The Haçienda

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For other uses, see Hacienda (disambiguation). The Haçienda_sentence_0

The Haçienda_table_infobox_0

The HaçiendaThe Haçienda_table_caption_0
AddressThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_0_0 Whitworth Street West

Manchester EnglandThe Haçienda_cell_0_0_1

OwnerThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_1_0 Factory Records

New OrderThe Haçienda_cell_0_1_1

ConstructionThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_2_0
OpenedThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_3_0 21 May 1982The Haçienda_cell_0_3_1
ClosedThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_4_0 28 June 1997The Haçienda_cell_0_4_1
DemolishedThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_5_0 2002The Haçienda_cell_0_5_1
ArchitectThe Haçienda_header_cell_0_6_0 Ben Kelly (interior)The Haçienda_cell_0_6_1

The Haçienda was a nightclub and music venue in Manchester, North West England, which became famous during the Madchester years of the 1980s and early 1990s. The Haçienda_sentence_1

Post-punk, Haçienda opened in 1982 unleashing the Manchester house and rave scene, which New Order's early success with Blue Monday, helped to subsidise. The Haçienda_sentence_2

Content with Indy status, Factory Records, sponsored much of the rave scene, to the extent that its subculture (viz. MDMA) was noted by the Chief Constables of Merseyside & Greater Manchester as reducing football hooliganism. The Haçienda_sentence_3

Creation The Haçienda_section_0

The former warehouse occupied by the club was at 11–13, Whitworth Street West on the south side of the Rochdale Canal: the frontage was curved and built of red Accrington brick. The Haçienda_sentence_4

Before it was turned into a club, The Haçienda was a yacht builder's shop and warehouse. The Haçienda_sentence_5

Originally conceived by Rob Gretton, it was largely financed by the record label Factory Records and the band New Order along with label boss Tony Wilson. The Haçienda_sentence_6

It was on the corner of Whitworth Street West and Albion Street, close to Castlefield, in the centre of the city. The Haçienda_sentence_7

FAC 51 was its official designation in the Factory catalogue. The Haçienda_sentence_8

New Order and Tony Wilson were directors of the club. The Haçienda_sentence_9

Designed by Ben Kelly, upon recommendation by Factory graphic designer Peter Saville, upstairs consisted of a stage, dance area, bar, cloakroom, cafeteria area and balcony with a DJ booth. The Haçienda_sentence_10

Downstairs was a cocktail bar called The Gay Traitor, which referred to Anthony Blunt, a British art historian who spied for the Soviet Union. The Haçienda_sentence_11

The two other bars, The Kim Philby and Hicks, were named after Blunt's fellow spies. The Haçienda_sentence_12

From 1995 onwards, the lower cellar areas of the venue were converted to create the 5th Man, a smaller music venue. The Haçienda_sentence_13

The Sound & Lighting design & installation for the Hacienda was done by Eddie Akka from Akwil Ltd. The Haçienda_sentence_14

Name The Haçienda_section_1

The name comes from a slogan of the radical group Situationist International: "The Hacienda Must Be Built", from Formulary for a New Urbanism by Ivan Chtcheglov. The Haçienda_sentence_15

A hacienda is a large homestead in a ranch or estate usually in places where Colonial Spanish culture has had architectural influence. The Haçienda_sentence_16

Even though the cedilla is not used in Spanish, the spelling "Haçienda" was decided on for the club because the cedilla makes the "çi" resemble "51", the club's catalogue number. The Haçienda_sentence_17

History The Haçienda_section_2

The Haçienda was opened on 21 May 1982, when the comedian Bernard Manning remarked to the audience, "I've played some shit-holes during my time, but this is really something." The Haçienda_sentence_18

His jokes did not go down well with the crowd and he returned his fee. The Haçienda_sentence_19

A wide range of musical acts appeared at the club. The Haçienda_sentence_20

One of the earliest was the German EBM band Liaisons Dangereuses, which played there on 7 July 1982. The Haçienda_sentence_21

The Smiths performed there three times in 1983. The Haçienda_sentence_22

It served as a venue for Madonna on her first performance in the United Kingdom, on 27 January 1984. The Haçienda_sentence_23

She was invited to appear as part of a one-off, live television broadcast by Channel 4 music programme The Tube with then-resident Haçienda DJ Greg Wilson live mixing on the show. The Haçienda_sentence_24

Madonna performed "Holiday" whilst at The Haçienda and the performance was described by Norman Cook (better known as Fatboy Slim) as one that "mesmerised the crowd". The Haçienda_sentence_25

At one time, the venue also included a hairdressing salon. The Haçienda_sentence_26

As well as club nights there were regular concerts, including one in which Einstürzende Neubauten drilled into the walls that surrounded the stage. The Haçienda_sentence_27

In 1986, it became one of the first British clubs to start playing house music, with DJs Hewan Clarke, Greg Wilson and later Mike Pickering (of Quando Quango and M People) and Little Martin (later with Graeme Park) hosting the visionary "Nude" night on Fridays. The Haçienda_sentence_28

This night quickly became legendary, and helped to turn around the reputation and fortunes of The Haçienda, which went from making a consistent loss to being full every night of the week by early 1987. The Haçienda_sentence_29

Acid house and rave The Haçienda_section_3

The growth of the 'Madchester' scene had little to do with the healthy house music scene in Manchester at the time but it was boosted by the success of The Haçienda's pioneering Ibiza night, "Hot", an acid house night hosted by Pickering and Jon DaSilva in July 1988. The Haçienda_sentence_30

However, drug use became a problem. The Haçienda_sentence_31

On 14 July 1989, the UK's first ecstasy-related death occurred at the club; 16-year-old Clare Leighton collapsed and died after her boyfriend gave her an ecstasy tablet. The Haçienda_sentence_32

The police clampdown that followed was opposed by Manchester City Council, which argued that the club contributed to an "active use of the city centre core" in line with the government's policy of regenerating urban areas. The Haçienda_sentence_33

The resulting problems caused the club to close for a short period in early 1991, before reopening with increased security later the same year. The Haçienda_sentence_34

Haçienda DJs made regular and guest appearances on radio and TV shows like Granada TV's Juice, Sunset 102 and BBC Radio 1. The Haçienda_sentence_35

Between 1994 and 1997 Hacienda FM was a weekly show on Manchester dance station Kiss 102. The Haçienda_sentence_36

Security was frequently a problem, particularly in the club's latter years. The Haçienda_sentence_37

There were several shootings inside and outside the club, and relations with the police and licensing authorities became troubled. The Haçienda_sentence_38

When local magistrates and police visited the club in 1997, they witnessed a near-fatal assault on a man in the streets outside when 18-year-old Andrew Delahunty was hit over the head from behind with what looked like a metal bar before being pushed into the path of an on-coming car. The Haçienda_sentence_39

Although security failures at the club were one of the contributing factors to the club eventually closing, the most likely cause was its finances. The Haçienda_sentence_40

The club simply did not make enough money from the sale of alcohol, and this was mainly because many patrons instead turned to drug use. The Haçienda_sentence_41

As a result, the club rarely broke even as alcohol sales are the main source of income for nightclubs. The Haçienda_sentence_42

Ultimately, the club's long-term future was crippled and, with spiralling debts, The Haçienda eventually closed definitively in the summer of 1997. The Haçienda_sentence_43

Peter Hook stated in 2009 that The Haçienda lost up to £18 million in its latter years. The Haçienda_sentence_44

Legacy The Haçienda_section_4

The Haçienda lost its entertainments licence in June 1997. The Haçienda_sentence_45

The last night of the club was 28 June 1997, a club night called "Freak" featuring Elliot Eastwick and Dave Haslam (the final live performance was by Spiritualized on 15 June 1997). The Haçienda_sentence_46

The club remained open for a short period as an art gallery before finally going bankrupt and closing for good. The Haçienda_sentence_47

After The Haçienda officially closed, it was used as a venue for two free parties organised by the Manchester free party scene. The Haçienda_sentence_48

One of the parties ended in a police siege of the building while the party continued inside. The Haçienda_sentence_49

These parties resulted in considerable damage and the application of graffiti to the Ben Kelly-designed interior. The Haçienda_sentence_50

Following a number of years standing empty, the Whitworth Street West site was purchased from the receivers by Crosby Homes. The Haçienda_sentence_51

They chose to demolish the nightclub, and reuse the site for the construction of domestic flats. The Haçienda_sentence_52

The old name was kept for the new development, with The Haçienda name licensed from Peter Hook, who owns the name and trademark. The Haçienda_sentence_53

The nightclub was demolished in 2002—Crosby Homes had acquired the property some time before that and, on Saturday 25 November 2000, held a charity auction of the various fixtures and fittings from the nightclub. The Haçienda_sentence_54

Clubgoers and enthusiasts from across the country attended to buy memorabilia ranging from the DJ booth box and radiators to emergency exit lights. The Haçienda_sentence_55

The DJ booth was bought by Bobby Langley, ex-Haçienda DJ and Head of Merchandise for Sony Music London for an undisclosed fee. The Haçienda_sentence_56

Crosby Homes were widely criticised for using The Haçienda brand name—and featuring the strapline "Now the party's can come home" in the promotional material. The Haçienda_sentence_57

Another controversial feature of the branding campaign was the appropriation of many of the themes which ran through the original building. The Haçienda_sentence_58

One of these was the yellow and black hazard stripe motif which was a powerful element in the club's original design, featuring as it did on the club's dominant supporting pillars and later in much of the club's literature and flyers. The Haçienda_sentence_59

Michael Winterbottom's 2002 film 24 Hour Party People starring Steve Coogan as Tony Wilson, tells the story of The Haçienda. The Haçienda_sentence_60

The film was shot in 2001, and required reconstructing The Haçienda as a temporary set in a Manchester factory, which was then opened to ticket holders for a night, acting as a full-scale nightclub (except with free bar) as the film shooting took place. The Haçienda_sentence_61

The Manchester exhibition centre Urbis hosted an exhibition celebrating the 25th anniversary of the club's opening, which ran from mid-July 2007 until mid-February 2008. The Haçienda_sentence_62

Peter Hook and many other of those originally involved contributed or loaned material. The Haçienda_sentence_63

The Manchester Museum of Science and Industry now holds a variety of Haçienda and Factory records artefacts, including the main loading bay doors from the club, and a wide array of posters, fliers and props. The Haçienda_sentence_64

Rob Gretton bequeathed his collection of Haçienda memorabilia to the museum. The Haçienda_sentence_65

In October 2009, Peter Hook published his book on his time as co-owner of The Haçienda, How Not to Run a Club. The Haçienda_sentence_66

In 2010, Peter Hook had six bass guitars made using wood from The Haçienda's dancefloor. The Haçienda_sentence_67

The fret boards have been made from dancefloor planks, so they have "stiletto marks and cigarette burns". The Haçienda_sentence_68

See also The Haçienda_section_5

The Haçienda_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Haçienda.