (20,200 metric tons) of contaminants into the Texas sky. Texas_sentence_347

Administrative divisions Texas_section_15

See also: List of cities in Texas, List of counties in Texas, List of Texas metropolitan areas, and List of cities in Texas by population Texas_sentence_348

Texas_table_general_3

Largest city in Texas by yearTexas_header_cell_3_0_0
Year(s)Texas_header_cell_3_1_0 CityTexas_header_cell_3_1_1
1850–1870Texas_cell_3_2_0 San AntonioTexas_cell_3_2_1
1870–1890Texas_cell_3_3_0 GalvestonTexas_cell_3_3_1
1890–1900Texas_cell_3_4_0 DallasTexas_cell_3_4_1
1900–1930Texas_cell_3_5_0 San AntonioTexas_cell_3_5_1
1930–presentTexas_cell_3_6_0 HoustonTexas_cell_3_6_1

The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas. Texas_sentence_349

These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. Texas_sentence_350

As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Texas_sentence_351

Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas_sentence_352

Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. Texas_sentence_353

The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively. Texas_sentence_354

Three interstate highwaysI-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. Texas_sentence_355

The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population. Texas_sentence_356

Houston and Dallas have been recognized as world cities. Texas_sentence_357

These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas_sentence_358

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty. Texas_sentence_359

The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Texas_sentence_360

Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias. Texas_sentence_361

Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias. Texas_sentence_362

Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia). Texas_sentence_363

Each county runs on Commissioners' Court system consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts in the county, roughly divided according to population) and a county judge elected at large from the entire county. Texas_sentence_364

County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners. Texas_sentence_365

Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments. Texas_sentence_366

Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. Texas_sentence_367

The state does not have townships—areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Texas_sentence_368

Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. Texas_sentence_369

The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas. Texas_sentence_370

Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule". Texas_sentence_371

A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5,000 population with voter approval. Texas_sentence_372

Texas also permits the creation of "special districts", which provide limited services. Texas_sentence_373

The most common is the school district, but can also include hospital districts, community college districts, and utility districts (one utility district near Austin was the plaintiff in a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act). Texas_sentence_374

Municipal, school district, and special district elections are nonpartisan, though the party affiliation of a candidate may be well-known. Texas_sentence_375

County and state elections are partisan. Texas_sentence_376

Demographics Texas_section_16

Main article: Demographics of Texas Texas_sentence_377

In 2010, the state of Texas had a census population of 25,145,561. Texas_sentence_378

The United States Census Bureau estimated the population of Texas was 28,995,881 on July 1, 2019, a 15.31% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Texas_sentence_379

The 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program determined the population was 27,469,114 on July 1, 2015. Texas_sentence_380

Texas is the second-most populous state in the United States after California. Texas_sentence_381

In 2015, Texas had 4.7 million foreign-born residents, about 17% of the population and 21.6% of the state workforce. Texas_sentence_382

The major countries of origin for Texan immigrants were Mexico (55.1% of immigrants), India (5%), El Salvador (4.3%), Vietnam (3.7%), and China (2.3%). Texas_sentence_383

Of immigrant residents, some 35.8 percent were naturalized U.S. citizens. Texas_sentence_384

As of 2018, the population increased to 4.9 million foreign-born residents or 17.2% of the state population, up from 2,899,642 in 2000. Texas_sentence_385

In 2014, there were an estimated 1.7 million undocumented immigrants in Texas, making up 35% of the total Texas immigrant population and 6.1% of the total state population. Texas_sentence_386

In addition to the state's foreign-born population, an additional 4.1 million Texans (15% of the state's population) were born in the United States and had at least one immigrant parent. Texas_sentence_387

According to the American Community Survey's 2016 estimates, 1,597,000 residents were undocumented immigrants, a decrease of 103,000 since 2014. Texas_sentence_388

Of the undocumented immigrant population, 960,000 have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years. Texas_sentence_389

An estimated 637,000 lived in Texas from 15 to 19 and 20 years or more. Texas_sentence_390

Texas's Rio Grande Valley has seen significant migration from across the U.S.–Mexico border. Texas_sentence_391

During the 2014 crisis, many Central Americans, including unaccompanied minors traveling alone from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, reached the state, overwhelming Border Patrol resources for a time. Texas_sentence_392

Many sought asylum in the United States. Texas_sentence_393

Texas's population density is 90.5 people per square mile (34.9/km) which is slightly higher than the average population density of the U.S. as a whole, at 80.6 people per square mile (31.1/km). Texas_sentence_394

In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of 301.8 people per square mile (116.5/km). Texas_sentence_395

Two-thirds of all Texans live in major metropolitan areas such as Houston. Texas_sentence_396

The Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in Texas. Texas_sentence_397

While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest city in the United States by population, the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than the city and metropolitan area of Houston. Texas_sentence_398

Race and ethnicity Texas_section_17

Texas_table_general_4

Texas racial breakdown of populationTexas_table_caption_4
Racial compositionTexas_header_cell_4_0_0 1970Texas_header_cell_4_0_1 1990Texas_header_cell_4_0_2 2000Texas_header_cell_4_0_3 2010Texas_header_cell_4_0_4
WhiteTexas_cell_4_1_0 86.8%Texas_cell_4_1_1 75.2%Texas_cell_4_1_2 71.0%Texas_cell_4_1_3 70.4%Texas_cell_4_1_4
BlackTexas_cell_4_2_0 12.5%Texas_cell_4_2_1 11.9%Texas_cell_4_2_2 11.5%Texas_cell_4_2_3 11.9%Texas_cell_4_2_4
AsianTexas_cell_4_3_0 0.2%Texas_cell_4_3_1 1.9%Texas_cell_4_3_2 2.7%Texas_cell_4_3_3 3.8%Texas_cell_4_3_4
NativeTexas_cell_4_4_0 0.2%Texas_cell_4_4_1 0.4%Texas_cell_4_4_2 0.6%Texas_cell_4_4_3 0.7%Texas_cell_4_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderTexas_cell_4_5_0

Texas_cell_4_5_1 Texas_cell_4_5_2 0.1%Texas_cell_4_5_3 0.1%Texas_cell_4_5_4
Other raceTexas_cell_4_6_0 0.4%Texas_cell_4_6_1 10.6%Texas_cell_4_6_2 11.7%Texas_cell_4_6_3 10.5%Texas_cell_4_6_4
Two or more racesTexas_cell_4_7_0 Texas_cell_4_7_1 Texas_cell_4_7_2 2.5%Texas_cell_4_7_3 2.7%Texas_cell_4_7_4

In 2015 non-Hispanic whites made up 11,505,371 (41.9%) of the population, followed by Black Americans at 3,171,043 (11.5%); other races 1,793,580 (6.5%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 10,999,120 (40.0%). Texas_sentence_399

According to the 2010 United States census, the racial composition of Texas was the following: White American 70.4 percent, (Non-Hispanic whites 45.3 percent), Black or African American 11.8 percent, American Indian 0.7 percent, Asian 3.8 percent (1.0 percent Indian, 0.8 percent Vietnamese, 0.6 percent Chinese, 0.4 percent Filipino, 0.3 percent Korean, 0.1 percent Japanese, 0.6 percent other Asian), Pacific Islander 0.1 percent, some other race 10.5 percent, and two or more races 2.7 percent. Texas_sentence_400

In addition, 37.6 percent of the population was Hispanic or Latino (of any race) (31.6 percent Mexican, 0.9 percent Salvadoran, 0.5 percent Puerto Rican, 0.4 percent Honduran, 0.3 percent Guatemalan 0.3 percent Spaniard, 0.2 percent Colombian, 0.2 percent Cuban). Texas_sentence_401

In 2011, 69.8% of the population of Texas younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white). Texas_sentence_402

In 2019, non-Hispanic whites represented 41.2% of Texas's population, reflecting a national demographic shift. Texas_sentence_403

Blacks or African Americans made up 12.9%, American Indians or Alaska Natives 1.0%, Asian Americans 5.2%, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 0.1%, some other race 0.2%, and two or more races 1.8%. Texas_sentence_404

Hispanics or Latin Americans of any race made up 39.7% of the estimated population. Texas_sentence_405

As of 1980 German, Irish, and English Americans have made the three largest European ancestry groups in Texas. Texas_sentence_406

German Americans make up 11.3 percent of the population and number over 2.7 million members. Texas_sentence_407

Irish Americans make up 8.2 percent of the population and number over 1.9 million. Texas_sentence_408

There are roughly 600,000 French Americans, 472,000 Italian Americans, 369,161 Scottish Americans, and 288,610 Polish Americans residing in Texas; these four ethnic groups make up 2.5 percent, 2.0 percent, 1.5 percent, and 1.0 percent of the population respectively. Texas_sentence_409

In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English with 3,083,323 Texans citing they were of English or mostly English ancestry, making them 27 percent of the state at the time. Texas_sentence_410

Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies (the census of 1790 gives 48% of the population of English ancestry, together with 12% Scots and Scots-Irish, 4.5% other Irish, and 3% Welsh, for a total of 67.5% British and Irish; 13% were German, Swiss, Dutch, and French Huguenots; 19% were African American), thus many of them today identify as "American" in ancestry, though they are of predominantly British stock. Texas_sentence_411

In 2012 there were nearly 200,000 Czech Americans living in Texas, the largest number of any state. Texas_sentence_412

Hispanics and Latinos are the second-largest groups in Texas after non-Hispanic European Americans. Texas_sentence_413

More than 8.5 million people claim Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Texas_sentence_414

This group forms over 37 percent of Texas's population. Texas_sentence_415

People of Mexican descent alone number over 7.9 million, and make up 31.6 percent of the population. Texas_sentence_416

The vast majority of the Hispanic/Latino population in the state is of Mexican descent, the next two largest groups are Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans. Texas_sentence_417

There are more than 222,000 Salvadorans and more than 130,000 Puerto Ricans in Texas. Texas_sentence_418

Other groups with large numbers in Texas include Hondurans, Guatemalans, Nicaraguans and Cubans, among others. Texas_sentence_419

The Hispanics in Texas are more likely than in some other states (such as California) to identify as white; according to the 2010 U.S. Census, Texas is home to 6,304,207 White Hispanics and 2,594,206 Hispanics of "some other race" (usually mestizo). Texas_sentence_420

African Americans are the racial minority in Texas. Texas_sentence_421

Their proportion of the population has declined since the early 20th century after many left the state in the Great Migration. Texas_sentence_422

Blacks of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin made up 11.5 percent of the population in 2015; blacks of non-Hispanic origin form 11.3 percent of the populace. Texas_sentence_423

African Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin numbered at roughly 2.7 million individuals, increasing in 2018 to 3,908,287. Texas_sentence_424

Native Americans are a smaller minority in the state. Texas_sentence_425

Native Americans made up 0.5 percent of Texas's population and number over 118,000 individuals as of 2015. Texas_sentence_426

Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin make up 0.3 percent of the population and number over 75,000 individuals. Texas_sentence_427

Cherokee made up 0.1 percent of the population, and numbered over 19,400. Texas_sentence_428

In contrast, only 583 identified as Chippewa. Texas_sentence_429

Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas. Texas_sentence_430

Americans of Asian descent formed 4.5 percent of the population in 2015. Texas_sentence_431

They total more than 1.2 million individuals. Texas_sentence_432

Over 200,000 Indian Americans make Texas their home. Texas_sentence_433

Texas is also home to more than 187,000 Vietnamese and 136,000 Chinese. Texas_sentence_434

In addition to 92,000 Filipinos and 62,000 Koreans, there are 18,000 Japanese Americans living in the state. Texas_sentence_435

Lastly, more than 111,000 people are of other Asian ancestry groups, such as Cambodian, Thai, and Hmong. Texas_sentence_436

Sugar Land, a city within the Houston metropolitan area, and Plano, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area, both have high concentrations of ethnic Chinese and Korean residents. Texas_sentence_437

The Houston and Dallas areas, and to a lesser extent, the Austin metropolitan area, all contain substantial Vietnamese communities. Texas_sentence_438

Americans with origins from the Pacific Islands are the smallest minority in Texas. Texas_sentence_439

According to the 2019 American Community Survey, only 21,484 Texans are Pacific Islanders. Texas_sentence_440

The city of Euless, a suburb of Fort Worth, contains a sizable population of Tongan Americans, at nearly 900 people, over one percent of the city's population. Texas_sentence_441

Killeen has a sufficient population of Samoans and Guamanian, and people of Pacific Islander descent surpass one percent of the city's population. Texas_sentence_442

Multiracial individuals are also a visible minority in Texas. Texas_sentence_443

People identifying as multiracial form 2.9 percent of the population, and number over 800,000 people. Texas_sentence_444

Over 80,000 Texans claim African and European heritage. Texas_sentence_445

People of European and American Indian ancestry number over 108,800. Texas_sentence_446

People of European and Asian ancestry number over 57,600. Texas_sentence_447

People of African and Native American ancestry were even smaller in number at 15,300. Texas_sentence_448

German descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas. Texas_sentence_449

Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin; while many have recently arrived, some Tejanos have ancestors with multi-generational ties to 18th century Texas. Texas_sentence_450

The African American population in Texas is increasing due to the New Great Migration. Texas_sentence_451

In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration. Texas_sentence_452

Since the early 21st century, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas. Texas_sentence_453

Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. Texas_sentence_454

Three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, and the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo. Texas_sentence_455

In 2010, 49 percent of all births were Hispanics; 35 percent were non-Hispanic whites; 11.5 percent were non-Hispanic blacks, and 4.3 percent were Asians/Pacific Islanders. Texas_sentence_456

Based on Census Bureau data released in February 2011, for the first time in recent history, Texas's white population is below 50 percent (45 percent) and Hispanics grew to 38 percent. Texas_sentence_457

Between 2000 and 2010, the total population growth by 20.6 percent, but Hispanics growth by 65 percent, whereas non-Hispanic whites grew by only 4.2 percent. Texas_sentence_458

Texas has the fifth highest rate of teenage births in the nation and a plurality of these are to Hispanics. Texas_sentence_459

Languages Texas_section_18

Texas_table_general_5

Most common non-English languagesTexas_table_caption_5
LanguageTexas_header_cell_5_0_0 Population

(as of 2010)Texas_header_cell_5_0_1

SpanishTexas_header_cell_5_1_0 29.21%Texas_cell_5_1_1
VietnameseTexas_header_cell_5_2_0 0.75%Texas_cell_5_2_1
ChineseTexas_header_cell_5_3_0 0.56%Texas_cell_5_3_1
GermanTexas_header_cell_5_4_0 0.33%Texas_cell_5_4_1
TagalogTexas_header_cell_5_5_0 0.29%Texas_cell_5_5_1
FrenchTexas_header_cell_5_6_0 0.25%Texas_cell_5_6_1
Korean and Urdu (tied)Texas_header_cell_5_7_0 0.24%Texas_cell_5_7_1
HindiTexas_header_cell_5_8_0 0.23%Texas_cell_5_8_1
ArabicTexas_header_cell_5_9_0 0.21%Texas_cell_5_9_1
Niger-Congo languagesTexas_header_cell_5_10_0 0.15%Texas_cell_5_10_1

The most common accent or dialect spoken by natives throughout Texas is sometimes referred to as Texan English, which itself is a sub-variety of a broader category of American English known as Southern American English. Texas_sentence_460

Creole language is spoken in some parts of East Texas. Texas_sentence_461

In some areas of the state—particularly in the large cities—Western American English and General American English, is increasingly common. Texas_sentence_462

Chicano English—due to a growing Hispanic population—is widespread in South Texas, while African-American English is especially notable in historically minority areas of urban Texas. Texas_sentence_463

At the 2019 American Community Survey's estimates, 64.4% of the population spoke only English, and 35.6% spoke a language other than English. Texas_sentence_464

Roughly 30% of the total population spoke Spanish. Texas_sentence_465

Approximately 50,742 Texans spoke French or a French-creole language. Texas_sentence_466

German and other West Germanic languages were spoken by 47,098 residents; Russian, Polish, and other Slavic languages by 27,956; Korean by 31,581; Chinese 22,616; Vietnamese 81,022; Tagalog 43,360; and Arabic by 26,281 Texans. Texas_sentence_467

At the census of 2010, 65.8% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 29.2% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75 percent (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over five. Texas_sentence_468

Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137), Tagalog with 0.29% (64,272) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans. Texas_sentence_469

Reportedly, Cherokee is the most widely spoken Native American language in Texas. Texas_sentence_470

In total, 34.2% (7,660,406) of Texas's population aged five and older spoke a language at home other than English as of 2006. Texas_sentence_471

Religion Texas_section_19

The majority of Texas's population have been and remain predominantly Christian, influenced by Spanish Catholic and American Protestant colonialism and missionary work (77%). Texas_sentence_472

Texas's large Christian population is also influenced due to its location within the Bible Belt. Texas_sentence_473

The following largest groups were the irreligious (18%), nothing in particular (13%), Judaism (1%), Islam (1%), Buddhism (1%) and Hinduism and other religions at less than 1 percent each. Texas_sentence_474

The largest Christian denomination as of 2014 is the Catholic Church (23%). Texas_sentence_475

The largest Catholic jurisdictions in Texas are the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston, the dioceses of Dallas, Fort Worth, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Antonio. Texas_sentence_476

In Protestantism, Evangelicals form the largest theological branch (31%) followed by Mainline Protestants (13%) and historically African American Protestant churches (6%). Texas_sentence_477

Baptists formed the largest Evangelical Protestant group in Texas (14%); they made up the second largest Mainline Protestant group behind Methodists (4%). Texas_sentence_478

Nondenominational and interdenominational Christians were the second largest Evangelical group (7%) followed by Pentecostals (4%). Texas_sentence_479

The largest Evangelical Baptists in the state were the Southern Baptist Convention (9%) and independent Baptists (3%). Texas_sentence_480

The Assemblies of God made the largest Evangelical Pentecostal denomination at the 2014 study. Texas_sentence_481

Among Mainline Protestants, the United Methodist Church was the largest denomination (4%). Texas_sentence_482

American Baptist Churches USA comprised the second largest Mainline Protestant group (2%). Texas_sentence_483

According to the Pew Research Center, the largest historically African American Christian denominations are the National Baptist Convention (USA) and the Church of God in Christ. Texas_sentence_484

Black Methodists and other Christians made up less than 1 percent each of the Christian demographic. Texas_sentence_485

Other Christians made up 1 percent of the total Christian population, and the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox formed less than 1 percent of the statewide Christian populace. Texas_sentence_486

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is the largest nontrinitarian Christian group in Texas alongside the Jehovah's Witnesses. Texas_sentence_487

Non-Christian faiths accounted for 4% of the religious population in 2014. Texas_sentence_488

Adherents of many other religions reside predominantly in the urban centers of Texas. Texas_sentence_489

Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism were tied as the second largest religion as of 2014. Texas_sentence_490

In 1990, the Islamic population was about 140,000 with more recent figures putting the current number of Muslims between 350,000 and 400,000 as of 2012. Texas_sentence_491

The Jewish population was around 128,000 in 2008. Texas_sentence_492

In 2020, the Jewish population grew to over 176,000. Texas_sentence_493

Around 146,000 adherents of religions such as Hinduism and Sikhism lived in Texas as of 2004. Texas_sentence_494

Texas is the fifth-largest Muslim-populated state in the country. Texas_sentence_495

Of the unaffiliated, an estimated 2% were atheists and 3% agnostic. Texas_sentence_496

Economy Texas_section_20

Main article: Economy of Texas Texas_sentence_497

See also: Texas locations by per capita income Texas_sentence_498

As of 2019, Texas had a gross state product (GSP) of $1.9 trillion, the second highest in the U.S. Its GSP is greater than the GDPs of Brazil, Canada, Russia, South Korea and Spain, which are the world's 9th-, 10th-, 11th-, 12th- and 13th-largest economies, respectively. Texas_sentence_499

Texas's economy is the second-largest of any country subdivision globally, behind California. Texas_sentence_500

Its per capita personal income in 2009 was $36,484, ranking 29th in the nation. Texas_sentence_501

Texas's large population, an abundance of natural resources, thriving cities and leading centers of higher education have contributed to a large and diverse economy. Texas_sentence_502

Since oil was discovered, the state's economy has reflected the state of the petroleum industry. Texas_sentence_503

In recent times, urban centers of the state have increased in size, containing two-thirds of the population in 2005. Texas_sentence_504

The state's economic growth has led to urban sprawl and its associated symptoms. Texas_sentence_505

As of May 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the state's unemployment rate was 13 percent. Texas_sentence_506

In 2010, Site Selection Magazine ranked Texas as the most business-friendly state in the nation, in part because of the state's three-billion-dollar Texas Enterprise Fund. Texas_sentence_507

Texas has the joint-highest number of Fortune 500 company headquarters in the United States, along with California. Texas_sentence_508

In 2010, there were 346,000 millionaires in Texas, constituting the second-largest population of millionaires in the nation. Texas_sentence_509

Taxation Texas_section_21

Texas has a "low taxes, low services" reputation. Texas_sentence_510

According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens rank among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally; state and local taxes cost $3,580 per capita, or 8.4 percent of resident incomes. Texas_sentence_511

Texas is one of seven states that lack a state income tax. Texas_sentence_512

Instead, the state collects revenue from property taxes (though these are collected at the county, city, and school district level; Texas has a state constitutional prohibition against a state property tax) and sales taxes. Texas_sentence_513

The state sales tax rate is 6.25 percent, but local taxing jurisdictions (cities, counties, special purpose districts, and transit authorities) may also impose sales and use tax up to 2 percent for a total maximum combined rate of 8.25 percent. Texas_sentence_514

Texas is a "tax donor state"; in 2005, for every dollar Texans paid to the federal government in federal income taxes, the state got back about $0.94 in benefits. Texas_sentence_515

To attract business, Texas has incentive programs worth $19 billion per year (2012); more than any other US state. Texas_sentence_516

Agriculture and mining Texas_section_22

Texas has the most farms and the highest acreage in the United States. Texas_sentence_517

The state is ranked No. Texas_sentence_518

1 for revenue generated from total livestock and livestock products. Texas_sentence_519

It is ranked No. Texas_sentence_520

2 for total agricultural revenue, behind California. Texas_sentence_521

At $7.4 billion or 56.7 percent of Texas's annual agricultural cash receipts, beef cattle production represents the largest single segment of Texas agriculture. Texas_sentence_522

This is followed by cotton at $1.9 billion (14.6 percent), greenhouse/nursery at $1.5 billion (11.4 percent), broilers at $1.3 billion (10 percent), and dairy products at $947 million (7.3 percent). Texas_sentence_523

Texas leads the nation in the production of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, wool, mohair and hay. Texas_sentence_524

The state also leads the nation in production of cotton which is the number one crop grown in the state in terms of value. Texas_sentence_525

The state grows significant amounts of cereal crops and produce. Texas_sentence_526

Texas has a large commercial fishing industry. Texas_sentence_527

With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel. Texas_sentence_528

Texas throughout the 21st century has been hammered by drought. Texas_sentence_529

This has cost the state billions of dollars in livestock and crops. Texas_sentence_530

Energy Texas_section_23

See also: Deregulation of the Texas electricity market and Economy of Texas § Energy Texas_sentence_531

Ever since the discovery of oil at Spindletop, energy has been a dominant force politically and economically within the state. Texas_sentence_532

If Texas were its own country it would be the sixth largest oil producer in the world according to a 2014 study. Texas_sentence_533

The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. Texas_sentence_534

Until the 1970s, the commission controlled the price of petroleum because of its ability to regulate Texas's oil reserves. Texas_sentence_535

The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) used the Texas agency as one of their models for petroleum price control. Texas_sentence_536

Texas has known petroleum deposits of about 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m), which makes up about one-fourth of the known U.S. reserves. Texas_sentence_537

The state's refineries can process 4.6 million barrels (730,000 m) of oil a day. Texas_sentence_538

The Port Arthur Refinery in Southeast Texas is the largest refinery in the U.S. Texas also leads in natural gas production, producing one-fourth of the nation's supply. Texas_sentence_539

Several petroleum companies are based in Texas such as: Occidental Petroleum, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Halliburton, Marathon Oil, Tesoro, Valero Energy, and Western Refining. Texas_sentence_540

According to the Energy Information Administration, Texans consume, on average, the fifth most energy (of all types) in the nation per capita and as a whole, following behind Wyoming, Alaska, Louisiana, North Dakota, and Iowa. Texas_sentence_541

Unlike the rest of the nation, most of Texas is on its own alternating current power grid, the Texas Interconnection. Texas_sentence_542

Texas has a deregulated electric service. Texas_sentence_543

Texas leads the nation in total net electricity production, generating 437,236 MWh in 2014, 89% more MWh than Florida, which ranked second. Texas_sentence_544

As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's eleventh-largest producer of electricity, after South Korea, and ahead of the United Kingdom. Texas_sentence_545

The state is a leader in renewable energy commercialization; it produces the most wind power in the nation. Texas_sentence_546

In 2014, 10.6% of the electricity consumed in Texas came from wind turbines. Texas_sentence_547

The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, is one of the world's largest wind farms with a 781.5 megawatt (MW) capacity. Texas_sentence_548

The Energy Information Administration states the state's large agriculture and forestry industries could give Texas an enormous amount biomass for use in biofuels. Texas_sentence_549

The state also has the highest solar power potential for development in the nation. Texas_sentence_550

Technology Texas_section_24

With large universities systems coupled with initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, a wide array of different high tech industries have developed in Texas. Texas_sentence_551

The Austin area is nicknamed the "Silicon Hills" and the north Dallas area the "Silicon Prairie". Texas_sentence_552

Many high-tech companies are located in or have their headquarters in Texas (and Austin in particular), including Dell, Inc., Borland, Forcepoint, Indeed.com, Texas Instruments, Perot Systems, Rackspace and AT&T. Texas_sentence_553

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (NASA JSC) in Southeast Houston, sits as the crown jewel of Texas's aeronautics industry. Texas_sentence_554

Fort Worth hosts both Lockheed Martin's Aeronautics division and Bell Helicopter Textron. Texas_sentence_555

Lockheed builds the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program, and its successor, the F-35 Lightning II in Fort Worth. Texas_sentence_556

Commerce Texas_section_25

Texas's affluence stimulates a strong commercial sector consisting of retail, wholesale, banking and insurance, and construction industries. Texas_sentence_557

Examples of Fortune 500 companies not based on Texas traditional industries are AT&T, Kimberly-Clark, Blockbuster, J. Texas_sentence_558

C. Penney, Whole Foods Market, and Tenet Healthcare. Texas_sentence_559

Nationally, the Dallas–Fort Worth area, home to the second shopping mall in the United States, has the most shopping malls per capita of any American metropolitan statistical area. Texas_sentence_560

Mexico, the state's largest trading partner, imports a third of the state's exports because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Texas_sentence_561

NAFTA has encouraged the formation of controversial maquiladoras on the Texas–Mexico border. Texas_sentence_562

Culture Texas_section_26

Main article: Culture of Texas Texas_sentence_563

See also: List of people from Texas and List of Texas symbols Texas_sentence_564

Historically, Texas culture comes from a blend of Southern (Dixie), Western (frontier), and Southwestern (Mexican/Anglo fusion) influences, varying in degrees of such from one intrastate region to another. Texas_sentence_565

Texas is placed in the Southern United States by the United States Census Bureau. Texas_sentence_566

A popular food item, the breakfast burrito, draws from all three, having a soft flour tortilla wrapped around bacon and scrambled eggs or other hot, cooked fillings. Texas_sentence_567

Adding to Texas's traditional culture, established in the 18th and 19th centuries, immigration has made Texas a melting pot of cultures from around the world. Texas_sentence_568

Texas has made a strong mark on national and international pop culture. Texas_sentence_569

The entire state is strongly associated with the image of the cowboy shown in westerns and in country western music. Texas_sentence_570

The state's numerous oil tycoons are also a popular pop culture topic as seen in the hit TV series Dallas. Texas_sentence_571

The internationally known slogan "Don't Mess with Texas" began as an anti-littering advertisement. Texas_sentence_572

Since the campaign's inception in 1986, the phrase has become "an identity statement, a declaration of Texas swagger". Texas_sentence_573

Texas self-perception Texas_section_27

"Texas-sized" is an expression that can be used in two ways: to describe something that is about the size of the U.S. Texas_sentence_574

state of Texas, or to describe something (usually but not always originating from Texas) that is large compared to other objects of its type. Texas_sentence_575

Texas was the largest U.S. state, until Alaska became a state in 1959. Texas_sentence_576

The phrase "everything is bigger in Texas" has been in regular use since at least 1950; and was used as early as 1913. Texas_sentence_577

Arts Texas_section_28

Further information: Music of Texas Texas_sentence_578

Houston is one of only five American cities with permanent professional resident companies in all the major performing arts disciplines: the Houston Grand Opera, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Ballet, and The Alley Theatre. Texas_sentence_579

Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts, the Houston Theater District—a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston—ranks second in the country in the number of theater seats in a concentrated downtown area, with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats. Texas_sentence_580

Founded in 1892, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, also called "The Modern", is Texas's oldest art museum. Texas_sentence_581

Fort Worth also has the Kimbell Art Museum, the Amon Carter Museum, the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, the Will Rogers Memorial Center, and the Bass Performance Hall downtown. Texas_sentence_582

The Arts District of Downtown Dallas has arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, the Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House, the Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center. Texas_sentence_583

The Deep Ellum district within Dallas became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the Southern United States. Texas_sentence_584

The name Deep Ellum comes from local people pronouncing "Deep Elm" as "Deep Ellum". Texas_sentence_585

Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in early Deep Ellum clubs. Texas_sentence_586

Austin, The Live Music Capital of the World, boasts "more live music venues per capita than such music hotbeds as Nashville, Memphis, Los Angeles, Las Vegas or New York City". Texas_sentence_587

The city's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street; events like the film, music, and multimedia festival South by Southwest; the longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits; and the Austin City Limits Music Festival held in Zilker Park. Texas_sentence_588

Since 1980, San Antonio has evolved into "The Tejano Music Capital Of The World". Texas_sentence_589

The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture. Texas_sentence_590

Education Texas_section_29

Main article: Education in Texas Texas_sentence_591

The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, is the Father of Texas Education. Texas_sentence_592

During his term, the state set aside three leagues of land in each county for equipping public schools. Texas_sentence_593

An additional 50 leagues of land set aside for the support of two universities would later become the basis of the state's Permanent University Fund. Texas_sentence_594

Lamar's actions set the foundation for a Texas-wide public school system. Texas_sentence_595

Between 2006 and 2007, Texas spent $7,275 per pupil, ranking it below the national average of $9,389. Texas_sentence_596

The pupil/teacher ratio was 14.9, below the national average of 15.3. Texas_sentence_597

Texas paid instructors $41,744, below the national average of $46,593. Texas_sentence_598

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) administers the state's public school systems. Texas_sentence_599

Texas has over 1,000 school districts; all districts except the Stafford Municipal School District are independent from municipal government and many cross city boundaries. Texas_sentence_600

School districts have the power to tax their residents and to assert eminent domain over privately owned property. Texas_sentence_601

Due to court-mandated equitable school financing for school districts, the state has a controversial tax redistribution system called the "Robin Hood plan". Texas_sentence_602

This plan transfers property tax revenue from wealthy school districts to poor ones. Texas_sentence_603

The TEA has no authority over private or home school activities. Texas_sentence_604

Students in Texas take the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) in primary and secondary school. Texas_sentence_605

STAAR assess students' attainment of reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards and the No Child Left Behind Act. Texas_sentence_606

The test replaced the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test in the 2011–2012 school year. Texas_sentence_607

Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in the more conservative, rural areas of the state, with 28,569 public school students paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year. Texas_sentence_608

The rate of school corporal punishment in Texas is surpassed only by Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas. Texas_sentence_609

Higher education Texas_section_30

Further information: List of colleges and universities in Texas Texas_sentence_610

The state's two most widely recognized flagship universities are The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University, ranked as the 21st and 41st best universities in the nation according to 2020's latest Center for World University Rankings report, respectively. Texas_sentence_611

Some observers also include the University of Houston and Texas Tech University as tier one flagships alongside UT Austin and A&M. Texas_sentence_612

The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) ranks the state's public universities into three distinct tiers: Texas_sentence_613

Texas_unordered_list_1

Texas's controversial alternative affirmative action plan, Texas House Bill 588, guarantees Texas students who graduated in the top 10 percent of their high school class automatic admission to state-funded universities. Texas_sentence_614

The bill encourages demographic diversity while avoiding problems stemming from the Hopwood v. Texas (1996) case. Texas_sentence_615

Thirty-six (36) separate and distinct public universities exist in Texas, of which 32 belong to one of the six state university systems. Texas_sentence_616

Discovery of minerals on Permanent University Fund land, particularly oil, has helped fund the rapid growth of the state's two largest university systems: the University of Texas System and the Texas A&M System. Texas_sentence_617

The four other university systems: the University of Houston System, the University of North Texas System, the Texas State System, and the Texas Tech System are not funded by the Permanent University Fund. Texas_sentence_618

The Carnegie Foundation classifies three of Texas's universities as Tier One research institutions: The University of Texas at Austin, the Texas A&M University, and the University of Houston. Texas_sentence_619

The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University are flagship universities of the state of Texas. Texas_sentence_620

Both were established by the Texas Constitution and hold stakes in the Permanent University Fund. Texas_sentence_621

The state has been putting effort to expand the number of flagship universities by elevating some of its seven institutions designated as "emerging research universities". Texas_sentence_622

The two expected to emerge first are the University of Houston and Texas Tech University, likely in that order according to discussions on the House floor of the 82nd Texas Legislature. Texas_sentence_623

The state is home to various private institutions of higher learning—ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized top-tier research university. Texas_sentence_624

Rice University in Houston is one of the leading teaching and research universities of the United States and is ranked the nation's 17th-best overall university by U.S. News & World Report. Texas_sentence_625

Trinity University, a private, primarily undergraduate liberal arts university in San Antonio, has ranked first among universities granting primarily bachelor's and select master's degrees in the Western United States for 20 consecutive years by U.S. News. Texas_sentence_626

Private universities include Abilene Christian University, Austin College, Baylor University, University of Mary Hardin–Baylor, and Southwestern University. Texas_sentence_627

Universities in Texas host three presidential libraries: George Bush Presidential Library at Texas A&M University, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum at The University of Texas at Austin, and the George W. Bush Presidential Library at Southern Methodist University. Texas_sentence_628

Healthcare Texas_section_31

See also: Healthcare in Texas and List of hospitals in Texas Texas_sentence_629

Notwithstanding the concentration of elite medical centers in the state, The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation. Texas_sentence_630

Texas ranks close to last in access to healthcare, quality of care, avoidable hospital spending, and equity among various groups. Texas_sentence_631

Causes of the state's poor rankings include politics, a high poverty rate, and the highest rate of illegal immigration in the nation. Texas_sentence_632

In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report the state had 25.1 percent of the population without health insurance, the largest proportion in the nation. Texas_sentence_633

The Trust for America's Health ranked Texas 15th highest in adult obesity, with 27.2 percent of the state's population measured as obese. Texas_sentence_634

The 2008 Men's Health obesity survey ranked four Texas cities among the top 25 fattest cities in America; Houston ranked 6th, Dallas 7th, El Paso 8th, and Arlington 14th. Texas_sentence_635

Texas had only one city (Austin, ranked 21st) in the top 25 among the "fittest cities" in America. Texas_sentence_636

The same survey has evaluated the state's obesity initiatives favorably with a "B+". Texas_sentence_637

The state is ranked forty-second in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise according to a 2007 study. Texas_sentence_638

Texas has the highest maternal mortality rate in the developed world, and the rate by which Texas women died from pregnancy-related complications doubled from 2010 to 2014, to 23.8 per 100,000. Texas_sentence_639

A rate unmatched in any other U.S. state or economically developed country. Texas_sentence_640

Medical research Texas_section_32

Texas has many elite research medical centers. Texas_sentence_641

The state has nine medical schools, three dental schools, and two optometry schools. Texas_sentence_642

Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio—the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United States. Texas_sentence_643

The Texas Medical Center in Houston, holds the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions, with 47 member institutions. Texas_sentence_644

Texas Medical Center performs the most heart transplants in the world. Texas_sentence_645

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston is a highly regarded academic institution that centers around cancer patient care, research, education and prevention. Texas_sentence_646

San Antonio's South Texas Medical Center facilities rank sixth in clinical medicine research impact in the United States. Texas_sentence_647

The University of Texas Health Science Center is another highly ranked research and educational institution in San Antonio. Texas_sentence_648

Both the American Heart Association and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center call Dallas home. Texas_sentence_649

The Southwestern Medical Center ranks "among the top academic medical centers in the world". Texas_sentence_650

The institution's medical school employs the most medical school Nobel laureates in the world. Texas_sentence_651

Transportation Texas_section_33

Main article: Transportation in Texas Texas_sentence_652

Texans have historically had difficulties traversing Texas due to the state's large size and rough terrain. Texas_sentence_653

Texas has compensated by building America's largest highway and railway systems. Texas_sentence_654

The regulatory authority, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), maintains the state's immense highway system, regulates aviation, and public transportation systems. Texas_sentence_655

Located centrally in North America, the state is an important transportation hub. Texas_sentence_656

From the Dallas/Fort Worth area, trucks can reach 93 percent of the nation's population within 48 hours, and 37 percent within 24 hours. Texas_sentence_657

Texas has 33 foreign trade zones (FTZ), the most in the nation. Texas_sentence_658

In 2004, a combined total of $298 billion of goods passed through Texas FTZs. Texas_sentence_659

Highways Texas_section_34

Main article: Texas state highways Texas_sentence_660

The first Texas freeway was the Gulf Freeway opened in 1948 in Houston. Texas_sentence_661

As of 2005, 79,535 miles (127,999 km) of public highway crisscrossed Texas (up from 71,000 miles (114,263 km) in 1984). Texas_sentence_662

To fund recent growth in the state highways, Texas has 17 toll roads (see list) with several additional tollways proposed. Texas_sentence_663

In central Texas, the southern section of the State Highway 130 toll road has a speed limit of 85 miles per hour (137 km/h), the highest in the nation. Texas_sentence_664

All federal and state highways in Texas are paved. Texas_sentence_665

Airports Texas_section_35

See also: List of airports in Texas Texas_sentence_666

Texas has 730 airports, second-most of any state in the nation. Texas_sentence_667

Largest in Texas by size and passengers served, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) is the second-largest by area in the United States, and fourth in the world with 18,076 acres (73.15 km). Texas_sentence_668

In traffic, DFW airport is the busiest in the state, the fourth busiest in the United States, and sixth worldwide. Texas_sentence_669

American Airlines Group's American / American Eagle, the world's largest airline in total passengers-miles transported and passenger fleet size, uses DFW as its largest and main hub. Texas_sentence_670

It ranks as the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year and the largest airline in the world by number of passengers carried. Texas_sentence_671

Southwest Airlines, headquartered in Dallas, has its operations at Dallas Love Field. Texas_sentence_672

Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). Texas_sentence_673

It served as the largest hub for the former Continental Airlines, which was based in Houston; it serves as the largest hub for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline, by passenger-miles flown. Texas_sentence_674

IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport. Texas_sentence_675

The next five largest airports in the state all serve more than three million passengers annually; they include Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, William P. Hobby Airport, San Antonio International Airport, Dallas Love Field and El Paso International Airport. Texas_sentence_676

The smallest airport in the state to be designated an international airport is Del Rio International Airport. Texas_sentence_677

Ports Texas_section_36

Main article: List of ports in the United States Texas_sentence_678

Around 1,150 seaports dot Texas's coast with over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of channels. Texas_sentence_679

Ports employ nearly one-million people and handle an average of 317 million metric tons. Texas_sentence_680

Texas ports connect with the rest of the U.S. Atlantic seaboard with the Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway. Texas_sentence_681

The Port of Houston today is the busiest port in the United States in foreign tonnage, second in overall tonnage, and tenth worldwide in tonnage. Texas_sentence_682

The Houston Ship Channel spans 530 feet (160 m) wide by 45 feet (14 m) deep by 50 miles (80 km) long. Texas_sentence_683

Railroads Texas_section_37

See also: List of Texas railroads Texas_sentence_684

Part of the state's tradition of cowboys is derived from the massive cattle drives which its ranchers organized in the nineteenth century to drive livestock to railroads and markets in Kansas, for shipment to the East. Texas_sentence_685

Towns along the way, such as Baxter Springs, the first cow town in Kansas, developed to handle the seasonal workers and tens of thousands of head of cattle being driven. Texas_sentence_686

The first railroad to operate in Texas was the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway, opening in August 1853. Texas_sentence_687

The first railroad to enter Texas from the north, completed in 1872, was the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. Texas_sentence_688

With increasing railroad access, the ranchers did not have to take their livestock up to the Midwest and shipped beef out from Texas. Texas_sentence_689

This caused a decline in the economies of the cow towns. Texas_sentence_690

Since 1911, Texas has led the nation in length of railroad miles within the state. Texas_sentence_691

Texas railway length peaked in 1932 at 17,078 miles (27,484 km), but declined to 14,006 miles (22,540 km) by 2000. Texas_sentence_692

While the Railroad Commission of Texas originally regulated state railroads, in 2005 the state reassigned these duties to TxDOT. Texas_sentence_693

In the Dallas–Fort Worth area, three public transit agencies provide rail service: Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), Denton County Transportation Authority (DCTA), and Trinity Metro. Texas_sentence_694

DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996. Texas_sentence_695

The Trinity Railway Express (TRE) commuter rail service, which connects Fort Worth and Dallas, is provided by Trinity Metro and DART. Texas_sentence_696

Trinity Metro also operates the TEXRail commuter rail line, connecting downtown Fort Worth and Northeast Tarrant County to DFW Airport. Texas_sentence_697

The A-train commuter rail line, operated by DCTA, acts as an extension of the DART Green line into Denton County. Texas_sentence_698

In the Austin area, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates a commuter rail service known as Capital MetroRail to the northwestern suburbs. Texas_sentence_699

The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates light rail lines in the Houston area. Texas_sentence_700

Amtrak provides Texas with limited intercity passenger rail service. Texas_sentence_701

Three scheduled routes serve the state: the daily Texas Eagle (Chicago–San Antonio); the tri-weekly Sunset Limited (New Orleans–Los Angeles), with stops in Texas; and the daily Heartland Flyer (Fort Worth–Oklahoma City). Texas_sentence_702

Texas may get one of the nation's first high-speed rail line. Texas_sentence_703

Plans for a privately funded high-speed rail line between Dallas and Houston have been planned by the Texas Central Railway company. Texas_sentence_704

Government and politics Texas_section_38

The current Texas Constitution was adopted in 1876. Texas_sentence_705

Like many states, it explicitly provides for a separation of powers. Texas_sentence_706

The state's Bill of Rights is much larger than its federal counterpart, and has provisions unique to Texas. Texas_sentence_707

State government Texas_section_39

Main article: Government of Texas Texas_sentence_708

See also: List of Texas state agencies Texas_sentence_709

Texas has a plural executive branch system limiting the power of the governor, which is a weak executive compared to some other states. Texas_sentence_710

Except for the secretary of state, voters elect executive officers independently; thus candidates are directly answerable to the public, not the governor. Texas_sentence_711

This election system has led to some executive branches split between parties and reduced the ability of the governor to carry out a program. Texas_sentence_712

When Republican president George W. Bush served as Texas's governor, the state had a Democratic lieutenant governor, Bob Bullock. Texas_sentence_713

The executive branch positions consist of the governor, lieutenant governor, comptroller of public accounts, land commissioner, attorney general, agriculture commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the secretary of state. Texas_sentence_714

The bicameral Texas Legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 150 members, and a Senate, with 31 members. Texas_sentence_715

The Speaker of the House leads the House, and the lieutenant governor, the Senate. Texas_sentence_716

The Legislature meets in regular session biennially for just over a hundred days, but the governor can call for special sessions as often as desired (notably, the Legislature cannot call itself into session). Texas_sentence_717

The state's fiscal year begins September 1. Texas_sentence_718

The judiciary of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions. Texas_sentence_719

Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Texas_sentence_720

Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the governor fills vacancies by appointment. Texas_sentence_721

Texas is notable for its use of capital punishment, having led the country in executions since capital punishment was reinstated in the Gregg v. Georgia case (see Capital punishment in Texas). Texas_sentence_722

The Texas Ranger Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction. Texas_sentence_723

Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption. Texas_sentence_724

They have acted as riot police and as detectives, protected the Texas governor, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force both for the republic and for the state. Texas_sentence_725

The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in 1823 and formally constituted in 1835. Texas_sentence_726

The Rangers were integral to several important events of Texas history and some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West. Texas_sentence_727

The Texas constitution defines the responsibilities of county governments, which serve as agents of the state. Texas_sentence_728

What are called commissioners court and court judges are elected to serve as the administrative arm. Texas_sentence_729

Most cities in the state, those over 5,000 in population, have home-rule governments. Texas_sentence_730

The vast majority of these have charters for council-manager forms of government, by which voters elect council members, who hire a professional city manager as an operating officer. Texas_sentence_731

Politics Texas_section_40

Main article: Politics of Texas Texas_sentence_732

Further information: Political party strength in Texas Texas_sentence_733

In the 1870s, white Democrats wrested power back in the state legislature from the biracial coalition at the end of Reconstruction. Texas_sentence_734

In the early 20th century, the legislature passed bills to impose poll taxes, followed by white primaries; these measures effectively disfranchised most blacks, poor whites and Mexican Americans. Texas_sentence_735

In the 1890s, 100,000 blacks voted in the state; by 1906, only 5,000 could vote. Texas_sentence_736

As a result, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics from the turn of the century, imposing racial segregation and white supremacy. Texas_sentence_737

It held power until after passage in the mid-1960s of national civil rights legislation enforcing constitutional rights of all citizens. Texas_sentence_738

Although Texas was essentially a one-party state during this time and the Democratic primary was viewed as "the real election", the Democratic Party had conservative and liberal factions, which became more pronounced after the New Deal. Texas_sentence_739

Additionally, several factions of the party briefly split during the 1930s and 1940s. Texas_sentence_740

The state's conservative white voters began to support Republican presidential candidates by the mid-20th century. Texas_sentence_741

After this period, they supported Republicans for local and state offices as well, and most whites became Republican Party members. Texas_sentence_742

The party also attracted some minorities, but many have continued to vote for Democratic candidates. Texas_sentence_743

The shift to the Republican Party is much-attributed to the fact the Democratic Party became increasingly liberal during the 20th century, and thus increasingly out-of-touch with the average Texas voter. Texas_sentence_744

As Texas was always a conservative state, voters switched to the GOP, which now more closely reflected their beliefs. Texas_sentence_745

Commentators have also attributed the shift to Republican political consultant Karl Rove, who managed numerous political campaigns in Texas in the 1980s and 1990s. Texas_sentence_746

Other stated reasons included court-ordered redistricting and the demographic shift in relation to the Sun Belt that favored the Republican Party and conservatism. Texas_sentence_747

The 2003 Texas redistricting of Congressional districts led by Republican Tom DeLay, was called by The New York Times "an extreme case of partisan gerrymandering". Texas_sentence_748

A group of Democratic legislators, the "Texas Eleven", fled the state in a quorum-busting effort to prevent the legislature from acting, but was unsuccessful. Texas_sentence_749

The state had already redistricted following the 2000 census. Texas_sentence_750

Despite these efforts, the legislature passed a map heavily in favor of Republicans, based on 2000 data and ignoring the estimated nearly one million new residents in the state since then. Texas_sentence_751

Career attorneys and analysts at the Department of Justice objected to the plan as diluting the votes of African American and Hispanic voters, but political appointees overrode them and approved it. Texas_sentence_752

Legal challenges to the redistricting reached the national Supreme Court in the case League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006), but the court ruled in favor of the state (and Republicans). Texas_sentence_753

In the 2014 Texas elections, the Tea Party movement made large gains, with numerous Tea Party favorites being elected into office, including Dan Patrick as lieutenant governor, Ken Paxton as attorney general, in addition to numerous other candidates including conservative Republican Greg Abbott as governor. Texas_sentence_754

Texas voters lean toward fiscal conservatism, while enjoying the benefits of huge federal investment in the state in military and other facilities achieved by the power of the Solid South in the 20th century. Texas_sentence_755

They also tend to have socially conservative values. Texas_sentence_756

Since 1980, most Texas voters have supported Republican presidential candidates. Texas_sentence_757

In 2000 and 2004, Republican George W. Bush won Texas with respectively 59.3 and 60.1 percent of the vote, partly due to his "favorite son" status as a former governor of the state. Texas_sentence_758

John McCain won the state in 2008, but with a smaller margin of victory compared to Bush at 55 percent of the vote. Texas_sentence_759

Austin, Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio consistently lean Democratic in both local and statewide elections. Texas_sentence_760

The state's changing demographics may result in a change in its overall political alignment, as a majority population of Black and Hispanic/Latino voters support the Democratic Party. Texas_sentence_761

Residents of counties along the Rio Grande closer to the Mexico–United States border, where there are many Latino residents, generally vote for Democratic Party candidates, while most other rural and suburban areas of Texas have shifted to voting for Republican Party candidates. Texas_sentence_762

As of the general elections of 2014, a large majority of the members of Texas's U.S. Texas_sentence_763 House delegation are Republican, along with both U.S. Texas_sentence_764 Senators. Texas_sentence_765

In the 114th United States Congress, of the 36 Congressional districts in Texas, 24 are held by Republicans and 11 by Democrats. Texas_sentence_766

One seat is vacant. Texas_sentence_767

Texas's Senators are John Cornyn and Ted Cruz. Texas_sentence_768

Since 1994, Texans have not elected a Democrat to a statewide office. Texas_sentence_769

The state's Democratic voters are made up primarily by liberal and minority groups in Austin, Beaumont, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio as well as minority voters in East and South Texas. Texas_sentence_770

Texas has banned sanctuary cities, but Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner has vowed that the city will not assist ICE agents. Texas_sentence_771

Criminal law Texas_section_41

Texas has a reputation of very harsh criminal punishment for criminal offenses. Texas_sentence_772

It is one of the 32 states that practice capital punishment, and since the US Supreme Court allowed capital punishment to resume in 1976, 40% of all U.S .executions have taken place in Texas. Texas_sentence_773

As of 2008, Texas had the 4th highest incarceration rate in the U.S. Texas also has strong self defense laws, allowing citizens to use lethal force to defend themselves, their families, or their property. Texas_sentence_774

Sports Texas_section_42

Main article: Sports in Texas Texas_sentence_775

Further information: List of University Interscholastic League events Texas_sentence_776

While American football has long been considered "king" in the state, Texans enjoy a wide variety of sports. Texas_sentence_777

Texans can cheer for a plethora of professional sports teams. Texas_sentence_778

Within the "Big Four" professional leagues, Texas has two NFL teams (the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texans), two Major League Baseball teams (the Houston Astros and the Texas Rangers), three NBA teams (the San Antonio Spurs, the Houston Rockets, and the Dallas Mavericks), and one National Hockey League team (the Dallas Stars). Texas_sentence_779

The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex is one of only twelve American metropolitan areas that host sports teams from all the "Big Four" professional leagues. Texas_sentence_780

Outside the "Big Four", Texas also has a WNBA team, (the Dallas Wings) and two Major League Soccer teams (the Houston Dynamo and FC Dallas). Texas_sentence_781

Collegiate athletics have deep significance in Texas culture, especially football. Texas_sentence_782

The state has twelve Division I-FBS schools, the most in the nation. Texas_sentence_783

Four of the state's universities, the Baylor Bears, Texas Longhorns, TCU Horned Frogs, and Texas Tech Red Raiders, compete in the Big 12 Conference. Texas_sentence_784

The Texas A&M Aggies left the Big 12 and joined the Southeastern Conference in 2012, which led the Big 12 to invite TCU to join; TCU was previously in the Mountain West Conference. Texas_sentence_785

The Houston Cougars and the SMU Mustangs compete in the American Athletic Conference. Texas_sentence_786

The Texas State Bobcats and the UT Arlington Mavericks compete in the Sun Belt Conference. Texas_sentence_787

Four of the state's schools claim at least one national championship in football: the Texas Longhorns, the Texas A&M Aggies, the TCU Horned Frogs, and the SMU Mustangs. Texas_sentence_788

According to a survey of Division I-A coaches the rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and the University of Texas at Austin, the Red River Shootout, ranks the third-best in the nation. Texas_sentence_789

The TCU Horned Frogs and SMU Mustangs also share a rivalry and compete annually in the Battle for the Iron Skillet. Texas_sentence_790

A fierce rivalry, the Lone Star Showdown, also exists between the state's two largest universities, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin. Texas_sentence_791

The athletics portion of the Lone Star Showdown rivalry has been put on hold after the Texas A&M Aggies joined the Southeastern Conference. Texas_sentence_792

The University Interscholastic League (UIL) organizes most primary and secondary school competitions. Texas_sentence_793

Events organized by UIL include contests in athletics (the most popular being high school football) as well as artistic and academic subjects. Texas_sentence_794

Texans also enjoy the rodeo. Texas_sentence_795

The world's first rodeo was hosted in Pecos, Texas. Texas_sentence_796

The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo is the largest rodeo in the world. Texas_sentence_797

It begins with trail rides from several points throughout the state that convene at Reliant Park. Texas_sentence_798

The Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show in Fort Worth is the oldest continuously running rodeo incorporating many of the state's most historic traditions into its annual events. Texas_sentence_799

Dallas hosts the State Fair of Texas each year at Fair Park. Texas_sentence_800

Texas Motor Speedway hosts annual NASCAR Cup Series and IndyCar Series auto races since 1997. Texas_sentence_801

Since 2012, Austin's Circuit of the Americas plays host to a round of the Formula 1 World Championship— the first at a permanent road circuit in the United States since the 1980 Grand Prix at Watkins Glen International—, as well as Grand Prix motorcycle racing, FIA World Endurance Championship and United SportsCar Championship races. Texas_sentence_802

See also Texas_section_43

Texas_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas.