The Fourteen Infallibles

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See also: The Four Companions The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_0

The Fourteen Infallibles (Arabic: ٱلْمَعْصُومُون ٱلْأَرْبَعَة عَشَر‎, al-Maʿṣūmūn al-ʾArbaʿah ʿAšar; Persian: چهارده معصومین‎, Čahârdah Ma'sūmīn) in Twelver Shia Islam are the Islamic prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima Zahra, and the Twelve Imams. The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_1

All are considered to be infallible under the theological concept of Ismah. The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_2

Accordingly, they have the power to commit sin but by their nature are able to avoid doing so, which is regarded as a miraculous gift from God. The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_3

The Infallibles are believed to follow only God's desire in their actions because of their supreme righteousness, consciousness, and love for God. The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_4

They are also regarded as being immune to error in practical matters, in calling people to religion, and in the perception of divine knowledge. The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_5

Shias believe the Fourteen Infallibles are superior to the rest of creation and to the other major prophets. The Fourteen Infallibles_sentence_6

Family tree The Fourteen Infallibles_section_0

List of the Infallibles The Fourteen Infallibles_section_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_table_general_0

Calligraphic name depictionThe Fourteen Infallibles_header_cell_0_0_0 NameKunyaThe Fourteen Infallibles_header_cell_0_0_1 Title

ArabicThe Fourteen Infallibles_header_cell_0_0_2

Date of birth and deathThe Fourteen Infallibles_header_cell_0_0_3 ImportanceThe Fourteen Infallibles_header_cell_0_0_4 Cause and place of death Place of burialThe Fourteen Infallibles_header_cell_0_0_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_1_0 Muhammad ibn Abdullah

مُحَمَّد ٱبْن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ Abu al-Qasim أَبُو ٱلْقَاسِمThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_1_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_1_2 Makkah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_1_3 Considered by Muslims to be the last prophet sent by God to mankind. According to Muslims, God revealed to him the Quran, which is God's word.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_1_4 Fell ill and died in Madinah. According to some Shias and fewer Sunnis, he was fatally poisoned instead, with the circumstances being a matter of dispute among them.

Buried in Madinah, Hijaz.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_1_5

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_2_0 Fatimah bint Muhammad

فَاطِمَة بِنْت مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهَا ٱلسَّلَامʾUmm ʾAbīhā أُمّ أَبِیهَاThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_2_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_2_2 Makkah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_2_3 Her father Muhammad called her "a part of me". She is also regarded as "the mother of the Imams".The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_2_4 According to most Shias, Fatimah suffered a fatal injury while defending Ali against the first Sunni caliph.

The exact location of her grave is unknown but is believed to be in Madinah.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_2_5

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_3_0 Ali ibn Abi Talib

عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu al-Hasan أَبُو ٱلْحَسَنThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_3_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_3_2 Makkah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_3_3 For all Shia, the son-in-law of Muhammad is the first Shia Imam and the rightful successor to Muhammad. For Sunnis, he is the fourth successor. He holds an important position in almost all Sufi orders, which trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_3_4 Assassinated in Kufa, Iraq, by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite who slashed his head with a poisoned sword while he was praying.Buried in Najaf, Iraq.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_3_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_4_0 Hasan ibn Ali

ٱلْحَسَن ٱبْن عَلِيّ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu Muhammad أَبُو مُحَمَّدThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_4_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_4_2 Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_4_3 The eldest surviving grandson of Muhammad, through his mother, Fatimah, Hasan succeeded his father Ali as the caliph in Kufa; but after a seven-month reign he relinquished control of Iraq following a peace treaty with Muawiya I.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_4_4 He was poisoned fatally by his wife in Madinah by order of Caliph Muawiya. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, Madinah.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_4_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_5_0 Husayn ibn Ali

ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu Abdillah أَبُو عَبْد ٱللَّٰهThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_5_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_5_2 Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_5_3 Grandson of Muhammad and younger brother of Hasan, Husayn rejected the legitimacy of Caliph Yazid I, the son of Muawiyah. As a result, he and his family were killed in the Battle of Karbala by Yazid's forces. Ever since the battle, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom has been at the core of Shia rituals and identity.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_5_4 Killed and beheaded at the Battle of Karbala. Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine, Karbala, Iraq.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_5_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_6_0 Ali ibn Husayn

عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱلسَّجَّاد عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu Muhammad أَبُو مُحَمَّدThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_6_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_6_2 Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_6_3 The author of the prayers in Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, ("The Scripture of Al-Sajjad", "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet").The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_6_4 He was fatally poisoned by order of Caliph al-Walid I in Madinah. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, Madinah.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_6_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_7_0 Muhammad ibn Ali

مُحَمَّد ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْبَاقِر عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu Ja'far أَبُو جَعْفَرThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_7_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_7_2 Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_7_3 Sunni and Shia sources consider Al-Baqir an early and pre-eminent legal scholar who was revered for having educated many students.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_7_4 He was fatally poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Madinah by order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, MadinahThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_7_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_8_0 Ja'far ibn Muhammad

جَعْفَر ٱبْن مُحَمَّد ٱلصَّادِق عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu Abdillah أَبُو عَبْد ٱللَّٰهThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_8_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_8_2 Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_8_3 As-Sadiq established the Ja'fari school of jurisprudence and developed the theology of the Twelvers. He taught many scholars in different fields, including Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Geber in science and alchemy.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_8_4 He was fatally poisoned in Madinah by order of Caliph Al-Mansur. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi, MadinahThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_8_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_9_0 Musa ibn Ja'far

مُوسَىٰ ٱبْن جَعْفَر ٱلْكَاظِم عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu al-Hasan I أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن ٱلْأَوَّلThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_9_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_9_2 Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_9_3 Al-Kazim was leader of the Shia community during the schism between the Ismaili and other branches of Islam after the death of the previous Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. He established a network of agents who collected the khums in the Shia community of the Middle East and the Greater Khorasan. He holds a high position in the Mahdavia, the members of which trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_9_4 He was imprisoned and fatally poisoned in Baghdad, Iraq, by order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Buried in the Kazimayn shrine, Baghdad, IraqThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_9_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_10_0 Ali ibn Musa

عَلِيّ ٱبْن مُوسَىٰ ٱلرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu al-Hasan II أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن ٱلثَّانِيThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_10_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_10_2 Madinah,
HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_10_3
Made crown prince by Caliph Al-Ma'mun, Ar-Rida was known for his discussions and debates with both Muslim and non-Muslim religious scholars.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_10_4 He was fatally poisoned in Mashad, Iran, by order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun. Buried in the Imam Reza shrine, Mashad, IranThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_10_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_11_0 Muhammad ibn Ali

مُحَمَّد ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْجَوَّاد عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu Ja'far أَبُو جَعْفَرThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_11_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_11_2 Madinah,
HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_11_3
Al-Jawad was known for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid caliphate.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_11_4 He was fatally poisoned by his wife, the daughter of Caliph Al-Ma'mun, in Baghdad, Iraq, by order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Kazmain shrine, Baghdad, Iraq.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_11_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_12_0 Ali ibn Muhammad

عَلِيّ ٱبْن مُحَمَّد ٱلْهَادِي عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu al-Hasan III أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن ٱلثَّالِثThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_12_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_12_2 Surayya, a village near Madinah, HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_12_3 Al-Naqi taught religious sciences until 243/857. He strengthened the network of deputies in the Shia community. He sent them instructions and in turn received financial contributions from the faithful, from the khums and religious vows.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_12_4 He was fatally poisoned in Samarra, Iraq, by order of caliph Al-Mu'tazz. Buried in the Al Askari Mosque, Samarra, Iraq.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_12_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_13_0 Hasan ibn Ali

ٱلْحَسَن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْعَسْكَرِيّ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu al-Mahdi أَبُو ٱلْمَهْدِيّThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_13_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_13_2 Madinah,
HijazThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_13_3
Like his father, Al-Askari was placed under house arrest, which would last most of his life, by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu'tamid, . During this time, repression of the Shia communities was great because of their growing size and power.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_13_4 He was fatally poisoned by order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq. Buried in the Al Askari Mosque, Samarra, Iraq.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_13_5
The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_14_0 Hujjat Allah ibn al-Hasan

حُجَّة ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن ٱلْحَسَن ٱلْمَهْدِيّ عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامAbu al-Qasim أَبُو ٱلْقَاسِمThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_14_1

The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_14_2 Samarra, IraqThe Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_14_3 According to Twelver Shia doctrine, he is the current Imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return with the prophet Isa (Jesus). He will reestablish the rightful governance of Islam and establish justice and peace in the earth.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_14_4 According to Twelver Shia doctrine, he has been living in the Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills.The Fourteen Infallibles_cell_0_14_5

See also The Fourteen Infallibles_section_2

The Fourteen Infallibles_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Fourteen Infallibles.