The Lancet

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This article is about the journal. The Lancet_sentence_0

For other uses, see Lancet. The Lancet_sentence_1

The Lancet_table_infobox_0

The LancetThe Lancet_table_caption_0
DisciplineThe Lancet_header_cell_0_0_0 MedicineThe Lancet_cell_0_0_1
LanguageThe Lancet_header_cell_0_1_0 EnglishThe Lancet_cell_0_1_1
Edited byThe Lancet_header_cell_0_2_0 Richard HortonThe Lancet_cell_0_2_1
Publication detailsThe Lancet_header_cell_0_3_0
HistoryThe Lancet_header_cell_0_4_0 1823–presentThe Lancet_cell_0_4_1
PublisherThe Lancet_header_cell_0_5_0 ElsevierThe Lancet_cell_0_5_1
FrequencyThe Lancet_header_cell_0_6_0 WeeklyThe Lancet_cell_0_6_1
Open accessThe Lancet_header_cell_0_7_0 DelayedThe Lancet_cell_0_7_1
Impact factorThe Lancet_header_cell_0_8_0 59.102 (2018)The Lancet_cell_0_8_1
Standard abbreviations
() · Bluebook ( · )
() ·  ( )The Lancet_header_cell_0_9_0
ISO 4The Lancet_header_cell_0_10_0 LancetThe Lancet_cell_0_10_1

 · () · ()  · () ·The Lancet_header_cell_0_11_0

CODENThe Lancet_header_cell_0_12_0 LANCAOThe Lancet_cell_0_12_1
ISSNThe Lancet_header_cell_0_13_0 (print)

 (web)The Lancet_cell_0_13_1

LCCNThe Lancet_header_cell_0_14_0 The Lancet_cell_0_14_1
OCLC no.The Lancet_header_cell_0_15_0 The Lancet_cell_0_15_1
LinksThe Lancet_header_cell_0_16_0

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. The Lancet_sentence_2

It is among the world's oldest and best-known general medical journals. The Lancet_sentence_3

It was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet (scalpel), as well as after the architectural term lancet window, a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light". The Lancet_sentence_4

The journal publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet_sentence_5

The Lancet has been owned by Elsevier since 1991, and its editor-in-chief since 1995 is Richard Horton. The Lancet_sentence_6

The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing. The Lancet_sentence_7

Impact The Lancet_section_0

According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2018 impact factor of 59.102, ranking it second after The New England Journal of Medicine in the category "Medicine, General & Internal". The Lancet_sentence_8

Specialty journals The Lancet_section_1

The Lancet also publishes several specialty journals: The Lancet Neurology (neurology), The Lancet Oncology (oncology), The Lancet Infectious Diseases (infectious diseases), The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (respiratory medicine), The Lancet Psychiatry (psychiatry), The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology (endocrinology), and The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Gastroenterology) all of which publish original research and reviews. The Lancet_sentence_9

In 2013, The Lancet Global Health (global health) became the group's first fully open access journal. The Lancet_sentence_10

In 2014, The Lancet Haematology (haematology) and The Lancet HIV (infectious diseases) were launched, both as online only research titles. The Lancet_sentence_11

The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health (paediatrics) launched in 2017. The Lancet_sentence_12

The three established speciality journals (The Lancet Neurology, The Lancet Oncology, and The Lancet Infectious Diseases) have built up strong reputations in their medical speciality. The Lancet_sentence_13

According to the Journal Citation Reports, The Lancet Oncology has a 2017 impact factor of 36.421, The Lancet Neurology has 27.144, and The Lancet Infectious Diseases has 25.148. The Lancet_sentence_14

There is also an online website for students entitled The Lancet Student in blog format, launched in 2007. The Lancet_sentence_15

Volume renumbering The Lancet_section_2

Prior to 1990, The Lancet had volume numbering that reset every year. The Lancet_sentence_16

Issues in January to June were in volume i, with the rest in volume ii. The Lancet_sentence_17

In 1990, the journal moved to a sequential volume numbering scheme, with two volumes per year. The Lancet_sentence_18

Volumes were retro-actively assigned to the years prior to 1990, with the first issue of 1990 being assigned volume 335, and the last issue of 1989 assigned volume 334. The Lancet_sentence_19

The table of contents listing on ScienceDirect uses this new numbering scheme. The Lancet_sentence_20

Political controversies The Lancet_section_3

The Lancet has taken a political stand on several important medical and non-medical issues. The Lancet_sentence_21

Recent examples include criticism of the World Health Organization (WHO), rejection of the WHO's claims of the efficacy of homoeopathy as a therapeutic option, disapproval during the time Reed Exhibitions (a division of Reed Elsevier) hosted arms industry fairs, a call in 2003 for tobacco to be made illegal, and a call for an independent investigation into the American bombing of a hospital in Afghanistan in 2015. The Lancet_sentence_22

Tobacco ban proposal (2003) The Lancet_section_4

A December 2003 editorial by the journal, titled "How do you sleep at night, Mr Blair? The Lancet_sentence_23

", called for tobacco use to be completely banned in the UK. The Lancet_sentence_24

The Royal College of Physicians rejected their argument. The Lancet_sentence_25

John Britton, chairman of the college's tobacco advisory group, praised the journal for discussing the health problem, but he concluded that a "ban on tobacco would be a nightmare." The Lancet_sentence_26

Amanda Sandford, spokesperson for the anti-tobacco group Action on Smoking and Health, stated that criminalising a behaviour 26% of the population commit "is ludicrous." The Lancet_sentence_27

She also said: "We can't turn the clock back. The Lancet_sentence_28

If tobacco were banned we would have 13 million people desperately craving a drug that they would not be able to get." The Lancet_sentence_29

The deputy editor of The Lancet responded to the criticism by arguing that no other measures besides a total ban would likely be able to reduce tobacco use. The Lancet_sentence_30

The smokers rights group FOREST stated that the editorial gave them "amusement and disbelief". The Lancet_sentence_31

Director Simon Clark called the journal "fascist" and argued that it is hypocritical to ban tobacco while allowing unhealthy junk foods, alcohol consumption, and participation in extreme sports. The Lancet_sentence_32

Health Secretary John Reid reiterated that his government was committed to helping people give up smoking. The Lancet_sentence_33

He added: "Despite the fact that this is a serious problem, it is a little bit extreme for us in Britain to start locking people up because they have an ounce of tobacco somewhere." The Lancet_sentence_34

Iraq War death toll estimates The Lancet_section_5

Main article: Lancet surveys of Iraq War casualties The Lancet_sentence_35

The Lancet also published an estimate of the Iraq War's Iraqi death toll—around 100,000—in 2004. The Lancet_sentence_36

In 2006, a follow-up study by the same team suggested that the violent death rate in Iraq was not only consistent with the earlier estimate, but had increased considerably in the intervening period (see Lancet surveys of casualties of the Iraq War). The Lancet_sentence_37

The second survey estimated that there had been 654,965 excess Iraqi deaths as a consequence of the war. The Lancet_sentence_38

The 95% confidence interval was 392,979 to 942,636. The Lancet_sentence_39

1,849 households that contained 12,801 people were surveyed. The Lancet_sentence_40

The estimates provided in the second article are much higher than those published in other surveys from the same time. The Lancet_sentence_41

Most notably, the "Iraq Family Health Survey" published in the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed 9,345 households across Iraq and estimated 151,000 deaths due to violence (95% uncertainty range, 104,000 to 223,000) over the same period covered in the second Lancet survey by Burnham et al. The Lancet_sentence_42

The NEJM article stated that the second Lancet survey "considerably overestimated the number of violent deaths" and said the Lancet results were "highly improbable, given the internal and external consistency of the data and the much larger sample size and quality-control measures taken in the implementation of the IFHS." The Lancet_sentence_43

Open Letter for the People of Gaza (2014) The Lancet_section_6

In August 2014 and during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, The Lancet published an "Open letter for the people of Gaza" in their correspondence section. The Lancet_sentence_44

As reported in The Daily Telegraph, the letter "condemned Israel in the strongest possible terms, but strikingly made no mention of Hamas' atrocities." The Lancet_sentence_45

According to Haaretz, the authors of the letter include doctors who "are apparently sympathetic to the views of David Duke, a white supremacist and former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard." The Lancet_sentence_46

One of the doctors responded by saying: "I legitimately use my right of freedom of opinion and do not agree or value the politics of the government of Israel, nor of many others, including Jews in and out of Israel." The Lancet_sentence_47

A second one responded with: "I didn't know who David Duke was, or that he was connected to the Ku Klux Klan. The Lancet_sentence_48

I am concerned that if there is any truth in the video, that Jews control the media, politics and banking, what on earth is going on? The Lancet_sentence_49

I was worried." The Lancet_sentence_50

The editor of The Lancet, Richard Horton, said: "I have no plans to retract the letter, and I would not retract the letter even if it was found to be substantiated." The Lancet_sentence_51

However, Horton subsequently came to Israel's Rambam Hospital for a visit and said that he "deeply, deeply regret[ted] the completely unnecessary polarization that publication of the letter by Paola Manduca caused." The Lancet_sentence_52

Mark Pepys, a member of the Jewish Medical Association, wrote: “The failure of the Manduca et al. The Lancet_sentence_53

authors to disclose their extraordinary conflicts of interest... are the most serious, unprofessional and unethical errors. The Lancet_sentence_54

The transparent effort to conceal this vicious and substantially mendacious partisan political diatribe as an innocent humanitarian appeal has no place in any serious publication, let alone a professional medical journal, and would disgrace even the lowest of the gutter press." The Lancet_sentence_55

In addition, Pepys accused Richard Horton personally, saying: "Horton's behavior in this case is consistent with his longstanding and wholly inappropriate use of The Lancet as a vehicle for his own extreme political views. The Lancet_sentence_56

It has greatly detracted from the former high standing of the journal." The Lancet_sentence_57

In response, Horton said: "How can you separate politics and health? The Lancet_sentence_58

The two go hand-in-hand." The Lancet_sentence_59

Comments on the Trump administration (2020) The Lancet_section_7

On 16 May 2020, the journal published an article on the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that, amongst other things, faulted the Trump administration for its July 2019 termination of a CDC programme under which the CDC stationed officers in China, ostensibly to serve as a distant early warning system. The Lancet_sentence_60

The writers opined that CDC director Robert R. Redfield was frightened of Trump and in any case had not "the technical capacity to lead today's complicated effort." The Lancet_sentence_61

The article concluded with a call to the American people to elect someone other than Trump in November 2020. The Lancet_sentence_62

Retracted papers and scientific controversies The Lancet_section_8

Andrew Wakefield and the MMR vaccine (1998) The Lancet_section_9

Main article: Lancet MMR autism fraud The Lancet_sentence_63

The Lancet was criticised after it published a paper in 1998 in which the authors suggested a link between the MMR vaccine and autism spectrum disorder. The Lancet_sentence_64

In February 2004, The Lancet published a statement by 10 of the paper's 13 coauthors repudiating the possibility that MMR could cause autism. The Lancet_sentence_65

The editor-in-chief, Richard Horton, went on the record to say the paper had "fatal conflicts of interest" because the study's lead author, Andrew Wakefield, had a serious conflict of interest that he had not declared to The Lancet. The Lancet_sentence_66

The journal completely retracted the paper on 2 February 2010, after Wakefield was found to have acted unethically in conducting the research. The Lancet_sentence_67

The Lancet's six editors, including the editor-in-chief, were also criticised in 2011 because they had "covered up" the "Wakefield concocted fear of MMR" with an "avalanche of denials" in 2004. The Lancet_sentence_68

Fabricated article withdrawn (2006) The Lancet_section_10

In January 2006, it was revealed that data had been fabricated in an article by the Norwegian cancer researcher Jon Sudbø and 13 co-authors published in The Lancet in October 2005. The Lancet_sentence_69

Several articles in other scientific journals were withdrawn following the withdrawal in The Lancet. The Lancet_sentence_70

Within a week, The New England Journal of Medicine published an expression of editorial concern regarding its published research papers by the same author, and in November 2006, the journal withdrew two oral cancer studies led by the Norwegian researcher. The Lancet_sentence_71

PACE study (2011) The Lancet_section_11

In 2011, The Lancet published a study by the UK-based "PACE trial management group", which reported success with graded exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome; a follow-up study was published in Lancet Psychiatry in 2015. The Lancet_sentence_72

The studies attracted criticism from some patients and researchers, especially with regard to data analysis that was different from that described in the original protocol. The Lancet_sentence_73

In a 2015 Slate article, biostatistician Bruce Levin of Columbia University was quoted saying "The Lancet needs to stop circling the wagons and be open", and that "one of the tenets of good science is transparency"; while Ronald Davis of Stanford University said: "the Lancet should step up to the plate and pull that paper". The Lancet_sentence_74

Horton defended The Lancet's publication of the trial and called the critics: "a fairly small, but highly organized, very vocal and very damaging group of individuals who have, I would say, actually hijacked this agenda and distorted the debate so that it actually harms the overwhelming majority of patients." The Lancet_sentence_75

Starting in 2011, critics of the studies filed Freedom of Information Act requests to get access to the authors' primary data, in order to learn what the trial's results would have been under the original protocol. The Lancet_sentence_76

In 2016, some of the data was released, which allowed calculation of results based on the original protocol and found that additional treatment led to no significant improvement in recovery rates over the control condition. The Lancet_sentence_77

Study on hydroxychloroquine (2020) The Lancet_section_12

On 22 May 2020, The Lancet published an article by Mehra et al., "Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis". The Lancet_sentence_78

This study, based on retrospective observational review of 96,032 patients from 671 hospitals between 20 December 2019 and 14 April 2020, had an immediate impact; the WHO decided to stop all the clinical trials on hydroxychloroquine. The Lancet_sentence_79

On 26 May 2020, Australian researchers found an error: only 67 deaths from COVID-19 had been recorded in Australia by 21 April, where the study claims 73. The Lancet_sentence_80

The Lancet told Guardian Australia, "We have asked the authors for clarifications, we know that they are investigating urgently, and we await their reply." The Lancet_sentence_81

Surgisphere's Sapan Desai said a hospital from Asia had accidentally been included in the Australian data. The Lancet_sentence_82

On 28 May some 180 researchers and doctors from various countries published An open letter to Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet, regarding Mehra et al. The Lancet_sentence_83

The following day, The Lancet published a corrected version. The Lancet_sentence_84

According to the authors, the corrections did not change the overall findings of no benefit. The Lancet_sentence_85

However, on 2 June 2020, The Lancet published an "Expression of Concern" and began an independent audit commissioned by the authors. The Lancet_sentence_86

On 3 June 2020, the WHO announced that clinical trials of Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine will be continued. The Lancet_sentence_87

The following day, three of the four authors retracted the paper, and The Lancet published a retraction of the study. The Lancet_sentence_88

List of editors The Lancet_section_13

The following persons have been editors-in-chief of the journal: The Lancet_sentence_89

See also The Lancet_section_14

The Lancet_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Lancet.