This article is about the State of Texas.
For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation).
"Texan" redirects here.
For other uses, see Texan (disambiguation).
|Before statehood||Republic of Texas|
|Admitted to the Union||December 29, 1845 (28th)|
|Largest metro||Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex|
|Governor||Greg Abbott (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Dan Patrick (R)|
|Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Judiciary||Supreme Court of Texas (Civil)
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (Criminal)
|U.S. senators||John Cornyn (R)|
|U.S. House delegation||23 Republicans|
|Total||268,596 sq mi (695,662 km)|
|Land||261,232 sq mi (676,587 km)|
|Water||7,365 sq mi (19,075 km) 2.7%|
|Length||801 mi (1,289 km)|
|Width||773 mi (1,244 km)|
|Elevation||1,700 ft (520 m)|
|Highest elevation (Guadalupe Peak)||8,751 ft (2,667.4 m)|
|Lowest elevation (Gulf of Mexico)||0 ft (0 m)|
|Density||108/sq mi (40.6/km)|
|Median household income||$59,206|
|Official language||No official language|
|Spoken language||Predominantly English;
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority
|Majority of state||UTC−06:00 (Central)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−05:00 (CDT)|
|El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson counties||UTC−07:00 (Mountain)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−06:00 (MDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-TX|
|Latitude||25°50′ N to 36°30′ N|
|Longitude||93°31′ W to 106°39′ W|
|Texas state symbols|
|Bird||Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)|
|Fish||Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)|
|Flower||Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)|
|Insect||Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)|
|Mammal||Texas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)|
|Reptile||Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)|
|Tree||Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)|
|Shell||Lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)|
|Slogan||The Friendly State|
|Other||Molecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)|
|State route marker|
It is the second largest U.S.
Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.
Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively.
The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word táyshaʼ, which means "friends" in the Caddo language.
The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory.
Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas.
France held a short-lived colony.
Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming the Republic of Texas.
In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state.
After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.
Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil.
Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy.
In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative.
It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54.
If Texas were a sovereign state, it would have the 10th largest economy in the world.
The name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ (/tʼajʃaʔ/) "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, specifically the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural.
During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevas Filipinas ("New Philippines") and Nuevo Reino de Filipinas ("New Kingdom of the Philippines"), or as provincia de los Tejas ("province of the Tejas"), later also provincia de Texas (or de Tejas), ("province of Texas").
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings, Tejas and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U.S. State of Texas.
Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements.
Main article: History of Texas
Further information: Pre-Columbian Mexico
Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact.
- the Pueblo from the upper Rio Grande region, centered west of Texas;
- the Mississippian culture, also known as Mound Builders, which extended along the Mississippi River Valley east of Texas; and
- the civilizations of Mesoamerica, centered south of Texas. Influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD 500 and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries.
When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, there were several races of Native peoples divided into many smaller tribes.
They were Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan, and Uto-Aztecan.
The Uto-Aztecan Puebloan peoples lived neared the Rio Grande in the western portion of the state, the Athabaskan-speaking Apache tribes lived throughout the interior, the Caddoans controlled much of the Red River region and the Atakapans were mostly centered along the Gulf Coast.
At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas.
This entire culture group, primarily centered in northeastern Mexico, is now extinct.
It is difficult to say who lived in the northwestern region of the state originally.
By the time the region came to be explored, it belonged to the fairly well-known Comanche, another Uto-Aztecan people who had transitioned into a powerful horse culture, but it is believed that they came later and did not live there during the 16th century.
It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans.
No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area.
Native American tribes who lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Aranama, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita.
The name Texas derives from táyshaʔ, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".
The region was primarily controlled by the Spanish for the first couple centuries of contact, until the Texas Revolution.
They were not particularly kind to their native populations—even less so with the Caddoans, who were not trusted as their culture was split between the Spanish and the French.
When the Spanish briefly managed to conquer the Louisiana colony, they decided to switch tactics and attempt being exceedingly friendly to the Indians, which they continued even after the French took back the colony.
After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the United States inherited this odd circumstance.
The Caddoans preferred the company of Americans and almost the entire population of them migrated into the states of Louisiana and Arkansas.
The Spanish felt jilted after having spent so much time and effort and began trying to lure the Caddo back, even promising them more land.
Seemingly without actually knowing how they came by it, the United States (who had begun convincing tribes to self-segregate from whites by selling everything and moving west ever since they gained the Louisiana Purchase) faced an overflow of native peoples in Missouri and Arkansas and were able to negotiate with the Caddoans to allow several displaced peoples to settle on unused lands in eastern Texas.
Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land.
Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game.
Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers.
During the Texas Revolution, the U.S. became heavily involved.
Prior treaties with the Spanish forbade either side from militarizing its native population in any potential conflict between the two nations.
At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread.
The Caddoans were always clueless when questioned, The Texan and American authorities in the region could never find hard evidence linking them to it and often it was so far-flung from Caddoan lands, it barely made any sense.
It seems most likely that these were false-flag attacks meant to start a cascading effect to force the natives under Caddoan influence into armed conflict without breaking any treaties—preferably on the side of the Spanish.
While no proof was found as to who the culprit was, those in charge of Texas at the time attempted multiple times to publicly blame and punish the Caddoans for the incidents with the U.S. government trying to keep them in check.
Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense.
By the 1830s, the U.S. had drafted the Indian Removal Act, which was used to facilitate the Trail of Tears.
Fearing retribution of other native peoples, Indian Agents all over the eastern U.S. began desperately trying to convince all their native peoples to uproot and move west.
This included the Caddoans of Louisiana and Arkansas.
Following the Texas Revolution, the Texans chose to make peace with their Native peoples but did not honor former land claims or agreements.
This began the movement of Native populations north into what would become Indian Territory—modern-day Oklahoma.
Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French colonization of Texas, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), New Spain, Spanish Texas, Seminole Wars, Adams–Onís Treaty, Mexican War of Independence, Treaty of Córdoba, First Mexican Empire, Mexican Texas, Provisional Government of Mexico (1823–24), 1824 Constitution of Mexico, First Mexican Republic, Siete Leyes, and Centralist Republic of Mexico
Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in what is now Texas.
Cabeza de Vaca reported that in 1528, when the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us."
Cabeza de Vaca also made observations about the way of life of the Ignaces Natives of Texas:
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado describes his 1541 encounter:
European powers ignored the area until accidentally settling there in 1685.
The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.
After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico.
When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in 1716 Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas.
Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in the area.
Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to the area.
It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces.
The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785 and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes.
With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes.
By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.
When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, American authorities insisted the agreement also included Texas.
The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in 1819, at what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana.
Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement.
Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River.
In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico.
Due to its low population, Mexico made the area part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Hoping more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain.
Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior.
Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States.
The population of Texas grew rapidly.
In 1825, Texas had about 3,500 people, with most of Mexican descent.
By 1834, the population had grown to about 37,800 people, with only 7,800 of Mexican descent.
Most of these early settlers who arrived with Austin and soon after were persons less than fortunate in life, as Texas was devoid of the comforts found elsewhere in Mexico and the United States during that time.
Early Texas settler David B. Edwards described his fellow Texans as being "banished from the pleasures of life".
Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery.
Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in 1830 to prohibit continued immigration from the United States.
Illegal immigration from the United States into Mexico continued to increase the population of Texas anyway.
The Anahuac Disturbances in 1832 were the first open revolt against Mexican rule, and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's president.
They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom.
Texians met at the Convention of 1832 to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues.
The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of 1833.
Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists.
In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety.
The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales.
This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region.
Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government.
The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836.
During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt.
The Mexican expedition was initially successful.
News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers.
After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded.
The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army.
Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war.
The Constitution of the Republic of Texas prohibited the government from restricting slavery or freeing slaves, required free people of African descent to leave the country, and prohibited Native Americans from becoming citizens.
While Texas had won its independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic.
The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean.
Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans.
The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.
With wide popular support, Texas first applied for annexation to the United States in 1836, but its status as a slaveholding country caused its admission to be controversial and it was initially rebuffed.
This status, and Mexican diplomacy in support of its claims to the territory, also complicated Texas's ability to form foreign alliances and trade relationships.
Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in 1842.
The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson massacre.
Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived.
The cotton price crash of the 1840s depressed the country's economy, contributing to the republic's inability to defend itself, and adding momentum to Texas's eventual annexation into the United States.
As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States.
Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union.
On December 29, 1845, Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.
The population of the new state was quite small at first, and there was a strong mix between the English-speaking American settlers who dominated in the state's eastern/northeastern portions and the Spanish-speaking former Mexicans (Tejanos) who dominated in the state's southern and western portions.
Statehood brought many new settlers.
Because of the long Spanish presence in Mexico and various failed colonization efforts by the Spanish and Mexicans in northern Mexico, there were large herds of Longhorn cattle that roamed the state.
Hardy by nature, but also suitable for slaughtering and consumption, they represented an economic opportunity many entrepreneurs seized upon, thus creating the cowboy culture for which Texas is famous.
While in the early days of the republic cattle and bison were slaughtered for their hides, soon a beef industry was established with cattle being shipped all over the U.S. and the Caribbean (within a few decades, beef had become a staple of the American diet).
After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States.
While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so.
President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, 1846.
After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory, ending the fighting in Texas.
After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war.
In return, for US$18,250,000, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession in 1848, most of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande.
The Compromise of 1850 set Texas's boundaries at their present form.
Senator James Pearce of Maryland drafted the final proposal where Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present-day New Mexico, a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.
Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.
They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from 1850 to 1860, from 58,000 to 182,566.
Civil War and Reconstruction (1860–1900)
Texas was at war again after the election of 1860.
At this time, blacks comprised 30 percent of the state's population, and they were overwhelmingly enslaved.
When Abraham Lincoln was elected, South Carolina seceded from the Union.
Five other Lower South states quickly followed.
A State Convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, 1861.
On February 1, by a vote of 166–8, the Convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States.
Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, 1861.
Texas joined the newly created Confederate States of America on March 4, 1861 ratifying the permanent C.S.
Constitution on March 23.
Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause.
Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office.
After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor.
Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston.
Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade.
The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route, but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid-1863 after the Union capture of the Mississippi River.
Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction.
President Johnson, in 1866, declared the civilian government restored in Texas.
Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress resumed allowing elected Texas representatives into the federal government in 1870.
Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.
Like most of the South, the Texas economy was devastated by the War.
However, since the state had not been as dependent on slaves as other parts of the South, it was able to recover more quickly.
The culture in Texas during the later 19th century exhibited many facets of a frontier territory.
The state became notorious as a haven for people from other parts of the country who wanted to escape debt, criminal prosecution, or other problems.
Indeed, "Gone to Texas" was a common expression for those fleeing the law in other states.
Nevertheless, the state also attracted many businessmen and other settlers with more legitimate interests as well.
The cattle industry continued to thrive, though it gradually became less profitable.
Cotton and lumber became major industries creating new economic booms in various regions of the state.
Railroad networks grew rapidly as did the port at Galveston as commerce between Texas and the rest of the U.S. (and the rest of the world) expanded.
As with some other states before, the lumber industry quickly decimated the forests of Texas such that, by the early 20th century, the majority of the forest population in Texas was gone (later conservation efforts restored some of it, but never to the level it once was).
Earlier 20th century
In 1900, Texas suffered the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane.
The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas.
Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in 1972.
In addition, the legislature established white primaries, ensuring minorities were excluded from the formal political process.
The number of voters dropped dramatically, and the Democrats crushed competition from the Republican and Populist parties.
The Socialist Party became the second-largest party in Texas after 1912, coinciding with a large socialist upsurge in the United States during fierce battles in the labor movement and the popularity of national heroes like Eugene V. Debs.
The Socialists' popularity soon waned after their vilification by the United States government for their opposition to US involvement in World War I.
Migrants abandoned the worst-hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years.
Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation.
In 1940, Texas was 74 percent Anglo, 14.4 percent black, and 11.5 percent Hispanic.
World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; 750,000 young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left the fields for much better-paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture.
Texas manufactured 3.1 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking eleventh among the 48 states.
Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the 1960s.
The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently.
These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds.
Mid 20th to earlier 21st century
On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Beginning around the mid-20th century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one urban and industrialized.
The state's population grew quickly during this period, with large levels of migration from outside the state.
As a part of the Sun Belt, Texas experienced strong economic growth, particularly during the 1970s and early 1980s.
Texas's economy diversified, lessening its reliance on the petroleum industry.
By 1990, Hispanics and Latin Americans overtook blacks to become the largest minority group in the state.
During the late 20th century, the Republican Party replaced the Democratic Party as the dominant party in the state, as the latter became more politically liberal and as demographic changes favored the former.
Beginning in the early 21st century, metropolitan areas including Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Austin became centers for the Texas Democratic Party in statewide and national elections as liberal policies became more accepted in urban areas.
On July 7, 2016, Dallas police officers were ambushed by Micah Xavier Johnson, killing five officers and injuring nine others in retaliation against white police officers.
Johnson was the first person believed to have been killed by a robot used by U.S.
From the mid 2000s-2019, the state of Texas gained an influx of business relocations and regional headquarters from companies in California.
Texas was named the primary destination for companies leaving California for the last 12 years according to a study in 2019.
Texas became a major destination for migration during the early 21st century and was named the most popular state to move for three consecutive years.
In 2018, Texas was named the most popular state for relocation.
Another study in 2019 determined Texas's growth rate at 1,000 people per day.
During COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, the first confirmed case of the virus in Texas was announced on March 4, 2020.
Since its arrival there have been at least 781,794 confirmed cases, 16,334 fatalities, and 695,194 estimated recoveries as of October 8, 2020.
On April 27, 2020, Governor Greg Abbott announced phase one of re-opening the economy.
Phase-two openings began on May 18, and phase three was announced on June 3.
Governor Abbott expressed regret over the swift reopening of bars during the COVID-19 pandemic in Texas.
In the 2020 U.S. presidential election, Governor Abbott announced a controversial decision to limit one mail-in ballot drop box location for each county.
Harris County, Texas received national media attention because the county, which is larger than the size of Rhode Island and has 2.4 million registered voters, was served by only one voting drop-box location.
A federal judge blocked the governor's order until it was appealed in court; the ruling determined a temporary stay.
Abbott was sued by voters and voters rights groups following the order.
Abbott refused to enact further lockdowns.
Main article: Geography of Texas
Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America.
Three of its borders are defined by rivers.
The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north.
The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east.
With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities.
The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state.
Vegetation in this region consists of thick piney woods.
The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land and is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest.
"Far West Texas" or the "Trans-Pecos" region is the state's Basin and Range Province.
The most varied of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands.
Texas has 3,700 named streams and 15 major rivers, with the Rio Grande as the largest.
While Texas has few natural lakes, Texans have built more than a hundred artificial reservoirs.
The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both.
The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States.
Main article: Geology of Texas
Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico.
The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old.
Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks.
The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico's passive margin began to form.
Today 9 to 12 miles (14 to 19 km) of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are here.
At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age.
The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil.
A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas.
It is the home to 65 species of mammals, 213 species of reptiles and amphibians, and the greatest diversity of bird life in the United States—590 native species in all.
At least 12 species have been introduced and now reproduce freely in Texas.
During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers.
Main article: Climate of Texas
The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state highly variable weather.
The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters.
Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns.
El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages 8.7 inches (220 mm) of annual rainfall, while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,600 mm) per year.
Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (940 mm) per year.
Snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas.
Snow falls south of San Antonio or on the coast only in rare circumstances.
Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 °C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F (38 °C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90 °F (32 °C) range.
Night-time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14 °C) in the West Texas mountains to 80 °F (27 °C) in Galveston.
The table below consists of averages for August (generally the warmest month) and January (generally the coldest) in selected cities in various regions of the state.
El Paso and Amarillo are exceptions with July and December respectively being the warmest and coldest months respectively, but with August and January being only narrowly different.
|Location||August (°F)||August (°C)||January (°F)||January (°C)|
Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state.
Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas.
The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of 139 a year.
These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle.
Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June.
Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas.
These events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city.
The 1900 Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8,000 people or possibly as many as 12,000.
This makes it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.
The storm stalled over land for a very long time, allowing it to drop unprecedented amounts of rain over the Greater Houston area and surrounding counties.
The result was widespread and catastrophic flooding that inundated hundreds of thousands of homes.
Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $198.6 billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.
Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed more than 600 people, Hurricane Carla in 1961, Hurricane Beulah in 1967, Hurricane Alicia in 1983, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008.
Main article: Climate change in Texas
As of 2017 Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U.S, almost twice the amount of California, the second most polluting state.
As of 2017 the state emits about 1,600 billion pounds (707 million metric tons) of carbon dioxide annually.
As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases.
Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries.
In 2010, there were 2,553 "emission events" which poured 44.6 million pounds (20,200 metric tons) of contaminants into the Texas sky.
|Largest city in Texas by year|
The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.
These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States.
As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people.
Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities.
The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively.
Three interstate highways—I-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region.
The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.
Houston and Dallas have been recognized as world cities.
These cities are spread out amongst the state.
In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.
The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias.
Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias.
Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.
Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).
Each county runs on Commissioners' Court system consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts in the county, roughly divided according to population) and a county judge elected at large from the entire county.
County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners.
Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments.
Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law.
The state does not have townships—areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated.
Incorporated areas are part of a municipality.
The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas and to some smaller incorporated areas.
Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule".
A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5,000 population with voter approval.
Texas also permits the creation of "special districts", which provide limited services.
The most common is the school district, but can also include hospital districts, community college districts, and utility districts (one utility district near Austin was the plaintiff in a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act).
Municipal, school district, and special district elections are nonpartisan, though the party affiliation of a candidate may be well-known.
County and state elections are partisan.
Main article: Demographics of Texas
In 2010, the state of Texas had a census population of 25,145,561.
The 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program determined the population was 27,469,114 on July 1, 2015.
Texas is the second-most populous state in the United States after California.
In 2015, Texas had 4.7 million foreign-born residents, about 17% of the population and 21.6% of the state workforce.
The major countries of origin for Texan immigrants were Mexico (55.1% of immigrants), India (5%), El Salvador (4.3%), Vietnam (3.7%), and China (2.3%).
Of immigrant residents, some 35.8 percent were naturalized U.S. citizens.
As of 2018, the population increased to 4.9 million foreign-born residents or 17.2% of the state population, up from 2,899,642 in 2000.
In 2014, there were an estimated 1.7 million undocumented immigrants in Texas, making up 35% of the total Texas immigrant population and 6.1% of the total state population.
In addition to the state's foreign-born population, an additional 4.1 million Texans (15% of the state's population) were born in the United States and had at least one immigrant parent.
According to the American Community Survey's 2016 estimates, 1,597,000 residents were undocumented immigrants, a decrease of 103,000 since 2014.
Of the undocumented immigrant population, 960,000 have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years.
An estimated 637,000 lived in Texas from 15 to 19 and 20 years or more.
During the 2014 crisis, many Central Americans, including unaccompanied minors traveling alone from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, reached the state, overwhelming Border Patrol resources for a time.
Many sought asylum in the United States.
Texas's population density is 90.5 people per square mile (34.9/km) which is slightly higher than the average population density of the U.S. as a whole, at 80.6 people per square mile (31.1/km).
In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of 301.8 people per square mile (116.5/km).
Two-thirds of all Texans live in major metropolitan areas such as Houston.
The Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in Texas.
While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest city in the United States by population, the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than the city and metropolitan area of Houston.
Race and ethnicity
|Native Hawaiian and||–||–||0.1%||0.1%|
|Two or more races||–||–||2.5%||2.7%|
In 2015 non-Hispanic whites made up 11,505,371 (41.9%) of the population, followed by Black Americans at 3,171,043 (11.5%); other races 1,793,580 (6.5%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 10,999,120 (40.0%).
According to the 2010 United States census, the racial composition of Texas was the following: White American 70.4 percent, (Non-Hispanic whites 45.3 percent), Black or African American 11.8 percent, American Indian 0.7 percent, Asian 3.8 percent (1.0 percent Indian, 0.8 percent Vietnamese, 0.6 percent Chinese, 0.4 percent Filipino, 0.3 percent Korean, 0.1 percent Japanese, 0.6 percent other Asian), Pacific Islander 0.1 percent, some other race 10.5 percent, and two or more races 2.7 percent.
In addition, 37.6 percent of the population was Hispanic or Latino (of any race) (31.6 percent Mexican, 0.9 percent Salvadoran, 0.5 percent Puerto Rican, 0.4 percent Honduran, 0.3 percent Guatemalan 0.3 percent Spaniard, 0.2 percent Colombian, 0.2 percent Cuban).
In 2011, 69.8% of the population of Texas younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).
In 2019, non-Hispanic whites represented 41.2% of Texas's population, reflecting a national demographic shift.
Blacks or African Americans made up 12.9%, American Indians or Alaska Natives 1.0%, Asian Americans 5.2%, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 0.1%, some other race 0.2%, and two or more races 1.8%.
Hispanics or Latin Americans of any race made up 39.7% of the estimated population.
German Americans make up 11.3 percent of the population and number over 2.7 million members.
Irish Americans make up 8.2 percent of the population and number over 1.9 million.
There are roughly 600,000 French Americans, 472,000 Italian Americans, 369,161 Scottish Americans, and 288,610 Polish Americans residing in Texas; these four ethnic groups make up 2.5 percent, 2.0 percent, 1.5 percent, and 1.0 percent of the population respectively.
In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English with 3,083,323 Texans citing they were of English or mostly English ancestry, making them 27 percent of the state at the time.
Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies (the census of 1790 gives 48% of the population of English ancestry, together with 12% Scots and Scots-Irish, 4.5% other Irish, and 3% Welsh, for a total of 67.5% British and Irish; 13% were German, Swiss, Dutch, and French Huguenots; 19% were African American), thus many of them today identify as "American" in ancestry, though they are of predominantly British stock.
In 2012 there were nearly 200,000 Czech Americans living in Texas, the largest number of any state.
Hispanics and Latinos are the second-largest groups in Texas after non-Hispanic European Americans.
More than 8.5 million people claim Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.
This group forms over 37 percent of Texas's population.
People of Mexican descent alone number over 7.9 million, and make up 31.6 percent of the population.
The vast majority of the Hispanic/Latino population in the state is of Mexican descent, the next two largest groups are Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans.
The Hispanics in Texas are more likely than in some other states (such as California) to identify as white; according to the 2010 U.S. Census, Texas is home to 6,304,207 White Hispanics and 2,594,206 Hispanics of "some other race" (usually mestizo).
African Americans are the racial minority in Texas.
Their proportion of the population has declined since the early 20th century after many left the state in the Great Migration.
Blacks of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin made up 11.5 percent of the population in 2015; blacks of non-Hispanic origin form 11.3 percent of the populace.
African Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin numbered at roughly 2.7 million individuals, increasing in 2018 to 3,908,287.
Native Americans are a smaller minority in the state.
Native Americans made up 0.5 percent of Texas's population and number over 118,000 individuals as of 2015.
Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin make up 0.3 percent of the population and number over 75,000 individuals.
Cherokee made up 0.1 percent of the population, and numbered over 19,400.
In contrast, only 583 identified as Chippewa.
Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas.
Americans of Asian descent formed 4.5 percent of the population in 2015.
They total more than 1.2 million individuals.
Over 200,000 Indian Americans make Texas their home.
The Houston and Dallas areas, and to a lesser extent, the Austin metropolitan area, all contain substantial Vietnamese communities.
Americans with origins from the Pacific Islands are the smallest minority in Texas.
According to the 2019 American Community Survey, only 21,484 Texans are Pacific Islanders.
Killeen has a sufficient population of Samoans and Guamanian, and people of Pacific Islander descent surpass one percent of the city's population.
Multiracial individuals are also a visible minority in Texas.
People identifying as multiracial form 2.9 percent of the population, and number over 800,000 people.
Over 80,000 Texans claim African and European heritage.
People of European and American Indian ancestry number over 108,800.
People of European and Asian ancestry number over 57,600.
People of African and Native American ancestry were even smaller in number at 15,300.
German descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas.
Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin; while many have recently arrived, some Tejanos have ancestors with multi-generational ties to 18th century Texas.
The African American population in Texas is increasing due to the New Great Migration.
In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration.
Since the early 21st century, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas.
Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas.
In 2010, 49 percent of all births were Hispanics; 35 percent were non-Hispanic whites; 11.5 percent were non-Hispanic blacks, and 4.3 percent were Asians/Pacific Islanders.
Based on Census Bureau data released in February 2011, for the first time in recent history, Texas's white population is below 50 percent (45 percent) and Hispanics grew to 38 percent.
Between 2000 and 2010, the total population growth by 20.6 percent, but Hispanics growth by 65 percent, whereas non-Hispanic whites grew by only 4.2 percent.
Texas has the fifth highest rate of teenage births in the nation and a plurality of these are to Hispanics.
(as of 2010)
|Korean and Urdu (tied)||0.24%|
The most common accent or dialect spoken by natives throughout Texas is sometimes referred to as Texan English, which itself is a sub-variety of a broader category of American English known as Southern American English.
Creole language is spoken in some parts of East Texas.
At the 2019 American Community Survey's estimates, 64.4% of the population spoke only English, and 35.6% spoke a language other than English.
Roughly 30% of the total population spoke Spanish.
Approximately 50,742 Texans spoke French or a French-creole language.
German and other West Germanic languages were spoken by 47,098 residents; Russian, Polish, and other Slavic languages by 27,956; Korean by 31,581; Chinese 22,616; Vietnamese 81,022; Tagalog 43,360; and Arabic by 26,281 Texans.
At the census of 2010, 65.8% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 29.2% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75 percent (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over five.
In total, 34.2% (7,660,406) of Texas's population aged five and older spoke a language at home other than English as of 2006.
The majority of Texas's population have been and remain predominantly Christian, influenced by Spanish Catholic and American Protestant colonialism and missionary work (77%).
Texas's large Christian population is also influenced due to its location within the Bible Belt.
The largest Christian denomination as of 2014 is the Catholic Church (23%).
The largest Evangelical Baptists in the state were the Southern Baptist Convention (9%) and independent Baptists (3%).
The Assemblies of God made the largest Evangelical Pentecostal denomination at the 2014 study.
Among Mainline Protestants, the United Methodist Church was the largest denomination (4%).
American Baptist Churches USA comprised the second largest Mainline Protestant group (2%).
Black Methodists and other Christians made up less than 1 percent each of the Christian demographic.
Non-Christian faiths accounted for 4% of the religious population in 2014.
Adherents of many other religions reside predominantly in the urban centers of Texas.
Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism were tied as the second largest religion as of 2014.
In 1990, the Islamic population was about 140,000 with more recent figures putting the current number of Muslims between 350,000 and 400,000 as of 2012.
The Jewish population was around 128,000 in 2008.
In 2020, the Jewish population grew to over 176,000.
Texas is the fifth-largest Muslim-populated state in the country.
Main article: Economy of Texas
See also: Texas locations by per capita income
As of 2019, Texas had a gross state product (GSP) of $1.9 trillion, the second highest in the U.S. Its GSP is greater than the GDPs of Brazil, Canada, Russia, South Korea and Spain, which are the world's 9th-, 10th-, 11th-, 12th- and 13th-largest economies, respectively.
Texas's economy is the second-largest of any country subdivision globally, behind California.
Its per capita personal income in 2009 was $36,484, ranking 29th in the nation.
Texas's large population, an abundance of natural resources, thriving cities and leading centers of higher education have contributed to a large and diverse economy.
Since oil was discovered, the state's economy has reflected the state of the petroleum industry.
In recent times, urban centers of the state have increased in size, containing two-thirds of the population in 2005.
The state's economic growth has led to urban sprawl and its associated symptoms.
As of May 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the state's unemployment rate was 13 percent.
In 2010, Site Selection Magazine ranked Texas as the most business-friendly state in the nation, in part because of the state's three-billion-dollar Texas Enterprise Fund.
Texas has the joint-highest number of Fortune 500 company headquarters in the United States, along with California.
In 2010, there were 346,000 millionaires in Texas, constituting the second-largest population of millionaires in the nation.
Texas has a "low taxes, low services" reputation.
According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens rank among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally; state and local taxes cost $3,580 per capita, or 8.4 percent of resident incomes.
Texas is one of seven states that lack a state income tax.
Instead, the state collects revenue from property taxes (though these are collected at the county, city, and school district level; Texas has a state constitutional prohibition against a state property tax) and sales taxes.
The state sales tax rate is 6.25 percent, but local taxing jurisdictions (cities, counties, special purpose districts, and transit authorities) may also impose sales and use tax up to 2 percent for a total maximum combined rate of 8.25 percent.
Texas is a "tax donor state"; in 2005, for every dollar Texans paid to the federal government in federal income taxes, the state got back about $0.94 in benefits.
To attract business, Texas has incentive programs worth $19 billion per year (2012); more than any other US state.
Agriculture and mining
Texas has the most farms and the highest acreage in the United States.
The state is ranked No.
1 for revenue generated from total livestock and livestock products.
It is ranked No.
2 for total agricultural revenue, behind California.
At $7.4 billion or 56.7 percent of Texas's annual agricultural cash receipts, beef cattle production represents the largest single segment of Texas agriculture.
This is followed by cotton at $1.9 billion (14.6 percent), greenhouse/nursery at $1.5 billion (11.4 percent), broilers at $1.3 billion (10 percent), and dairy products at $947 million (7.3 percent).
Texas leads the nation in the production of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, wool, mohair and hay.
The state also leads the nation in production of cotton which is the number one crop grown in the state in terms of value.
The state grows significant amounts of cereal crops and produce.
Texas has a large commercial fishing industry.
With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel.
Texas throughout the 21st century has been hammered by drought.
This has cost the state billions of dollars in livestock and crops.
Ever since the discovery of oil at Spindletop, energy has been a dominant force politically and economically within the state.
If Texas were its own country it would be the sixth largest oil producer in the world according to a 2014 study.
The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining.
Until the 1970s, the commission controlled the price of petroleum because of its ability to regulate Texas's oil reserves.
The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) used the Texas agency as one of their models for petroleum price control.
Texas has known petroleum deposits of about 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m), which makes up about one-fourth of the known U.S. reserves.
The state's refineries can process 4.6 million barrels (730,000 m) of oil a day.
The Port Arthur Refinery in Southeast Texas is the largest refinery in the U.S. Texas also leads in natural gas production, producing one-fourth of the nation's supply.
According to the Energy Information Administration, Texans consume, on average, the fifth most energy (of all types) in the nation per capita and as a whole, following behind Wyoming, Alaska, Louisiana, North Dakota, and Iowa.
Texas has a deregulated electric service.
Texas leads the nation in total net electricity production, generating 437,236 MWh in 2014, 89% more MWh than Florida, which ranked second.
As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's eleventh-largest producer of electricity, after South Korea, and ahead of the United Kingdom.
In 2014, 10.6% of the electricity consumed in Texas came from wind turbines.
The Energy Information Administration states the state's large agriculture and forestry industries could give Texas an enormous amount biomass for use in biofuels.
The state also has the highest solar power potential for development in the nation.
Many high-tech companies are located in or have their headquarters in Texas (and Austin in particular), including Dell, Inc., Borland, Forcepoint, Indeed.com, Texas Instruments, Perot Systems, Rackspace and AT&T.
Texas's affluence stimulates a strong commercial sector consisting of retail, wholesale, banking and insurance, and construction industries.
Nationally, the Dallas–Fort Worth area, home to the second shopping mall in the United States, has the most shopping malls per capita of any American metropolitan statistical area.
Mexico, the state's largest trading partner, imports a third of the state's exports because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
NAFTA has encouraged the formation of controversial maquiladoras on the Texas–Mexico border.
Main article: Culture of Texas
Historically, Texas culture comes from a blend of Southern (Dixie), Western (frontier), and Southwestern (Mexican/Anglo fusion) influences, varying in degrees of such from one intrastate region to another.
A popular food item, the breakfast burrito, draws from all three, having a soft flour tortilla wrapped around bacon and scrambled eggs or other hot, cooked fillings.
Adding to Texas's traditional culture, established in the 18th and 19th centuries, immigration has made Texas a melting pot of cultures from around the world.
Texas has made a strong mark on national and international pop culture.
The state's numerous oil tycoons are also a popular pop culture topic as seen in the hit TV series Dallas.
Since the campaign's inception in 1986, the phrase has become "an identity statement, a declaration of Texas swagger".
"Texas-sized" is an expression that can be used in two ways: to describe something that is about the size of the U.S.
state of Texas, or to describe something (usually but not always originating from Texas) that is large compared to other objects of its type.
Texas was the largest U.S. state, until Alaska became a state in 1959.
The phrase "everything is bigger in Texas" has been in regular use since at least 1950; and was used as early as 1913.
Further information: Music of Texas
Houston is one of only five American cities with permanent professional resident companies in all the major performing arts disciplines: the Houston Grand Opera, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Ballet, and The Alley Theatre.
Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts, the Houston Theater District—a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston—ranks second in the country in the number of theater seats in a concentrated downtown area, with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats.
Founded in 1892, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, also called "The Modern", is Texas's oldest art museum.
The Arts District of Downtown Dallas has arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, the Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House, the Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center.
The name Deep Ellum comes from local people pronouncing "Deep Elm" as "Deep Ellum".
Austin, The Live Music Capital of the World, boasts "more live music venues per capita than such music hotbeds as Nashville, Memphis, Los Angeles, Las Vegas or New York City".
The city's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street; events like the film, music, and multimedia festival South by Southwest; the longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits; and the Austin City Limits Music Festival held in Zilker Park.
Since 1980, San Antonio has evolved into "The Tejano Music Capital Of The World".
The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture.
Main article: Education in Texas
During his term, the state set aside three leagues of land in each county for equipping public schools.
An additional 50 leagues of land set aside for the support of two universities would later become the basis of the state's Permanent University Fund.
Lamar's actions set the foundation for a Texas-wide public school system.
Between 2006 and 2007, Texas spent $7,275 per pupil, ranking it below the national average of $9,389.
The pupil/teacher ratio was 14.9, below the national average of 15.3.
Texas paid instructors $41,744, below the national average of $46,593.
The Texas Education Agency (TEA) administers the state's public school systems.
Due to court-mandated equitable school financing for school districts, the state has a controversial tax redistribution system called the "Robin Hood plan".
This plan transfers property tax revenue from wealthy school districts to poor ones.
The TEA has no authority over private or home school activities.
Students in Texas take the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) in primary and secondary school.
The test replaced the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test in the 2011–2012 school year.
Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in the more conservative, rural areas of the state, with 28,569 public school students paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year.
Further information: List of colleges and universities in Texas
The state's two most widely recognized flagship universities are The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University, ranked as the 21st and 41st best universities in the nation according to 2020's latest Center for World University Rankings report, respectively.
The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) ranks the state's public universities into three distinct tiers:
- National Research Universities (Tier 1)
- The University of Texas at Austin
- Texas A&M University
- Texas Tech University
- University of Houston
- The University of Texas at Arlington
- The University of Texas at Dallas
- The University of North Texas
- The University of Texas at El Paso
- Emerging Research Universities (Tier 2)
- Comprehensive Universities (Tier 3)
- All other public universities (25 in total)
Texas's controversial alternative affirmative action plan, Texas House Bill 588, guarantees Texas students who graduated in the top 10 percent of their high school class automatic admission to state-funded universities.
The bill encourages demographic diversity while avoiding problems stemming from the Hopwood v. Texas (1996) case.
Thirty-six (36) separate and distinct public universities exist in Texas, of which 32 belong to one of the six state university systems.
Discovery of minerals on Permanent University Fund land, particularly oil, has helped fund the rapid growth of the state's two largest university systems: the University of Texas System and the Texas A&M System.
The four other university systems: the University of Houston System, the University of North Texas System, the Texas State System, and the Texas Tech System are not funded by the Permanent University Fund.
The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University are flagship universities of the state of Texas.
Both were established by the Texas Constitution and hold stakes in the Permanent University Fund.
The state has been putting effort to expand the number of flagship universities by elevating some of its seven institutions designated as "emerging research universities".
The two expected to emerge first are the University of Houston and Texas Tech University, likely in that order according to discussions on the House floor of the 82nd Texas Legislature.
The state is home to various private institutions of higher learning—ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized top-tier research university.
Rice University in Houston is one of the leading teaching and research universities of the United States and is ranked the nation's 17th-best overall university by U.S. News & World Report.
Trinity University, a private, primarily undergraduate liberal arts university in San Antonio, has ranked first among universities granting primarily bachelor's and select master's degrees in the Western United States for 20 consecutive years by U.S. News.
Universities in Texas host three presidential libraries: George Bush Presidential Library at Texas A&M University, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum at The University of Texas at Austin, and the George W. Bush Presidential Library at Southern Methodist University.
Notwithstanding the concentration of elite medical centers in the state, The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation.
Texas ranks close to last in access to healthcare, quality of care, avoidable hospital spending, and equity among various groups.
Causes of the state's poor rankings include politics, a high poverty rate, and the highest rate of illegal immigration in the nation.
In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report the state had 25.1 percent of the population without health insurance, the largest proportion in the nation.
Texas had only one city (Austin, ranked 21st) in the top 25 among the "fittest cities" in America.
The same survey has evaluated the state's obesity initiatives favorably with a "B+".
The state is ranked forty-second in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise according to a 2007 study.
Texas has the highest maternal mortality rate in the developed world, and the rate by which Texas women died from pregnancy-related complications doubled from 2010 to 2014, to 23.8 per 100,000.
A rate unmatched in any other U.S. state or economically developed country.
Texas has many elite research medical centers.
Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio—the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United States.
The Texas Medical Center in Houston, holds the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions, with 47 member institutions.
Texas Medical Center performs the most heart transplants in the world.
The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston is a highly regarded academic institution that centers around cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.
San Antonio's South Texas Medical Center facilities rank sixth in clinical medicine research impact in the United States.
The University of Texas Health Science Center is another highly ranked research and educational institution in San Antonio.
The Southwestern Medical Center ranks "among the top academic medical centers in the world".
Main article: Transportation in Texas
Texans have historically had difficulties traversing Texas due to the state's large size and rough terrain.
Texas has compensated by building America's largest highway and railway systems.
Located centrally in North America, the state is an important transportation hub.
From the Dallas/Fort Worth area, trucks can reach 93 percent of the nation's population within 48 hours, and 37 percent within 24 hours.
Texas has 33 foreign trade zones (FTZ), the most in the nation.
In 2004, a combined total of $298 billion of goods passed through Texas FTZs.
Main article: Texas state highways
The first Texas freeway was the Gulf Freeway opened in 1948 in Houston.
As of 2005, 79,535 miles (127,999 km) of public highway crisscrossed Texas (up from 71,000 miles (114,263 km) in 1984).
In central Texas, the southern section of the State Highway 130 toll road has a speed limit of 85 miles per hour (137 km/h), the highest in the nation.
All federal and state highways in Texas are paved.
See also: List of airports in Texas
Texas has 730 airports, second-most of any state in the nation.
Largest in Texas by size and passengers served, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) is the second-largest by area in the United States, and fourth in the world with 18,076 acres (73.15 km).
In traffic, DFW airport is the busiest in the state, the fourth busiest in the United States, and sixth worldwide.
It ranks as the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year and the largest airline in the world by number of passengers carried.
Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH).
It served as the largest hub for the former Continental Airlines, which was based in Houston; it serves as the largest hub for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline, by passenger-miles flown.
IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport.
The next five largest airports in the state all serve more than three million passengers annually; they include Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, William P. Hobby Airport, San Antonio International Airport, Dallas Love Field and El Paso International Airport.
The smallest airport in the state to be designated an international airport is Del Rio International Airport.
Main article: List of ports in the United States
Ports employ nearly one-million people and handle an average of 317 million metric tons.
The Houston Ship Channel spans 530 feet (160 m) wide by 45 feet (14 m) deep by 50 miles (80 km) long.
See also: List of Texas railroads
Part of the state's tradition of cowboys is derived from the massive cattle drives which its ranchers organized in the nineteenth century to drive livestock to railroads and markets in Kansas, for shipment to the East.
Towns along the way, such as Baxter Springs, the first cow town in Kansas, developed to handle the seasonal workers and tens of thousands of head of cattle being driven.
The first railroad to operate in Texas was the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway, opening in August 1853.
The first railroad to enter Texas from the north, completed in 1872, was the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad.
With increasing railroad access, the ranchers did not have to take their livestock up to the Midwest and shipped beef out from Texas.
This caused a decline in the economies of the cow towns.
Since 1911, Texas has led the nation in length of railroad miles within the state.
Texas railway length peaked in 1932 at 17,078 miles (27,484 km), but declined to 14,006 miles (22,540 km) by 2000.
While the Railroad Commission of Texas originally regulated state railroads, in 2005 the state reassigned these duties to TxDOT.
DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996.
Trinity Metro also operates the TEXRail commuter rail line, connecting downtown Fort Worth and Northeast Tarrant County to DFW Airport.
The A-train commuter rail line, operated by DCTA, acts as an extension of the DART Green line into Denton County.
The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates light rail lines in the Houston area.
Amtrak provides Texas with limited intercity passenger rail service.
Three scheduled routes serve the state: the daily Texas Eagle (Chicago–San Antonio); the tri-weekly Sunset Limited (New Orleans–Los Angeles), with stops in Texas; and the daily Heartland Flyer (Fort Worth–Oklahoma City).
Texas may get one of the nation's first high-speed rail line.
Plans for a privately funded high-speed rail line between Dallas and Houston have been planned by the Texas Central Railway company.
Government and politics
The current Texas Constitution was adopted in 1876.
Like many states, it explicitly provides for a separation of powers.
The state's Bill of Rights is much larger than its federal counterpart, and has provisions unique to Texas.
Main article: Government of Texas
See also: List of Texas state agencies
Texas has a plural executive branch system limiting the power of the governor, which is a weak executive compared to some other states.
Except for the secretary of state, voters elect executive officers independently; thus candidates are directly answerable to the public, not the governor.
This election system has led to some executive branches split between parties and reduced the ability of the governor to carry out a program.
The executive branch positions consist of the governor, lieutenant governor, comptroller of public accounts, land commissioner, attorney general, agriculture commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the secretary of state.
The Speaker of the House leads the House, and the lieutenant governor, the Senate.
The Legislature meets in regular session biennially for just over a hundred days, but the governor can call for special sessions as often as desired (notably, the Legislature cannot call itself into session).
The state's fiscal year begins September 1.
The judiciary of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions.
Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the governor fills vacancies by appointment.
Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption.
They have acted as riot police and as detectives, protected the Texas governor, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force both for the republic and for the state.
The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in 1823 and formally constituted in 1835.
The Rangers were integral to several important events of Texas history and some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West.
The Texas constitution defines the responsibilities of county governments, which serve as agents of the state.
What are called commissioners court and court judges are elected to serve as the administrative arm.
Most cities in the state, those over 5,000 in population, have home-rule governments.
The vast majority of these have charters for council-manager forms of government, by which voters elect council members, who hire a professional city manager as an operating officer.
Main article: Politics of Texas
Further information: Political party strength in Texas
In the 1870s, white Democrats wrested power back in the state legislature from the biracial coalition at the end of Reconstruction.
In the 1890s, 100,000 blacks voted in the state; by 1906, only 5,000 could vote.
As a result, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics from the turn of the century, imposing racial segregation and white supremacy.
It held power until after passage in the mid-1960s of national civil rights legislation enforcing constitutional rights of all citizens.
Although Texas was essentially a one-party state during this time and the Democratic primary was viewed as "the real election", the Democratic Party had conservative and liberal factions, which became more pronounced after the New Deal.
Additionally, several factions of the party briefly split during the 1930s and 1940s.
The state's conservative white voters began to support Republican presidential candidates by the mid-20th century.
After this period, they supported Republicans for local and state offices as well, and most whites became Republican Party members.
The party also attracted some minorities, but many have continued to vote for Democratic candidates.
The shift to the Republican Party is much-attributed to the fact the Democratic Party became increasingly liberal during the 20th century, and thus increasingly out-of-touch with the average Texas voter.
As Texas was always a conservative state, voters switched to the GOP, which now more closely reflected their beliefs.
Commentators have also attributed the shift to Republican political consultant Karl Rove, who managed numerous political campaigns in Texas in the 1980s and 1990s.
Other stated reasons included court-ordered redistricting and the demographic shift in relation to the Sun Belt that favored the Republican Party and conservatism.
The state had already redistricted following the 2000 census.
Despite these efforts, the legislature passed a map heavily in favor of Republicans, based on 2000 data and ignoring the estimated nearly one million new residents in the state since then.
Career attorneys and analysts at the Department of Justice objected to the plan as diluting the votes of African American and Hispanic voters, but political appointees overrode them and approved it.
Legal challenges to the redistricting reached the national Supreme Court in the case League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006), but the court ruled in favor of the state (and Republicans).
In the 2014 Texas elections, the Tea Party movement made large gains, with numerous Tea Party favorites being elected into office, including Dan Patrick as lieutenant governor, Ken Paxton as attorney general, in addition to numerous other candidates including conservative Republican Greg Abbott as governor.
Texas voters lean toward fiscal conservatism, while enjoying the benefits of huge federal investment in the state in military and other facilities achieved by the power of the Solid South in the 20th century.
They also tend to have socially conservative values.
Since 1980, most Texas voters have supported Republican presidential candidates.
In 2000 and 2004, Republican George W. Bush won Texas with respectively 59.3 and 60.1 percent of the vote, partly due to his "favorite son" status as a former governor of the state.
Austin, Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio consistently lean Democratic in both local and statewide elections.
The state's changing demographics may result in a change in its overall political alignment, as a majority population of Black and Hispanic/Latino voters support the Democratic Party.
Residents of counties along the Rio Grande closer to the Mexico–United States border, where there are many Latino residents, generally vote for Democratic Party candidates, while most other rural and suburban areas of Texas have shifted to voting for Republican Party candidates.
One seat is vacant.
Since 1994, Texans have not elected a Democrat to a statewide office.
The state's Democratic voters are made up primarily by liberal and minority groups in Austin, Beaumont, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio as well as minority voters in East and South Texas.
Texas has a reputation of very harsh criminal punishment for criminal offenses.
As of 2008, Texas had the 4th highest incarceration rate in the U.S. Texas also has strong self defense laws, allowing citizens to use lethal force to defend themselves, their families, or their property.
Main article: Sports in Texas
Further information: List of University Interscholastic League events
While American football has long been considered "king" in the state, Texans enjoy a wide variety of sports.
Texans can cheer for a plethora of professional sports teams.
Within the "Big Four" professional leagues, Texas has two NFL teams (the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texans), two Major League Baseball teams (the Houston Astros and the Texas Rangers), three NBA teams (the San Antonio Spurs, the Houston Rockets, and the Dallas Mavericks), and one National Hockey League team (the Dallas Stars).
The state has twelve Division I-FBS schools, the most in the nation.
Four of the state's schools claim at least one national championship in football: the Texas Longhorns, the Texas A&M Aggies, the TCU Horned Frogs, and the SMU Mustangs.
The TCU Horned Frogs and SMU Mustangs also share a rivalry and compete annually in the Battle for the Iron Skillet.
A fierce rivalry, the Lone Star Showdown, also exists between the state's two largest universities, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin.
The athletics portion of the Lone Star Showdown rivalry has been put on hold after the Texas A&M Aggies joined the Southeastern Conference.
The University Interscholastic League (UIL) organizes most primary and secondary school competitions.
Events organized by UIL include contests in athletics (the most popular being high school football) as well as artistic and academic subjects.
Texans also enjoy the rodeo.
The world's first rodeo was hosted in Pecos, Texas.
The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo is the largest rodeo in the world.
It begins with trail rides from several points throughout the state that convene at Reliant Park.
The Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show in Fort Worth is the oldest continuously running rodeo incorporating many of the state's most historic traditions into its annual events.
Since 2012, Austin's Circuit of the Americas plays host to a round of the Formula 1 World Championship— the first at a permanent road circuit in the United States since the 1980 Grand Prix at Watkins Glen International—, as well as Grand Prix motorcycle racing, FIA World Endurance Championship and United SportsCar Championship races.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas.