The Beatles

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This article is about the band. The Beatles_sentence_0

For their eponymous album, see The Beatles (album). The Beatles_sentence_1

For other uses, see The Beatles (disambiguation). The Beatles_sentence_2

"Beatle" and "Fab Four" redirect here. The Beatles_sentence_3

For the insect, see Beetle. The Beatles_sentence_4

For other uses, see Fab Four (disambiguation). The Beatles_sentence_5

The Beatles_table_infobox_0

The BeatlesThe Beatles_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationThe Beatles_header_cell_0_1_0
OriginThe Beatles_header_cell_0_2_0 Liverpool, EnglandThe Beatles_cell_0_2_1
GenresThe Beatles_header_cell_0_3_0 The Beatles_cell_0_3_1
Years activeThe Beatles_header_cell_0_4_0 1960–1970The Beatles_cell_0_4_1
LabelsThe Beatles_header_cell_0_5_0 The Beatles_cell_0_5_1
Associated actsThe Beatles_header_cell_0_6_0 The Beatles_cell_0_6_1
WebsiteThe Beatles_header_cell_0_7_0 The Beatles_cell_0_7_1
Past membersThe Beatles_header_cell_0_9_0 The Beatles_cell_0_9_1

The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The Beatles_sentence_6

The group, whose best-known line-up comprised John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, are regarded as the most influential band of all time. The Beatles_sentence_7

They were integral to the development of 1960s counterculture and popular music's recognition as an art form. The Beatles_sentence_8

Rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, their sound incorporated elements of classical music and traditional pop in innovative ways; the band later explored music styles ranging from ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. The Beatles_sentence_9

As pioneers in recording, songwriting and artistic presentation, the Beatles revolutionised many aspects of the music industry and were often publicised as leaders of the era's youth and sociocultural movements. The Beatles_sentence_10

Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over three years from 1960, initially with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass. The Beatles_sentence_11

The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. The Beatles_sentence_12

Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, and producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings, greatly expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962. The Beatles_sentence_13

As their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein, Martin and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". The Beatles_sentence_14

By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market and breaking numerous sales records. The Beatles_sentence_15

They soon made their film debut with A Hard Day's Night (1964). The Beatles_sentence_16

From 1965 onwards, they produced records of greater complexity, including the albums Rubber Soul (1965), Revolver (1966) and Sgt. The Beatles_sentence_17 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), and enjoyed further commercial success with The Beatles (also known as "the White Album", 1968) and Abbey Road (1969). The Beatles_sentence_18

In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy. The Beatles_sentence_19

After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. The Beatles_sentence_20

Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980, and Harrison died of lung cancer in November 2001. The Beatles_sentence_21

McCartney and Starr remain musically active. The Beatles_sentence_22

The Beatles are the best-selling music act of all time, with estimated sales of 600 million units worldwide. The Beatles_sentence_23

They are the best-selling act in the US, with certified sales of 183 million units. The Beatles_sentence_24

They hold the record for most number-one albums on the UK Albums Chart, most number-one hits on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and most singles sold in the UK. The Beatles_sentence_25

The group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, and all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. The Beatles_sentence_26

In 2008, the group topped Billboard's list of the all-time most successful artists on the Billboard Hot 100. The Beatles_sentence_27

The band received seven Grammy Awards, four Brit Awards, an Academy Award (for Best Original Song Score for the 1970 film Let It Be) and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. The Beatles_sentence_28

Time magazine named them among the 20th century's 100 most important people. The Beatles_sentence_29

History The Beatles_section_0

1957–1963: Formation, Hamburg, and UK popularity The Beatles_section_1

In March 1957, John Lennon, then aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool. The Beatles_sentence_30

They briefly called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that another local group were already using the name. The Beatles_sentence_31

Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. The Beatles_sentence_32

In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band. The Beatles_sentence_33

The fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon initially thought Harrison was too young for the band. The Beatles_sentence_34

After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting (arranged by McCartney), he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, and they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. The Beatles_sentence_35

By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, and he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art. The Beatles_sentence_36

The three guitarists, billing themselves as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. The Beatles_sentence_37

Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar with the proceeds, joined in January 1960, and it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets. The Beatles_sentence_38

They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. The Beatles_sentence_39

By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, and by the middle of August shortened the name to the Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_40

Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, and for this they auditioned and hired drummer Pete Best in mid-August 1960. The Beatles_sentence_41

The band, now a five-piece, departed Liverpool for Hamburg four days later, contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 3½-month residency. The Beatles_sentence_42

Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life ... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." The Beatles_sentence_43

Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, and he initially placed the Beatles at the Indra Club. The Beatles_sentence_44

After closing Indra due to noise complaints, he moved them to the Kaiserkeller in October. The Beatles_sentence_45

When he learned they had been performing at the rival Top Ten Club in breach of their contract, he gave the band one month's termination notice, and reported the underage Harrison, who had obtained permission to stay in Hamburg by lying to the German authorities about his age. The Beatles_sentence_46

The authorities arranged for Harrison's deportation in late November. The Beatles_sentence_47

One week later, Koschmider had McCartney and Best arrested for arson after they set fire to a condom in a concrete corridor; the authorities deported them. The Beatles_sentence_48

Lennon returned to Liverpool in early December, while Sutcliffe remained in Hamburg until late February with his German fiancée Astrid Kirchherr, who took the first semi-professional photos of the Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_49

During the next two years, the Beatles were resident for periods in Hamburg, where they used Preludin both recreationally and to maintain their energy through all-night performances. The Beatles_sentence_50

In 1961, during their second Hamburg engagement, Kirchherr cut Sutcliffe's hair in the "exi" (existentialist) style, later adopted by the other Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_51

When Sutcliffe decided to leave the band early that year and resume his art studies in Germany, McCartney took up the bass. The Beatles_sentence_52

Producer Bert Kaempfert contracted what was now a four-piece group until June 1962, and he used them as Tony Sheridan's backing band on a series of recordings for Polydor Records. The Beatles_sentence_53

As part of the sessions, the Beatles were signed to Polydor for one year. The Beatles_sentence_54

Credited to "Tony Sheridan & the Beat Brothers", the single "My Bonnie", recorded in June 1961 and released four months later, reached number 32 on the Musikmarkt chart. The Beatles_sentence_55

After the Beatles completed their second Hamburg residency, they enjoyed increasing popularity in Liverpool with the growing Merseybeat movement. The Beatles_sentence_56

However, they were also growing tired of the monotony of numerous appearances at the same clubs night after night. The Beatles_sentence_57

In November 1961, during one of the group's frequent performances at The Cavern Club, they encountered Brian Epstein, a local record-store owner and music columnist. The Beatles_sentence_58

He later recalled: "I immediately liked what I heard. The Beatles_sentence_59

They were fresh, and they were honest, and they had what I thought was a sort of presence ... [a] star quality." The Beatles_sentence_60

Epstein courted the band over the next couple of months, and they appointed him as their manager in January 1962. The Beatles_sentence_61

Throughout early and mid-1962, Epstein sought to free the Beatles from their contractual obligations to Bert Kaempfert Productions. The Beatles_sentence_62

He eventually negotiated a one-month-early release from their contract in exchange for one last recording session in Hamburg. The Beatles_sentence_63

Tragedy greeted them on their return to Germany in April, when a distraught Kirchherr met them at the airport with news of Sutcliffe's death the previous day from what was later determined as a brain haemorrhage. The Beatles_sentence_64

Epstein began negotiations with record labels for a recording contract. The Beatles_sentence_65

To secure a UK record contract, Epstein negotiated an early end to the band's contract with Polydor, in exchange for more recordings backing Tony Sheridan. The Beatles_sentence_66

After a New Year's Day audition, Decca Records rejected the band with the comment "Guitar groups are on the way out, Mr. The Beatles_sentence_67

Epstein." The Beatles_sentence_68

However, three months later, producer George Martin signed the Beatles to EMI's Parlophone label. The Beatles_sentence_69

Martin's first recording session with the Beatles took place at EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London on 6 June 1962. The Beatles_sentence_70

Martin immediately complained to Epstein about Best's poor drumming and suggested they use a session drummer in his place. The Beatles_sentence_71

Already contemplating Best's dismissal, the Beatles replaced him in mid-August with Ringo Starr, who left Rory Storm and the Hurricanes to join them. The Beatles_sentence_72

A 4 September session at EMI yielded a recording of "Love Me Do" featuring Starr on drums, but a dissatisfied Martin hired drummer Andy White for the band's third session a week later, which produced recordings of "Love Me Do", "Please Please Me" and "P.S. The Beatles_sentence_73 I Love You". The Beatles_sentence_74

Martin initially selected the Starr version of "Love Me Do" for the band's first single, though subsequent re-pressings featured the White version, with Starr on tambourine. The Beatles_sentence_75

Released in early October, "Love Me Do" peaked at number seventeen on the Record Retailer chart. The Beatles_sentence_76

Their television debut came later that month with a live performance on the regional news programme People and Places. The Beatles_sentence_77

After Martin suggested rerecording "Please Please Me" at a faster tempo, a studio session in late November yielded that recording, of which Martin accurately predicted, "You've just made your first No. The Beatles_sentence_78

1." The Beatles_sentence_79

In December 1962, the Beatles concluded their fifth and final Hamburg residency. The Beatles_sentence_80

By 1963, they had agreed that all four band members would contribute vocals to their albums – including Starr, despite his restricted vocal range, to validate his standing in the group. The Beatles_sentence_81

Lennon and McCartney had established a songwriting partnership, and as the band's success grew, their dominant collaboration limited Harrison's opportunities as a lead vocalist. The Beatles_sentence_82

Epstein, to maximise the Beatles' commercial potential, encouraged them to adopt a professional approach to performing. The Beatles_sentence_83

Lennon recalled him saying, "Look, if you really want to get in these bigger places, you're going to have to change – stop eating on stage, stop swearing, stop smoking ...." Lennon said: "We used to dress how we liked, on and off stage. The Beatles_sentence_84

He'd tell us that jeans were not particularly smart and could we possibly manage to wear proper trousers, but he didn't want us suddenly looking square. The Beatles_sentence_85

He'd let us have our own sense of individuality." The Beatles_sentence_86

1963–1966: Beatlemania and touring years The Beatles_section_2

Main article: Beatlemania The Beatles_sentence_87

Please Please Me and With the Beatles The Beatles_section_3

On 11 February 1963, the Beatles recorded ten songs during a single studio session for their debut LP, Please Please Me. The Beatles_sentence_88

The album was supplemented by the four tracks already released on their first two singles. The Beatles_sentence_89

Martin originally considered recording the Beatles' debut LP live at The Cavern Club, but after deciding that the building's acoustics were inadequate, he elected to simulate a "live" album with minimal production in "a single marathon session at Abbey Road". The Beatles_sentence_90

After the moderate success of "Love Me Do", the single "Please Please Me" met with a more emphatic reception. The Beatles_sentence_91

Released in January 1963, two months ahead of the album of the same name, the song reached number one on every UK chart except Record Retailer, where it peaked at number two. The Beatles_sentence_92

Recalling how the Beatles "rushed to deliver a debut album, bashing out Please Please Me in a day", AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine comments, "Decades after its release, the album still sounds fresh, precisely because of its intense origins." The Beatles_sentence_93

Lennon said little thought went into composition at the time; he and McCartney were "just writing songs à la Everly Brothers, à la Buddy Holly, pop songs with no more thought of them than that – to create a sound. The Beatles_sentence_94

And the words were almost irrelevant." The Beatles_sentence_95

Released in March 1963, the album initiated a run during which eleven of their twelve studio albums released in the United Kingdom through to 1970 reached number one. The Beatles_sentence_96

The band's third single, "From Me to You", came out in April and was also a chart-topping hit, starting an almost unbroken string of seventeen British number-one singles for the Beatles, including all but one of the eighteen they released over the next six years. The Beatles_sentence_97

Issued in August, the band's fourth single, "She Loves You", achieved the fastest sales of any record in the UK up to that time, selling three-quarters of a million copies in under four weeks. The Beatles_sentence_98

It became their first single to sell a million copies, and remained the biggest-selling record in the UK until 1978. The Beatles_sentence_99

Their commercial success brought increased media exposure, to which the Beatles responded with an irreverent and comical attitude that defied the expectations of pop musicians at the time, inspiring even more interest. The Beatles_sentence_100

The band toured the UK three times in the first half of the year: a four-week tour that began in February, the Beatles' first nationwide, preceded three-week tours in March and May–June. The Beatles_sentence_101

As their popularity spread, a frenzied adulation of the group took hold. The Beatles_sentence_102

Greeted with riotous enthusiasm by screaming fans, the press dubbed the phenomenon "Beatlemania". The Beatles_sentence_103

Although not billed as tour leaders, the Beatles overshadowed American acts Tommy Roe and Chris Montez during the February engagements and assumed top billing "by audience demand", something no British act had previously accomplished while touring with artists from the US. The Beatles_sentence_104

A similar situation arose during their May–June tour with Roy Orbison. The Beatles_sentence_105

In late October, the Beatles began a five-day tour of Sweden, their first time abroad since the final Hamburg engagement of December 1962. The Beatles_sentence_106

On their return to the UK on 31 October, several hundred screaming fans greeted them in heavy rain at Heathrow Airport. The Beatles_sentence_107

Around 50 to 100 journalists and photographers, as well as representatives from the BBC, also joined the airport reception, the first of more than 100 such events. The Beatles_sentence_108

The next day, the band began its fourth tour of Britain within nine months, this one scheduled for six weeks. The Beatles_sentence_109

In mid-November, as Beatlemania intensified, police resorted to using high-pressure water hoses to control the crowd before a concert in Plymouth. The Beatles_sentence_110

Please Please Me maintained the top position on the Record Retailer chart for 30 weeks, only to be displaced by its follow-up, With the Beatles, which EMI released on 22 November to record advance orders of 270,000 copies. The Beatles_sentence_111

The LP topped a half-million albums sold in one week. The Beatles_sentence_112

Recorded between July and October, With the Beatles made better use of studio production techniques than its predecessor. The Beatles_sentence_113

It held the top spot for 21 weeks with a chart life of 40 weeks. The Beatles_sentence_114

Erlewine described the LP as "a sequel of the highest order – one that betters the original". The Beatles_sentence_115

In a reversal of then standard practice, EMI released the album ahead of the impending single "I Want to Hold Your Hand", with the song excluded to maximise the single's sales. The Beatles_sentence_116

The album caught the attention of music critic William Mann of The Times, who suggested that Lennon and McCartney were "the outstanding English composers of 1963". The Beatles_sentence_117

The newspaper published a series of articles in which Mann offered detailed analyses of the music, lending it respectability. The Beatles_sentence_118

With the Beatles became the second album in UK chart history to sell a million copies, a figure previously reached only by the 1958 South Pacific soundtrack. The Beatles_sentence_119

When writing the sleeve notes for the album, the band's press officer, Tony Barrow, used the superlative the "fabulous foursome", which the media widely adopted as "the Fab Four". The Beatles_sentence_120

First visit to the United States and the British Invasion The Beatles_section_4

EMI's American subsidiary, Capitol Records, hindered the Beatles' releases in the United States for more than a year by initially declining to issue their music, including their first three singles. The Beatles_sentence_121

Concurrent negotiations with the independent US label Vee-Jay led to the release of some of the songs in 1963, but not all. The Beatles_sentence_122

Vee-Jay finished preparation for the album Introducing... The Beatles_sentence_123 The Beatles, culled from most of the songs of Parlophone's Please Please Me, but a management shake-up led to the album not being released. The Beatles_sentence_124

Then when it surfaced that the label did not report royalties on their sales, the licence Vee-Jay signed with EMI was voided. The Beatles_sentence_125

A new licence was granted to the Swan label for the single "She Loves You". The Beatles_sentence_126

The record received some airplay in the Tidewater area of Virginia by Gene Loving of radio station WGH and was featured on the "Rate-a-Record" segment of American Bandstand, but it failed to catch on nationally. The Beatles_sentence_127

Epstein brought a demo copy of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" to Capitol's Brown Meggs who signed the band and arranged for a $40,000 US marketing campaign. The Beatles_sentence_128

American chart success began after disc jockey Carroll James of AM radio station WWDC, in Washington, DC, obtained a copy of the British single "I Want to Hold Your Hand" in mid-December 1963 and began playing it on-air. The Beatles_sentence_129

Taped copies of the song soon circulated among other radio stations throughout the US. The Beatles_sentence_130

This caused an increase in demand, leading Capitol to bring forward the release of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" by three weeks. The Beatles_sentence_131

Issued on 26 December, with the band's previously scheduled debut there just weeks away, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" sold a million copies, becoming a number-one hit in the US by mid-January. The Beatles_sentence_132

In its wake, Vee-Jay released Introducing... The Beatles_sentence_133

The Beatles to go along with Capitol's debut album, Meet the Beatles! The Beatles_sentence_134 , while Swan reactivated production of "She Loves You". The Beatles_sentence_135

On 7 February 1964, the Beatles left the UK with an estimated 4,000 fans gathered at Heathrow, waving and screaming as the aircraft took off. The Beatles_sentence_136

Upon landing at New York's John F. Kennedy Airport, an uproarious crowd estimated at 3,000 greeted them. The Beatles_sentence_137

They gave their first live US television performance two days later on The Ed Sullivan Show, watched by approximately 73 million viewers in over 23 million households, or 34 percent of the American population. The Beatles_sentence_138

Biographer Jonathan Gould writes that, according to the Nielsen rating service, it was "the largest audience that had ever been recorded for an American television program". The Beatles_sentence_139

The next morning, the Beatles awoke to a largely negative critical consensus in the US, but a day later at their first US concert, Beatlemania erupted at the Washington Coliseum. The Beatles_sentence_140

Back in New York the following day, the Beatles met with another strong reception during two shows at Carnegie Hall. The Beatles_sentence_141

The band flew to Florida, where they appeared on the weekly Ed Sullivan Show a second time, before another 70 million viewers, before returning to the UK on 22 February. The Beatles_sentence_142

The Beatles' first visit to the US took place when the nation were still mourning the assassination of President John F. Kennedy the previous November. The Beatles_sentence_143

Commentators often suggest that for many, particularly the young, the Beatles' performances reignited the sense of excitement and possibility that momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination, and helped make way for the revolutionary social changes to come in the decade. The Beatles_sentence_144

Their hairstyle, unusually long for the era and mocked by many adults, became an emblem of rebellion to the burgeoning youth culture. The Beatles_sentence_145

The group's popularity generated unprecedented interest in British music, and many other UK acts subsequently made their American debuts, successfully touring over the next three years in what was termed the British Invasion. The Beatles_sentence_146

The Beatles' success in the US opened the door for a successive string of British beat groups and pop acts such as the Dave Clark Five, the Animals, Petula Clark, the Kinks, and the Rolling Stones to achieve success in America. The Beatles_sentence_147

During the week of 4 April 1964, the Beatles held twelve positions on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, including the top five. The Beatles_sentence_148

A Hard Day's Night The Beatles_section_5

Capitol Records' lack of interest throughout 1963 did not go unnoticed, and a competitor, United Artists Records, encouraged their film division to offer the Beatles a three-motion-picture deal, primarily for the commercial potential of the soundtracks in the US. The Beatles_sentence_149

Directed by Richard Lester, A Hard Day's Night involved the band for six weeks in March–April 1964 as they played themselves in a musical comedy. The Beatles_sentence_150

The film premiered in London and New York in July and August, respectively, and was an international success, with some critics drawing a comparison with the Marx Brothers. The Beatles_sentence_151

United Artists released a full soundtrack album for the North American market, combining Beatles songs and Martin's orchestral score; elsewhere, the group's third studio LP, A Hard Day's Night, contained songs from the film on side one and other new recordings on side two. The Beatles_sentence_152

According to Erlewine, the album saw them "truly coming into their own as a band. The Beatles_sentence_153

All of the disparate influences on their first two albums coalesced into a bright, joyous, original sound, filled with ringing guitars and irresistible melodies." The Beatles_sentence_154

That "ringing guitar" sound was primarily the product of Harrison's 12-string electric Rickenbacker, a prototype given to him by the manufacturer, which made its debut on the record. The Beatles_sentence_155

1964 world tour, meeting Bob Dylan, and stand on civil rights The Beatles_section_6

Touring internationally in June and July, the Beatles staged 37 shows over 27 days in Denmark, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. The Beatles_sentence_156

In August and September they returned to the US, with a 30-concert tour of 23 cities. The Beatles_sentence_157

Generating intense interest once again, the month-long tour attracted between 10,000 and 20,000 fans to each 30-minute performance in cities from San Francisco to New York. The Beatles_sentence_158

In August, journalist Al Aronowitz arranged for the Beatles to meet Bob Dylan. The Beatles_sentence_159

Visiting the band in their New York hotel suite, Dylan introduced them to cannabis. The Beatles_sentence_160

Gould points out the musical and cultural significance of this meeting, before which the musicians' respective fanbases were "perceived as inhabiting two separate subcultural worlds": Dylan's audience of "college kids with artistic or intellectual leanings, a dawning political and social idealism, and a mildly bohemian style" contrasted with their fans, "veritable 'teenyboppers' – kids in high school or grade school whose lives were totally wrapped up in the commercialised popular culture of television, radio, pop records, fan magazines, and teen fashion. The Beatles_sentence_161

To many of Dylan's followers in the folk music scene, the Beatles were seen as idolaters, not idealists." The Beatles_sentence_162

Within six months of the meeting, according to Gould, "Lennon would be making records on which he openly imitated Dylan's nasal drone, brittle strum, and introspective vocal persona"; and six months after that, Dylan began performing with a backing band and electric instrumentation, and "dressed in the height of Mod fashion". The Beatles_sentence_163

As a result, Gould continues, the traditional division between folk and rock enthusiasts "nearly evaporated", as the Beatles' fans began to mature in their outlook and Dylan's audience embraced the new, youth-driven pop culture. The Beatles_sentence_164

During the 1964 US tour, the group were confronted with racial segregation in the country at the time. The Beatles_sentence_165

When informed that the venue for their 11 September concert, the Gator Bowl in Jacksonville, Florida, was segregated, the Beatles said they would refuse to perform unless the audience was integrated. The Beatles_sentence_166

Lennon stated: "We never play to segregated audiences and we aren't going to start now ... The Beatles_sentence_167

I'd sooner lose our appearance money." The Beatles_sentence_168

City officials relented and agreed to allow an integrated show. The Beatles_sentence_169

The group also cancelled their reservations at the whites-only Hotel George Washington in Jacksonville. The Beatles_sentence_170

For their subsequent US tours in 1965 and 1966, the Beatles included clauses in contracts stipulating that shows be integrated. The Beatles_sentence_171

Beatles for Sale, Help! and Rubber Soul The Beatles_section_7

According to Gould, the Beatles' fourth studio LP, Beatles for Sale, evidenced a growing conflict between the commercial pressures of their global success and their creative ambitions. The Beatles_sentence_172

They had intended the album, recorded between August and October 1964, to continue the format established by A Hard Day's Night which, unlike their first two LPs, contained only original songs. The Beatles_sentence_173

They had nearly exhausted their backlog of songs on the previous album, however, and given the challenges constant international touring posed to their songwriting efforts, Lennon admitted, "Material's becoming a hell of a problem". The Beatles_sentence_174

As a result, six covers from their extensive repertoire were chosen to complete the album. The Beatles_sentence_175

Released in early December, its eight original compositions stood out, demonstrating the growing maturity of the Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership. The Beatles_sentence_176

In early 1965, following a dinner with Lennon, Harrison and their wives, Harrison's dentist, John Riley, secretly added LSD to their coffee. The Beatles_sentence_177

Lennon described the experience: "It was just terrifying, but it was fantastic. The Beatles_sentence_178

I was pretty stunned for a month or two." The Beatles_sentence_179

He and Harrison subsequently became regular users of the drug, joined by Starr on at least one occasion. The Beatles_sentence_180

Harrison's use of psychedelic drugs encouraged his path to meditation and Hinduism. The Beatles_sentence_181

He commented: "For me, it was like a flash. The Beatles_sentence_182

The first time I had acid, it just opened up something in my head that was inside of me, and I realized a lot of things. The Beatles_sentence_183

I didn't learn them because I already knew them, but that happened to be the key that opened the door to reveal them. The Beatles_sentence_184

From the moment I had that, I wanted to have it all the time – these thoughts about the yogis and the Himalayas, and Ravi's music." The Beatles_sentence_185

McCartney was initially reluctant to try it, but eventually did so in late 1966. The Beatles_sentence_186

He became the first Beatle to discuss LSD publicly, declaring in a magazine interview that "it opened my eyes" and "made me a better, more honest, more tolerant member of society". The Beatles_sentence_187

Controversy erupted in June 1965 when Queen Elizabeth II appointed all four Beatles Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) after Prime Minister Harold Wilson nominated them for the award. The Beatles_sentence_188

In protest – the honour was at that time primarily bestowed upon military veterans and civic leaders – some conservative MBE recipients returned their insignia. The Beatles_sentence_189

In July, the Beatles' second film, Help! The Beatles_sentence_190 , was released, again directed by Lester. The Beatles_sentence_191

Described as "mainly a relentless spoof of Bond", it inspired a mixed response among both reviewers and the band. The Beatles_sentence_192

McCartney said: "Help! The Beatles_sentence_193

was great but it wasn't our film – we were sort of guest stars. The Beatles_sentence_194

It was fun, but basically, as an idea for a film, it was a bit wrong." The Beatles_sentence_195

The soundtrack was dominated by Lennon, who wrote and sang lead on most of its songs, including the two singles: "Help!" The Beatles_sentence_196

and "Ticket to Ride". The Beatles_sentence_197

The Help! The Beatles_sentence_198

album, the group's fifth studio LP, mirrored A Hard Day's Night by featuring soundtrack songs on side one and additional songs from the same sessions on side two. The Beatles_sentence_199

The LP contained all original material save for two covers, "Act Naturally" and "Dizzy Miss Lizzy"; they were the last covers the band would include on an album, except for Let It Be's brief rendition of the traditional Liverpool folk song "Maggie Mae". The Beatles_sentence_200

The band expanded their use of vocal overdubs on Help! The Beatles_sentence_201

and incorporated classical instruments into some arrangements, including a string quartet on the pop ballad "Yesterday". The Beatles_sentence_202

Composed by and sung by McCartney – none of the other Beatles perform on the recording – "Yesterday" has inspired the most cover versions of any song ever written. The Beatles_sentence_203

With Help!, the Beatles became the first rock group to be nominated for a Grammy Award for Album of the Year. The Beatles_sentence_204

The group's third US tour opened with a performance before a world-record crowd of 55,600 at New York's Shea Stadium on 15 August – "perhaps the most famous of all Beatles' concerts", in Lewisohn's description. The Beatles_sentence_205

A further nine successful concerts followed in other American cities. The Beatles_sentence_206

At a show in Atlanta, the Beatles gave one of the first live performances ever to make use of a foldback system of on-stage monitor speakers. The Beatles_sentence_207

Towards the end of the tour, they met with Elvis Presley, a foundational musical influence on the band, who invited them to his home in Beverly Hills. The Beatles_sentence_208

September 1965 saw the launch of an American Saturday-morning cartoon series, The Beatles, that echoed A Hard Day's Night's slapstick antics over its two-year original run. The Beatles_sentence_209

The series was a historical milestone as the first weekly television series to feature animated versions of real, living people. The Beatles_sentence_210

In mid-October, the Beatles entered the recording studio; for the first time when making an album, they had an extended period without other major commitments. The Beatles_sentence_211

Until this time, according to George Martin, "we had been making albums rather like a collection of singles. The Beatles_sentence_212

Now we were really beginning to think about albums as a bit of art on their own." The Beatles_sentence_213

Released in December, Rubber Soul was hailed by critics as a major step forward in the maturity and complexity of the band's music. The Beatles_sentence_214

Their thematic reach was beginning to expand as they embraced deeper aspects of romance and philosophy, a development that NEMS executive Peter Brown attributed to the band members' "now habitual use of marijuana". The Beatles_sentence_215

Lennon referred to Rubber Soul as "the pot album" and Starr said: "Grass was really influential in a lot of our changes, especially with the writers. The Beatles_sentence_216

And because they were writing different material, we were playing differently." The Beatles_sentence_217

After Help! The Beatles_sentence_218

's foray into classical music with flutes and strings, Harrison's introduction of a sitar on "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" marked a further progression outside the traditional boundaries of popular music. The Beatles_sentence_219

As their lyrics grew more artful, fans began to study them for deeper meaning. The Beatles_sentence_220

While some of Rubber Soul's songs were the product of Lennon and McCartney's collaborative songwriting, the album also included distinct compositions from each, though they continued to share official credit. The Beatles_sentence_221

"In My Life", of which each later claimed lead authorship, is considered a highlight of the entire Lennon–McCartney catalogue. The Beatles_sentence_222

Harrison called Rubber Soul his "favourite album" and Starr referred to it as "the departure record". The Beatles_sentence_223

McCartney has said, "We'd had our cute period, and now it was time to expand." The Beatles_sentence_224

However, recording engineer Norman Smith later stated that the studio sessions revealed signs of growing conflict within the group – "the clash between John and Paul was becoming obvious", he wrote, and "as far as Paul was concerned, George could do no right". The Beatles_sentence_225

In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked Rubber Soul fifth among "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time", and AllMusic's Richie Unterberger describes it as "one of the classic folk-rock records". The Beatles_sentence_226

Controversies, Revolver and final tour The Beatles_section_8

Capitol Records, from December 1963 when it began issuing Beatles recordings for the US market, exercised complete control over format, compiling distinct US albums from the band's recordings and issuing songs of their choosing as singles. The Beatles_sentence_227

In June 1966, the Capitol LP Yesterday and Today caused an uproar with its cover, which portrayed the grinning Beatles dressed in butcher's overalls, accompanied by raw meat and mutilated plastic baby dolls. The Beatles_sentence_228

According to Beatles biographer Bill Harry, it has been incorrectly suggested that this was meant as a satirical response to the way Capitol had "butchered" the US versions of the band's albums. The Beatles_sentence_229

Thousands of copies of the LP had a new cover pasted over the original; an unpeeled "first-state" copy fetched $10,500 at a December 2005 auction. The Beatles_sentence_230

In England, meanwhile, Harrison met sitar maestro Ravi Shankar, who agreed to train him on the instrument. The Beatles_sentence_231

During a tour of the Philippines the month after the Yesterday and Today furore, the Beatles unintentionally snubbed the nation's first lady, Imelda Marcos, who had expected them to attend a breakfast reception at the Presidential Palace. The Beatles_sentence_232

When presented with the invitation, Epstein politely declined on the band members' behalf, as it had never been his policy to accept such official invitations. The Beatles_sentence_233

They soon found that the Marcos regime was unaccustomed to taking no for an answer. The Beatles_sentence_234

The resulting riots endangered the group and they escaped the country with difficulty. The Beatles_sentence_235

Immediately afterwards, the band members visited India for the first time. The Beatles_sentence_236

Almost as soon as they returned home, the Beatles faced a fierce backlash from US religious and social conservatives (as well as the Ku Klux Klan) over a comment Lennon had made in a March interview with British reporter Maureen Cleave. The Beatles_sentence_237

"Christianity will go", Lennon had said. The Beatles_sentence_238

"It will vanish and shrink. The Beatles_sentence_239

I needn't argue about that; I'm right and I will be proved right ... Jesus was alright but his disciples were thick and ordinary. The Beatles_sentence_240

It's them twisting it that ruins it for me." The Beatles_sentence_241

His comments went virtually unnoticed in England, but when US teenage fan magazine Datebook printed them five months later, it sparked a controversy with Christians in America's conservative Bible Belt region. The Beatles_sentence_242

The Vatican issued a protest, and bans on Beatles' records were imposed by Spanish and Dutch stations and South Africa's national broadcasting service. The Beatles_sentence_243

Epstein accused Datebook of having taken Lennon's words out of context. The Beatles_sentence_244

At a press conference Lennon pointed out, "If I'd said television was more popular than Jesus, I might have got away with it." The Beatles_sentence_245

He claimed that he was referring to how other people viewed their success, but at the prompting of reporters, he concluded: "If you want me to apologise, if that will make you happy, then okay, I'm sorry." The Beatles_sentence_246

Released in August, a week before the Beatles' final tour, Revolver marked another artistic step forward for the group. The Beatles_sentence_247

The album featured sophisticated songwriting, studio experimentation, and a greatly expanded repertoire of musical styles, ranging from innovative classical string arrangements to psychedelia. The Beatles_sentence_248

Abandoning the customary group photograph, its Aubrey Beardsley-inspired cover – designed by Klaus Voormann, a friend of the band since their Hamburg days – was a monochrome collage and line drawing caricature of the group. The Beatles_sentence_249

The album was preceded by the single "Paperback Writer", backed by "Rain". The Beatles_sentence_250

Short promotional films were made for both songs; described by cultural historian Saul Austerlitz as "among the first true music videos", they aired on The Ed Sullivan Show and Top of the Pops in June. The Beatles_sentence_251

Among the experimental songs that Revolver featured was "Tomorrow Never Knows", the lyrics for which Lennon drew from Timothy Leary's The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The Beatles_sentence_252

Its creation involved eight tape decks distributed about the EMI building, each staffed by an engineer or band member, who randomly varied the movement of a tape loop while Martin created a composite recording by sampling the incoming data. The Beatles_sentence_253

McCartney's "Eleanor Rigby" made prominent use of a string octet; Gould describes it as "a true hybrid, conforming to no recognisable style or genre of song". The Beatles_sentence_254

Harrison's emergence as a songwriter was reflected in three of his compositions appearing on the record. The Beatles_sentence_255

Among these, "Taxman", which opened the album, marked the first example of the Beatles making a political statement through their music. The Beatles_sentence_256

In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked Revolver as the third greatest album of all time. The Beatles_sentence_257

As preparations were made for a tour of the US, the Beatles knew that their music would hardly be heard. The Beatles_sentence_258

Having originally used Vox AC30 amplifiers, they later acquired more powerful 100-watt amplifiers, specially designed by Vox for them as they moved into larger venues in 1964, but these were still inadequate. The Beatles_sentence_259

Struggling to compete with the volume of sound generated by screaming fans, the band had grown increasingly bored with the routine of performing live. The Beatles_sentence_260

Recognising that their shows were no longer about the music, they decided to make the August tour their last. The Beatles_sentence_261

The band performed none of their new songs on the tour. The Beatles_sentence_262

In Chris Ingham's description, they were very much "studio creations ... and there was no way a four-piece rock 'n' roll group could do them justice, particularly through the desensitising wall of the fans' screams. The Beatles_sentence_263

'Live Beatles' and 'Studio Beatles' had become entirely different beasts." The Beatles_sentence_264

The band's concert at San Francisco's Candlestick Park on 29 August was their last commercial concert. The Beatles_sentence_265

It marked the end of four years dominated by almost nonstop touring that included over 1,400 concert appearances internationally. The Beatles_sentence_266

1966–1970: Studio years The Beatles_section_9

Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band The Beatles_section_10

Freed from the burden of touring, the Beatles embraced an increasingly experimental approach as they recorded Sgt. The Beatles_sentence_267 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, beginning in late November 1966. The Beatles_sentence_268

According to engineer Geoff Emerick, the album's recording took over 700 hours. The Beatles_sentence_269

He recalled the band's insistence "that everything on Sgt. Pepper had to be different. The Beatles_sentence_270

We had microphones right down in the bells of brass instruments and headphones turned into microphones attached to violins. The Beatles_sentence_271

We used giant primitive oscillators to vary the speed of instruments and vocals and we had tapes chopped to pieces and stuck together upside down and the wrong way around." The Beatles_sentence_272

Parts of "A Day in the Life" featured a 40-piece orchestra. The Beatles_sentence_273

The sessions initially yielded the non-album double A-side single "Strawberry Fields Forever"/"Penny Lane" in February 1967; the Sgt. Pepper LP followed with a rush-release in May. The Beatles_sentence_274

The musical complexity of the records, created using relatively primitive four-track recording technology, astounded contemporary artists. The Beatles_sentence_275

Among music critics, acclaim for the album was virtually universal. The Beatles_sentence_276

Gould writes: The Beatles_sentence_277

In the wake of Sgt. Pepper, the underground and mainstream press widely publicised the Beatles as leaders of youth culture, as well as "lifestyle revolutionaries". The Beatles_sentence_278

The album was the first major pop/rock LP to include its complete lyrics, which appeared on the back cover. The Beatles_sentence_279

Those lyrics were the subject of critical analysis; for instance, in late 1967 the album was the subject of a scholarly inquiry by American literary critic and professor of English Richard Poirier, who observed that his students were "listening to the group's music with a degree of engagement that he, as a teacher of literature, could only envy". The Beatles_sentence_280

The elaborate cover also attracted considerable interest and study. The Beatles_sentence_281

A collage designed by pop artists Peter Blake and Jann Haworth, it depicted the group as the fictional band referred to in the album's title track standing in front of a crowd of famous people. The Beatles_sentence_282

The heavy moustaches worn by the group reflected the growing influence of hippie style, while cultural historian Jonathan Harris describes their "brightly coloured parodies of military uniforms" as a knowingly "anti-authoritarian and anti-establishment" display. The Beatles_sentence_283

Sgt. Pepper topped the UK charts for 23 consecutive weeks, with a further four weeks at number one in the period through to February 1968. The Beatles_sentence_284

With 2.5 million copies sold within three months of its release, Sgt. Pepper's initial commercial success exceeded that of all previous Beatles albums. The Beatles_sentence_285

It sustained its immense popularity into the 21st century while breaking numerous sales records. The Beatles_sentence_286

In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked Sgt. Pepper at number one on its list of the greatest albums of all time. The Beatles_sentence_287

Magical Mystery Tour and Yellow Submarine The Beatles_section_11

Two Beatles film projects were conceived within weeks of completing Sgt. Pepper: Magical Mystery Tour, a one-hour television film, and Yellow Submarine, an animated feature-length film produced by United Artists. The Beatles_sentence_288

The group began recording music for the former in late April 1967, but the project then lay dormant as they focused on recording songs for the latter. The Beatles_sentence_289

On 25 June, the Beatles performed their forthcoming single "All You Need Is Love" to an estimated 350 million viewers on Our World, the first live global television link. The Beatles_sentence_290

Released a week later, during the Summer of Love, the song was adopted as a flower power anthem. The Beatles_sentence_291

The Beatles' use of psychedelic drugs was at its height during that summer. The Beatles_sentence_292

In July and August, the group pursued interests related to similar utopian-based ideology, including a week-long investigation into the possibility of starting an island-based commune off the coast of Greece. The Beatles_sentence_293

On 24 August, the group were introduced to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in London. The Beatles_sentence_294

The next day, they travelled to Bangor for his Transcendental Meditation retreat. The Beatles_sentence_295

On 27 August, their manager's assistant, Peter Brown, phoned to inform them that Epstein had died. The Beatles_sentence_296

The coroner ruled the death an accidental carbitol overdose, although it was widely rumoured to be a suicide. The Beatles_sentence_297

His death left the group disoriented and fearful about the future. The Beatles_sentence_298

Lennon recalled: "We collapsed. The Beatles_sentence_299

I knew that we were in trouble then. The Beatles_sentence_300

I didn't really have any misconceptions about our ability to do anything other than play music, and I was scared. The Beatles_sentence_301

I thought, 'We've fuckin' had it now.'" The Beatles_sentence_302

Harrison's then-wife Pattie Boyd remembered that "Paul and George were in complete shock. The Beatles_sentence_303

I don't think it could have been worse if they had heard that their own fathers had dropped dead." The Beatles_sentence_304

During a band meeting in September, McCartney recommended that the band proceed with Magical Mystery Tour. The Beatles_sentence_305

The Magical Mystery Tour soundtrack was released in the UK as a six-track double extended play (EP) in early December 1967. The Beatles_sentence_306

It was the first example of a double EP in the UK. The Beatles_sentence_307

The record carried on the psychedelic vein of Sgt. Pepper, however, in line with the band's wishes, the packaging reinforced the idea that the release was a film soundtrack rather than a follow-up to Sgt. Pepper. The Beatles_sentence_308

In the US, the soundtrack appeared as an identically titled LP that also included five tracks from the band's recent singles. The Beatles_sentence_309

In its first three weeks, the album set a record for the highest initial sales of any Capitol LP, and it is the only Capitol compilation later to be adopted in the band's official canon of studio albums. The Beatles_sentence_310

Magical Mystery Tour first aired on Boxing Day to an audience of approximately 15 million. The Beatles_sentence_311

Largely directed by McCartney, the film was the band's first critical failure in the UK. The Beatles_sentence_312

It was dismissed as "blatant rubbish" by the Daily Express; the Daily Mail called it "a colossal conceit"; and The Guardian labelled the film "a kind of fantasy morality play about the grossness and warmth and stupidity of the audience". The Beatles_sentence_313

Gould describes it as "a great deal of raw footage showing a group of people getting on, getting off, and riding on a bus". The Beatles_sentence_314

Although the viewership figures were respectable, its slating in the press led US television networks to lose interest in broadcasting the film. The Beatles_sentence_315

The group were less involved with Yellow Submarine, which only featured the band appearing as themselves for a short live-action segment. The Beatles_sentence_316

Premiering in July 1968, the film featured cartoon versions of the band members and a soundtrack with eleven of their songs, including four unreleased studio recordings that made their debut in the film. The Beatles_sentence_317

Critics praised the film for its music, humour and innovative visual style. The Beatles_sentence_318

A soundtrack LP was issued seven months later; it contained those four new songs, the title track (already issued on Revolver), "All You Need Is Love" (already issued as a single and on the US Magical Mystery Tour LP) and seven instrumental pieces composed by Martin. The Beatles_sentence_319

India retreat, Apple Corps and the White Album The Beatles_section_12

In February 1968, the Beatles travelled to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's ashram in Rishikesh, India, to take part in a three-month meditation "Guide Course". The Beatles_sentence_320

Their time in India marked one of the band's most prolific periods, yielding numerous songs, including a majority of those on their next album. The Beatles_sentence_321

However, Starr left after only ten days, unable to stomach the food, and McCartney eventually grew bored and departed a month later. The Beatles_sentence_322

For Lennon and Harrison, creativity turned to question when an electronics technician known as Magic Alex suggested that the Maharishi was attempting to manipulate them. The Beatles_sentence_323

When he alleged that the Maharishi had made sexual advances to women attendees, a persuaded Lennon left abruptly just two months into the course, bringing an unconvinced Harrison and the remainder of the group's entourage with him. The Beatles_sentence_324

In anger, Lennon wrote a scathing song titled "Maharishi", renamed "Sexy Sadie" to avoid potential legal issues. The Beatles_sentence_325

McCartney said, "We made a mistake. The Beatles_sentence_326

We thought there was more to him than there was." The Beatles_sentence_327

In May, Lennon and McCartney travelled to New York for the public unveiling of the Beatles' new business venture, Apple Corps. The Beatles_sentence_328

It was initially formed several months earlier as part of a plan to create a tax-effective business structure, but the band then desired to extend the corporation to other pursuits, including record distribution, peace activism, and education. The Beatles_sentence_329

McCartney described Apple as "rather like a Western communism". The Beatles_sentence_330

The enterprise drained the group financially with a series of unsuccessful projects handled largely by members of the Beatles' entourage, who were given their jobs regardless of talent and experience. The Beatles_sentence_331

Among its numerous subsidiaries were Apple Electronics, established to foster technological innovations with Magic Alex at the head, and Apple Retailing, which opened the short-lived Apple Boutique in London. The Beatles_sentence_332

Harrison later said, "Basically, it was chaos ... John and Paul got carried away with the idea and blew millions, and Ringo and I just had to go along with it." The Beatles_sentence_333

From late May to mid-October 1968, the group recorded what became The Beatles, a double LP commonly known as "the White Album" for its virtually featureless cover. The Beatles_sentence_334

During this time, relations between the members grew openly divisive. The Beatles_sentence_335

Starr quit for two weeks, leaving his bandmates to record "Back in the U.S.S.R." and "Dear Prudence" as a trio. The Beatles_sentence_336

Lennon had lost interest in collaborating with McCartney, whose contribution "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" he scorned as "granny music shit". The Beatles_sentence_337

Tensions were further aggravated by Lennon's romantic preoccupation with avant-garde artist Yoko Ono, whom he insisted on bringing to the sessions despite the group's well-established understanding that girlfriends were not allowed in the studio. The Beatles_sentence_338

McCartney has recalled that the album "wasn't a pleasant one to make". The Beatles_sentence_339

He and Lennon identified the sessions as the start of the band's break-up. The Beatles_sentence_340

With the record, the band executed a wider range of musical styles and broke with their recent tradition of incorporating several musical styles in one song by keeping each piece of music consistently faithful to a select genre. The Beatles_sentence_341

During the sessions, the group upgraded to an eight-track tape console, which made it easier for them to layer tracks piecemeal, while the members often recorded independently of each other, affording the album a reputation as a collection of solo recordings rather than a unified group effort. The Beatles_sentence_342

Describing the double album, Lennon later said: "Every track is an individual track; there isn't any Beatle music on it. The Beatles_sentence_343

[It's] John and the band, Paul and the band, George and the band." The Beatles_sentence_344

The sessions also produced the Beatles' longest song yet, "Hey Jude", released in August as a non-album single with "Revolution". The Beatles_sentence_345

Issued in November, the White Album was the band's first Apple Records album release, although EMI continued to own their recordings. The Beatles_sentence_346

The record attracted more than 2 million advance orders, selling nearly 4 million copies in the US in little over a month, and its tracks dominated the playlists of American radio stations. The Beatles_sentence_347

Its lyric content was the focus of much analysis by the counterculture. The Beatles_sentence_348

Despite its popularity, reviewers were largely confused by the album's content, and it failed to inspire the level of critical writing that Sgt. Pepper had. The Beatles_sentence_349

General critical opinion eventually turned in favour of the White Album, and in 2003, Rolling Stone ranked it as the tenth greatest album of all time. The Beatles_sentence_350

Abbey Road, Let It Be and separation The Beatles_section_13

See also: Break-up of the Beatles The Beatles_sentence_351

Although Let It Be was the Beatles' final album release, it was largely recorded before Abbey Road. The Beatles_sentence_352

The project's impetus came from an idea Martin attributes to McCartney, who suggested they "record an album of new material and rehearse it, then perform it before a live audience for the very first time – on record and on film". The Beatles_sentence_353

Originally intended for a one-hour television programme to be called Beatles at Work, in the event much of the album's content came from studio work beginning in January 1969, many hours of which were captured on film by director Michael Lindsay-Hogg. The Beatles_sentence_354

Martin said that the project was "not at all a happy recording experience. The Beatles_sentence_355

It was a time when relations between the Beatles were at their lowest ebb." The Beatles_sentence_356

Lennon described the largely impromptu sessions as "hell ... the most miserable ... on Earth", and Harrison, "the low of all-time". The Beatles_sentence_357

Irritated by McCartney and Lennon, Harrison walked out for five days. The Beatles_sentence_358

Upon returning, he threatened to leave the band unless they "abandon[ed] all talk of live performance" and instead focused on finishing a new album, initially titled Get Back, using songs recorded for the TV special. The Beatles_sentence_359

He also demanded they cease work at Twickenham Film Studios, where the sessions had begun, and relocate to the newly finished Apple Studio. The Beatles_sentence_360

His bandmates agreed, and it was decided to salvage the footage shot for the TV production for use in a feature film. The Beatles_sentence_361

To alleviate tensions within the band and improve the quality of their live sound, Harrison invited keyboardist Billy Preston to participate in the last nine days of sessions. The Beatles_sentence_362

Preston received label billing on the "Get Back" single – the only musician ever to receive that acknowledgment on an official Beatles release. The Beatles_sentence_363

After the rehearsals, the band could not agree on a location to film a concert, rejecting several ideas, including a boat at sea, a lunatic asylum, the Tunisian desert, and the Colosseum. The Beatles_sentence_364

Ultimately, what would be their final live performance was filmed on the rooftop of the Apple Corps building at 3 Savile Row, London, on 30 January 1969. The Beatles_sentence_365

Five weeks later, engineer Glyn Johns, whom Lewisohn describes as Get Back's "uncredited producer", began work assembling an album, given "free rein" as the band "all but washed their hands of the entire project". The Beatles_sentence_366

New strains developed between the band members regarding the appointment of a financial adviser, the need for which had become evident without Epstein to manage business affairs. The Beatles_sentence_367

Lennon, Harrison and Starr favoured Allen Klein, who had managed the Rolling Stones and Sam Cooke; McCartney wanted Lee and John Eastman – father and brother, respectively, of Linda Eastman, whom McCartney married on 12 March. The Beatles_sentence_368

Agreement could not be reached, so both Klein and the Eastmans were temporarily appointed: Klein as the Beatles' business manager and the Eastmans as their lawyers. The Beatles_sentence_369

Further conflict ensued, however, and financial opportunities were lost. The Beatles_sentence_370

On 8 May, Klein was named sole manager of the band, the Eastmans having previously been dismissed as the Beatles' lawyers. The Beatles_sentence_371

McCartney refused to sign the management contract with Klein, but he was out-voted by the other Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_372

Martin stated that he was surprised when McCartney asked him to produce another album, as the Get Back sessions had been "a miserable experience" and he had "thought it was the end of the road for all of us". The Beatles_sentence_373

The primary recording sessions for Abbey Road began on 2 July. The Beatles_sentence_374

Lennon, who rejected Martin's proposed format of a "continuously moving piece of music", wanted his and McCartney's songs to occupy separate sides of the album. The Beatles_sentence_375

The eventual format, with individually composed songs on the first side and the second consisting largely of a medley, was McCartney's suggested compromise. The Beatles_sentence_376

Emerick noted that the replacement of the studio's valve mixing console with a transistorised one yielded a less punchy sound, leaving the group frustrated at the thinner tone and lack of impact and contributing to its "kinder, gentler" feel relative to their previous albums. The Beatles_sentence_377

On 4 July, the first solo single by a Beatle was released: Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance", credited to the Plastic Ono Band. The Beatles_sentence_378

The completion and mixing of "I Want You (She's So Heavy)" on 20 August was the last occasion on which all four Beatles were together in the same studio. The Beatles_sentence_379

On 8 September, while Starr was in hospital, the other band members met to discuss recording a new album. The Beatles_sentence_380

They considered a different approach to songwriting by ending the Lennon–McCartney pretense and having four compositions apiece from Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, with two from Starr and a lead single around Christmas. The Beatles_sentence_381

On 20 September, Lennon announced his departure to the rest of the group but agreed to withhold a public announcement to avoid undermining sales of the forthcoming album. The Beatles_sentence_382

Released on 26 September, Abbey Road sold four million copies within three months and topped the UK charts for a total of seventeen weeks. The Beatles_sentence_383

Its second track, the ballad "Something", was issued as a single – the only Harrison composition that appeared as a Beatles A-side. The Beatles_sentence_384

Abbey Road received mixed reviews, although the medley met with general acclaim. The Beatles_sentence_385

Unterberger considers it "a fitting swan song for the group", containing "some of the greatest harmonies to be heard on any rock record". The Beatles_sentence_386

Musicologist and author Ian MacDonald calls the album "erratic and often hollow", despite the "semblance of unity and coherence" offered by the medley. The Beatles_sentence_387

Martin singled it out as his favourite Beatles album; Lennon said it was "competent" but had "no life in it". The Beatles_sentence_388

For the still unfinished Get Back album, one last song, Harrison's "I Me Mine", was recorded on 3 January 1970. The Beatles_sentence_389

Lennon, in Denmark at the time, did not participate. The Beatles_sentence_390

In March, rejecting the work Johns had done on the project, now retitled Let It Be, Klein gave the session tapes to American producer Phil Spector, who had recently produced Lennon's solo single "Instant Karma!" The Beatles_sentence_391

In addition to remixing the material, Spector edited, spliced and overdubbed several of the recordings that had been intended as "live". The Beatles_sentence_392

McCartney was unhappy with the producer's approach and particularly dissatisfied with the lavish orchestration on "The Long and Winding Road", which involved a fourteen-voice choir and 36-piece instrumental ensemble. The Beatles_sentence_393

McCartney's demands that the alterations to the song be reverted were ignored, and he publicly announced his departure from the band on 10 April, a week before the release of his first, self-titled solo album. The Beatles_sentence_394

On 8 May 1970, Let It Be was released. The Beatles_sentence_395

Its accompanying single, "The Long and Winding Road", was the Beatles' last; it was released in the US, but not in the UK. The Beatles_sentence_396

The Let It Be documentary film followed later that month, and would win the 1970 Academy Award for Best Original Song Score. The Beatles_sentence_397

Sunday Telegraph critic Penelope Gilliatt called it "a very bad film and a touching one ... about the breaking apart of this reassuring, geometrically perfect, once apparently ageless family of siblings". The Beatles_sentence_398

Several reviewers stated that some of the performances in the film sounded better than their analogous album tracks. The Beatles_sentence_399

Describing Let It Be as the "only Beatles album to occasion negative, even hostile reviews", Unterberger calls it "on the whole underrated"; he singles out "some good moments of straight hard rock in 'I've Got a Feeling' and 'Dig a Pony'", and praises "Let It Be", "Get Back", and "the folky 'Two of Us', with John and Paul harmonising together". The Beatles_sentence_400

McCartney filed suit for the dissolution of the Beatles' contractual partnership on 31 December 1970. The Beatles_sentence_401

Legal disputes continued long after their break-up, and the dissolution was not formalised until 29 December 1974, when Lennon signed the paperwork terminating the partnership while on vacation with his family at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida. The Beatles_sentence_402

1970–present: After the break-up The Beatles_section_14

See also: Collaborations between ex-Beatles The Beatles_sentence_403

1970s The Beatles_section_15

Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr all released solo albums in 1970. The Beatles_sentence_404

Their solo records sometimes involved one or more of the others; Starr's Ringo (1973) was the only album to include compositions and performances by all four ex-Beatles, albeit on separate songs. The Beatles_sentence_405

With Starr's participation, Harrison staged the Concert for Bangladesh in New York City in August 1971. The Beatles_sentence_406

Other than an unreleased jam session in 1974, later bootlegged as A Toot and a Snore in '74, Lennon and McCartney never recorded together again. The Beatles_sentence_407

Two double-LP sets of the Beatles' greatest hits, compiled by Klein, 1962–1966 and 1967–1970, were released in 1973, at first under the Apple Records imprint. The Beatles_sentence_408

Commonly known as the "Red Album" and "Blue Album", respectively, each has earned a Multi-Platinum certification in the US and a Platinum certification in the UK. The Beatles_sentence_409

Between 1976 and 1982, EMI/Capitol released a wave of compilation albums without input from the ex-Beatles, starting with the double-disc compilation Rock 'n' Roll Music. The Beatles_sentence_410

The only one to feature previously unreleased material was The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl (1977); the first officially issued concert recordings by the group, it contained selections from two shows they played during their 1964 and 1965 US tours. The Beatles_sentence_411

The music and enduring fame of the Beatles were commercially exploited in various other ways, again often outside their creative control. The Beatles_sentence_412

In April 1974, the musical John, Paul, George, Ringo ... and Bert, written by Willy Russell and featuring singer Barbara Dickson, opened in London. The Beatles_sentence_413

It included, with permission from Northern Songs, eleven Lennon-McCartney compositions and one by Harrison, "Here Comes the Sun". The Beatles_sentence_414

Displeased with the production's use of his song, Harrison withdrew his permission to use it. The Beatles_sentence_415

Later that year, the off-Broadway musical Sgt. The Beatles_sentence_416 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band on the Road opened. The Beatles_sentence_417

All This and World War II (1976) was an unorthodox nonfiction film that combined newsreel footage with covers of Beatles songs by performers ranging from Elton John and Keith Moon to the London Symphony Orchestra. The Beatles_sentence_418

The Broadway musical Beatlemania, an unauthorised nostalgia revue, opened in early 1977 and proved popular, spinning off five separate touring productions. The Beatles_sentence_419

In 1979, the band sued the producers, settling for several million dollars in damages. The Beatles_sentence_420

Sgt. The Beatles_sentence_421 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1978), a musical film starring the Bee Gees and Peter Frampton, was a commercial failure and an "artistic fiasco", according to Ingham. The Beatles_sentence_422

Accompanying the wave of Beatles nostalgia and persistent reunion rumours in the US during the 1970s, several entrepreneurs made public offers to the Beatles for a reunion concert. The Beatles_sentence_423

Promoter Bill Sargent first offered the Beatles $10 million for a reunion concert in 1974. The Beatles_sentence_424

He raised his offer to $30 million in January 1976 and then to $50 million the following month. The Beatles_sentence_425

On 24 April 1976, during a broadcast of Saturday Night Live, producer Lorne Michaels jokingly offered the Beatles $3,000 to reunite on the show. The Beatles_sentence_426

Lennon and McCartney were watching the live broadcast at Lennon's apartment at the Dakota in New York, which was within driving distance of the NBC studio where the show was being broadcast. The Beatles_sentence_427

The former bandmates briefly entertained the idea of going to the studio and surprising Michaels by accepting his offer, but decided not to. The Beatles_sentence_428

1980s The Beatles_section_16

In December 1980, Lennon was shot and killed outside his New York City apartment. The Beatles_sentence_429

Harrison rewrote the lyrics of his song "All Those Years Ago" in Lennon's honour. The Beatles_sentence_430

With Starr on drums and McCartney and his wife, Linda, contributing backing vocals, the song was released as a single in May 1981. The Beatles_sentence_431

McCartney's own tribute, "Here Today", appeared on his Tug of War album in April 1982. The Beatles_sentence_432

In 1987, Harrison's Cloud Nine album included "When We Was Fab", a song about the Beatlemania era. The Beatles_sentence_433

When the Beatles' studio albums were released on CD by EMI and Apple Corps in 1987, their catalogue was standardised throughout the world, establishing a canon of the twelve original studio LPs as issued in the UK plus the US LP version of Magical Mystery Tour. The Beatles_sentence_434

All the remaining material from the singles and EPs that had not appeared on these thirteen studio albums was gathered on the two-volume compilation Past Masters (1988). The Beatles_sentence_435

Except for the Red and Blue albums, EMI deleted all its other Beatles compilations – including the Hollywood Bowl record – from its catalogue. The Beatles_sentence_436

In 1988, the Beatles were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, their first year of eligibility. The Beatles_sentence_437

Harrison and Starr attended the ceremony with Lennon's widow, Yoko Ono, and his two sons, Julian and Sean. The Beatles_sentence_438

McCartney declined to attend, citing unresolved "business differences" that would make him "feel like a complete hypocrite waving and smiling with them at a fake reunion". The Beatles_sentence_439

The following year, EMI/Capitol settled a decade-long lawsuit filed by the band over royalties, clearing the way to commercially package previously unreleased material. The Beatles_sentence_440

1990s The Beatles_section_17

Live at the BBC, the first official release of unissued Beatles performances in seventeen years, appeared in 1994. The Beatles_sentence_441

That same year McCartney, Harrison and Starr collaborated on the Anthology project. The Beatles_sentence_442

Anthology was the culmination of work begun in 1970, when Apple Corps director Neil Aspinall, their former road manager and personal assistant, had started to gather material for a documentary with the working title The Long and Winding Road. The Beatles_sentence_443

Documenting their history in the band's own words, the Anthology project included the release of several unissued Beatles recordings. The Beatles_sentence_444

McCartney, Harrison and Starr also added new instrumental and vocal parts to songs recorded as demos by Lennon in the late 1970s. The Beatles_sentence_445

During 1995–96, the project yielded a television miniseries, an eight-volume video set, and three two-CD/three-LP box sets featuring artwork by Klaus Voormann. The Beatles_sentence_446

Two songs based on Lennon demos, "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love", were issued as new Beatles singles. The Beatles_sentence_447

The releases were commercially successful and the television series was viewed by an estimated 400 million people. The Beatles_sentence_448

In 1999, to coincide with the re-release of the 1968 film Yellow Submarine, an expanded soundtrack album, Yellow Submarine Songtrack, was issued. The Beatles_sentence_449

2000s The Beatles_section_18

The Beatles' 1, a compilation album of the band's British and American number-one hits, was released on 13 November 2000. The Beatles_sentence_450

It became the fastest-selling album of all time, with 3.6 million sold in its first week and 13 million within a month. The Beatles_sentence_451

It topped albums charts in at least 28 countries. The Beatles_sentence_452

The compilation had sold 31 million copies globally by April 2009. The Beatles_sentence_453

Harrison died from metastatic lung cancer in November 2001. The Beatles_sentence_454

McCartney and Starr were among the musicians who performed at the Concert for George, organised by Eric Clapton and Harrison's widow, Olivia. The Beatles_sentence_455

The tribute event took place at the Royal Albert Hall on the first anniversary of Harrison's death. The Beatles_sentence_456

In 2003, Let It Be... Naked, a reconceived version of the Let It Be album, with McCartney supervising production, was released. The Beatles_sentence_457

One of the main differences from the Spector-produced version was the omission of the original string arrangements. The Beatles_sentence_458

It was a top ten hit in both Britain and America. The Beatles_sentence_459

The US album configurations from 1964 to 1965 were released as box sets in 2004 and 2006; The Capitol Albums, Volume 1 and Volume 2 included both stereo and mono versions based on the mixes that were prepared for vinyl at the time of the music's original American release. The Beatles_sentence_460

As a soundtrack for Cirque du Soleil's Las Vegas Beatles stage revue, Love, George Martin and his son Giles remixed and blended 130 of the band's recordings to create what Martin called "a way of re-living the whole Beatles musical lifespan in a very condensed period". The Beatles_sentence_461

The show premiered in June 2006, and the Love album was released that November. The Beatles_sentence_462

In April 2009, Starr performed three songs with McCartney at a benefit concert held at New York's Radio City Music Hall and organised by McCartney. The Beatles_sentence_463

On 9 September 2009, the Beatles' entire back catalogue was reissued following an extensive digital remastering process that lasted four years. The Beatles_sentence_464

Stereo editions of all twelve original UK studio albums, along with Magical Mystery Tour and the Past Masters compilation, were released on compact disc both individually and as a box set. The Beatles_sentence_465

A second collection, The Beatles in Mono, included remastered versions of every Beatles album released in true mono along with the original 1965 stereo mixes of Help! The Beatles_sentence_466

and Rubber Soul (both of which Martin had remixed for the 1987 editions). The Beatles_sentence_467

The Beatles: Rock Band, a music video game in the Rock Band series, was issued on the same day. The Beatles_sentence_468

In December 2009, the band's catalogue was officially released in FLAC and MP3 format in a limited edition of 30,000 USB flash drives. The Beatles_sentence_469

2010s The Beatles_section_19

Owing to a long-running royalty disagreement, the Beatles were among the last major artists to sign deals with online music services. The Beatles_sentence_470

Residual disagreement emanating from Apple Corps' dispute with Apple, Inc., iTunes' owners, over the use of the name "Apple" was also partly responsible for the delay, although in 2008, McCartney stated that the main obstacle to making the Beatles' catalogue available online was that EMI "want[s] something we're not prepared to give them". The Beatles_sentence_471

In 2010, the official canon of thirteen Beatles studio albums, Past Masters, and the "Red" and "Blue" greatest-hits albums were made available on iTunes. The Beatles_sentence_472

In 2012, EMI's recorded music operations were sold to Universal Music Group. The Beatles_sentence_473

In order for Universal Music to acquire EMI, the European Union, for antitrust reasons, forced EMI to spin off assets including Parlophone. The Beatles_sentence_474

Universal was allowed to keep the Beatles' recorded music catalogue, managed by Capitol Records under its Capitol Music Group division. The Beatles_sentence_475

The entire original Beatles album catalogue was also reissued on vinyl in 2012; available either individually or as a box set. The Beatles_sentence_476

In 2013, a second volume of BBC recordings, titled On Air – Live at the BBC Volume 2, was released. The Beatles_sentence_477

That December saw the release of another 59 Beatles recordings on iTunes. The Beatles_sentence_478

The set, titled The Beatles Bootleg Recordings 1963, had the opportunity to gain a 70-year copyright extension conditional on the songs being published at least once before the end of 2013. The Beatles_sentence_479

Apple Records released the recordings on 17 December to prevent them from going into the public domain and had them taken down from iTunes later that same day. The Beatles_sentence_480

Fan reactions to the release were mixed, with one blogger saying "the hardcore Beatles collectors who are trying to obtain everything will already have these." The Beatles_sentence_481

On 26 January 2014, McCartney and Starr performed together at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards, held at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Beatles_sentence_482

The following day, The Night That Changed America: A Grammy Salute to The Beatles television special was taped in the Los Angeles Convention Center's West Hall. The Beatles_sentence_483

It aired on 9 February, the exact date of – and at the same time, and on the same network as – the original broadcast of the Beatles' first US television appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, 50 years earlier. The Beatles_sentence_484

The special included performances of Beatles songs by current artists as well as by McCartney and Starr, archival footage, and interviews with the two surviving ex-Beatles carried out by David Letterman at the Ed Sullivan Theater. The Beatles_sentence_485

In December 2015, the Beatles released their catalogue for streaming on various streaming music services including Spotify and Apple Music. The Beatles_sentence_486

In September 2016, the documentary film The Beatles: Eight Days a Week was released. The Beatles_sentence_487

Directed by Ron Howard, it chronicled the Beatles' career during their touring years from 1962 to 1966, from their performances in Liverpool's the Cavern Club in 1961 to their final concert in San Francisco in 1966. The Beatles_sentence_488

The film was released theatrically on 15 September in the UK and the US, and started streaming on Hulu on 17 September. The Beatles_sentence_489

It received several awards and nominations, including for Best Documentary at the 70th British Academy Film Awards and the Outstanding Documentary or Nonfiction Special at the 69th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards. The Beatles_sentence_490

An expanded, remixed and remastered version of The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl was released on 9 September, to coincide with the release of the film. The Beatles_sentence_491

On 18 May 2017, Sirius XM Radio launched a 24/7 radio channel, The Beatles Channel. The Beatles_sentence_492

A week later, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was reissued with new stereo mixes and unreleased material for the album's 50th anniversary. The Beatles_sentence_493

Similar box sets were released for The Beatles in November 2018, and Abbey Road in September 2019. The Beatles_sentence_494

On the first week of October 2019, Abbey Road returned to number one on the UK Albums Chart. The Beatles_sentence_495

The Beatles broke their own record for the album with the longest gap between topping the charts as Abbey Road hit the top spot 50 years after its original release. The Beatles_sentence_496

2020s The Beatles_section_20

In August 2021, The Beatles: Get Back, a new documentary film directed by Peter Jackson utilising footage captured for what became the Let It Be film, will be released by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures in the US and Canada, with a global release to follow. The Beatles_sentence_497

Musical style and development The Beatles_section_21

See also: Lennon–McCartney The Beatles_sentence_498

In Icons of Rock: An Encyclopedia of the Legends Who Changed Music Forever, Scott Schinder and Andy Schwartz describe the Beatles' musical evolution: The Beatles_sentence_499

In The Beatles as Musicians, Walter Everett describes Lennon and McCartney's contrasting motivations and approaches to composition: "McCartney may be said to have constantly developed – as a means to entertain – a focused musical talent with an ear for counterpoint and other aspects of craft in the demonstration of a universally agreed-upon common language that he did much to enrich. The Beatles_sentence_500

Conversely, Lennon's mature music is best appreciated as the daring product of a largely unconscious, searching but undisciplined artistic sensibility." The Beatles_sentence_501

Ian MacDonald describes McCartney as "a natural melodist – a creator of tunes capable of existing apart from their harmony". The Beatles_sentence_502

His melody lines are characterised as primarily "vertical", employing wide, consonant intervals which express his "extrovert energy and optimism". The Beatles_sentence_503

Conversely, Lennon's "sedentary, ironic personality" is reflected in a "horizontal" approach featuring minimal, dissonant intervals and repetitive melodies which rely on their harmonic accompaniment for interest: "Basically a realist, he instinctively kept his melodies close to the rhythms and cadences of speech, colouring his lyrics with bluesy tone and harmony rather than creating tunes that made striking shapes of their own." The Beatles_sentence_504

MacDonald praises Harrison's lead guitar work for the role his "characterful lines and textural colourings" play in supporting Lennon and McCartney's parts, and describes Starr as "the father of modern pop/rock drumming". The Beatles_sentence_505

Influences The Beatles_section_22

The band's earliest influences include Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Little Richard and Chuck Berry. The Beatles_sentence_506

During the Beatles' co-residency with Little Richard at the Star-Club in Hamburg, from April to May 1962, he advised them on the proper technique for performing his songs. The Beatles_sentence_507

Of Presley, Lennon said, "Nothing really affected me until I heard Elvis. The Beatles_sentence_508

If there hadn't been Elvis, there would not have been the Beatles." The Beatles_sentence_509

Other early influences include Buddy Holly, Eddie Cochran, Roy Orbison and the Everly Brothers. The Beatles_sentence_510

The Beatles continued to absorb influences long after their initial success, often finding new musical and lyrical avenues by listening to their contemporaries, including Bob Dylan, the Who, Frank Zappa, the Lovin' Spoonful, the Byrds and the Beach Boys, whose 1966 album Pet Sounds amazed and inspired McCartney. The Beatles_sentence_511

Referring to the Beach Boys' creative leader, Martin later stated: "No one made a greater impact on the Beatles than Brian [Wilson]." The Beatles_sentence_512

Ravi Shankar, with whom Harrison studied for six weeks in India in late 1966, had a significant effect on his musical development during the band's later years. The Beatles_sentence_513

Genres The Beatles_section_23

Originating as a skiffle group, the Beatles quickly embraced 1950s rock and roll and helped pioneer the Merseybeat genre, and their repertoire ultimately expanded to include a broad variety of pop music. The Beatles_sentence_514

Reflecting the range of styles they explored, Lennon said of Beatles for Sale, "You could call our new one a Beatles country-and-western LP", while Gould credits Rubber Soul as "the instrument by which legions of folk-music enthusiasts were coaxed into the camp of pop". The Beatles_sentence_515

Although the 1965 song "Yesterday" was not the first pop record to employ orchestral strings, it marked the group's first recorded use of classical music elements. The Beatles_sentence_516

Gould observes: "The more traditional sound of strings allowed for a fresh appreciation of their talent as composers by listeners who were otherwise allergic to the din of drums and electric guitars." The Beatles_sentence_517

They continued to experiment with string arrangements to various effect; Sgt. Pepper's "She's Leaving Home", for instance, is "cast in the mold of a sentimental Victorian ballad", Gould writes, "its words and music filled with the clichés of musical melodrama". The Beatles_sentence_518

The band's stylistic range expanded in another direction with their 1966 B-side "Rain", described by Martin Strong as "the first overtly psychedelic Beatles record". The Beatles_sentence_519

Other psychedelic numbers followed, such as "Tomorrow Never Knows" (recorded before "Rain"), "Strawberry Fields Forever", "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and "I Am the Walrus". The Beatles_sentence_520

The influence of Indian classical music was evident in Harrison's "The Inner Light", "Love You To" and "Within You Without You" – Gould describes the latter two as attempts "to replicate the raga form in miniature". The Beatles_sentence_521

Innovation was the most striking feature of their creative evolution, according to music historian and pianist Michael Campbell: "'A Day in the Life' encapsulates the art and achievement of the Beatles as well as any single track can. The Beatles_sentence_522

It highlights key features of their music: the sound imagination, the persistence of tuneful melody, and the close coordination between words and music. The Beatles_sentence_523

It represents a new category of song – more sophisticated than pop ... and uniquely innovative. The Beatles_sentence_524

There literally had never before been a song – classical or vernacular – that had blended so many disparate elements so imaginatively." The Beatles_sentence_525

Philosophy professor Bruce Ellis Benson agrees: "the Beatles ... give us a wonderful example of how such far-ranging influences as Celtic music, rhythm and blues, and country and western could be put together in a new way." The Beatles_sentence_526

Author Dominic Pedler describes the way they crossed musical styles: "Far from moving sequentially from one genre to another (as is sometimes conveniently suggested) the group maintained in parallel their mastery of the traditional, catchy chart hit while simultaneously forging rock and dabbling with a wide range of peripheral influences from country to vaudeville. The Beatles_sentence_527

One of these threads was their take on folk music, which would form such essential groundwork for their later collisions with Indian music and philosophy." The Beatles_sentence_528

As the personal relationships between the band members grew increasingly strained, their individual tastes became more apparent. The Beatles_sentence_529

The minimalistic cover artwork for the White Album contrasted with the complexity and diversity of its music, which encompassed Lennon's "Revolution 9" (whose musique concrète approach was influenced by Yoko Ono), Starr's country song "Don't Pass Me By", Harrison's rock ballad "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", and the "proto-metal roar" of McCartney's "Helter Skelter". The Beatles_sentence_530

Contribution of George Martin The Beatles_section_24

George Martin's close involvement in his role as producer made him one of the leading candidates for the informal title of the "fifth Beatle". The Beatles_sentence_531

He applied his classical musical training in various ways, and functioned as "an informal music teacher" to the progressing songwriters, according to Gould. The Beatles_sentence_532

Martin suggested to a sceptical McCartney that the arrangement of "Yesterday" should feature a string quartet accompaniment, thereby introducing the Beatles to a "hitherto unsuspected world of classical instrumental colour", in MacDonald's description. The Beatles_sentence_533

Their creative development was also facilitated by Martin's willingness to experiment in response to their suggestions, such as adding "something baroque" to a particular recording. The Beatles_sentence_534

In addition to scoring orchestral arrangements for recordings, Martin often performed on them, playing instruments including piano, organ and brass. The Beatles_sentence_535

Collaborating with Lennon and McCartney required Martin to adapt to their different approaches to songwriting and recording. The Beatles_sentence_536

MacDonald comments, "while [he] worked more naturally with the conventionally articulate McCartney, the challenge of catering to Lennon's intuitive approach generally spurred him to his more original arrangements, of which 'Being for the Benefit of Mr. The Beatles_sentence_537 Kite!' The Beatles_sentence_538

is an outstanding example." The Beatles_sentence_539

Martin said of the two composers' distinct songwriting styles and his stabilising influence: The Beatles_sentence_540

Harrison echoed Martin's description of his stabilising role: "I think we just grew through those years together, him as the straight man and us as the loonies; but he was always there for us to interpret our madness – we used to be slightly avant-garde on certain days of the week, and he would be there as the anchor person, to communicate that through the engineers and on to the tape." The Beatles_sentence_541

In the studio The Beatles_section_25

See also: Recording practices of the Beatles The Beatles_sentence_542

Making innovative use of technology while expanding the possibilities of recorded music, the Beatles urged experimentation by Martin and his recording engineers. The Beatles_sentence_543

Seeking ways to put chance occurrences to creative use, accidental guitar feedback, a resonating glass bottle, a tape loaded the wrong way round so that it played backwards – any of these might be incorporated into their music. The Beatles_sentence_544

Their desire to create new sounds on every new recording, combined with Martin's arranging abilities and the studio expertise of EMI staff engineers Norman Smith, Ken Townsend and Geoff Emerick, all contributed significantly to their records from Rubber Soul and, especially, Revolver onwards. The Beatles_sentence_545

Along with innovative studio techniques such as sound effects, unconventional microphone placements, tape loops, double tracking and vari-speed recording, the Beatles augmented their songs with instruments that were unconventional in rock music at the time. The Beatles_sentence_546

These included string and brass ensembles as well as Indian instruments such as the sitar in "Norwegian Wood" and the swarmandal in "Strawberry Fields Forever". The Beatles_sentence_547

They also used novel electronic instruments such as the Mellotron, with which McCartney supplied the flute voices on the "Strawberry Fields Forever" intro, and the clavioline, an electronic keyboard that created the unusual oboe-like sound on "Baby, You're a Rich Man". The Beatles_sentence_548

Legacy The Beatles_section_26

Main article: Cultural impact of the Beatles The Beatles_sentence_549

Former Rolling Stone associate editor Robert Greenfield compared the Beatles to Picasso, as "artists who broke through the constraints of their time period to come up with something that was unique and original ... [I]n the form of popular music, no one will ever be more revolutionary, more creative and more distinctive ..." The British poet Philip Larkin described their work as "an enchanting and intoxicating hybrid of Negro rock-and-roll with their own adolescent romanticism", and "the first advance in popular music since the War". The Beatles_sentence_550

They not only sparked the British Invasion of the US, they became a globally influential phenomenon as well. The Beatles_sentence_551

From the 1920s, the US had dominated popular entertainment culture throughout much of the world, via Hollywood films, jazz, the music of Broadway and Tin Pan Alley and, later, the rock and roll that first emerged in Memphis, Tennessee. The Beatles_sentence_552

The Beatles are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the band among a group of people whom they most associated with UK culture. The Beatles_sentence_553

Their musical innovations and commercial success inspired musicians worldwide. The Beatles_sentence_554

Many artists have acknowledged the Beatles' influence and enjoyed chart success with covers of their songs. The Beatles_sentence_555

On radio, their arrival marked the beginning of a new era; in 1968 the programme director of New York's WABC radio station forbade his DJs from playing any "pre-Beatles" music, marking the defining line of what would be considered oldies on American radio. The Beatles_sentence_556

They helped to redefine the album as something more than just a few hits padded out with "filler", and they were primary innovators of the modern music video. The Beatles_sentence_557

The Shea Stadium show with which they opened their 1965 North American tour attracted an estimated 55,600 people, then the largest audience in concert history; Spitz describes the event as a "major breakthrough ... a giant step toward reshaping the concert business". The Beatles_sentence_558

Emulation of their clothing and especially their hairstyles, which became a mark of rebellion, had a global impact on fashion. The Beatles_sentence_559

According to Gould, the Beatles changed the way people listened to popular music and experienced its role in their lives. The Beatles_sentence_560

From what began as the Beatlemania fad, the group's popularity grew into what was seen as an embodiment of sociocultural movements of the decade. The Beatles_sentence_561

As icons of the 1960s counterculture, Gould continues, they became a catalyst for bohemianism and activism in various social and political arenas, fuelling movements such as women's liberation, gay liberation and environmentalism. The Beatles_sentence_562

According to Peter Lavezzoli, after the "more popular than Jesus" controversy in 1966, the Beatles felt considerable pressure to say the right things and "began a concerted effort to spread a message of wisdom and higher consciousness". The Beatles_sentence_563

Other commentators such as Mikal Gilmore and Todd Leopold have traced the inception of their socio-cultural impact earlier, interpreting even the Beatlemania period, particularly on their first visit to the US, as a key moment in the development of generational awareness. The Beatles_sentence_564

Referring to their appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show Leopold states: "In many ways, the Sullivan appearance marked the beginning of a cultural revolution ... The Beatles_sentence_565

The Beatles were like aliens dropped into the United States of 1964." The Beatles_sentence_566

According to Gilmore: The Beatles_sentence_567

Established in 2009, Global Beatles Day is an annual holiday on 25 June each year that honours and celebrates the ideals of the Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_568

The date was chosen to commemorate the date the group participated in the BBC programme Our World in 1967, performing "All You Need Is Love" broadcast to an international audience. The Beatles_sentence_569

Awards and achievements The Beatles_section_27

See also: List of awards and nominations received by the Beatles The Beatles_sentence_570

In 1965, Queen Elizabeth II appointed Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE). The Beatles_sentence_571

The Beatles won the 1971 Academy Award for Best Original Song Score for the film Let It Be (1970). The Beatles_sentence_572

The recipients of seven Grammy Awards and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards, the Beatles have six Diamond albums, as well as 20 Multi-Platinum albums, 16 Platinum albums and six Gold albums in the US. The Beatles_sentence_573

In the UK, the Beatles have four Multi-Platinum albums, four Platinum albums, eight Gold albums and one Silver album. The Beatles_sentence_574

They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988. The Beatles_sentence_575

The best-selling band in history, the Beatles have sold more than 600 million units as of 2012. The Beatles_sentence_576

They have had more number-one albums on the UK charts, fifteen, and sold more singles in the UK, 21.9 million, than any other act. The Beatles_sentence_577

In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the Beatles as the most significant and influential rock music artists of the last 50 years. The Beatles_sentence_578

They ranked number one on Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful Hot 100 artists, released in 2008 to celebrate the US singles chart's 50th anniversary. The Beatles_sentence_579

As of 2017, they hold the record for most number-one hits on the Billboard Hot 100, with twenty. The Beatles_sentence_580

The Recording Industry Association of America certifies that the Beatles have sold 183 million units in the US, more than any other artist. The Beatles_sentence_581

They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people. The Beatles_sentence_582

In 2014, they received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The Beatles_sentence_583

On 16 January each year, beginning in 2001, people celebrate World Beatles Day under UNESCO. The Beatles_sentence_584

This date has direct relation to the opening of The Cavern Club in 1957. The Beatles_sentence_585

Five asteroids, 4147 Lennon, 4148 McCartney, 4149 Harrison, 4150 Starr and 8749 Beatles are named after the Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_586

In 2007, the Beatles became the first band to feature on a series of UK postage stamps issued by the Royal Mail. The Beatles_sentence_587

Personnel The Beatles_section_28

Further information: List of members of bands featuring members of the Beatles The Beatles_sentence_588

Discography The Beatles_section_29

Main article: The Beatles discography The Beatles_sentence_589

The Beatles have a core catalogue consisting of 13 studio albums and one compilation. The Beatles_sentence_590

Song catalogue The Beatles_section_30

Through 1969, the Beatles' catalogue was published almost exclusively by Northern Songs Ltd, a company formed in February 1963 by music publisher Dick James specifically for Lennon and McCartney, though it later acquired songs by other artists. The Beatles_sentence_591

The company was organised with James and his partner, Emmanuel Silver, owning a controlling interest, variously described as 51% or 50% plus one share. The Beatles_sentence_592

McCartney had 20%. The Beatles_sentence_593

Reports again vary concerning Lennon's portion – 19 or 20% – and Brian Epstein's – 9 or 10% – which he received in lieu of a 25% band management fee. The Beatles_sentence_594

In 1965, the company went public. The Beatles_sentence_595

Five million shares were created, of which the original principals retained 3.75 million. The Beatles_sentence_596

James and Silver each received 937,500 shares (18.75% of 5 million); Lennon and McCartney each received 750,000 shares (15%); and Epstein's management company, NEMS Enterprises, received 375,000 shares (7.5%). The Beatles_sentence_597

Of the 1.25 million shares put up for sale, Harrison and Starr each acquired 40,000. The Beatles_sentence_598

At the time of the stock offering, Lennon and McCartney renewed their three-year publishing contracts, binding them to Northern Songs until 1973. The Beatles_sentence_599

Harrison created Harrisongs to represent his Beatles compositions, but signed a three-year contract with Northern Songs that gave it the copyright to his work through March 1968, which included "Taxman" and "Within You Without You". The Beatles_sentence_600

The songs on which Starr received co-writing credit before 1968, such as "What Goes On" and "Flying", were also Northern Songs copyrights. The Beatles_sentence_601

Harrison did not renew his contract with Northern Songs when it ended, signing instead with Apple Publishing while retaining the copyright to his work from that point on. The Beatles_sentence_602

Harrison thus owns the rights to his later Beatles songs such as "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" and "Something". The Beatles_sentence_603

That year, as well, Starr created Startling Music, which holds the rights to his Beatles compositions, "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden". The Beatles_sentence_604

In March 1969, James arranged to sell his and his partner's shares of Northern Songs to the British broadcasting company Associated Television (ATV), founded by impresario Lew Grade, without first informing the Beatles. The Beatles_sentence_605

The band then made a bid to gain a controlling interest by attempting to work out a deal with a consortium of London brokerage firms that had accumulated a 14% holding. The Beatles_sentence_606

The deal collapsed over the objections of Lennon, who declared, "I'm sick of being fucked about by men in suits sitting on their fat arses in the City." The Beatles_sentence_607

By the end of May, ATV had acquired a majority stake in Northern Songs, controlling nearly the entire Lennon–McCartney catalogue, as well as any future material until 1973. The Beatles_sentence_608

In frustration, Lennon and McCartney sold their shares to ATV in late October 1969. The Beatles_sentence_609

In 1981, financial losses by ATV's parent company, Associated Communications Corporation (ACC), led it to attempt to sell its music division. The Beatles_sentence_610

According to authors Brian Southall and Rupert Perry, Grade contacted McCartney, offering ATV Music and Northern Songs for $30 million. The Beatles_sentence_611

According to an account McCartney gave in 1995, he met with Grade and explained he was interested solely in the Northern Songs catalogue if Grade were ever willing to "separate off" that portion of ATV Music. The Beatles_sentence_612

Soon afterwards, Grade offered to sell him Northern Songs for £20 million, giving the ex-Beatle "a week or so" to decide. The Beatles_sentence_613

By McCartney's account, he and Ono countered with a £5 million bid that was rejected. The Beatles_sentence_614

According to reports at the time, Grade refused to separate Northern Songs and turned down an offer of £21–25 million from McCartney and Ono for Northern Songs. The Beatles_sentence_615

In 1982, ACC was acquired in a takeover by Australian business magnate Robert Holmes à Court for £60 million. The Beatles_sentence_616

In 1985, Michael Jackson purchased ATV for a reported $47.5 million. The Beatles_sentence_617

The acquisition gave him control over the publishing rights to more than 200 Beatles songs, as well as 40,000 other copyrights. The Beatles_sentence_618

In 1995, in a deal that earned him a reported $110 million, Jackson merged his music publishing business with Sony, creating a new company, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, in which he held a 50% stake. The Beatles_sentence_619

The merger made the new company, then valued at over half a billion dollars, the third-largest music publisher in the world. The Beatles_sentence_620

In 2016, Sony acquired Jackson's share of Sony/ATV from the Jackson estate for $750 million. The Beatles_sentence_621

Despite the lack of publishing rights to most of their songs, Lennon's estate and McCartney continue to receive their respective shares of the writers' royalties, which together are 33​⁄3% of total commercial proceeds in the US and which vary elsewhere around the world between 50 and 55%. The Beatles_sentence_622

Two of Lennon and McCartney's earliest songs – "Love Me Do" and "P.S. The Beatles_sentence_623

I Love You" – were published by an EMI subsidiary, Ardmore & Beechwood, before they signed with James. The Beatles_sentence_624

McCartney acquired their publishing rights from Ardmore in 1978, and they are the only two Beatles songs owned by McCartney's company MPL Communications. The Beatles_sentence_625

On 18 January 2017, McCartney filed a suit in the United States district court against Sony/ATV Music Publishing seeking to reclaim ownership of his share of the Lennon–McCartney song catalogue beginning in 2018. The Beatles_sentence_626

Under US copyright law, for works published before 1978 the author can reclaim copyrights assigned to a publisher after 56 years. The Beatles_sentence_627

McCartney and Sony agreed to a confidential settlement in June 2017. The Beatles_sentence_628

Selected filmography The Beatles_section_31

Main article: The Beatles in film The Beatles_sentence_629

Fictionalised The Beatles_sentence_630

The Beatles_unordered_list_0

Documentaries and filmed performances The Beatles_sentence_631

The Beatles_unordered_list_1

Concert tours The Beatles_section_32

Main article: List of the Beatles' live performances The Beatles_sentence_632

1963 The Beatles_sentence_633

The Beatles_unordered_list_2

1964 The Beatles_sentence_634

The Beatles_unordered_list_3

  • Winter 1964 North American tourThe Beatles_item_3_17
  • Spring 1964 UK tourThe Beatles_item_3_18
  • The Beatles' 1964 world tourThe Beatles_item_3_19

1965 The Beatles_sentence_635

The Beatles_unordered_list_4

1966 The Beatles_sentence_636

The Beatles_unordered_list_5


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The Beatles.