The Guardian

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For other uses, see The Guardian (disambiguation). The Guardian_sentence_0

The Guardian_table_infobox_0

The GuardianThe Guardian_table_caption_0
TypeThe Guardian_header_cell_0_0_0 Daily newspaperThe Guardian_cell_0_0_1
FormatThe Guardian_header_cell_0_1_0 Broadsheet (1821–2005)

Berliner (2005–2018) Compact (since 2018)The Guardian_cell_0_1_1

Owner(s)The Guardian_header_cell_0_2_0 Guardian Media GroupThe Guardian_cell_0_2_1
Founder(s)The Guardian_header_cell_0_3_0 John Edward TaylorThe Guardian_cell_0_3_1
PublisherThe Guardian_header_cell_0_4_0 Guardian Media GroupThe Guardian_cell_0_4_1
Editor-in-chiefThe Guardian_header_cell_0_5_0 Katharine VinerThe Guardian_cell_0_5_1
FoundedThe Guardian_header_cell_0_6_0 5 May 1821; 199 years ago (1821-05-05) (as The Manchester Guardian, renamed The Guardian in 1959)The Guardian_cell_0_6_1
Political alignmentThe Guardian_header_cell_0_7_0 Centre-leftThe Guardian_cell_0_7_1
LanguageThe Guardian_header_cell_0_8_0 EnglishThe Guardian_cell_0_8_1
HeadquartersThe Guardian_header_cell_0_9_0 Kings Place, LondonThe Guardian_cell_0_9_1
CountryThe Guardian_header_cell_0_10_0 United KingdomThe Guardian_cell_0_10_1
CirculationThe Guardian_header_cell_0_11_0 110,438 (as of July 2020)The Guardian_cell_0_11_1
Sister newspapersThe Guardian_header_cell_0_12_0 The Observer

The Guardian WeeklyThe Guardian_cell_0_12_1

ISSNThe Guardian_header_cell_0_13_0 (print)
 (web)The Guardian_cell_0_13_1
OCLC numberThe Guardian_header_cell_0_14_0 The Guardian_cell_0_14_1
WebsiteThe Guardian_header_cell_0_15_0 The Guardian_cell_0_15_1

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. The Guardian_sentence_1

It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, and changed its name in 1959. The Guardian_sentence_2

Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The Guardian_sentence_3

The trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of The Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The Guardian_sentence_4

The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. The Guardian_sentence_5

Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to owners or shareholders. The Guardian_sentence_6

The editor-in-chief Katharine Viner succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. The Guardian_sentence_7

Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format. The Guardian_sentence_8

As of February 2020, its print edition had a daily circulation of 126,879. The Guardian_sentence_9

The newspaper has an online edition,, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia (founded in 2013) and Guardian US (founded in 2011). The Guardian_sentence_10

The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion, and its reputation as a platform for social liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. The Guardian_sentence_11

Frequent typographical errors during the age of manual typesetting led Private Eye magazine to dub the paper the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used occasionally by the editors for self-mockery. The Guardian_sentence_12

In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what [they] see in it". The Guardian_sentence_13

A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company (PAMCo) stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018. The Guardian_sentence_14

It was also reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions; other "quality" brands included The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and the i. The Guardian_sentence_15

While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. The Guardian_sentence_16

Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone. The Guardian_sentence_17

The investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. The Guardian_sentence_18

In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, and subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. The Guardian_sentence_19

In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then–Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian_sentence_20

It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most recently in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Guardian_sentence_21

History The Guardian_section_0

1821 to 1972 The Guardian_section_1

Early years The Guardian_section_2

The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen. The Guardian_sentence_22

They launched the paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. The Guardian_sentence_23

Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence. The Guardian_sentence_24

They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." The Guardian_sentence_25

When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The Guardian_sentence_26

The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, and all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper. The Guardian_sentence_27

The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty [...] warmly advocate the cause of Reform [...] endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and [...] support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". The Guardian_sentence_28

In 1825, the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The Guardian_sentence_29

The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called The Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Guardian_sentence_30

The Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labour's claims. The Guardian_sentence_31

Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Guardian_sentence_32

The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: "[…] if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. The Guardian_sentence_33

They live on strife [...]." The Guardian_sentence_34

Slavery and the American Civil War The Guardian_section_3

The newspaper opposed slavery and supported free trade. The Guardian_sentence_35

An 1823 leading article on the continuing "cruelty and injustice" to slaves in the West Indies long after the abolition of the slave trade with the Slave Trade Act 1807 wanted fairness to the interests and claims both of the planters and of their oppressed slaves. The Guardian_sentence_36

It welcomed the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 and accepted the "increased compensation" to the planters as the "guilt of slavery attaches far more to the nation" rather than individuals. The Guardian_sentence_37

Success of the Act would encourage emancipation in other slave-owning nations to avoid "imminent risk of a violent and bloody termination." The Guardian_sentence_38

However, the newspaper argued against restricting trade with countries which had not yet abolished slavery. The Guardian_sentence_39

Complex tensions developed in the United States. The Guardian_sentence_40

When the abolitionist George Thompson toured, the newspaper said that "[s]lavery is a monstrous evil, but civil war is not a less one; and we would not seek the abolition even of the former through the imminent hazard of the latter". The Guardian_sentence_41

It suggested that the United States should compensate slave-owners for freeing slaves and called on President Franklin Pierce to resolve the 1856 "civil war", the Sacking of Lawrence due to pro-slavery laws imposed by Congress. The Guardian_sentence_42

In 1860, The Observer quoted a report that the newly elected president Abraham Lincoln was opposed to abolition of slavery. The Guardian_sentence_43

On 13 May 1861, shortly after the start of the American Civil War, the Manchester Guardian portrayed the Northern states as primarily imposing a burdensome trade monopoly on the Confederate States, arguing that if the South was freed to have direct trade with Europe, "the day would not be distant when slavery itself would cease". The Guardian_sentence_44

Therefore, the newspaper asked "Why should the South be prevented from freeing itself from slavery?" The Guardian_sentence_45

This hopeful view was also held by the Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone. The Guardian_sentence_46

There was division in Britain over the Civil War, even within political parties. The Guardian_sentence_47

The Manchester Guardian had also been conflicted. The Guardian_sentence_48

It had supported other independence movements and felt it should also support the rights of the Confederacy to self-determination. The Guardian_sentence_49

It criticised Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation for not freeing all American slaves. The Guardian_sentence_50

On 10 October 1862, it wrote: "It is impossible to cast any reflections upon a man so evidently sincere and well-intentioned as Mr Lincoln but it is also impossible not to feel that it was an evil day both for America and the world, when he was chosen President of the United States". The Guardian_sentence_51

By then, the Union blockade was causing suffering in British towns. The Guardian_sentence_52

Some including Liverpool supported the Confederacy as did "current opinion in all classes" in London. The Guardian_sentence_53

On 31 December 1862, cotton workers held a meeting at the Free Trade Hall in Manchester which resolved "its detestation of negro slavery in America, and of the attempt of the rebellious Southern slave-holders to organise on the great American continent a nation having slavery as its basis". The Guardian_sentence_54

There was a comment that "an effort had been made in a leading article of the Manchester Guardian to deter the working men from assembling together for such a purpose". The Guardian_sentence_55

The newspaper reported all this and published their letter to President Lincoln while complaining that "the chief occupation, if not the chief object of the meeting, seems to have been to abuse the Manchester Guardian". The Guardian_sentence_56

Lincoln replied to the letter thanking the workers for their "sublime Christian heroism" and American ships delivered relief supplies to Britain. The Guardian_sentence_57

The newspaper reported the shock to the community of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in 1865, concluding that "[t]he parting of his family with the dying President is too sad for description", but in what from today's perspective looks an ill-judged editorial wrote that "[o]f his rule we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty", adding "it is doubtless to be regretted that he had not the opportunity of vindicating his good intentions". The Guardian_sentence_58

According to Martin Kettle, writing for The Guardian in February 2011, "The Guardian had always hated slavery. The Guardian_sentence_59

But it doubted the Union hated slavery to the same degree. The Guardian_sentence_60

It argued that the Union had always tacitly condoned slavery by shielding the southern slave states from the condemnation they deserved. The Guardian_sentence_61

It was critical of Lincoln's emancipation proclamation for stopping short of a full repudiation of slavery throughout the US. The Guardian_sentence_62

And it chastised the president for being so willing to negotiate with the south, with slavery one of the issues still on the table". The Guardian_sentence_63

C. P. Scott The Guardian_section_4

C. The Guardian_sentence_64 P. Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised. The Guardian_sentence_65

He was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylor's son in 1907. The Guardian_sentence_66

Under Scott, the paper's moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886, and opposing the Second Boer War against popular opinion. The Guardian_sentence_67

Scott supported the movement for women's suffrage, but was critical of any tactics by the Suffragettes that involved direct action: "The really ludicrous position is that Mr Lloyd George is fighting to enfranchise seven million women and the militants are smashing unoffending people's windows and breaking up benevolent societies' meetings in a desperate effort to prevent him." The Guardian_sentence_68

Scott thought the Suffragettes' "courage and devotion" was "worthy of a better cause and saner leadership". The Guardian_sentence_69

It has been argued that Scott's criticism reflected a widespread disdain, at the time, for those women who "transgressed the gender expectations of Edwardian society". The Guardian_sentence_70

Scott commissioned J. The Guardian_sentence_71 M. Synge and his friend Jack Yeats to produce articles and drawings documenting the social conditions of the west of Ireland; these pieces were published in 1911 in the collection Travels in Wicklow, West Kerry and Connemara. The Guardian_sentence_72

Scott's friendship with Chaim Weizmann played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The Guardian_sentence_73

In 1948 The Manchester Guardian was a supporter of the new State of Israel. The Guardian_sentence_74

In 1919, the paper's special correspondent W. The Guardian_sentence_75 T. Goode travelled to Moscow and secured interviews with Vladimir Lenin and other Soviet leaders. The Guardian_sentence_76

Ownership of the paper passed in June 1936 to the Scott Trust (named after the last owner, John Russell Scott, who was the first chairman of the Trust). The Guardian_sentence_77

This move ensured the paper's independence. The Guardian_sentence_78

Sylvia Sprigge served as correspondent for The Manchester Guardian in Italy 1943–1953. The Guardian_sentence_79

From 1930 to 1967, a special archival copy of all the daily newspapers was preserved in 700 zinc cases. The Guardian_sentence_80

These were found in 1988 whilst the newspaper's archives were deposited at the University of Manchester's John Rylands University Library, on the Oxford Road campus. The Guardian_sentence_81

The first case was opened and found to contain the newspapers issued in August 1930 in pristine condition. The Guardian_sentence_82

The zinc cases had been made each month by the newspaper's plumber and stored for posterity. The Guardian_sentence_83

The other 699 cases were not opened and were all returned to storage at The Guardian's garage, owing to shortage of space at the library. The Guardian_sentence_84

Spanish Civil War The Guardian_section_5

Traditionally affiliated with the centrist to centre-left Liberal Party, and with a northern, non-conformist circulation base, the paper earned a national reputation and the respect of the left during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). The Guardian_sentence_85

George Orwell writes in Homage to Catalonia (1938): "Of our larger papers, the Manchester Guardian is the only one that leaves me with an increased respect for its honesty". The Guardian_sentence_86

With the pro-Liberal News Chronicle, the Labour-supporting Daily Herald, the Communist Party's Daily Worker and several Sunday and weekly papers, it supported the Republican government against General Francisco Franco's insurgent nationalists. The Guardian_sentence_87

Post-war The Guardian_section_6

The paper's then editor, A. The Guardian_sentence_88 P. Wadsworth, so loathed Labour's left-wing champion Aneurin Bevan, who had made a reference to getting rid of "Tory Vermin" in a speech "and the hate-gospellers of his entourage" that it encouraged readers to vote Conservative and remove Attlee's post-war Labour government. The Guardian_sentence_89

The newspaper opposed the creation of the National Health Service as it feared the state provision of healthcare would "eliminate selective elimination" and lead to an increase of congenitally deformed and feckless people. The Guardian_sentence_90

The Manchester Guardian strongly opposed military intervention during the 1956 Suez Crisis: "The Anglo-French ultimatum to Egypt is an act of folly, without justification in any terms but brief expediency. The Guardian_sentence_91

It pours petrol on a growing fire. The Guardian_sentence_92

There is no knowing what kind of explosion will follow." The Guardian_sentence_93

On 24 August 1959, The Manchester Guardian changed its name to The Guardian. The Guardian_sentence_94

This change reflected the growing prominence of national and international affairs in the newspaper. The Guardian_sentence_95

In September 1961, The Guardian, which had previously only been published in Manchester, began to be printed in London. The Guardian_sentence_96

1972 to 2000 The Guardian_section_7

Northern Ireland conflict The Guardian_section_8

When 13 civil rights demonstrators in Northern Ireland were killed by British soldiers on 30 January 1972 (known as Bloody Sunday), The Guardian said that "Neither side can escape condemnation." The Guardian_sentence_97

Of the protesters, they wrote, "The organizers of the demonstration, Miss Bernadette Devlin among them, deliberately challenged the ban on marches. The Guardian_sentence_98

They knew that stone throwing and sniping could not be prevented, and that the IRA might use the crowd as a shield." The Guardian_sentence_99

Of the army, they wrote, "there seems little doubt that random shots were fired into the crowd, that aim was taken at individuals who were neither bombers nor weapons carriers and that excessive force was used". The Guardian_sentence_100

Many Irish people believed that the Widgery Tribunal's ruling on the killings was a whitewash, a view that was later supported with the publication of the Saville inquiry in 2010, but in 1972 The Guardian declared that "Widgery's report is not one-sided" (20 April 1972). The Guardian_sentence_101

At the time the paper also supported internment without trial in Northern Ireland: "Internment without trial is hateful, repressive and undemocratic. The Guardian_sentence_102

In the existing Irish situation, most regrettably, it is also inevitable... .To remove the ringleaders, in the hope that the atmosphere might calm down, is a step to which there is no obvious alternative." The Guardian_sentence_103

Before then, The Guardian had called for British troops to be sent to the region: British soldiers could "present a more disinterested face of law and order," but only on condition that "Britain takes charge." The Guardian_sentence_104

Sarah Tisdall The Guardian_section_9

In 1983 the paper was at the centre of a controversy surrounding documents regarding the stationing of cruise missiles in Britain that were leaked to The Guardian by civil servant Sarah Tisdall. The Guardian_sentence_105

The paper eventually complied with a court order to hand over the documents to the authorities, which resulted in a six-month prison sentence for Tisdall, though she served only four. The Guardian_sentence_106

"I still blame myself," said Peter Preston, who was the editor of The Guardian at the time, but he went on to argue that the paper had no choice because it "believed in the rule of law". The Guardian_sentence_107

In an article discussing Julian Assange and the protection of sources by journalists, John Pilger criticised The Guardian's editor for betraying Tisdall by choosing not to go to prison "on a fundamental principle of protecting a source". The Guardian_sentence_108

First Gulf War The Guardian_section_10

In the lead-up to the first Gulf War, between 1990 and 1991, The Guardian expressed doubts about military action against Iraq: "Frustration in the Gulf leads temptingly to the invocation of task forces and tactical bombing, but the military option is no option at all. The Guardian_sentence_109

The emergence yesterday of a potential hostage problem of vast dimensions only emphasised that this is far too complex a crisis for gunboat diplomacy. The Guardian_sentence_110

Loose talk of 'carpet bombing' Baghdad should be put back in the bottle of theoretical but unacceptable scenarios." The Guardian_sentence_111

But on the eve of the war, the paper rallied to the war cause: "The simple cause, at the end, is just. The Guardian_sentence_112

An evil regime in Iraq instituted an evil and brutal invasion. The Guardian_sentence_113

Our soldiers and airmen are there, at UN behest, to set that evil to rights. The Guardian_sentence_114

Their duties are clear. The Guardian_sentence_115

... Let the momentum, and the resolution, be swift." The Guardian_sentence_116

After the event, journalist Maggie O'Kane conceded that she and her colleagues had been a mouthpiece for war propaganda: "... we, the media, were harnessed like 2,000 beach donkeys and led through the sand to see what the British and US military wanted us to see in this nice clean war". The Guardian_sentence_117

Alleged penetration by Russian intelligence The Guardian_section_11

In 1994, KGB defector Oleg Gordievsky identified Guardian literary editor Richard Gott as "an agent of influence". The Guardian_sentence_118

While Gott denied that he received cash, he admitted he had had lunch at the Soviet Embassy and had taken benefits from the KGB on overseas visits. The Guardian_sentence_119

Gott resigned from his post. The Guardian_sentence_120

Gordievsky commented on the newspaper: "The KGB loved The Guardian. The Guardian_sentence_121

It was deemed highly susceptible to penetration." The Guardian_sentence_122

Jonathan Aitken The Guardian_section_12

In 1995, both the Granada Television programme World in Action and The Guardian were sued for libel by the then cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken, for their allegation that Harrods owner Mohamed Al Fayed had paid for Aitken and his wife to stay at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris, which would have amounted to accepting a bribe on Aitken's part. The Guardian_sentence_123

Aitken publicly stated that he would fight with "the simple sword of truth and the trusty shield of British fair play". The Guardian_sentence_124

The court case proceeded, and in 1997 The Guardian produced evidence that Aitken's claim of his wife paying for the hotel stay was untrue. The Guardian_sentence_125

In 1999, Aitken was jailed for perjury and perverting the course of justice. The Guardian_sentence_126

Connection The Guardian_section_13

In May 1998, a series of Guardian investigations exposed the wholesale fabrication of a much-garlanded ITV documentary The Connection, produced by Carlton Television. The Guardian_sentence_127

The documentary purported to film an undiscovered route by which heroin was smuggled into the United Kingdom from Colombia. The Guardian_sentence_128

An internal inquiry at Carlton found that The Guardian's allegations were in large part correct and the then industry regulator, the ITC, punished Carlton with a record £2-million fine for multiple breaches of the UK's broadcasting codes. The Guardian_sentence_129

The scandal led to an impassioned debate about the accuracy of documentary production. The Guardian_sentence_130

Later in June 1998, The Guardian revealed further fabrications in another Carlton documentary from the same director. The Guardian_sentence_131

Kosovo War The Guardian_section_14

The paper supported NATO's military intervention in the Kosovo War in 1998–1999. The Guardian_sentence_132

The Guardian stated that "the only honourable course for Europe and America is to use military force". The Guardian_sentence_133

Mary Kaldor's piece was headlined "Bombs away! The Guardian_sentence_134

But to save civilians, we must get in some soldiers too." The Guardian_sentence_135

Since 2000 The Guardian_section_15

In the early 2000s, The Guardian challenged the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Treason Felony Act 1848. The Guardian_sentence_136

In October 2004, The Guardian published a humorous column by Charlie Brooker in its entertainment guide, the final sentence of which was viewed by some as a call for violence against U.S. President George W. Bush; after a controversy, Brooker and the paper issued an apology, saying the "closing comments were intended as an ironic joke, not as a call to action." The Guardian_sentence_137

Following the 7 July 2005 London bombings, The Guardian published an article on its comment pages by Dilpazier Aslam, a 27-year-old British Muslim and journalism trainee from Yorkshire. The Guardian_sentence_138

Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir, an Islamist group, and had published a number of articles on their website. The Guardian_sentence_139

According to the paper, it did not know that Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir when he applied to become a trainee, though several staff members were informed of this once he started at the paper. The Guardian_sentence_140

The Home Office has claimed the group's "ultimate aim is the establishment of an Islamic state (Caliphate), according to Hizb ut-Tahrir via non-violent means". The Guardian_sentence_141

The Guardian asked Aslam to resign his membership of the group and, when he did not do so, terminated his employment. The Guardian_sentence_142

In early 2009, the paper started a tax investigation into a number of major UK companies, including publishing a database of the tax paid by the FTSE 100 companies. The Guardian_sentence_143

Internal documents relating to Barclays Bank's tax avoidance were removed from The Guardian website after Barclays obtained a gagging order. The Guardian_sentence_144

The paper played a pivotal role in exposing the depth of the News of the World phone hacking affair. The Guardian_sentence_145

The Economist's Intelligent Life magazine opined that... The Guardian_sentence_146

Clark County The Guardian_section_16

In August 2004, for the US presidential election, the daily G2 supplement launched an experimental letter-writing campaign in Clark County, Ohio, an average-sized county in a swing state. The Guardian_sentence_147

Editor Ian Katz bought a voter list from the county for $25 and asked readers to write to people listed as undecided in the election, giving them an impression of the international view and the importance of voting against President George W. Bush. The Guardian_sentence_148

Katz admitted later that he did not believe Democrats who warned that the campaign would benefit Bush and not opponent John Kerry. The Guardian_sentence_149

The newspaper scrapped "Operation Clark County" on 21 October 2004 after first publishing a column of responses—nearly all of them outraged—to the campaign under the headline "Dear Limey assholes". The Guardian_sentence_150

Some commentators suggested that the public's dislike of the campaign contributed to Bush's victory in Clark County. The Guardian_sentence_151

Guardian America and Guardian US The Guardian_section_17

In 2007, the paper launched Guardian America, an attempt to capitalise on its large online readership in the United States, which at the time stood at more than 5.9 million. The Guardian_sentence_152

The company hired former American Prospect editor, New York magazine columnist and New York Review of Books writer Michael Tomasky to head the project and hire a staff of American reporters and web editors. The Guardian_sentence_153

The site featured news from The Guardian that was relevant to an American audience: coverage of US news and the Middle East, for example. The Guardian_sentence_154

Tomasky stepped down from his position as editor of Guardian America in February 2009, ceding editing and planning duties to other US and London staff. The Guardian_sentence_155

He retained his position as a columnist and blogger, taking the title editor-at-large. The Guardian_sentence_156

In October 2009, the company abandoned the Guardian America homepage, instead directing users to a US news index page on the main Guardian website. The Guardian_sentence_157

The following month, the company laid off six American employees, including a reporter, a multimedia producer and four web editors. The Guardian_sentence_158

The move came as Guardian News and Media opted to reconsider its US strategy amid a huge effort to cut costs across the company. The Guardian_sentence_159

In subsequent years, however, The Guardian has hired various commentators on US affairs including Ana Marie Cox, Michael Wolff, Naomi Wolf, Glenn Greenwald and George W. Bush's former speechwriter Josh Treviño. The Guardian_sentence_160

Treviño's first blog post was an apology for a controversial tweet posted in June 2011 over the second Gaza flotilla, the controversy which had been revived by the appointment. The Guardian_sentence_161

Guardian US launched in September 2011, led by editor-in-chief Janine Gibson, which replaced the previous Guardian America service. The Guardian_sentence_162

After a period during which Katharine Viner served as the US editor-in-chief before taking charge of Guardian News and Media as a whole, Viner's former deputy, Lee Glendinning, was appointed to succeed her as head of the American operation at the beginning of June 2015. The Guardian_sentence_163

Gagged from reporting Parliament The Guardian_section_18

In October 2009, The Guardian reported that it was forbidden to report on a parliamentary matter – a question recorded in a Commons order paper, to be answered by a minister later that week. The Guardian_sentence_164

The paper noted that it was being "forbidden from telling its readers why the paper is prevented—for the first time in memory—from reporting parliament. The Guardian_sentence_165

Legal obstacles, which cannot be identified, involve proceedings, which cannot be mentioned, on behalf of a client who must remain secret. The Guardian_sentence_166

The only fact The Guardian can report is that the case involves the London solicitors Carter-Ruck." The Guardian_sentence_167

The paper further claimed that this case appears "to call into question privileges guaranteeing free speech established under the 1689 Bill of Rights". The Guardian_sentence_168

The only parliamentary question mentioning Carter-Ruck in the relevant period was by Paul Farrelly MP, in reference to legal action by Barclays and Trafigura. The Guardian_sentence_169

The part of the question referencing Carter-Ruck relates to the latter company's September 2009 gagging order on the publication of a 2006 internal report into the 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste dump scandal, which involved a class action case that the company only settled in September 2009 after The Guardian published some of the commodity trader's internal emails. The Guardian_sentence_170

The reporting injunction was lifted the next day, for Carter-Ruck withdrew it before The Guardian could challenge it in the High Court. The Guardian_sentence_171

Alan Rusbridger attributed the rapid back-down by Carter-Ruck to postings on Twitter, as did a BBC article. The Guardian_sentence_172

Edward Snowden leaks and intervention by the UK government The Guardian_section_19

In June 2013, the newspaper broke news of the secret collection of Verizon telephone records held by Barack Obama's administration and subsequently revealed the existence of the PRISM surveillance program after it was leaked to the paper by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. The Guardian_sentence_173

The newspaper was subsequently contacted by the British government's Cabinet Secretary, Sir Jeremy Heywood, under instruction from Prime Minister David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, who ordered that the hard drives containing the information be destroyed. The Guardian_sentence_174

The Guardian's offices were then visited in July by agents from the UK's GCHQ, who supervised the destruction of the hard drives containing information acquired from Snowden. The Guardian_sentence_175

In June 2014, The Register reported that the information the government sought to suppress by destroying the hard drives related to the location of a "beyond top secret" internet monitoring base in Seeb, Oman, and the close involvement of BT and Cable & Wireless in intercepting internet communications. The Guardian_sentence_176

Julian Assange criticised the newspaper for not publishing the entirety of the content when it had the chance. The Guardian_sentence_177

Rusbridger had initially proceeded without the government's supervision, but subsequently sought it, and established an ongoing relationship with the Defence Ministry. The Guardian_sentence_178

The Guardian enquiry later continued because the information had already been copied outside the United Kingdom, earning the newspaper a Pulitzer Prize. The Guardian_sentence_179

Rusbridger and subsequent chief editors would sit on the government's DSMA-notice board. The Guardian_sentence_180

Manafort–Assange secret meetings The Guardian_section_20

In a November 2018 Guardian article, Luke Harding and Dan Collyns cited anonymous sources which stated that Donald Trump's former campaign manager Paul Manafort held secret meetings with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange inside the Ecuadorian embassy in London in 2013, 2015, and 2016. The Guardian_sentence_181

One reporter characterized the story, "If it's right, it might be the biggest get this year. The Guardian_sentence_182

If it's wrong, it might be the biggest gaffe." The Guardian_sentence_183

Manafort and Assange both denied ever having met with the latter threatening legal action against The Guardian. The Guardian_sentence_184

Ecuador's London consul Fidel Narváez, who had worked at Ecuador's embassy in London from 2010 to July 2018, denied that Manafort's visits had happened. The Guardian_sentence_185

Ownership and finances The Guardian_section_21

The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group (GMG) of newspapers, radio stations and print media, including; The Observer Sunday newspaper, The Guardian Weekly international newspaper, and new media—Guardian Abroad website, and The Guardian_sentence_186

All the aforementioned were owned by The Scott Trust, a charitable foundation existing between 1936 and 2008, which aimed to ensure the paper's editorial independence in perpetuity, maintaining its financial health in order to ensure it did not become vulnerable to takeovers by for-profit media groups. The Guardian_sentence_187

At the beginning of October 2008, the Scott Trust's assets were transferred to a new limited company, The Scott Trust Limited, with the intention being that the original trust would be wound up. The Guardian_sentence_188

Dame Liz Forgan, chair of the Scott Trust, reassured staff that the purposes of the new company remained the same as under the previous arrangements. The Guardian_sentence_189

The Guardian's ownership by the Scott Trust is probably a factor in its being the only British national daily to conduct (since 2003) an annual social, ethical and environmental audit in which it examines, under the scrutiny of an independent external auditor, its own behaviour as a company. The Guardian_sentence_190

It is also the only British national daily newspaper to employ an internal ombudsman (called the "readers' editor") to handle complaints and corrections. The Guardian_sentence_191

The Guardian and its parent groups participate in Project Syndicate and intervened in 1995 to save the Mail & Guardian in South Africa. The Guardian_sentence_192

However, GMG sold the majority of its shares of the Mail & Guardian in 2002. The Guardian_sentence_193

The Guardian was consistently loss-making until 2019. The Guardian_sentence_194

The National Newspaper division of GMG, which also includes The Observer, reported operating losses of £49.9 million in 2006, up from £18.6 million in 2005. The Guardian_sentence_195

The paper was therefore heavily dependent on cross-subsidisation from profitable companies within the group. The Guardian_sentence_196

The continual losses made by the National Newspaper division of the Guardian Media Group caused it to dispose of its Regional Media division by selling titles to competitor Trinity Mirror in March 2010. The Guardian_sentence_197

This included the flagship Manchester Evening News, and severed the historic link between that paper and The Guardian. The Guardian_sentence_198

The sale was in order to safeguard the future of The Guardian newspaper as is the intended purpose of the Scott Trust. The Guardian_sentence_199

In June 2011 Guardian News and Media revealed increased annual losses of £33 million and announced that it was looking to focus on its online edition for news coverage, leaving the print edition to contain more comments and features. The Guardian_sentence_200

It was also speculated that The Guardian might become the first British national daily paper to be fully online. The Guardian_sentence_201

For the three years up to June 2012, the paper lost £100,000 a day, which prompted Intelligent Life to question whether The Guardian could survive. The Guardian_sentence_202

Between 2007 and 2014 The Guardian Media Group sold all their side businesses, of regional papers and online portals for classifieds and consolidated, into The Guardian as sole product. The Guardian_sentence_203

The sales let them acquire a capital stock of £838.3 million as of July 2014, supposed to guarantee the independence of the Guardian in perpetuity. The Guardian_sentence_204

In the first year, the paper made more losses than predicted, and in January 2016 the publishers announced, that The Guardian will cut 20 per cent of staff and costs within the next three years. The Guardian_sentence_205

The newspaper is rare in calling for direct contributions "to deliver the independent journalism the world needs." The Guardian_sentence_206

The Guardian Media Group's 2018 annual report (year ending 1 April 2018) indicated some significant changes occurring. The Guardian_sentence_207

Its digital (online) editions accounted for over 50% of group revenues by that time; the loss from news and media operations was £18.6 million, 52% lower than during the prior year (2017: £38.9 million). The Guardian_sentence_208

The Group had cut costs by £19.1 million, partly by switching its print edition to the tabloid format. The Guardian_sentence_209

The Guardian Media Group's owner, the Scott Trust Endowment Fund, reported that its value at the time was £1.01 billion (2017: £1.03 billion). The Guardian_sentence_210

In the following financial report (for the year 2018/2019), the group reported a profit (EBITDA) of £0.8 million before exceptional items, thus breaking even in 2019. The Guardian_sentence_211

"Membership" subscription scheme The Guardian_section_22

In 2014, The Guardian launched a membership scheme. The Guardian_sentence_212

The scheme aims to reduce the financial losses incurred by The Guardian without introducing a paywall, thus maintaining open access to the website. The Guardian_sentence_213

Website readers can pay a monthly subscription, with three tiers available. The Guardian_sentence_214

As of 2018 this approach was considered successful, having brought more than 1 million subscriptions or donations, with the paper hoping to break even by April 2019. The Guardian_sentence_215

Foundation funding The Guardian_section_23

In 2016, the company established a U.S.-based philanthropic arm to raise money from individuals and organizations including think tanks and corporate foundations. The Guardian_sentence_216

The grants are focused by the donors on particular issues. The Guardian_sentence_217

By the following year, the organization had raised $1 million from the likes of Pierre Omidyar's Humanity United, the Skoll Foundation, and the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation to finance reporting on topics including modern-day slavery and climate change. The Guardian_sentence_218

The Guardian has stated that it has secured $6 million "in multi-year funding commitments" thus far. The Guardian_sentence_219

The new project developed from funding relationships which the paper already had with the Ford, Rockefeller, and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The Guardian_sentence_220

Gates had given the organization $5 million for its Global Development webpage. The Guardian_sentence_221

As of March 2020, the journal claims to be "the first major global news organisation to institute an outright ban on taking money from companies that extract fossil fuels." The Guardian_sentence_222

Political stance and editorial opinion The Guardian_section_24

Founded by textile traders and merchants, in its early years The Guardian had a reputation as "an organ of the middle class", or in the words of C. P. Scott's son Ted, "a paper that will remain bourgeois to the last". The Guardian_sentence_223

Associated at first with the Little Circle and hence with classical liberalism as expressed by the Whigs and later by the Liberal Party, its political orientation underwent a decisive change after World War II, leading to a gradual alignment with Labour and the political left in general. The Guardian_sentence_224

The Scott Trust describes one of its "core purposes" to be "to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity: as a quality national newspaper without party affiliation; remaining faithful to its liberal tradition". The Guardian_sentence_225

The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion: a MORI poll taken between April and June 2000 showed that 80 per cent of Guardian readers were Labour Party voters; according to another MORI poll taken in 2005, 48 per cent of Guardian readers were Labour voters and 34 per cent Liberal Democrat voters. The Guardian_sentence_226

The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal opinions has led to the use of the epithets "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" for people holding such views, or as a stereotype of such people as middle class, earnest and politically correct. The Guardian_sentence_227

Although the paper is often considered to be "linked inextricably" to the Labour Party, three of The Guardian's four leader writers joined the more centrist Social Democratic Party on its foundation in 1981. The Guardian_sentence_228

The paper was enthusiastic in its support for Tony Blair in his successful bid to lead the Labour Party, and to be elected Prime Minister. The Guardian_sentence_229

On 19 January 2003, two months before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, an Observer Editorial said: "Military intervention in the Middle East holds many dangers. The Guardian_sentence_230

But if we want a lasting peace it may be the only option. The Guardian_sentence_231

[…] War with Iraq may yet not come, but, conscious of the potentially terrifying responsibility resting with the British Government, we find ourselves supporting the current commitment to a possible use of force." The Guardian_sentence_232

But The Guardian opposed the war, along with the Daily Mirror and The Independent. The Guardian_sentence_233

Then Guardian features editor Ian Katz asserted in 2004 that "it is no secret we are a centre-left newspaper". The Guardian_sentence_234

In 2008, Guardian columnist Jackie Ashley said that editorial contributors were a mix of "right-of-centre libertarians, greens, Blairites, Brownites, Labourite but less enthusiastic Brownites, etc," and that the newspaper was "clearly left of centre and vaguely progressive". The Guardian_sentence_235

She also said that "you can be absolutely certain that come the next general election, The Guardian's stance will not be dictated by the editor, still less any foreign proprietor (it helps that there isn't one) but will be the result of vigorous debate within the paper". The Guardian_sentence_236

The paper's comment and opinion pages, though often written by centre-left contributors such as Polly Toynbee, have allowed some space for right-of-centre voices such as Sir Max Hastings and Michael Gove. The Guardian_sentence_237

Since an editorial in 2000, The Guardian has favoured abolition of the British monarchy. The Guardian_sentence_238

"I write for the Guardian," said Max Hastings in 2005, "because it is read by the new establishment," reflecting the paper's then-growing influence. The Guardian_sentence_239

In the run-up to the 2010 general election, following a meeting of the editorial staff, the paper declared its support for the Liberal Democrats, due in particular, to the party's stance on electoral reform. The Guardian_sentence_240

The paper suggested tactical voting to prevent a Conservative victory, given Britain's first-past-the-post electoral system. The Guardian_sentence_241

At the 2015 election, the paper switched its support to the Labour Party. The Guardian_sentence_242

The paper argued that Britain needed a new direction and Labour "speaks with more urgency than its rivals on social justice, standing up to predatory capitalism, on investment for growth, on reforming and strengthening the public realm, Britain's place in Europe and international development". The Guardian_sentence_243

Assistant Editor Michael White, in discussing media self-censorship in March 2011, says: "I have always sensed liberal, middle class ill-ease in going after stories about immigration, legal or otherwise, about welfare fraud or the less attractive tribal habits of the working class, which is more easily ignored altogether. The Guardian_sentence_244

Toffs, including royal ones, Christians, especially popes, governments of Israel, and US Republicans are more straightforward targets." The Guardian_sentence_245

In a 2013 interview for NPR, The Guardian's Latin America correspondent Rory Carroll stated that many editors at The Guardian believed and continue to believe that they should support Hugo Chávez "because he was a standard-bearer for the left". The Guardian_sentence_246

In the 2015 Labour Party leadership election, The Guardian supported Yvette Cooper and was critical of left-winger Jeremy Corbyn, the successful candidate. The Guardian_sentence_247

These positions were criticised by the Morning Star, which accused The Guardian of being conservative. The Guardian_sentence_248

Although the majority of political columnists in The Guardian were against Corbyn winning, Owen Jones, Seumas Milne, and George Monbiot wrote supportive articles about him. The Guardian_sentence_249

Despite this critical position, in the 2017 election The Guardian endorsed the Labour Party. The Guardian_sentence_250

In the 2019 European election The Guardian invited its readers to vote for pro-EU candidates, without endorsing specific parties. The Guardian_sentence_251

Criticism and controversy The Guardian_section_25

Antisemitism and bias in Israeli-Palestinian conflict The Guardian_section_26

In recent decades The Guardian has been accused of biased criticism of Israeli government policy and of bias against the Palestinians. The Guardian_sentence_252

In December 2003, columnist Julie Burchill cited "striking bias against the state of Israel" as one of the reasons she left the paper for The Times. The Guardian_sentence_253

A leaked report from the European Monitoring Centre on Racism cited The Economist's claim that for "many British Jews," the British media's reporting on Israel "is spiced with a tone of animosity, 'as to smell of anti-Semitism' ... The Guardian_sentence_254

This is above all the case with The Guardian and The Independent". The Guardian_sentence_255

The EU said the report, dated February 2003, was not published because it was insubstantial in its current state and lacking sufficient evidence. The Guardian_sentence_256

Responding to these accusations, a Guardian editorial in 2002 condemned antisemitism and defended the paper's right to criticise the policies and actions of the Israeli government, arguing that those who view such criticism as inherently anti-Jewish are mistaken. The Guardian_sentence_257

Harriet Sherwood, then The Guardian's foreign editor, later its Jerusalem correspondent, has also denied that The Guardian has an anti-Israel bias, saying that the paper aims to cover all viewpoints in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The Guardian_sentence_258

On 6 November 2011, Chris Elliott, The Guardian's readers' editor, wrote that "Guardian reporters, writers and editors must be more vigilant about the language they use when writing about Jews or Israel," citing recent cases where The Guardian received complaints regarding language chosen to describe Jews or Israel. The Guardian_sentence_259

Elliott noted that, over nine months, he upheld complaints regarding language in certain articles that were seen as anti-Semitic, revising the language and footnoting this change. The Guardian_sentence_260

The Guardian's style guide section referred to Tel Aviv as the capital of Israel in 2012. The Guardian_sentence_261

The Guardian later clarified: "In 1980, the Israeli Knesset enacted a law designating the city of Jerusalem, including East Jerusalem, as the country's capital. The Guardian_sentence_262

In response, the UN security council issued resolution 478, censuring the "change in character and status of the Holy City of Jerusalem" and calling on all member states with diplomatic missions in the city to withdraw. The Guardian_sentence_263

The UN has reaffirmed this position on several occasions, and almost every country now has its embassy in Tel Aviv. The Guardian_sentence_264

While it was therefore right to issue a correction to make clear Israel's designation of Jerusalem as its capital is not recognised by the international community, we accept that it is wrong to state that Tel Aviv – the country's financial and diplomatic centre – is the capital. The Guardian_sentence_265

The style guide has been amended accordingly." The Guardian_sentence_266

On 11 August 2014 the print edition of The Guardian published a pro-Israeli advocacy advert during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict featuring Elie Wiesel, headed by the words "Jews rejected child sacrifice 3,500 years ago. The Guardian_sentence_267

Now it's Hamas' turn." The Guardian_sentence_268

The Times had decided against running the ad, although it had already appeared in major American newspapers. The Guardian_sentence_269

One week later, Chris Elliott expressed the opinion that the newspaper should have rejected the language used in the advert and should have negotiated with the advertiser on this matter. The Guardian_sentence_270

Accusations of misleading stories The Guardian_section_27

Journalist Glenn Greenwald of The Intercept, a former contributor to The Guardian, has accused The Guardian of falsifying the words of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in a report about the interview he gave to Italian newspaper La Repubblica. The Guardian_sentence_271

Greenwald wrote: "This article is about how those [Guardian's] false claims—fabrications, really—were spread all over the internet by journalists, causing hundreds of thousands of people (if not millions) to consume false news." The Guardian_sentence_272

The Guardian later amended its article about Assange. The Guardian_sentence_273

After publishing a story on 13 January 2017 claiming that WhatsApp had a "backdoor [that] allows snooping on messages", more than 70 professional cryptographers signed on to an open letter calling for The Guardian to retract the article. The Guardian_sentence_274

On 13 June 2017, editor Paul Chadwick released an article detailing the flawed reporting in the original January article, which was amended to remove references to a backdoor. The Guardian_sentence_275

Circulation and format The Guardian_section_28

The Guardian had a certified average daily circulation of 204,222 copies in December 2012 — a drop of 11.25 per cent in January 2012 — as compared to sales of 547,465 for The Daily Telegraph, 396,041 for The Times, and 78,082 for The Independent. The Guardian_sentence_276

In March 2013, its average daily circulation had fallen to 193,586, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. The Guardian_sentence_277

Circulation has continued to decline and stood at 161,091 in December 2016, a decline of 2.98 per cent year-on-year. The Guardian_sentence_278

Publication history The Guardian_section_29

Moving to the Berliner paper format The Guardian_section_30

The Guardian is printed in full colour, and was the first newspaper in the UK to use the Berliner format for its main section, while producing sections and supplements in a range of page sizes including tabloid, approximately A4, and pocket-size (approximately A5). The Guardian_sentence_279

In 2004, The Guardian announced plans to change to a Berliner or "midi" format, similar to that used by Die Tageszeitung in Germany, Le Monde in France and many other European papers. The Guardian_sentence_280

At 470×315 mm, this is slightly larger than a traditional tabloid. The Guardian_sentence_281

Planned for the autumn of 2005, this change followed moves by The Independent and The Times to start publishing in tabloid (or compact) format. The Guardian_sentence_282

On Thursday, 1 September 2005, The Guardian announced that it would launch the new format on Monday 12 September 2005. The Guardian_sentence_283

Sister Sunday newspaper The Observer also changed to this new format on 8 January 2006. The Guardian_sentence_284

The advantage The Guardian saw in the Berliner format was that, though it is only a little wider than a tabloid, and is equally easy to read on public transport, its greater height gives more flexibility in page design. The Guardian_sentence_285

The new presses mean that printing can go across the strip down the middle of the centre page, known as the "gutter", allowing the paper to print full double-page pictures. The Guardian_sentence_286

The new presses also made it the first UK national paper to print in full colour on every page. The Guardian_sentence_287

The format switch was accompanied by a comprehensive redesign of the paper's look. The Guardian_sentence_288

On Friday, 9 September 2005, the newspaper unveiled its newly designed front page, which débuted on Monday 12 September 2005. The Guardian_sentence_289

Designed by Mark Porter, the new look includes a new masthead for the newspaper, its first since 1988. The Guardian_sentence_290

A typeface family designed by Paul Barnes and Christian Schwartz was created for the new design. The Guardian_sentence_291

With just over 200 fonts, it was described as "one of the most ambitious custom type programs ever commissioned by a newspaper". The Guardian_sentence_292

Among the fonts is Guardian Egyptian, a slab serif that is used in various weights for both text and headlines, and is central to the redesign. The Guardian_sentence_293

The switch cost Guardian Newspapers £80 million and involved setting up new printing presses in east London and Manchester. The Guardian_sentence_294

This switch was necessary because, before The Guardian's move, no printing presses in Britain could produce newspapers in the Berliner format. The Guardian_sentence_295

There were additional complications, as one of the paper's presses was part-owned by Telegraph Newspapers and Express Newspapers, contracted to use the plant until 2009. The Guardian_sentence_296

Another press was shared with the Guardian Media Group's north-western tabloid local papers, which did not wish to switch to the Berliner format. The Guardian_sentence_297

Reception The Guardian_section_31

The new format was generally well received by Guardian readers, who were encouraged to provide feedback on the changes. The Guardian_sentence_298

The only controversy was over the dropping of the Doonesbury cartoon strip. The Guardian_sentence_299

The paper reported thousands of calls and emails complaining about its loss; within 24 hours the decision was reversed and the strip was reinstated the following week. The Guardian_sentence_300

G2 supplement editor Ian Katz, who was responsible for dropping it, apologised in the editors' blog saying, "I'm sorry, once again, that I made you—and the hundreds of fellow fans who have called our helpline or mailed our comments' address—so cross." The Guardian_sentence_301

However, some readers were dissatisfied as the earlier deadline needed for the all-colour sports section meant coverage of late-finishing evening football matches became less satisfactory in the editions supplied to some parts of the country. The Guardian_sentence_302

The investment was rewarded with a circulation rise. The Guardian_sentence_303

In December 2005, the average daily sale stood at 380,693, nearly 6 per cent higher than the figure for December 2004. The Guardian_sentence_304

(However, as of December 2012, circulation had dropped to 204,222.) The Guardian_sentence_305

In 2006, the US-based Society for News Design chose The Guardian and Polish daily Rzeczpospolita as the world's best-designed newspapers—from among 389 entries from 44 countries. The Guardian_sentence_306

Tabloid format since 2018 The Guardian_section_32

In June 2017, Guardian Media Group (GMG) announced that The Guardian and The Observer would relaunch in tabloid format from early 2018. The Guardian_sentence_307

The Guardian confirmed the launch date for the new format to be 15 January 2018. The Guardian_sentence_308

GMG also signed a contract with Trinity Mirror – the publisher of the Daily Mirror, Sunday Mirror, and Sunday People – to outsource printing of The Guardian and The Observer. The Guardian_sentence_309

The format change is intended to help cut costs as it allows the paper to be printed by a wider array of presses, and outsourcing the printing to presses owned by Trinity Mirror is expected to save millions of pounds annually. The Guardian_sentence_310

The move is part of a three-year plan that includes cutting 300 jobs in an attempt to reduce losses and break even by 2019. The Guardian_sentence_311

The paper and ink are the same as previously and the font size is fractionally larger. The Guardian_sentence_312

An assessment of the response from readers in late April 2018 indicated that the new format had led to an increased number of subscriptions. The Guardian_sentence_313

The editors were working on changing aspects that had caused complaints from readers. The Guardian_sentence_314

In July 2018, the masthead of the new tabloid format was adjusted to a dark blue. The Guardian_sentence_315

Regular content and features The Guardian_section_33

Online media The Guardian_section_34

Main article: The Guardian_sentence_316

The Guardian and its Sunday sibling The Observer publish all their news online, with free access both to current news and an archive of three million stories. The Guardian_sentence_317

A third of the site's hits are for items over a month old. The Guardian_sentence_318

As of May 2013, it was the most popular UK newspaper website with 8.2 million unique visitors per month, just ahead of Mail Online with 7.6 million unique monthly visitors. The Guardian_sentence_319

In April 2011, MediaWeek reported that The Guardian was the fifth most popular newspaper site in the world. The Guardian_sentence_320

Journalists use an analytics tool called Ophan, built entire in-house, to measure website data around stories and audience. The Guardian_sentence_321

The Guardian launched an iOS mobile application for its content in 2009. The Guardian_sentence_322

An Android app followed in 2011. The Guardian_sentence_323

In 2018, the newspaper announced its apps and mobile website would be redesigned to coincide with its relaunch as a tabloid. The Guardian_sentence_324

The Comment is Free section features columns by the paper's journalists and regular commentators, as well as articles from guest writers, including readers' comments and responses below. The Guardian_sentence_325

The section includes all the opinion pieces published in the paper itself, as well as many others that only appear online. The Guardian_sentence_326

Censorship is exercised by Moderators who can ban posts – with no right of appeal – by those who they feel have overstepped the mark. The Guardian_sentence_327

The Guardian has taken what they call a very "open" stance in delivering news, and have launched an open platform for their content. The Guardian_sentence_328

This allows external developers to easily use Guardian content in external applications, and even to feed third-party content back into the Guardian network. The Guardian_sentence_329

The Guardian also had a number of talkboards that were noted for their mix of political discussion and whimsy until they were closed on Friday, 25 February 2011 after they had settled a libel action brought after months of harassment of a conservative party activist. The Guardian_sentence_330

They were spoofed in The Guardian's own regular humorous Chatroom column in G2. The Guardian_sentence_331

The spoof column purported to be excerpts from a chatroom on, a real URL that pointed to The Guardian's talkboards. The Guardian_sentence_332

In August 2013, a webshow titled Thinkfluencer was launched by Guardian Multimedia in association with Arte. The Guardian_sentence_333

In 2004 the paper also launched a dating website, Guardian Soulmates; this is to close at the end of June 2020. The Guardian_sentence_334

Podcasts The Guardian_section_35

The paper entered podcasting in 2005 with a twelve-part weekly podcast series by Ricky Gervais. The Guardian_sentence_335

In January 2006, Gervais' show topped the iTunes podcast chart having been downloaded by two million listeners worldwide, and was scheduled to be listed in the 2007 Guinness Book of Records as the most downloaded podcast. The Guardian_sentence_336

The Guardian now offers several regular podcasts made by its journalists. The Guardian_sentence_337

One of the most prominent is Today in Focus, a daily news podcast hosted by Anushka Asthana and launched on 1 November 2018. The Guardian_sentence_338

It was an immediate success and became one of the UK's most-downloaded podcasts. The Guardian_sentence_339

GuardianFilms The Guardian_section_36

In 2003, The Guardian started the film production company GuardianFilms, headed by journalist Maggie O'Kane. The Guardian_sentence_340

Much of the company's output is documentary made for television– and it has included Salam Pax's Baghdad Blogger for BBC Two's daily flagship Newsnight, some of which have been shown in compilations by CNN International, Sex on the Streets and Spiked, both made for the UK's Channel 4 television. The Guardian_sentence_341

GuardianFilms has received several broadcasting awards. The Guardian_sentence_342

In addition to two Amnesty International Media Awards in 2004 and 2005, The Baghdad Blogger: Salam Pax won a Royal Television Society Award in 2005. The Guardian_sentence_343

Baghdad: A Doctor's Story won an Emmy Award for Best International Current Affairs film in 2007. The Guardian_sentence_344

In 2008, photojournalist Sean Smith's Inside the Surge won the Royal Television Society award for best international news film – the first time a newspaper has won such an award. The Guardian_sentence_345

The same year, The Guardian's Katine website was awarded for its outstanding new media output at the One World Media awards. The Guardian_sentence_346

Again in 2008, GuardianFilms' undercover video report revealing vote rigging by Robert Mugabe's Zanu PF party during the 2007 Zimbabwe election won best news programme of the year at the Broadcast Awards. The Guardian_sentence_347

References in popular culture The Guardian_section_37

The paper's nickname The Grauniad (sometimes abbreviated as "Graun") originated with the satirical magazine Private Eye. The Guardian_sentence_348

This anagram played on The Guardian's early reputation for frequent typographical errors, including misspelling its own name as The Gaurdian. The Guardian_sentence_349

The first issue of the newspaper contained a number of errors, including a notification that there would soon be some goods sold at atction instead of auction. The Guardian_sentence_350

Fewer typographical errors are seen in the paper since the end of hot-metal typesetting. The Guardian_sentence_351

One Guardian writer, Keith Devlin, suggested that the high number of observed misprints was due more to the quality of the readership than the misprints' greater frequency. The Guardian_sentence_352

The fact that the newspaper was printed in Manchester until 1961 and the early, more error-prone, prints were sent to London by train may have contributed to this image as well. The Guardian_sentence_353

When John Cole was appointed news editor by Alastair Hetherington in 1963, he sharpened the paper's comparatively "amateurish" setup. The Guardian_sentence_354

Awards The Guardian_section_38

Received The Guardian_section_39

Given The Guardian_section_40

The Guardian is the sponsor of two major literary awards: The Guardian First Book Award, established in 1999 as a successor to the Guardian Fiction Award, which had run since 1965, and the Guardian Children's Fiction Prize, founded in 1967. The Guardian_sentence_355

In recent years the newspaper has also sponsored the Hay Festival in Hay-on-Wye. The Guardian_sentence_356

The annual Guardian Student Media Awards, founded in 1999, recognise excellence in journalism and design of British university and college student newspapers, magazines and websites. The Guardian_sentence_357

In memory of Paul Foot, who died in 2004, The Guardian and Private Eye jointly set up the Paul Foot Award, with an annual £10,000 prize fund, for investigative or campaigning journalism. The Guardian_sentence_358

The newspaper produces The Guardian 100 Best Footballers In The World. The Guardian_sentence_359

Since 2018 it has also co-produced the female equivalent, The 100 Best Female Footballers In The World. The Guardian_sentence_360

In 2016, The Guardian began awarding an annual Footballer of the Year award, given to a footballer regardless of gender "who has done something truly remarkable, whether by overcoming adversity, helping others or setting a sporting example by acting with exceptional honesty." The Guardian_sentence_361

Best books lists The Guardian_section_41

The Guardian_unordered_list_0

  • The Guardian's 100 best novels is a list of the best English-language novels as selected by Robert McCrum.The Guardian_item_0_0
  • The Guardian's 100 greatest non-fiction book list has come out in 2011 and in 2017, as selected by Robert McCrum.The Guardian_item_0_1

Editors The Guardian_section_42

The Guardian_unordered_list_1

Notable regular contributors (past and present) The Guardian_section_43

The Guardian_description_list_2

The Guardian_unordered_list_3

The Guardian_description_list_4

The Guardian_unordered_list_5

The Guardian_description_list_6

The Guardian_unordered_list_7

The Guardian_description_list_8

The Guardian_unordered_list_9

  • Herbert Walter Doughty (The Manchester Guardian's first photographer, July 1908)The Guardian_item_9_36
  • Eamonn McCabeThe Guardian_item_9_37
  • Sean SmithThe Guardian_item_9_38

Guardian News & Media archive The Guardian_section_44

See also The Guardian_section_45

The Guardian_unordered_list_10

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Guardian.