The New York Times
This article is about the newspaper.
For the parent company of the newspaper, see The New York Times Company.
"NYT" redirects here.
|Owner(s)||The New York Times Company|
|Publisher||A. G. Sulzberger|
|Managing editor||Monica Drake|
|Opinion editor||Kathleen Kingsbury (acting)|
|Sports editor||Jason Stallman|
|Photo editor||Michele McNally|
|Staff writers||1,300 news staff (2016)|
|Founded||September 18, 1851; 169 years ago (1851-09-18) (as New-York Daily Times)|
|Headquarters||The New York Times Building, 620 Eighth Avenue
New York, New York, U.S.
|Circulation||(as of May (Sunday) / November (daily) 2016 / (digital-only) August 2018)|
Nicknamed "the Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record".
Founded in 1851, the paper has since won 130 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other.
It has been governed by the Sulzberger family since 1896, through a dual-class share structure after its shares became publicly-traded.
Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has greatly expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports, and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York (metropolitan), Business, Sports, Arts, Science, Styles, Home, Travel, and other features.
The Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, and was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, especially on the front page.
The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page.
The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851.
Sold for a penny (equivalent to 31¢ today), the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release:
However, the effort failed once local California newspapers came into prominence.
On September 14, 1857, the newspaper officially shortened its name to The New-York Times.
The hyphen in the city name was dropped on December 1, 1896.
On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War.
The main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City draft riots.
The riots, sparked by the institution of a draft for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863.
The mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher.
The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party — popularly known as "Tammany Hall" (from its early-19th-century meeting headquarters) — that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall.
Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars (equivalent to 107 million dollars in 2019) to not publish the story.
In the 1880s, The New York Times gradually transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers (revenue declined from $188,000 to $56,000 from 1883 to 1884), the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years.
After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million (equivalent to $28 million in 2019) to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper found itself in a financial crisis by the Panic of 1893, and by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, and was losing $1,000 a day.
Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print".
The slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, and has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897.
The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid, sensationalist and often inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism".
Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr Van Anda, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, and reputation; Sunday circulation went from under 9,000 in 1896 to 780,000 in 1934.
In 1904, during the Russo-Japanese War, The New York Times, along with The Times, received the first on-the-spot wireless telegraph transmission from a naval battle: a report of the destruction of the Russian Navy's Baltic Fleet, at the Battle of Port Arthur, from the press-boat Haimun.
In 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began.
In 1920, during the 1920 Republican National Convention, a "4 A.M.
Airplane Edition" was sent to Chicago by plane, so it could be in the hands of convention delegates by evening.
Ochs died in 1935, and was succeeded as publisher by his son-in-law, Arthur Hays Sulzberger.
Under his leadership, and that of his son-in-law (and successor), Orvil Dryfoos, the paper extended its breadth and reach, beginning in the 1940s.
The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the fashion section first appeared in 1946.
The New York Times began an international edition in 1946.
(The international edition stopped publishing in 1967, when The New York Times joined the owners of the New York Herald Tribune and The Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris.)
Dryfoos died in 1963, and was succeeded as publisher by his brother-in-law, Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger, who led the Times until 1992, and continued the expansion of the paper.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Main article: New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case to prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity.
Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty in proving malicious intent, such cases by public figures rarely succeed.
The Pentagon Papers (1971)
Main article: Pentagon Papers
In 1971, the Pentagon Papers, a secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1967, were given ("leaked") to Neil Sheehan of The New York Times by former State Department official Daniel Ellsberg, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them.
The New York Times began publishing excerpts as a series of articles on June 13.
Controversy and lawsuits followed.
The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting airstrikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions were taken by the U.S. well before the public was told about the actions, all while President MarinesLyndon B. Johnson had been promising not to expand the war.
When The New York Times began publishing its series, President Richard Nixon became incensed.
After failing to get The New York Times to stop publishing, Attorney General John Mitchell and President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction that The New York Times cease publication of excerpts.
The newspaper appealed and the case began working through the court system.
On June 18, 1971, The Washington Post began publishing its own series.
Ben Bagdikian, a Post editor, had obtained portions of the papers from Ellsberg.
When the Post refused, the U.S. sought another injunction. Justice Department
The U.S. judge refused, and the government appealed. District court
On June 26, 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to take both cases, merging them into New York Times Co. v. United States.
On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required.
The justices wrote nine separate opinions, disagreeing on significant substantive issues.
While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the First Amendment enshrines an absolute right to free speech, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of national security were at stake.
In the 1970s, the paper introduced a number of new lifestyle sections including Weekend and Home, with the aim of attracting more advertisers and readers.
Many criticized the move for betraying the paper's mission.
On September 7, 1976, the paper switched from an eight-column format to a six-column format.
The overall page width stayed the same, with each column becoming wider.
On September 14, 1987, the Times printed the heaviest ever newspaper, at over 12 pounds (5.4 kg) and 1,612 pages.
The Times was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, with the first color photograph on the front page appearing on October 16, 1997.
Early digital content
The New York Times switched to a digital production process sometime before 1980, but only began preserving the resulting digital text that year.
In 1983, the Times sold the electronic rights to its articles to LexisNexis.
As the online distribution of news increased in the 1990s, the Times decided not to renew the deal and in 1994 the newspaper regained electronic rights to its articles.
On January 22, 1996, NYTimes.com began publishing.
In September 2008, The New York Times announced that it would be combining certain sections effective October 6, 2008, in editions printed in the New York metropolitan area.
The changes folded the Metro Section into the main International / National news section and combined Sports and Business (except Saturday through Monday, while Sports continues to be printed as a standalone section).
This change also included having the name of the Metro section called New York outside of the Tri-State Area.
The presses used by The New York Times can allow four sections to be printed simultaneously; as the paper includes more than four sections on all days with the exception of Saturday, the sections were required to be printed separately in an early press run and collated together.
The changes allowed The New York Times to print in four sections Monday through Wednesday, in addition to Saturday.
The New York Times' announcement stated that the number of news pages and employee positions would remain unchanged, with the paper realizing cost savings by cutting overtime expenses.
In 2009, the newspaper began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area.
Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the Northern California edition on Fridays and Sundays.
The newspaper commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009.
The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports, and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements.
Following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million.
In August 2007, the paper reduced the physical size of its print edition, cutting the page width from 13.5 inches (34 cm) to a 12 inches (30 cm).
The move resulted in a 5% reduction in news space, but (in an era of dwindling circulation and significant advertising revenue losses) also saved about $12 million a year.
Because of its declining sales largely attributed to the rise of news sources online, used especially by younger readers, and the decline of advertising revenue, the newspaper has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses, in common with a general trend among print news media.
In December 2012, the Times published "Snow Fall", a six-part article about the 2012 Tunnel Creek avalanche which integrated videos, photos, and interactive graphics and was hailed as a watershed moment for online journalism.
In 2016, reporters for the newspaper were reportedly the target of cybersecurity breaches.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation was reportedly investigating the attacks.
In October 2018, the Times published a 14,218-word investigation into Donald Trump's "self-made" fortune and alleged tax fraud, an 18-month project based on examination of 100,000 pages of documents.
The extensive article ran as an eight-page feature in the print edition and also was adapted into a shortened 2,500 word listicle featuring its key takeaways.
After the midweek front-page story, the Times also republished the piece as a 12-page "special report" section in the Sunday paper.
During the lengthy investigation, Showtime cameras followed the Times' three investigative reporters for a half-hour documentary called The Family Business: Trump and Taxes, which aired the following Sunday.
The report won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting.
In May 2019, The New York Times announced that it would present a television news program based on news from its individual reporters stationed around the world and that it would premiere on FX and Hulu.
The newspaper's first building was located at 113 Nassau Street in New York City.
In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858 to 41 Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use.
The building is also known for its electronic news ticker – popularly known as "The Zipper" – where headlines crawl around the outside of the building.
It is still in use, but has been operated by Dow Jones & Company since 1995.
After nine years in its Times Square tower, the newspaper had an annex built at 229 West 43rd Street.
After several expansions, the 43rd Street building became the newspaper's main headquarters in 1960 and the Times Tower on Broadway was sold the following year.
A decade later, The New York Times moved its newsroom and businesses headquarters from West 43rd Street to a new tower at 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in Manhattan – directly across Eighth Avenue from the Port Authority Bus Terminal.
Gender discrimination in employment
Discriminatory practices used by the paper long restricted women in appointments to editorial positions.
The newspaper's first general female reporter was Jane Grant, who described her experience afterward: "In the beginning I was charged not to reveal the fact that a female had been hired".
Other reporters nicknamed her Fluff and she was subjected to considerable hazing.
Because of her gender, any promotion was out of the question, according to the then-managing editor.
She remained on the staff for fifteen years, interrupted by World War I.
Later, she interviewed major political leaders and appears to have had easier access than her colleagues.
Even witnesses of her actions were unable to explain how she gained the interviews she did.
She never had to grovel for an appointment."
When women were eventually allowed to hear the speeches directly, they were still not allowed to ask the speakers questions, although men were allowed and did ask, even though some of the women had won Pulitzer Prizes for prior work.
Times reporter Maggie Hunter refused to return to the club after covering one speech on assignment.
Nan Robertson's article on the Union Stock Yards, Chicago, was read aloud as anonymous by a professor, who then said: "'It will come as a surprise to you, perhaps, that the reporter is a girl,' he began... [G]asps; amazement in the ranks.
'She had used all her senses, not just her eyes, to convey the smell and feel of the stockyards.
She chose a difficult subject, an offensive subject.
Her imagery was strong enough to revolt you.'"
The New York Times hired Kathleen McLaughlin after ten years at the Chicago Tribune, where "[s]he did a series on maids, going out herself to apply for housekeeping jobs."
The New York Times has had one slogan.
Since 1896, the newspaper's slogan has been "All the News That's Fit to Print."
In 1896, Adolph Ochs held a competition to attempt to find a replacement slogan, offering a $100 prize for the best one.
Though he later announced that the original would not be changed, the prize would still be awarded.
Entries included "News, Not Nausea"; "In One Word: Adequate"; "News Without Noise"; "Out Heralds The Herald, Informs The World, and Extinguishes The Sun"; "The Public Press is a Public Trust"; and the winner of the competition, "All the world's news, but not a school for scandal."
Within 10 days, the FTC responded that it was not.
Again in 1996, a competition was held to find a new slogan, this time for NYTimes.com.
Over 8,000 entries were submitted.
Again however, "All the News That's Fit to Print," was found to be the best.
Its Paris newsroom, which had been the headquarters of the paper's international edition, was closed in 2016, although the city remains home to a news bureau and an advertising office.
As of 2013, the newspaper had six news bureaus in the New York region, 14 elsewhere in the United States, and 24 in other countries.
In 2009, Russ Stanton, editor of the Los Angeles Times, a competitor, stated that the newsroom of The New York Times was twice the size of the Los Angeles Times, which had a newsroom of 600 at the time.
To facilitate their reporting and to hasten an otherwise lengthy process of reviewing many documents during preparation for publication, their interactive news team has adapted optical character recognition technology into a proprietary tool known as Document Helper.
It enables the team to accelerate the processing of documents that need to be reviewed.
During March 2019, they documented that this tool enabled them to process 900 documents in less than ten minutes in preparation for reporters to review the contents.
In 1896, Adolph Ochs bought The New York Times, a money-losing newspaper, and formed the New York Times Company.
The Ochs-Sulzberger family, one of the United States' newspaper dynasties, has owned The New York Times ever since.
After this, the family continued to exert control through its ownership of the vast majority of Class B voting shares.
Class A shareholders are permitted restrictive voting rights, while Class B shareholders are allowed open voting rights.
The Ochs-Sulzberger family trust controls roughly 88 percent of the company's class B shares.
Any alteration to the dual-class structure must be ratified by six of eight directors who sit on the board of the Ochs-Sulzberger family trust.
The Trust board members are Daniel H. Cohen, James M. Cohen, Lynn G. Dolnick, Susan W. Dryfoos, Michael Golden, Eric M. A. Lax, Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr., and Cathy J. Sulzberger.
Turner Catledge, the top editor at The New York Times from 1952 to 1968, wanted to hide the ownership influence.
Arthur Sulzberger routinely wrote memos to his editor, each containing suggestions, instructions, complaints, and orders.
When Catledge would receive these memos, he would erase the publisher's identity before passing them to his subordinates.
Catledge thought that if he removed the publisher's name from the memos, it would protect reporters from feeling pressured by the owner.
The position of public editor was established in 2003 to "investigate matters of journalistic integrity"; each public editor was to serve a two-year term.
The post "was established to receive reader complaints and question Times journalists on how they make decisions."
The impetus for the creation of the public editor position was the Jayson Blair affair.
Public editors were: Daniel Okrent (2003–2005), Byron Calame (2005–2007), Clark Hoyt (2007–2010) (served an extra year), Arthur S. Brisbane (2010–2012), Margaret Sullivan (2012–2016) (served a four-year term), and Elizabeth Spayd (2016–2017).
In 2017, the Times eliminated the position of public editor.
Meredith Kopit Levien has been president and chief executive officer since September 2020.
The New York Times editorial page is often regarded as liberal.
In mid-2004, the newspaper's then public editor (ombudsman), Daniel Okrent, wrote that "the Op-Ed page editors do an evenhanded job of representing a range of views in the essays from outsiders they publish – but you need an awfully heavy counterweight to balance a page that also bears the work of seven opinionated columnists, only two of whom could be classified as conservative (and, even then, of the conservative subspecies that supports legalization of gay unions and, in the case of William Safire, opposes some central provisions of the Patriot Act)."
The New York Times has not endorsed a Republican Party member for president since Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956; since 1960, it has endorsed the Democratic Party nominee in every presidential election (see New York Times presidential endorsements).
When referring to people, The New York Times generally uses honorifics rather than unadorned last names (except in the sports pages, pop culture coverage, Book Review and Magazine).
The New York Times printed a display advertisement on its first page on January 6, 2009, breaking tradition at the paper.
The advertisement, for CBS, was in color and ran the entire width of the page.
The newspaper promised it would place first-page advertisements on only the lower half of the page.
In August 2014, the Times decided to use the word "torture" to describe incidents in which interrogators "inflicted pain on a prisoner in an effort to get information."
This was a shift from the paper's previous practice of describing such practices as "harsh" or "brutal" interrogations.
The paper maintains a strict profanity policy.
A 2007 review of a concert by the punk band Fucked Up, for example, completely avoided mention of the group's name.
Then-Times politics editor Carolyn Ryan said: "It's a rare thing for us to use this language in our stories, even in quotes, and we discussed it at length."
Ryan said the paper ultimately decided to publish it because of its news value and because "[t]o leave it out or simply describe it seemed awkward and less than forthright to us, especially given that we would be running a video that showed our readers exactly what was said."
In the absence of a major headline, the day's most important story generally appears in the top-right column, on the main page.
The newspaper is organized into three sections, including the magazine.
- News: Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, The Metro Section, Education, Weather, and Obituaries.
- Opinion: Includes Editorials, Op-eds and Letters to the Editor.
- Features: Includes Arts, Movies, Theater, Travel, NYC Guide, Food, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword, The New York Times Book Review, T: The New York Times Style Magazine, The New York Times Magazine, and Sunday Review.
Some sections, such as Metro, are only found in the editions of the paper distributed in the New York–New Jersey–Connecticut Tri-state area and not in the national or Washington, D.C. editions.
Aside from a weekly roundup of reprints of editorial cartoons from other newspapers, The New York Times does not have its own staff editorial cartoonist, nor does it feature a comics page or Sunday comics section.
From 1851 to 2017, The New York Times published around 60,000 print issues containing about 3.5 million pages and 15 million articles.
Its printed weekday circulation dropped by 50 percent to 540,000 copies from 2005 to 2017.
The New York Times International Edition is a print version of the paper tailored for readers outside the United States.
Formerly a joint venture with The Washington Post named The International Herald Tribune, The New York Times took full ownership of the paper in 2002 and has gradually integrated it more closely into its domestic operations.
The New York Times began publishing daily on the World Wide Web on January 22, 1996, "offering readers around the world immediate access to most of the daily newspaper's contents."
The website had 555 million pageviews in March 2005.
The domain nytimes.com attracted at least 146 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.
In March 2009, The New York Times website ranked 59th by number of unique visitors, with over 20 million unique visitors, making it the most visited newspaper site with more than twice the number of unique visitors as the next most popular site.
As of May 2009, nytimes.com produced 22 of the 50 most popular newspaper blogs.
As of August 2020, the company had 6.5 million paid subscribers out of which 5.7 million were subscribed to its digital content.
In the period April-June 2020, it added 669,000 new digital subscribers.
The food section is supplemented on the web by properties for home cooks and for out-of-home dining.
The New York Times Cooking (cooking.nytimes.com; also available via iOS app) provides access to more than 17,000 recipes on file as of November 2016, and availability of saving recipes from other sites around the web.
The newspaper's restaurant search (nytimes.com/reviews/dining) allows online readers to search NYC area restaurants by cuisine, neighborhood, price, and reviewer rating.
The New York Times has also published several cookbooks, including The Essential New York Times Cookbook: Classic Recipes for a New Century, published in late 2010.
In September 2005, the paper decided to begin subscription-based service for daily columns in a program known as TimesSelect, which encompassed many previously free columns.
Until being discontinued two years later, TimesSelect cost $7.95 per month or $49.95 per year, though it was free for print copy subscribers and university students and faculty.
To avoid this charge, bloggers often reposted TimesSelect material, and at least one site once compiled links of reprinted material.
On September 17, 2007, The New York Times announced that it would stop charging for access to parts of its Web site, effective at midnight the following day, reflecting a growing view in the industry that subscription fees cannot outweigh the potential ad revenue from increased traffic on a free site.
It pains me enormously because it's cut me off from a lot, a lot of people, especially because I have a lot of people reading me overseas, like in India ...
I feel totally cut off from my audience."
Paywall and digital subscriptions
In addition to opening almost the entire site to all readers, The New York Times news archives from 1987 to the present are available at no charge, as well as those from 1851 to 1922, which are in the public domain.
Access to the Premium Crosswords section continues to require either home delivery or a subscription for $6.95 per month or $39.95 per year.
Falling print advertising revenue and projections of continued decline resulted in a "metered paywall" being instituted in 2011, regarded as modestly successful after garnering several hundred thousand subscriptions and about $100 million in revenue as of March 2012.
As announced in March 2011, the paywall would charge frequent readers for access to its online content.
Readers would be able to access up to 20 articles each month without charge.
(Although beginning in April 2012, the number of free-access articles was halved to just ten articles per month.)
Any reader who wanted to access more would have to pay for a digital subscription.
This plan would allow free access for occasional readers but produce revenue from "heavy" readers.
Digital subscription rates for four weeks range from $15 to $35 depending on the package selected, with periodic new subscriber promotions offering four-week all-digital access for as low as 99¢.
Subscribers to the paper's print edition get full access without any additional fee.
Some content, such as the front page and section fronts remained free, as well as the Top News page on mobile apps.
In January 2013, The New York Times' Public Editor Margaret M. Sullivan announced that for the first time in many decades, the paper generated more revenue through subscriptions than through advertising.
In December 2017, the number of free articles per month was reduced from ten to five, as the first change to the metered paywall since 2012.
An executive of The New York Times Company stated that the decision was motivated by "an all-time high" in the demand for journalism.
As of December 2017, The New York Times has a total of 3.5 million paid subscriptions in both print and digital versions, and more than 130 million monthly readers, more than double its audience two years previously.
In February 2018, The New York Times Company reported increased revenue from the digital-only subscriptions, adding 157,000 new subscribers to a total of 2.6 million digital-only subscribers.
Digital advertising also saw growth during this period.
At the same time, advertising for the print version of the journal fell.
The app allowed users to download articles to their mobile device enabling them to read the paper even when they were unable to receive a signal.
In 2010, The New York Times editors collaborated with students and faculty from New York University's Studio 20 Journalism Masters program to launch and produce "The Local East Village", a hyperlocal blog designed to offer news "by, for and about the residents of the East Village".
That same year, reCAPTCHA helped to digitize old editions of The New York Times.
The Times Reader
The Times Reader is a digital version of The New York Times, created via a collaboration between the newspaper and Microsoft.
Times Reader takes the principles of print journalism and applies them to the technique of online reporting, using a series of technologies developed by Microsoft and their Windows Presentation Foundation team.
In 2009, the Times Reader 2.0 was rewritten in Adobe AIR.
In December 2013, the newspaper announced that the Times Reader app would be discontinued as of January 6, 2014, urging readers of the app to instead begin using the subscription-only Today's Paper app.
The New York Times began producing podcasts in 2006.
Among the early podcasts were Inside The Times and Inside The New York Times Book Review.
However, several of the Times' podcasts were cancelled in 2012.
The Times returned to launching new podcasts in 2016, including Modern Love with WBUR.
On January 30, 2017, The New York Times launched a news podcast, The Daily.
It is a weekly discussion about a single issue explained from the left, center, and right of the political spectrum.
The New York Times en Español (Spanish-language)
Between February 2016 and September 2019, The New York Times launched a standalone Spanish language edition, The New York Times en Español.
The expansion into Spanish language news content allowed the newspaper to expand its audience into the Spanish speaking world and increase its revenue.
It was discontinued in September 2019, citing lack of financial success as the reason.
The project was led by Craig S. Smith on the business side and Philip P. Pan on the editorial side, with content created by staff based in Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong, though the server was placed outside of China to avoid censorship issues.
In retaliation for the article, the Chinese government blocked access to both nytimes.com and cn.nytimes.com inside the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Despite Chinese government interference, the Chinese-language operations have continued to develop, adding a second site, cn.nytstyle.com, iOS and Android apps, and newsletters, all of which are accessible inside the PRC.
The China operations also produce three print publications in Chinese.
Traffic to cn.nytimes.com, meanwhile, has risen due to the widespread use of VPN technology in the PRC and to a growing Chinese audience outside mainland China.
The Chinese platforms now represent one of The New York Times' top five digital markets globally.
The editor-in-chief of the Chinese platforms is Ching-Ching Ni.
In March 2013, The New York Times and National Film Board of Canada announced a partnership titled A Short History of the Highrise, which will create four short documentaries for the Internet about life in high rise buildings as part of the NFB's Highrise project, utilizing images from the newspaper's photo archives for the first three films, and user-submitted images for the final film.
The third project in the Short History of the Highrise series won a Peabody Award in 2013.
The TimesMachine is a web-based archive of scanned issues of The New York Times from 1851 through 2002.
Unlike The New York Times online archive, the TimesMachine presents scanned images of the actual newspaper.
All non-advertising content can be displayed on a per-story basis in a separate PDF display page and saved for future reference.
The archive is available to The New York Times subscribers, home delivery and/or digital.
Because of holidays, no editions were printed on November 23, 1851; January 2, 1852; July 4, 1852; January 2, 1853; and January 1, 1854.
Because of strikes, the regular edition of The New York Times was not printed during the following periods:
- December 9, 1962, to March 31, 1963. Only a western edition was printed because of the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike.
- September 17, 1965, to October 10, 1965. An international edition was printed, and a weekend edition replaced the Saturday and Sunday papers.
- August 10, 1978, to November 5, 1978. A multi-union strike shut down the three major New York City newspapers. No editions of The New York Times were printed. Two months into the strike, a parody of The New York Times called Not The New York Times was distributed in the city, with contributors such as Carl Bernstein, Christopher Cerf, Tony Hendra and George Plimpton.
Criticism and controversies
Main article: New York Times controversies
Failure to report Ukraine famine
The New York Times was criticized for the work of reporter Walter Duranty, who served as its Moscow bureau chief from 1922 through 1936.
Duranty wrote a series of stories in 1931 on the Soviet Union and won a Pulitzer Prize for his work at that time; however, he has been criticized for his denial of widespread famine, most particularly the Ukrainian famine in the 1930s.
In comments to the press he stated, "For the sake of The New York Times' honor, they should take the prize away."
World War II
On November 14, 2001, in The New York Times' 150th-anniversary issue, in an article entitled "Turning Away From the Holocaust," former executive editor Max Frankel wrote:
Frankel responded to this criticism by describing the fragile sensibilities of the Jewish owners of The New York Times:
In the same article, Frankel quotes Laurel Leff, associate professor of journalism at Northeastern University, who concluded that the newspaper had downplayed Nazi Germany's targeting of Jews for genocide.
Her 2005 book Buried by the Times documents the paper's tendency before, during and after World War II to place deep inside its daily editions the news stories about the ongoing persecution and extermination of Jews, while obscuring in those stories the special impact of the Nazis' crimes on Jews in particular.
Jerold Auerbach, a Guggenheim Fellow and Fulbright Lecturer, wrote in Print to Fit, The New York Times, Zionism and Israel, 1896-2016 that it was of utmost importance to Adolph Ochs, the first Jewish owner of the paper, that in spite of the persecution of Jews in Germany, The Times, through its reporting, should never be classified as a "Jewish newspaper".
After Ochs' death in 1935, his son-in-law Arthur Hays Sulzberger became the publisher of The New York Times and maintained the understanding that no reporting should reflect on The Times as a Jewish newspaper.
Sulzburger shared Ochs' concerns about the way Jews were perceived in American society.
His apprehensions about judgement were manifested positively by his strong fidelity to the United States.
At the same time, within the pages of The New York Times, Sulzburger refused to bring attention to Jews, including the refusal to identify Jews as major victims of the Nazi genocide.
To be sure, many reports of Nazi-authored slaughter identified Jewish victims as "persons."
The Times even opposed the rescue of Jewish refugees and backed American constraint.
Accusations of liberal bias
In mid-2004, the newspaper's then-public editor Daniel Okrent, wrote an opinion piece in which he said that The New York Times did have a liberal bias in news coverage of certain social issues such as abortion and same-sex marriage.
He stated that this bias reflected the paper's cosmopolitanism, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City, writing that the coverage of the Times's Arts & Leisure; Culture; and the Sunday Times Magazine trend to the left.
Times public editor Arthur Brisbane wrote in 2012:
The New York Times public editor (ombudsman) Elizabeth Spayd wrote in 2016 that "Conservatives and even many moderates, see in The Times a blue-state worldview" and accuse it of harboring a liberal bias.
Spayd did not analyze the substance of the claim but did opine that the Times is "part of a fracturing media environment that reflects a fractured country.
That in turn leads liberals and conservatives toward separate news sources."
Times executive editor Dean Baquet stated that he does not believe coverage has a liberal bias, however:
Donald Trump has frequently criticized The New York Times on his Twitter account before and during his presidency; since November 2015, Trump has referred to the Times as "the failing New York Times" in a series of tweets.
Despite Trump's criticism, New York Times Company CEO Mark Thompson said that the paper had enjoyed soaring digital readership, with the fourth quarter of 2016 seeing the highest number of new digital subscribers to the newspaper since 2011.
On October 23, 2019, Trump announced that he was canceling the White House subscription to both The New York Times and The Washington Post and would direct all federal agencies to drop their subscriptions as well.
Responding to the complaints of many readers, The New York Times public editor Margaret Sullivan wrote that "The Times has not ignored Mr. Sanders's campaign, but it hasn't always taken it very seriously.
The tone of some stories is regrettably dismissive, even mocking at times.
Some of that is focused on the candidate's age, appearance and style, rather than what he has to say."
Times senior editor Carolyn Ryan defended both the volume of The New York Times coverage (noting that Sanders had received about the same amount of article coverage as Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio) and its tone.
Jayson Blair plagiarism (2003)
Main article: Jayson Blair § Plagiarism and fabrication scandal
Some critics contended that African-American Blair's race was a major factor in his hiring and in The New York Times' initial reluctance to fire him.
Iraq War (2003–06)
Main article: Judith Miller § The Iraq War
The Times supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
On May 26, 2004, more than a year after the war started, the newspaper asserted that some of its articles had not been as rigorous as they should have been, and were insufficiently qualified, frequently overly dependent upon information from Iraqi exiles desiring regime change.
The New York Times was involved in a significant controversy regarding the allegations surrounding Iraq and weapons of mass destruction in September 2002.
One of Miller's prime sources was Ahmed Chalabi, an Iraqi expatriate who returned to Iraq after the U.S. invasion and held a number of governmental positions culminating in acting oil minister and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006.
In 2005, negotiating a private severance package with Sulzberger, Miller retired after criticisms that her reporting of the lead-up to the Iraq War was factually inaccurate and overly favorable to the position of the Bush administration, for which The New York Times later apologized.
Hatfill v. New York Times Co. and Kristof (2005)
The 1964 case of NYT v. Sullivan foreshadowed another major libel case, Steven J. Hatfill v. The New York Times Company, and Nicholas Kristof, resulting from the 2001 anthrax attacks (which included powder in an envelope opened by reporter Judith Miller inside the Times newsroom).
Dr. Steven Hatfill became a public figure as a result of insinuations that he was the "likely culprit" put forth in Nicholas Kristof's columns, which referenced the Federal Bureau of Investigation investigation of the case.
The Times was involved in a similar case in which it agreed to pay a settlement to Dr. Wen Ho Lee who was falsely accused of espionage.
Duke University lacrosse case (2006)
The newspaper was criticized for largely reporting the prosecutors' version of events in the 2006 Duke lacrosse case.
Stuart Taylor Jr. and KC Johnson, in their book Until Proven Innocent: Political Correctness and the Shameful Injustices of the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case, write: "at the head of the guilt-presuming pack, The New York Times vied in a race to the journalistic bottom with trash-TV talk shows."
A 2003 study in the Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics concluded that The New York Times reporting was more favorable to Israelis than to Palestinians.
The study authors said that the Times was "the most slanted in a pro-Israeli direction" with a bias "reflected...in its use of headlines, photographs, graphics, sourcing practices, and lead paragraphs."
For its coverage of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, some (such as Ed Koch) have claimed that the paper is pro-Palestinian, while others (such as As'ad AbuKhalil) have insisted that it is pro-Israel.
The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, by political science professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, alleges that The New York Times sometimes criticizes Israeli policies but is not even-handed and is generally pro-Israel.
A piece in which Thomas Friedman commented that praise awarded to Netanyahu during a speech at congress was "paid for by the Israel lobby" elicited an apology and clarification from its writer.
The New York Times' public editor Clark Hoyt concluded in his January 10, 2009, column:
Delayed publication of 2005 NSA warrantless surveillance story
Ex-NSA officials blew the whistle on the program to journalists James Risen and Eric Lichtblau, who presented an investigative article to the newspaper in November 2004, weeks before America's presidential election.
Contact with former agency officials began the previous summer.
Former The New York Times executive editor Bill Keller decided not to report the piece after being pressured by the Bush administration and being advised not to do so by The New York Times Washington bureau chief Philip Taubman.
Keller explained the silence's rationale in an interview with the newspaper in 2013, stating "Three years after 9/11, we, as a country, were still under the influence of that trauma, and we, as a newspaper, were not immune".
In 2014, PBS Frontline interviewed Risen and Lichtblau, who said that the newspaper's plan was to not publish the story at all.
"The editors were furious at me", Risen said to the program.
"They thought I was being insubordinate."
Risen wrote a book about the mass surveillance revelations after The New York Times declined the piece's publication, and only released it after Risen told them that he would publish the book.
Another reporter told NPR that the newspaper "avoided disaster" by ultimately publishing the story.
M.I.A. quotes out of context (2009–10)
concerning her activism against the Sinhala-Tamil conflict in Sri Lanka.
criticized the paper in January 2010 after a travel piece rated post-conflict Sri Lanka the "#1 place to go in 2010".
In June 2010, The New York Times Magazine published a correction on its cover article of M.I.A., acknowledging that the interview conducted by current W editor and then-Times Magazine contributor Lynn Hirschberg contained a recontextualization of two quotes.
In response to the piece, M.I.A.
broadcast Hirschberg's phone number and secret audio recordings from the interview via her Twitter and website.
Irish student controversy (2015)
On June 16, 2015, The New York Times published an article reporting the deaths of six Irish students staying in Berkeley, California when the balcony they were standing on collapsed, the paper's story insinuating that they were to blame for the collapse.
The paper stated that the behavior of Irish students coming to the U.S. on J1 visas was an "embarrassment to Ireland".
Nail salon series (2015)
In May 2015, a The New York Times exposé by Sarah Maslin Nir on the working conditions of manicurists in New York City and elsewhere and the health hazards to which they are exposed attracted wide attention, resulting in emergency workplace enforcement actions by New York governor Andrew M. Cuomo.
In July 2015, the story's claims of widespread illegally low wages were challenged by former The New York Times reporter Richard Bernstein, in the New York Review of Books.
Bernstein, whose wife owns two nail salons, asserted that such illegally low wages were inconsistent with his personal experience, and were not evidenced by ads in the Chinese-language papers cited by the story.
The New York Times editorial staff subsequently answered Bernstein's criticisms with examples of several published ads and stating that his response was industry advocacy.
The independent NYT Public Editor also reported that she had previously corresponded with Bernstein and looked into his complaints, and expressed her belief that the story's reporting was sound.
In September and October 2015, nail salon owners and workers protested at The New York Times offices several times, in response to the story and the ensuing New York State crackdown.
In October, Reason magazine published a three-part re-reporting of the story by Jim Epstein, charging that the series was filled with misquotes and factual errors respecting both its claims of illegally low wages and health hazards.
Epstein additionally argued that The New York Times had mistranslated the ads cited in its answer to Bernstein, and that those ads actually validated Bernstein's argument.
In November 2015, The New York Times' public editor concluded that the exposé's "findings, and the language used to express them, should have been dialed back — in some instances substantially" and recommended that "The Times write further follow-up stories, including some that re-examine its original findings and that take on the criticism from salon owners and others — not defensively but with an open mind."
A 2015 study found that The New York Times fed into an overarching tendency towards national bias.
During the Iranian nuclear crisis the newspaper minimized the "negative processes" of the United States while overemphasizing similar processes of Iran.
This tendency was shared by other papers such as The Guardian, Tehran Times, and the Fars News Agency, while Xinhua News Agency was found to be more neutral while at the same time mimicking the foreign policy of the People's Republic of China.
Hiring practices (2016)
In April 2016, two black female employees in their sixties filed a federal class-action lawsuit against The New York Times Company CEO Mark Thompson and chief revenue officer Meredith Levien, claiming age, gender, and racial discrimination.
The plaintiffs claimed that the Times advertising department favored younger white employees over older black employees in making firing and promotion decisions.
The Times said that the suit was "entirely without merit" and was "a series of recycled, scurrilous and unjustified attacks."
The plaintiffs' gender discrimination claims were subsequently dismissed by the court, and the court also later denied class certification as to the age and racial discrimination claims.
Elimination of copy editors (2018)
The New York Times announced plans to eliminate copy editing roles from the production of its daily newspaper and website content in June 2018.
Executive Editor Dean Baquet defended the cuts, saying that the Times needed to free up funds to hire more reporters by eliminating editing roles.
(The opinion and magazine sections have still retained their copy editors.)
The duties of copy editors—checking for style, grammar, factual correctness, tone, as well as writing headlines—were merged into all-purpose editing roles.
Editors currently not only edit the content of the stories but also, in many cases, provide the final read before publication.
Many publications, such as the Chronicle of Higher Education, have suggested the elimination of copy editors has led to more mistakes, such as typos and factual errors, in the paper.
The journalism research organization similarly suggested in a blog post that the elimination of copy editors would decrease internal expertise and hurt the quality of the daily news report.
Views on Britain (2020)
In January 2020, British author and political commentator Douglas Murray claimed that The New York Times was "waging a culture war vendetta against the [United Kingdom], but in doing so it is waging a campaign of misinformation against its own readers."
Kelly Jane Torrance at The Spectator said, "Ever since Britain voted to leave the European Union, the Gray Lady—as the paper is known, thanks to its pompous and earnest tone—has become relentlessly critical of the UK."
Torrance went on to say "If you were to read only the New York Times, you'd think there was little hope for a backward, bigoted Britain."
Tom Cotton editorial (2020)
During the George Floyd protests in June 2020, the Times published an opinion piece by U.S.
Senator Tom Cotton entitled "Send in the Troops", which called for the mobilization of the U.S. military in response to rioting, and for "an overwhelming show of force to disperse, detain and ultimately deter lawbreakers", and which contained claims about the protests that the Times had previously identified as misinformation.
Several current and former Times reporters criticized the decision to publish the piece and accused the newspaper of publishing misinformation.
The NewsGuild of New York said the piece encouraged violence and lacked context and vetting.
A. and editorial page editor G. SulzbergerJames Bennet defended the piece, but the paper later issued a statement saying the piece failed to meet its editorial standards and described its publication as the result of a "rushed editorial process".
Bennet resigned days later.
The Times has developed a national and international "reputation for thoroughness" over time.
Among journalists, the paper is held in high regard; a 1999 survey of newspaper editors conducted by the Columbia Journalism Review found that the Times was the "best" American paper, ahead of The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times.
The Times also was ranked #1 in a 2011 "quality" ranking of U.S. newspapers by Daniel de Vise of The Washington Post; the objective ranking took into account the number of recent Pulitzer Prizes won, circulation, and perceived Web site quality.
A 2012 report in WNYC called the Times "the most respected newspaper in the world."
Noam Chomsky, co-author of Manufacturing Consent, said that The New York Times was the first thing he looked at in the morning: "Despite all its flaws—and they're real—it still has the broadest, the most comprehensive coverage of I think any newspaper in the world."
Nevertheless, like many other U.S. media sources, the Times had suffered from a decline in public perceptions of credibility in the U.S. from 2004 to 2012.
A Pew Research Center survey in 2012 asked respondents about their views on credibility of various news organizations.
Among respondents who gave a rating, 49% said that they believed "all or most" of the Times's reporting, while 50% disagreed.
A large percentage (19%) of respondents were unable to rate believability.
The Times's score was comparable to that of USA Today.
Media analyst Brooke Gladstone of WNYC's On the Media, writing for The New York Times, says that the decline in U.S. public trust of the mass media can be explained (1) by the rise of the polarized Internet-driven news; (2) by a decline in trust in U.S. institutions more generally; and (3) by the fact that "Americans say they want accuracy and impartiality, but the polls suggest that, actually, most of us are seeking affirmation."
Main article: List of awards won by the New York Times
The New York Times has won 130 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.
The prize is awarded for excellence in journalism in a range of categories.
It has also, as of 2014, won three Peabody Awards and jointly received two.
Peabody Awards are given for accomplishments in television, radio, and online media.
- List of controversies involving The New York Times
- List of New York City newspapers and magazines
- List of The New York Times employees
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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The New York Times.