The Matrix

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the 1999 film. The Matrix_sentence_0

For the franchise it initiated, see The Matrix (franchise). The Matrix_sentence_1

For other uses, see Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_2

The Matrix_table_infobox_0

The MatrixThe Matrix_header_cell_0_0_0
Directed byThe Matrix_header_cell_0_1_0 The WachowskisThe Matrix_cell_0_1_1
Produced byThe Matrix_header_cell_0_2_0 Joel SilverThe Matrix_cell_0_2_1
Written byThe Matrix_header_cell_0_3_0 The WachowskisThe Matrix_cell_0_3_1
StarringThe Matrix_header_cell_0_4_0 The Matrix_cell_0_4_1
Music byThe Matrix_header_cell_0_5_0 Don DavisThe Matrix_cell_0_5_1
CinematographyThe Matrix_header_cell_0_6_0 Bill PopeThe Matrix_cell_0_6_1
Edited byThe Matrix_header_cell_0_7_0 Zach StaenbergThe Matrix_cell_0_7_1

companiesThe Matrix_header_cell_0_8_0

The Matrix_cell_0_8_1
Distributed byThe Matrix_header_cell_0_9_0 The Matrix_cell_0_9_1
Release dateThe Matrix_header_cell_0_10_0 The Matrix_cell_0_10_1
Running timeThe Matrix_header_cell_0_11_0 136 minutesThe Matrix_cell_0_11_1
CountryThe Matrix_header_cell_0_12_0 The Matrix_cell_0_12_1
LanguageThe Matrix_header_cell_0_13_0 EnglishThe Matrix_cell_0_13_1
BudgetThe Matrix_header_cell_0_14_0 $63 millionThe Matrix_cell_0_14_1
Box officeThe Matrix_header_cell_0_15_0 $465.3 millionThe Matrix_cell_0_15_1

The Matrix is a 1999 American science fiction action film written and directed by the Wachowskis, and produced by Joel Silver. The Matrix_sentence_3

It stars Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano and is the first installment in the Matrix franchise. The Matrix_sentence_4

It depicts a dystopian future in which humanity is unknowingly trapped inside a simulated reality, the Matrix, created by intelligent machines to distract humans while using their bodies as an energy source. The Matrix_sentence_5

When computer programmer Thomas Anderson, under the hacker alias "Neo", uncovers the truth, he "is drawn into a rebellion against the machines" along with other people who have been freed from the Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_6

The plot has been confirmed to be an allegory for transgender identity. The Matrix_sentence_7

The Matrix is an example of the cyberpunk subgenre of science fiction. The Matrix_sentence_8

The Wachowskis' approach to action scenes was influenced by Japanese animation and martial arts films, and the film's use of fight choreographers and wire fu techniques from Hong Kong action cinema influenced subsequent Hollywood action film productions. The Matrix_sentence_9

The film popularized a visual effect known as "bullet time", in which the heightened perception of certain characters is represented by allowing the action within a shot to progress in slow-motion while the camera appears to move through the scene at normal speed, allowing the sped-up movements of certain characters to be perceived normally. The Matrix_sentence_10

While some critics have praised the film for its handling of difficult subjects, others have said the deeper themes are largely overshadowed by its action scenes. The Matrix_sentence_11

The Matrix was first released in the United States on March 31, 1999, and grossed over $460 million worldwide. The Matrix_sentence_12

It was well-received by many critics and won four Academy Awards, as well as other accolades, including BAFTA Awards and Saturn Awards. The Matrix_sentence_13

The Matrix was praised for its innovative visual effects, action sequences, cinematography and entertainment value. The Matrix_sentence_14

The film is considered to be among the best science fiction films of all time, and was added to the National Film Registry for preservation in 2012. The Matrix_sentence_15

The success of the film led to the release of two feature film sequels in 2003, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, which were also written and directed by the Wachowskis, and produced by Joel Silver. The Matrix_sentence_16

The Matrix franchise was further expanded through the production of comic books, video games and animated short films, with which the Wachowskis were heavily involved. The Matrix_sentence_17

The franchise has also inspired books and theories expanding on some of the religious and philosophical ideas alluded to in the films. The Matrix_sentence_18

A fourth film is scheduled for release on December 22, 2021. The Matrix_sentence_19

Plot The Matrix_section_0

At an abandoned hotel within a major city, a woman (later revealed to be Trinity) is cornered by a police squad but overpowers them with superhuman abilities. The Matrix_sentence_20

She flees, pursued by the police and a group of mysterious suited Agents capable of similar superhuman feats. The Matrix_sentence_21

She answers a ringing public telephone and vanishes an instant before the Agents crash a truck into the booth. The Matrix_sentence_22

Computer programmer Thomas Anderson, known in the hacking scene by his alias "Neo", feels something is wrong with the world and is puzzled by repeated online encounters with the phrase "the Matrix". The Matrix_sentence_23

Trinity contacts him and tells him a man named Morpheus has the answers he seeks. The Matrix_sentence_24

A team of Agents and police, led by Agent Smith, arrives at Neo's workplace searching for him. The Matrix_sentence_25

Despite Morpheus's attempt to guide Neo to safety via telephone, Neo is captured and coerced into helping the Agents locate Morpheus, whom they regard as a "known terrorist". The Matrix_sentence_26

Undeterred, Neo later meets Morpheus, who offers him a choice between two pills; red to reveal the truth about the Matrix, and blue to return him to his former life. The Matrix_sentence_27

After Neo swallows the red pill, his reality falls apart, and he awakens in a liquid-filled pod among countless others attached to an elaborate electrical system. The Matrix_sentence_28

He is retrieved and brought aboard Morpheus's flying ship, the Nebuchadnezzar. The Matrix_sentence_29

As Neo recuperates from a lifetime of physical inactivity, Morpheus explains the truth. The Matrix_sentence_30

In the early 21st century, there was a war between humans and intelligent machines. The Matrix_sentence_31

When humans blocked the machines' access to solar energy, the machines harvested the humans' bioelectric power, keeping them pacified in the Matrix, a shared simulated reality modeled after the world as it existed at the end of the 20th century. The Matrix_sentence_32

The machines have taken over the world; the city of Zion is the last refuge of free humans. The Matrix_sentence_33

Morpheus and his crew are a group of rebels who hack into the Matrix to "unplug" enslaved humans and recruit them; their understanding of the Matrix's simulated nature enables them to bend its physical laws. The Matrix_sentence_34

Morpheus warns Neo that death within the Matrix kills the physical body, and the Agents he met are powerful sentient computer programs that eliminate threats to the system, while machines called Sentinels destroy rebels in the real world. The Matrix_sentence_35

Neo's prowess during virtual combat training lends credibility to Morpheus's belief that Neo is "the One", an especially powerful human prophesied to free humanity and end the war. The Matrix_sentence_36

The group enters the Matrix to visit the Oracle, the prophet who predicted the emergence of the One. The Matrix_sentence_37

She suggests to Neo that he is not the One and warns that he will have to choose between Morpheus's life and his own. The Matrix_sentence_38

The group is ambushed by Agents and tactical police, tipped by Cypher, a disgruntled crew member who betrays Morpheus in exchange for a comfortable life in the Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_39

Morpheus allows himself to be captured so the rest of the crew can escape. The Matrix_sentence_40

Cypher exits the Matrix first and murders several crew members as they lie defenseless in the real world. The Matrix_sentence_41

Before he can kill Neo, Cypher is killed by Tank, a crewman whom he only wounded. The Matrix_sentence_42

In the Matrix, the Agents interrogate Morpheus to learn his access codes to the mainframe computer in Zion. The Matrix_sentence_43

Tank proposes killing Morpheus to prevent this, but Neo resolves to return to the Matrix to rescue Morpheus, as prophesied by the Oracle; Trinity insists she accompany him. The Matrix_sentence_44

While rescuing Morpheus, Neo gains confidence in his abilities, performing feats comparable to the Agents'. The Matrix_sentence_45

Morpheus and Trinity exit the Matrix, but Smith ambushes and kills Neo before he can leave. The Matrix_sentence_46

As a group of Sentinels attack the Nebuchadnezzar, Trinity whispers to Neo that he cannot be dead, because she loves him and the Oracle told her she would fall in love with the One. The Matrix_sentence_47

She kisses Neo and he revives with newfound power to perceive and control the Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_48

He effortlessly defeats Smith, and leaves the Matrix just in time for the ship's electromagnetic pulse to disable the Sentinels. The Matrix_sentence_49

Later, Neo makes a telephone call inside the Matrix, promising the machines that he will show their prisoners "a world where anything is possible". The Matrix_sentence_50

He hangs up and flies into the sky. The Matrix_sentence_51

Cast The Matrix_section_1

See also: List of Matrix series characters The Matrix_sentence_52

The Matrix_unordered_list_0

  • Keanu Reeves as Neo: A computer programmer, born Thomas A. Anderson, who secretly operates as a hacker named Neo. Reeves described his character as someone who felt that something was wrong, and was searching for Morpheus and the truth to break free. Will Smith turned down the role of Neo to make Wild Wild West, because of skepticism over the film's ambitious bullet time special effects. He later stated he was "not mature enough as an actor" at that time, and that if given the role, he "would have messed it up". Nicolas Cage also turned down the part because of "family obligations". Warner Bros. sought Brad Pitt or Val Kilmer for the role. When both declined, the studio pushed for Reeves, who won the role over Johnny Depp, the Wachowskis' first choice.The Matrix_item_0_0

The Matrix_unordered_list_1

  • Laurence Fishburne as Morpheus: A human freed from the Matrix and captain of the Nebuchadnezzar. Fishburne stated that once he read the script, he did not understand why other people found it confusing. However, he had a doubt if the movie would ever be made, because it was "so smart". The Wachowskis instructed Fishburne to base his performance on the character Morpheus in Neil Gaiman's Sandman comics. Gary Oldman, Samuel L. Jackson, and Val Kilmer were also considered for the part. Despite widespread rumors, Sean Connery was offered the role of the Architect in the sequels, not that of Morpheus.The Matrix_item_1_1

The Matrix_unordered_list_2

  • Carrie-Anne Moss as Trinity: A human freed by Morpheus, crewmember of the Nebuchadnezzar, and later Neo's romantic interest. After reading the script, Moss stated that at first, she did not believe she had to do the extreme acrobatic actions as described in the script. She also doubted how the Wachowskis would get to direct a movie with a budget so large, but after spending an hour with them going through the storyboard, she understood why some people would trust them. Moss mentioned that she underwent a three-hour physical test during casting, so she knew what to expect subsequently. The role made Moss, who later said, "I had no career before. None." Janet Jackson was initially approached for the role but scheduling conflicts prevented her from accepting it. In an interview, she stated that turning down the role was difficult for her, so she later referenced The Matrix in the 'Intro' and 'Outro' interludes on her tenth studio album Discipline.The Matrix_item_2_2

The Matrix_unordered_list_3

  • Hugo Weaving as Agent Smith: A sentient "Agent" program of the Matrix whose purpose is to destroy Zion and stop humans from getting out of the Matrix. Unlike other Agents, he has ambitions to free himself from his duties. Weaving stated that the character was enjoyable to play because it amused him. He developed a neutral accent but with more specific character for the role. He wanted Smith to sound neither robotic nor human, and also said that the Wachowskis' voices had influenced his voice in the film. When filming began, Weaving mentioned that he was excited to be a part of something that would extend him. Jean Reno was offered the role, but declined, unwilling to move to Australia for the production.The Matrix_item_3_3

The Matrix_unordered_list_4

  • Joe Pantoliano as Cypher: Another human freed by Morpheus and crewmember of the Nebuchadnezzar, but one who regrets taking the red pill and seeks to be returned to the Matrix, later betraying the rebels to Agent Smith. Pantoliano had worked with the Wachowskis prior to appearing in The Matrix, starring in their 1996 film Bound.The Matrix_item_4_4

The Matrix_unordered_list_5

  • Marcus Chong as Tank: The "operator" of the Nebuchadnezzar, he is Dozer's brother, and like him was born outside the Matrix.The Matrix_item_5_5

The Matrix_unordered_list_6

  • Anthony Ray Parker as Dozer: Tank's brother, a "natural" human born outside of the Matrix, and pilot of the Nebuchadnezzar.The Matrix_item_6_6

The Matrix_unordered_list_7

  • Julian Arahanga as Apoc: A freed human and crew member on the Nebuchadnezzar.The Matrix_item_7_7

The Matrix_unordered_list_8

  • Matt Doran as Mouse: A freed human and programmer on the Nebuchadnezzar.The Matrix_item_8_8

The Matrix_unordered_list_9

  • Gloria Foster as The Oracle: A prophet who still resides in the Matrix, helping the freed humans with her foresight and wisdom.The Matrix_item_9_9

The Matrix_unordered_list_10

  • Belinda McClory as Switch: A human freed by Morpheus, and crew member of the Nebuchadnezzar.The Matrix_item_10_10

The Matrix_unordered_list_11

  • Paul Goddard as Agent Brown: One of two sentient "Agent" programs in the Matrix who work with Agent Smith to destroy Zion and stop humans escaping the system.The Matrix_item_11_11

The Matrix_unordered_list_12

  • Robert Taylor as Agent Jones: One of two sentient "Agent" programs in the Matrix who work with Agent Smith to destroy Zion and stop humans escaping the system.The Matrix_item_12_12

The Matrix_unordered_list_13

Production The Matrix_section_2

Development The Matrix_section_3

In 1994, the Wachowskis presented the script for the film Assassins to Warner Bros. Pictures. The Matrix_sentence_53

After Lorenzo di Bonaventura, the president of production of the company at the time, read the script, he decided to buy rights to it and included two more pictures, Bound and The Matrix, in the contract. The Matrix_sentence_54

The first movie the Wachowskis directed, Bound, then became a critical success. The Matrix_sentence_55

Using this momentum, they later asked to direct The Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_56

In 1996 the Wachowskis pitched the role of Neo to Will Smith. The Matrix_sentence_57

Smith explained on his YouTube channel that the idea was for him to be Neo, while Morpheus was to be played by Val Kilmer. The Matrix_sentence_58

He later explained that he did not quite understand the concept and he turned down the role to instead film Wild Wild West. The Matrix_sentence_59

Producer Joel Silver soon joined the project. The Matrix_sentence_60

Although the project had key supporters, including Silver and Di Bonaventura, to influence the company, The Matrix was still a huge investment for Warner Bros., which had to invest $60 million to create a movie with philosophical themes and difficult special effects. The Matrix_sentence_61

The Wachowskis therefore hired underground comic book artists Geof Darrow and Steve Skroce to draw a 600-page, shot-by-shot storyboard for the entire film. The Matrix_sentence_62

The storyboard eventually earned the studio's approval, and it was decided to film in Australia to make the most of the budget. The Matrix_sentence_63

Soon, The Matrix became a co-production of Warner Bros. and Village Roadshow Pictures. The Matrix_sentence_64

According to editor Zach Staenberg on the DVD audio commentary track, the production team sent an edit of the film's first minutes (featuring Trinity's action encounter with police and Agents) to Warner Executives, and secured Warner's "total support of the movie" from then on. The Matrix_sentence_65

Pre-production The Matrix_section_4

The cast were required to be able to understand and explain The Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_66

French philosopher Jean Baudrillard's Simulacra and Simulation was required reading for most of the principal cast and crew. The Matrix_sentence_67

Reeves stated that the Wachowskis had him read Simulacra and Simulation, Kevin Kelly's Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World, and Dylan Evans's ideas on evolutionary psychology even before they opened up the script, and eventually he was able to explain all the philosophical nuances involved. The Matrix_sentence_68

Moss commented that she had difficulty with this process. The Matrix_sentence_69

The directors had long been admirers of Hong Kong action cinema, so they decided to hire the Chinese martial arts choreographer and film director Yuen Woo-ping to work on fight scenes. The Matrix_sentence_70

To prepare for the wire fu, the actors had to train hard for several months. The Matrix_sentence_71

The Wachowskis first scheduled four months for training. The Matrix_sentence_72

Yuen was optimistic but then began to worry when he realized how unfit the actors were. The Matrix_sentence_73

Yuen let their body style develop and then worked with each actor's strength. The Matrix_sentence_74

He built on Reeves's diligence, Fishburne's resilience, Weaving's precision, and Moss's feminine grace. The Matrix_sentence_75

Yuen designed Moss's moves to suit her deftness and lightness. The Matrix_sentence_76

Prior to the pre-production, Reeves underwent a two-level fusion of his cervical spine due to spinal cord compression from a herniated disc ("I was falling over in the shower in the morning"). The Matrix_sentence_77

He was still recovering by the time of pre-production, but he insisted on training, so Yuen let him practice punches and lighter moves. The Matrix_sentence_78

Reeves trained hard and even requested training on days off. The Matrix_sentence_79

However, the surgery still made him unable to kick for two out of four months of training. The Matrix_sentence_80

As a result, Reeves did not kick much in the film. The Matrix_sentence_81

Weaving had to undergo hip surgery after he sustained an injury during the training process. The Matrix_sentence_82

Production design The Matrix_section_5

See also: Matrix digital rain The Matrix_sentence_83

In the film, the code that composes the Matrix itself is frequently represented as downward-flowing green characters. The Matrix_sentence_84

This code uses a custom typeface designed by Simon Whiteley, which includes mirror images of half-width kana characters and Western Latin letters and Arabic numerals. The Matrix_sentence_85

In a 2017 interview at CNET, he attributed the design to his wife, who is from Japan, and added, "I like to tell everybody that The Matrix's code is made out of Japanese sushi recipes". The Matrix_sentence_86

"The color green reflects the green tint commonly used on early monochrome computer monitors". The Matrix_sentence_87

Lynne Cartwright, the Visual Effects Supervisor at Animal Logic, supervised the creation of the film's opening title sequence, as well as the general look of the Matrix code throughout the film, in collaboration with Lindsay Fleay and Justen Marshall. The Matrix_sentence_88

The portrayal resembles the opening credits of the 1995 Japanese cyberpunk film, Ghost in the Shell, which had a strong influence on the Matrix series (see below). The Matrix_sentence_89

It was also used in the subsequent films, on the related website, and in the game The Matrix: Path of Neo, and its drop-down effect is reflected in the design of some posters for the Matrix series. The Matrix_sentence_90

The code received the Runner-up Award in the 1999 Jesse Garson Award for In-film typography or opening credit sequence. The Matrix_sentence_91

The Matrix's production designer, Owen Paterson, used methods to distinguish the "real world" and the Matrix in a pervasive way. The Matrix_sentence_92

The production design team generally placed a bias towards the Matrix code's distinctive green color in scenes set within the simulation, whereas there is an emphasis on the color blue during scenes set in the "real world". The Matrix_sentence_93

In addition, the Matrix scenes' sets were slightly more decayed, monolithic, and grid-like, to convey the cold, logical and artificial nature of that environment. The Matrix_sentence_94

For the "real world", the actors' hair was less styled, their clothing had more textile content, and the cinematographers used longer lenses to soften the backgrounds and emphasize the actors. The Matrix_sentence_95

The Nebuchadnezzar was designed to have a patched-up look, instead of clean, cold and sterile space ship interior sets as used on productions such as Star Trek. The Matrix_sentence_96

The wires were made visible to show the ship's working internals, and each composition was carefully designed to convey the ship as "a marriage between Man and Machine". The Matrix_sentence_97

For the scene when Neo wakes up in the pod connected to the Matrix, the pod was constructed to look dirty, used, and sinister. The Matrix_sentence_98

During the testing of a breathing mechanism in the pod, the tester suffered hypothermia in under eight minutes, so the pod had to be heated. The Matrix_sentence_99

Kym Barrett, costume designer, said that she defined the characters and their environment by their costume. The Matrix_sentence_100

For example, Reeves's office costume was designed for Thomas Anderson to look uncomfortable, disheveled, and out of place. The Matrix_sentence_101

Barrett sometimes used three types of fabric for each costume, and also had to consider the practicality of the acting. The Matrix_sentence_102

The actors needed to perform martial art actions in their costume, hang upside-down without people seeing up their clothing, and be able to work the wires while strapped into the harnesses. The Matrix_sentence_103

For Trinity, Barrett experimented with how each fabric absorbed and reflected different types of light, and was eventually able to make Trinity's costume mercury-like and oil-slick to suit the character. The Matrix_sentence_104

For the Agents, their costume was designed to create a secret service, undercover look, resembling the film JFK and classic men in black. The Matrix_sentence_105

The sunglasses, a staple of the film's aesthetics, were commissioned for the film by designer Richard Walker from sunglasses maker Blinde Design. The Matrix_sentence_106

Filming The Matrix_section_6

All but a few scenes were filmed at Fox Studios in Sydney, and in the city itself, although recognizable landmarks were not included in order to maintain the impression of a generic American city. The Matrix_sentence_107

The filming helped establish New South Wales as a major film production center. The Matrix_sentence_108

Filming began in March 1998 and wrapped in August 1998; principal photography took 118 days. The Matrix_sentence_109

Due to Reeves's neck injury, some of the action scenes had to be rescheduled to wait for his full recovery. The Matrix_sentence_110

As a result, the filming began with scenes that did not require much physical exertion, such as the scene in Thomas Anderson's office, the interrogation room, or the car ride in which Neo is taken to see the Oracle. The Matrix_sentence_111

Locations for these scenes included Martin Place's fountain in Sydney, half-way between it and the adjacent Colonial Building, and the Colonial Building itself. The Matrix_sentence_112

During the scene set on a government building rooftop, the team filmed extra footage of Neo dodging bullets in case the bullet time process did not work. The Matrix_sentence_113

The bullet-time fight scene was filmed on the roof of Symantec Corporation building in Kent Street, opposite Sussex Street. The Matrix_sentence_114

Moss performed the shots featuring Trinity at the beginning of the film and all the wire stunts herself. The Matrix_sentence_115

The rooftop set that Trinity uses to escape from Agent Brown early in the film was left over from the production of Dark City, which has prompted comments due to the thematic similarities of the films. The Matrix_sentence_116

During the rehearsal of the lobby scene, in which Trinity runs on a wall, Moss injured her leg and was ultimately unable to film the shot in one take. The Matrix_sentence_117

She stated that she was under a lot of pressure at the time and was devastated when she realized that she would be unable to do it. The Matrix_sentence_118

The dojo set was built well before the actual filming. The Matrix_sentence_119

During the filming of these action sequences, there was significant physical contact between the actors, earning them bruises. The Matrix_sentence_120

Reeves's injury and his insufficient training with wires prior to filming meant he was unable to perform the triple kicks satisfactorily and became frustrated with himself, causing the scene to be postponed. The Matrix_sentence_121

The scene was shot successfully a few days later, with Reeves using only three takes. The Matrix_sentence_122

Yuen altered the choreography and made the actors pull their punches in the last sequence of the scene, creating a training feel. The Matrix_sentence_123

The filmmakers originally planned to shoot the subway scene in an actual subway station, but the complexity of the fight and related wire work required shooting the scene on a set. The Matrix_sentence_124

The set was built around an existing train storage facility, which had real train tracks. The Matrix_sentence_125

Filming the scene when Neo slammed Smith into the ceiling, Chad Stahelski, Reeves's stunt double, sustained several injuries, including broken ribs, knees, and a dislocated shoulder. The Matrix_sentence_126

Another stuntman was injured by a hydraulic puller during a shot in which Neo was slammed into a booth. The Matrix_sentence_127

The office building in which Smith interrogated Morpheus was a large set, and the outside view from inside the building was a large, three story high cyclorama. The Matrix_sentence_128

The helicopter was a full-scale light-weight mock-up suspended by a wire rope operated a tilting mechanism mounted to the studio roofbeams. The Matrix_sentence_129

The helicopter had a real minigun side-mounted to it, which was set to cycle at half its regular (3000 rounds per min) firing rate. The Matrix_sentence_130

To prepare for the scene in which Neo wakes up in a pod, Reeves lost 15 pounds and shaved his whole body to give Neo an emaciated look. The Matrix_sentence_131

The scene in which Neo fell into the sewer system concluded the principal photography. The Matrix_sentence_132

According to The Art of the Matrix, at least one filmed scene and a variety of short pieces of action were omitted from the final cut of the film. The Matrix_sentence_133

Visual effects The Matrix_section_7

The film is known for popularizing a visual effect known as "bullet time", which allows a shot to progress in slow-motion while the camera appears to move through the scene at normal speed. The Matrix_sentence_134

Bullet time has been described as "a visual analogy for privileged moments of consciousness within the Matrix", and throughout the film, the effect is used to illustrate characters' exertion of control over time and space. The Matrix_sentence_135

The Wachowskis first imagined an action sequence that slowed time while the camera pivoted rapidly around the subjects, and proposed the effect in their screenplay for the film. The Matrix_sentence_136

When John Gaeta read the script, he pleaded with an effects producer at Mass.Illusion to let him work on the project, and created a prototype that led to him becoming the film's visual effects supervisor. The Matrix_sentence_137

The method used for creating these effects involved a technically expanded version of an old art photography technique known as time-slice photography, in which an array of cameras are placed around an object and triggered simultaneously. The Matrix_sentence_138

Each camera captures a still picture, contributing one frame to the video sequence, which creates the effect of "virtual camera movement"; the illusion of a viewpoint moving around an object that appears frozen in time. The Matrix_sentence_139

The bullet time effect is similar but slightly more complicated, incorporating temporal motion so that rather than appearing totally frozen, the scene progresses in slow and variable motion. The Matrix_sentence_140

The cameras' positions and exposures were previsualized using a 3D simulation. The Matrix_sentence_141

Instead of firing the cameras simultaneously, the visual effect team fired the cameras fractions of a second after each other, so that each camera could capture the action as it progressed, creating a super slow-motion effect. The Matrix_sentence_142

When the frames were put together, the resulting slow-motion effects reached a frame frequency of 12,000 per second, as opposed to the normal 24 frames per second of film. The Matrix_sentence_143

Standard movie cameras were placed at the ends of the array to pick up the normal speed action before and after. The Matrix_sentence_144

Because the cameras circle the subject almost completely in most of the sequences, computer technology was used to edit out the cameras that appeared in the background on the other side. The Matrix_sentence_145

To create backgrounds, Gaeta hired George Borshukov, who created 3D models based on the geometry of buildings and used the photographs of the buildings themselves as texture. The Matrix_sentence_146

The photo-realistic surroundings generated by this method were incorporated into the bullet time scene, and algorithms based on optical flow were used to interpolate between the still images to produce a fluent dynamic motion; the computer-generated "lead in" and "lead out" slides were filled in between frames in sequence to get an illusion of orbiting the scene. The Matrix_sentence_147

Manex Visual Effects used a cluster farm running the Unix-like operating system FreeBSD to render many of the film's visual effects. The Matrix_sentence_148

Manex also handled creature effects, such as Sentinels and machines in real world scenes; Animal Logic created the code hallway and the exploding Agent at the end of the film. The Matrix_sentence_149

DFilm managed scenes that required heavy use of digital compositing, such as Neo's jump off a skyscraper and the helicopter crash into a building. The Matrix_sentence_150

The ripple effect in the latter scene was created digitally, but the shot also included practical elements, and months of extensive research were needed to find the correct kind of glass and explosives to use. The Matrix_sentence_151

The scene was shot by colliding a quarter-scale helicopter mock-up into a glass wall wired to concentric rings of explosives; the explosives were then triggered in sequence from the center outward, to create a wave of exploding glass. The Matrix_sentence_152

The photogrammetric and image-based computer-generated background approaches in The Matrix's bullet time evolved into innovations unveiled in the sequels The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. The Matrix_sentence_153

The method of using real photographs of buildings as texture for 3D models eventually led the visual effect team to digitize all data, such as scenes, characters' motions and expressions. The Matrix_sentence_154

It also led to the development of "Universal Capture", a process which samples and stores facial details and expressions at high resolution. The Matrix_sentence_155

With these highly detailed collected data, the team were able to create virtual cinematography in which characters, locations, and events can all be created digitally and viewed through virtual cameras, eliminating the restrictions of real cameras. The Matrix_sentence_156

Sound effects and music The Matrix_section_8

See also: The Matrix: Original Motion Picture Score and The Matrix: Music from the Motion Picture The Matrix_sentence_157

Dane A. Davis was responsible for creating the sound effects for the film. The Matrix_sentence_158

The fight scene sound effects, such as the whipping sounds of punches, were created using thin metal rods and recording them, then editing the sounds. The Matrix_sentence_159

The sound of the pod containing a human body closing required almost fifty sounds put together. The Matrix_sentence_160

The film's score was composed by Don Davis. The Matrix_sentence_161

He noted that mirrors appear frequently in the film: reflections of the blue and red pills are seen in Morpheus's glasses; Neo's capture by Agents is viewed through the rear-view mirror of Trinity's motorcycle; Neo observes a broken mirror mending itself; reflections warp as a spoon is bent; the reflection of a helicopter is visible as it approaches a skyscraper. The Matrix_sentence_162

Davis focused on this theme of reflections when creating his score, alternating between sections of the orchestra and attempting to incorporate contrapuntal ideas. The Matrix_sentence_163

Davis' score combines orchestral, choral and synthesizer elements; the balance between these elements varies depending on whether humans or machines are the dominant subject of a given scene. The Matrix_sentence_164

In addition to Davis' score, The Matrix soundtrack also features music from acts such as Rammstein, Rob Dougan, Rage Against the Machine, Propellerheads, Ministry, Lunatic Calm, Deftones, Monster Magnet, The Prodigy, Rob Zombie, Meat Beat Manifesto, and Marilyn Manson. The Matrix_sentence_165

Reception The Matrix_section_9

Box office The Matrix_section_10

The film earned $171,479,930 (37.0%) in the United States and Canada and $292,037,453 (63.0%) in other countries, for a worldwide total of $463,517,383. The Matrix_sentence_166

In North America, it became the fifth highest-grossing film of 1999 and the highest-grossing R-rated film of that year. The Matrix_sentence_167

Worldwide, it was the fourth highest-grossing film of the year. The Matrix_sentence_168

In 2012, it was placed 122nd on the list of highest-grossing films of all time, and the second highest-grossing film in the Matrix franchise after The Matrix Reloaded ($742.1 million). The Matrix_sentence_169

Critical response The Matrix_section_11

The Matrix was praised by many critics, as well as filmmakers, and authors of science fiction, especially for its "spectacular action" scenes and its "groundbreaking special effects". The Matrix_sentence_170

Some have described The Matrix as one of the best science fiction films of all time; Entertainment Weekly called The Matrix "the most influential action movie of the generation". The Matrix_sentence_171

There have also been those, including philosopher William Irwin, who have suggested that the film explores significant philosophical and spiritual themes. The Matrix_sentence_172

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 88% of based on 154 reviews, with a weighted average score of 7.68/10. The Matrix_sentence_173

The site's critical consensus reads, "Thanks to the Wachowskis' imaginative vision, The Matrix is a smartly crafted combination of spectacular action and groundbreaking special effects". The Matrix_sentence_174

At Metacritic, which assigns a rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received a score of 73 based on 35 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews." The Matrix_sentence_175

Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A-" on an A+ to F scale. The Matrix_sentence_176

It ranked 323rd among critics, and 546th among directors, in the 2012 Sight & Sound polls of the greatest films ever made. The Matrix_sentence_177

Philip Strick commented in Sight & Sound, if the Wachowskis "claim no originality of message, they are startling innovators of method," praising the film's details and its "broadside of astonishing images". The Matrix_sentence_178

Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, he praised the film's visuals and premise, but disliked the third act's focus on action. The Matrix_sentence_179

Similarly, Time Out praised the "entertainingly ingenious" switches between different realities, Hugo Weaving's "engagingly odd" performance, and the film's cinematography and production design, but concluded, "the promising premise is steadily wasted as the film turns into a fairly routine action pic ... yet another slice of overlong, high concept hokum." The Matrix_sentence_180

Jonathan Rosenbaum of the Chicago Reader reviewed the film negatively, criticizing it as "simpleminded fun for roughly the first hour, until the movie becomes overwhelmed by its many sources ... The Matrix_sentence_181

There's not much humor to keep it all life-size, and by the final stretch it's become bloated, mechanical, and tiresome." The Matrix_sentence_182

Ian Nathan of Empire described Carrie-Anne Moss as "a major find", praised the "surreal visual highs" enabled by the bullet time (or "flo-mo") effect, and described the film as "technically mind-blowing, style merged perfectly with content and just so damn cool". The Matrix_sentence_183

Nathan remarked that although the film's "looney plot" would not stand up to scrutiny, that was not a big flaw because "The Matrix is about pure experience". The Matrix_sentence_184

Maitland McDonagh said in her review for TV Guide, the Wachowskis' "through-the-looking-glass plot... manages to work surprisingly well on a number of levels: as a dystopian sci-fi thriller, as a brilliant excuse for the film's lavish and hyperkinetic fight scenes, and as a pretty compelling call to the dead-above-the-eyeballs masses to unite and cast off their chains... The Matrix_sentence_185

This dazzling pop allegory is steeped in a dark, pulpy sensibility that transcends nostalgic pastiche and stands firmly on its own merits." The Matrix_sentence_186

Salon's reviewer Andrew O'Hehir acknowledged that although The Matrix is a fundamentally immature and unoriginal film ("It lacks anything like adult emotion... all this pseudo-spiritual hokum, along with the over-ramped onslaught of special effects—some of them quite amazing—will hold 14-year-old boys in rapture, not to mention those of us of all ages and genders who still harbor a 14-year-old boy somewhere inside"), he concluded, "as in Bound, there's an appealing scope and daring to the Wachowskis' work, and their eagerness for more plot twists and more crazy images becomes increasingly infectious. The Matrix_sentence_187

In a limited and profoundly geeky sense, this might be an important and generous film. The Matrix_sentence_188

The Wachowskis have little feeling for character or human interaction, but their passion for movies—for making them, watching them, inhabiting their world—is pure and deep." The Matrix_sentence_189

Filmmakers and science fiction creators alike generally took a complimentary perspective of The Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_190

William Gibson, a key figure in cyberpunk fiction, called the film "an innocent delight I hadn't felt in a long time," and stated, "Neo is my favourite-ever science fiction hero, absolutely." The Matrix_sentence_191

Joss Whedon called the film "my number one" and praised its storytelling, structure and depth, concluding, "It works on whatever level you want to bring to it." The Matrix_sentence_192

Darren Aronofsky commented, "I walked out of The Matrix ... and I was thinking, 'What kind of science fiction movie can people make now?' The Matrix_sentence_193

The [Wachowskis] basically took all the great sci-fi ideas of the 20th century and rolled them into a delicious pop culture sandwich that everyone on the planet devoured." The Matrix_sentence_194

M. The Matrix_sentence_195 Night Shyamalan expressed admiration for the Wachowskis, stating, "Whatever you think of The Matrix, every shot is there because of the passion they have! The Matrix_sentence_196

You can see they argued it out!". The Matrix_sentence_197

Simon Pegg said that The Matrix provided "the excitement and satisfaction that The Phantom Menace failed to inspire. The Matrix_sentence_198

The Matrix seemed fresh and cool and visually breathtaking; making wonderful, intelligent use of CGI to augment the on-screen action, striking a perfect balance of the real and the hyperreal. The Matrix_sentence_199

It was possibly the coolest film I had ever seen." The Matrix_sentence_200

Quentin Tarantino counted The Matrix as one of his twenty favorite movies from 1992 to 2009. The Matrix_sentence_201

James Cameron called it "one of the most profoundly fresh science fiction films ever made". The Matrix_sentence_202

Christopher Nolan described it as "an incredibly palpable mainstream phenomenon that made people think, Hey, what if this isn't real?". The Matrix_sentence_203

Chad Stahelski, who had been a stunt double on The Matrix prior to directing Reeves in the John Wick series, acknowledged the film's strong influence on the Wick films, and commented, "The Matrix literally changed the industry. The Matrix_sentence_204

The influx of martial-arts choreographers and fight coordinators now make more, and are more prevalent and powerful in the industry, than stunt coordinators. The Matrix_sentence_205

The Matrix revolutionized that. The Matrix_sentence_206

Today, action movies want their big sequences designed around the fights." The Matrix_sentence_207

Awards The Matrix_section_12

Main article: List of accolades received by the Matrix franchise The Matrix_sentence_208

The Matrix received Academy Awards for film editing, sound effects editing, visual effects, and sound. The Matrix_sentence_209

The filmmakers were competing against other films with established franchises, like Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, yet they won all four of their nominations. The Matrix_sentence_210

The Matrix also received BAFTA awards for Best Sound and Best Achievement in Special Visual Effects, in addition to nominations in the cinematography, production design and editing categories. The Matrix_sentence_211

In 1999, it won Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film and Best Direction. The Matrix_sentence_212

The Matrix_table_general_1

AwardThe Matrix_header_cell_1_0_0 CategoryThe Matrix_header_cell_1_0_1 NameThe Matrix_header_cell_1_0_2 OutcomeThe Matrix_header_cell_1_0_3
Academy AwardsThe Matrix_cell_1_1_0 Best Film EditingThe Matrix_cell_1_1_1 Zach StaenbergThe Matrix_cell_1_1_2 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_1_3
Best SoundThe Matrix_cell_1_2_0 John Reitz, Gregg Rudloff, David Campbell, David LeeThe Matrix_cell_1_2_1 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_2_2
Best Sound Effects EditingThe Matrix_cell_1_3_0 Dane A. DavisThe Matrix_cell_1_3_1 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_3_2
Best Visual EffectsThe Matrix_cell_1_4_0 John Gaeta, Janek Sirrs, Steve Courtley, Jon ThumThe Matrix_cell_1_4_1 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_4_2
British Academy Film AwardsThe Matrix_cell_1_5_0 Best CinematographyThe Matrix_cell_1_5_1 Bill PopeThe Matrix_cell_1_5_2 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_5_3
Best EditingThe Matrix_cell_1_6_0 Zach StaenbergThe Matrix_cell_1_6_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_6_2
Best Production DesignThe Matrix_cell_1_7_0 Owen PatersonThe Matrix_cell_1_7_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_7_2
Best SoundThe Matrix_cell_1_8_0 David Lee, John Reitz, Gregg Rudloff, David Campbell, Dane A. DavisThe Matrix_cell_1_8_1 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_8_2
Best Special Visual EffectsThe Matrix_cell_1_9_0 John Gaeta, Steve Courtley, Janek Sirrs, Jon ThumThe Matrix_cell_1_9_1 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_9_2
Saturn AwardsThe Matrix_cell_1_10_0 Best Science Fiction FilmThe Matrix_cell_1_10_1 The Matrix_cell_1_10_2 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_10_3
Best DirectorThe Matrix_cell_1_11_0 The WachowskisThe Matrix_cell_1_11_1 WonThe Matrix_cell_1_11_2
Best WriterThe Matrix_cell_1_12_0 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_12_1
Best ActorThe Matrix_cell_1_13_0 Keanu ReevesThe Matrix_cell_1_13_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_13_2
Best ActressThe Matrix_cell_1_14_0 Carrie-Anne MossThe Matrix_cell_1_14_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_14_2
Best Supporting ActorThe Matrix_cell_1_15_0 Laurence FishburneThe Matrix_cell_1_15_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_15_2
Best CostumesThe Matrix_cell_1_16_0 Kym BarrettThe Matrix_cell_1_16_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_16_2
Best Make-UpThe Matrix_cell_1_17_0 Nikki Gooley, Bob McCarron, Wendy SainsburyThe Matrix_cell_1_17_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_17_2
Best Special EffectsThe Matrix_cell_1_18_0 John Gaeta, Janek Sirrs, Steve Courtley, Jon ThumThe Matrix_cell_1_18_1 NominatedThe Matrix_cell_1_18_2

Franchise The Matrix_section_13

Main article: The Matrix (franchise) The Matrix_sentence_213

The film's mainstream success led to the making of two sequels, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, both directed by the Wachowskis. The Matrix_sentence_214

These were filmed back-to-back in one shoot and released on separate dates in 2003. The Matrix_sentence_215

The first film's introductory tale is succeeded by the story of the impending attack on the human enclave of Zion by a vast machine army. The Matrix_sentence_216

The sequels also incorporate longer and more ambitious action scenes, as well as improvements in bullet time and other visual effects. The Matrix_sentence_217

Also released was The Animatrix, a collection of nine animated short films, many of which were created in the same Japanese animation style that was a strong influence on the live action trilogy. The Matrix_sentence_218

The Animatrix was overseen and approved by the Wachowskis, who only wrote four of the segments themselves but did not direct any of them; much of the project was developed by notable figures from the world of anime. The Matrix_sentence_219

The franchise also contains three video games: Enter the Matrix (2003), which contains footage shot specifically for the game and chronicles events taking place before and during The Matrix Reloaded; The Matrix Online (2004), an MMORPG which continued the story beyond The Matrix Revolutions; and The Matrix: Path of Neo (2005), which focuses on Neo's journey through the trilogy of films. The Matrix_sentence_220

The franchise also includes The Matrix Comics, a series of comics and short stories set in the world of The Matrix, written and illustrated by figures from the comics industry. The Matrix_sentence_221

Most of the comics were originally presented for free on the official Matrix website; they were later republished, along with some new material, in two printed trade paperback volumes, called The Matrix Comics, Vol 1 and Vol 2. The Matrix_sentence_222

In March 2017, Warner Bros. was in early stages of developing a relaunch of the franchise with Zak Penn in talks to write a treatment and interest in getting Michael B. Jordan attached to star. The Matrix_sentence_223

According to The Hollywood Reporter neither the Wachowskis nor Joel Silver were involved with the endeavor, although the studio would like to get at minimum the blessing of the Wachowskis. The Matrix_sentence_224

On August 20, 2019, Warner Bros. Pictures Group chairman Toby Emmerich officially announced that a fourth Matrix movie was in the works, with Keanu Reeves and Carrie-Anne Moss set to reprise their roles as Neo and Trinity respectively. The Matrix_sentence_225

Home media The Matrix_section_14

The Matrix was released on Laserdisc in its original aspect ratio of 2.35:1 on September 21, 1999 in the US from Warner Home Video as well as in a cropped 1.33:1 aspect ratio in Hong Kong from ERA Home Entertainment. The Matrix_sentence_226

It was also released on VHS in both fullscreen and widescreen formats followed on December 7, 1999. The Matrix_sentence_227

After its DVD release, it was the first DVD to sell more than one million copies in the US, and went on to be the first to sell more than three million copies in the US. The Matrix_sentence_228

By November 10, 2003, one month after The Matrix Reloaded DVD was released, the sales of The Matrix DVD had exceeded 30 million copies. The Matrix_sentence_229

The Ultimate Matrix Collection was released on HD DVD on May 22, 2007 and on Blu-ray on October 14, 2008. The Matrix_sentence_230

The film was also released standalone in a 10th anniversary edition Blu-ray in the Digibook format on March 31, 2009, 10 years to the day after the film was released theatrically. The Matrix_sentence_231

In 2010, the film had another DVD release along with the two sequels as The Complete Matrix Trilogy. The Matrix_sentence_232

It was also released on 4K HDR Blu-ray on May 22, 2018. The Matrix_sentence_233

The film as part of The Matrix Trilogy was released on 4K Ultra HD Blu-Ray on October 30, 2018. The Matrix_sentence_234

Influences The Matrix_section_15

See also: The Matrix (franchise) § Influences and interpretations, and The Wachowskis § Personal life The Matrix_sentence_235

The Matrix draws from and alludes to numerous cinematic and literary works, and concepts from mythology, religion and philosophy, including the ideas of Buddhism, Christianity, Gnosticism, Hinduism, and Judaism. The Matrix_sentence_236

Film and television The Matrix_section_16

The pods in which the machines keep humans have been compared to images in Metropolis, and the work of M. The Matrix_sentence_237 C. Escher. The Matrix_sentence_238

and can be seen in Welcome to Paradox Episode 4 "News from D Street" from a 1986 short story of the same name by Andrew Weiner which aired on September 7, 1998 on the SYFY Channel and has a remarkably similar concept. The Matrix_sentence_239

In this episode the hero is unaware he is living in virtual reality until he is told so by "the code man" who created the simulation and enters it knowingly. The Matrix_sentence_240

The Wachowskis have described Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey as a formative cinematic influence, and as a major inspiration on the visual style they aimed for when making The Matrix. The Matrix_sentence_241

Reviewers have also commented on similarities between The Matrix and other late-1990s films such as Strange Days, Dark City, and The Truman Show. The Matrix_sentence_242

The similarity of the film's central concept to a device in the long-running series Doctor Who has also been noted. The Matrix_sentence_243

As in the film, the Matrix of that series (introduced in the 1976 serial The Deadly Assassin) is a massive computer system which one enters using a device connecting to the head, allowing users to see representations of the real world and change its laws of physics; but if killed there, they will die in reality. The Matrix_sentence_244

The action scenes of The Matrix were also strongly influenced by live-action films such as those of director John Woo. The Matrix_sentence_245

The martial arts sequences were inspired by Fist of Legend, a critically acclaimed 1995 martial arts film starring Jet Li. The Matrix_sentence_246

The fight scenes in Fist of Legend led to the hiring of Yuen as fight choreographer. The Matrix_sentence_247

The Wachowskis' approach to action scenes drew upon their admiration for Japanese animation such as Ninja Scroll and Akira. The Matrix_sentence_248

Director Mamoru Oshii's 1995 animated film Ghost in the Shell was a particularly strong influence; producer Joel Silver has stated that the Wachowskis first described their intentions for The Matrix by showing him that anime and saying, "We wanna do that for real". The Matrix_sentence_249

Mitsuhisa Ishikawa of Production I.G, which produced Ghost in the Shell, noted that the anime's high-quality visuals were a strong source of inspiration for the Wachowskis. The Matrix_sentence_250

He also commented, "... cyberpunk films are very difficult to describe to a third person. The Matrix_sentence_251

I'd imagine that The Matrix is the kind of film that was very difficult to draw up a written proposal for to take to film studios". The Matrix_sentence_252

He stated that since Ghost in the Shell had gained recognition in America, the Wachowskis used it as a "promotional tool". The Matrix_sentence_253

Literary works The Matrix_section_17

In The Matrix, a copy of Jean Baudrillard's philosophical work Simulacra and Simulation, which was published in French in 1981, is visible on-screen as "the book used to conceal disks", and Morpheus quotes the phrase "desert of the real" from it. The Matrix_sentence_254

"The book was required reading for" the actors prior to filming. The Matrix_sentence_255

However, Baudrillard himself said that The Matrix misunderstands and distorts his work. The Matrix_sentence_256

Some interpreters of The Matrix mention Baudrillard's philosophy to support their claim "that the [film] is an allegory for contemporary experience in a heavily commercialized, media-driven society, especially in developed countries". The Matrix_sentence_257

"The influence of [Baudrillard] was brought to the public's attention through the writings of art historians such as Griselda Pollock and film theorists such as Heinz-Peter Schwerfel". The Matrix_sentence_258

In addition to Baudrillard, the Wachowskis were also significantly influenced by Kevin Kelly's Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World, and Dylan Evans’s ideas on evolutionary psychology. The Matrix_sentence_259

The film makes several references to Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The Matrix_sentence_260

Comparisons have also been made to Grant Morrison's comic series The Invisibles, with Morrison describing it in 2011 as "(it) seemed to me (to be) my own combination of ideas enacted on the screen". The Matrix_sentence_261

Comparisons have also been made between The Matrix and the books of Carlos Castaneda. The Matrix_sentence_262

The Matrix belongs to the cyberpunk genre of science fiction, and draws from earlier works in the genre such as the 1984 novel Neuromancer by William Gibson. The Matrix_sentence_263

For example, the film's use of the term "Matrix" is adopted from Gibson's novel, though L. The Matrix_sentence_264 P. Davies had already used the term "Matrix" fifteen years earlier for a similar concept in his 1969 novel The White Room ("It had been tried in the States some years earlier, but their 'matrix' as they called it hadn't been strong enough to hold the fictional character in place"). The Matrix_sentence_265

After watching The Matrix, Gibson commented that the way that the film's creators had drawn from existing cyberpunk works was "exactly the kind of creative cultural osmosis" he had relied upon in his own writing; however, he noted that the film's Gnostic themes distinguished it from Neuromancer, and believed that The Matrix was thematically closer to the work of science fiction author Philip K. Dick, particularly Dick's speculative Exegesis. The Matrix_sentence_266

Other writers have also commented on the similarities between The Matrix and Dick's work; one example of such influence is a Philip K. Dick's 1977 conference, in which he stated: "We are living in a computer-programmed reality, and the only clue we have to it is when some variable is changed, and some alteration in our reality occurs". The Matrix_sentence_267

Philosophy The Matrix_section_18

It has been suggested by philosopher William Irwin that the idea of the "Matrix" – a generated reality invented by malicious machines – is an allusion to Descartes' "First Meditation", and his idea of an evil demon. The Matrix_sentence_268

The Meditation hypothesizes that the perceived world might be a comprehensive illusion created to deceive us. The Matrix_sentence_269

The same premise can be found in Hilary Putnam's brain in a vat scenario proposed in the 1980s. The Matrix_sentence_270

A connection between the premise of The Matrix and Plato's Allegory of the Cave has also been suggested. The Matrix_sentence_271

The allegory is related to Plato's theory of Forms, which holds that the true essence of an object is not what we perceive with our senses, but rather its quality, and that most people perceive only the shadow of the object and are thus limited to false perception. The Matrix_sentence_272

The philosophy of Immanuel Kant has also been claimed as another influence on the film, and in particular how individuals within the Matrix interact with one another and with the system. The Matrix_sentence_273

Kant states in his Critique of Pure Reason that people come to know and explore our world through synthetic means (language, etc.), and thus this makes it rather difficult to discern truth from falsely perceived views. The Matrix_sentence_274

This means people are their own agents of deceit, and so in order for them to know truth, they must choose to openly pursue truth. The Matrix_sentence_275

This idea can be examined in Agent Smith's monologue about the first version of the Matrix, which was designed as a human utopia, a perfect world without suffering and with total happiness. The Matrix_sentence_276

Agent Smith explains that, "it was a disaster. The Matrix_sentence_277

No one accepted the program. The Matrix_sentence_278

Entire crops [of people] were lost." The Matrix_sentence_279

The machines had to amend their choice of programming in order to make people subservient to them, and so they conceived the Matrix in the image of the world in 1999. The Matrix_sentence_280

The world in 1999 was far from a utopia, but still humans accepted this over the suffering-less utopia. The Matrix_sentence_281

According to William Irwin this is Kantian, because the machines wished to impose a perfect world on humans in an attempt to keep people content, so that they would remain completely submissive to the machines, both consciously and subconsciously, but humans were not easy to make content. The Matrix_sentence_282

Religion and mythology The Matrix_section_19

Andrew Godoski sees allusions to Christ, including Neo's "virgin birth", his doubt in himself, the prophecy of his coming, along with many other Christian references. The Matrix_sentence_283

Amongst these possible allusions, it is suggested that the name of the character Trinity refers to Christianity's doctrine of the Trinity. The Matrix_sentence_284

It has also been noted that the character Morpheus paraphrases the Chinese taoist philosopher Zhuangzi when he asks Neo, "Have you ever had a dream, Neo, that you were so sure was real? The Matrix_sentence_285

What if you weren't able to wake from that dream? The Matrix_sentence_286

How would you know the difference from the real world and the dream world?" The Matrix_sentence_287

Matrixism is a fan-based religion created as "the matrix religion." The Matrix_sentence_288

Transgender themes The Matrix_section_20

Years after the release of The Matrix, both the Wachowskis came out as transgender women, and some viewers have seen transgender themes in the film before it was officially confirmed. The Matrix_sentence_289

The red pill has been compared with red estrogen pills. The Matrix_sentence_290

Morpheus's description of the Matrix giving you a sense that something is fundamentally wrong, "like a splinter in your mind", has been compared to gender dysphoria. The Matrix_sentence_291

Also, in the original script, Switch was a woman in the Matrix and a man in the real world, but this idea was ultimately dropped. The Matrix_sentence_292

In a 2016 GLAAD Media Awards speech, Lilly Wachowski said "There’s a critical eye being cast back on Lana and I's [sic] work through the lens of our transness. The Matrix_sentence_293

This is a cool thing because it's an excellent reminder that art is never static." The Matrix_sentence_294

In 2020, Lilly Wachowski confirmed fan speculations that the movie is an allegory for transgender identity. The Matrix_sentence_295

Legacy The Matrix_section_21

The Matrix had a strong effect on action filmmaking in Hollywood. The Matrix_sentence_296

The film's incorporation of wire fu techniques, including the involvement of fight choreographer Yuen Woo-ping and other personnel with a background in Hong Kong action cinema, affected the approaches to fight scenes taken by subsequent Hollywood action films, moving them towards more Eastern approaches. The Matrix_sentence_297

The success of The Matrix created high demand for those choreographers and their techniques from other filmmakers, who wanted fights of similar sophistication: for example, wire work was employed in X-Men (2000) and Charlie's Angels (2000), and Yuen Woo-ping's brother Yuen Cheung-Yan was choreographer on Daredevil (2003). The Matrix_sentence_298

The Matrix's Asian approach to action scenes also created an audience for Asian action films such as Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000) that they might not otherwise have had. The Matrix_sentence_299

Following The Matrix, films made abundant use of slow-motion, spinning cameras, and, often, the bullet time effect of a character freezing or slowing down and the camera dollying around them. The Matrix_sentence_300

The ability to slow down time enough to distinguish the motion of bullets was used as a central gameplay mechanic of several video games, including Max Payne, in which the feature was explicitly referred to as "bullet time". The Matrix_sentence_301

It was also the defining game mechanic of the game Superhot and its sequels. The Matrix_sentence_302

The Matrix's signature special effect, and other aspects of the film, have been parodied numerous times, in comedy films such as Deuce Bigalow: Male Gigolo (1999), Scary Movie (2000), Shrek (2001), Kung Pow! The Matrix_sentence_303 Enter the Fist (2002), Lastikman (2003); Marx Reloaded in which the relationship between Neo and Morpheus is represented as an imaginary encounter between Karl Marx and Leon Trotsky; and in video games such as Conker's Bad Fur Day. The Matrix_sentence_304

It also inspired films featuring a black-clad hero, a sexy yet deadly heroine, and bullets ripping slowly through the air; these included Charlie's Angels (2000) featuring Cameron Diaz floating through the air while the cameras flo-mo around her; Equilibrium (2002), starring Christian Bale, whose character wore long black leather coats like Reeves' Neo; Night Watch (2004), a Russian megahit heavily influenced by The Matrix and directed by Timur Bekmambetov, who later made Wanted (2008), which also features bullets ripping through air; and Inception (2010), which centers on a team of sharply dressed rogues who enter a wildly malleable alternate reality by "wiring in". The Matrix_sentence_305

The original Tron (1982) paved the way for The Matrix, and The Matrix, in turn, inspired Disney to make its own Matrix with a Tron sequel, Tron: Legacy (2010). The Matrix_sentence_306

Also, the film's lobby shootout sequence was recreated in the 2002 Indian action comedy Awara Paagal Deewana. The Matrix_sentence_307

Carrie-Anne Moss asserted that prior to being cast in The Matrix, she had "no career". The Matrix_sentence_308

It launched Moss into international recognition and transformed her career; in a New York Daily News interview, she stated, "The Matrix gave me so many opportunities. The Matrix_sentence_309

Everything I've done since then has been because of that experience. The Matrix_sentence_310

It gave me so much". The Matrix_sentence_311

The film also created one of the most devoted movie fan-followings since Star Wars. The Matrix_sentence_312

The combined success of the Matrix trilogy, the Lord of the Rings films and the Star Wars prequels made Hollywood interested in creating trilogies. The Matrix_sentence_313

Stephen Dowling from the BBC noted that The Matrix's success in taking complex philosophical ideas and presenting them in ways palatable for impressionable minds might be its most influential aspect. The Matrix_sentence_314

The Matrix was also influential for its impact on superhero films. The Matrix_sentence_315

John Kenneth Muir in The Encyclopedia of Superheroes on Film and Television called the film a "revolutionary" reimagination of movie visuals, paving the way for the visuals of later superhero films, and credits it with helping to "make comic-book superheroes hip" and effectively demonstrating the concept of "faster than a speeding bullet" with its bullet time effect. The Matrix_sentence_316

Adam Sternbergh of credits The Matrix with reinventing and setting the template for modern superhero blockbusters, and inspiring the superhero renaissance in the early 21st century. The Matrix_sentence_317

In 2001, The Matrix placed 66th in the American Film Institute's "100 Years...100 Thrills" list. The Matrix_sentence_318

In 2007, Entertainment Weekly called The Matrix the best science-fiction piece of media for the past 25 years. The Matrix_sentence_319

In 2009, the film was ranked 39th on Empire's reader-, actor- and critic-voted list of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". The Matrix_sentence_320

The Matrix was voted as the fourth best sci-fi film in the 2011 list Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time, based on a poll conducted by ABC and People. The Matrix_sentence_321

In 2012, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant." The Matrix_sentence_322

See also The Matrix_section_22

The Matrix_unordered_list_14

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Matrix.