The Who

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This article is about the English rock band. The Who_sentence_0

For other uses, see Who. The Who_sentence_1

The Who_table_infobox_0

The WhoThe Who_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationThe Who_header_cell_0_1_0
Also known asThe Who_header_cell_0_2_0 The Who_cell_0_2_1
OriginThe Who_header_cell_0_3_0 London, England, UKThe Who_cell_0_3_1
GenresThe Who_header_cell_0_4_0 The Who_cell_0_4_1
Years activeThe Who_header_cell_0_5_0 The Who_cell_0_5_1
LabelsThe Who_header_cell_0_6_0 The Who_cell_0_6_1
WebsiteThe Who_header_cell_0_7_0 The Who_cell_0_7_1
MembersThe Who_header_cell_0_9_0 The Who_cell_0_9_1
Past membersThe Who_header_cell_0_11_0 The Who_cell_0_11_1

The Who are an English rock band formed in London in 1964. The Who_sentence_2

Their classic lineup consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey, guitarist and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitarist and singer John Entwistle, and drummer Keith Moon. The Who_sentence_3

They are considered one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century and have sold over 100 million records worldwide. The Who_sentence_4

The Who developed from an earlier group, the Detours, and established themselves as part of the pop art and mod movements, featuring auto-destructive art by destroying guitars and drums on stage. The Who_sentence_5

Their first single as the Who, "I Can't Explain", reached the UK top ten, and was followed by a string of singles including "My Generation", "Substitute" and "Happy Jack". The Who_sentence_6

In 1967, they performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and released the US top ten single "I Can See for Miles", while touring extensively. The Who_sentence_7

The group's fourth album, 1969's rock opera Tommy, included the single "Pinball Wizard" and was a critical and commercial success. The Who_sentence_8

Live appearances at Woodstock in August 1969, and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970, along with the live album Live at Leeds in 1970, cemented their reputation as a respected rock act. The Who_sentence_9

With their success came increased pressure on lead songwriter Townshend, and the follow-up to Tommy, Lifehouse, was abandoned. The Who_sentence_10

Songs from the project made up 1971's Who's Next, which included the hit "Won't Get Fooled Again". The Who_sentence_11

The group released the concept album Quadrophenia in 1973 as a celebration of their mod roots, and oversaw the film adaptation of Tommy in 1975. The Who_sentence_12

They continued to tour to large audiences before semi-retiring from live performances at the end of 1976. The Who_sentence_13

The release of Who Are You in 1978 was overshadowed by the death of Moon shortly after. The Who_sentence_14

Kenney Jones replaced Moon and the group resumed activity, releasing a film adaptation of Quadrophenia and the retrospective documentary The Kids Are Alright. The Who_sentence_15

After Townshend became weary of touring, the group split in 1983. The Who_sentence_16

The Who occasionally re-formed for live appearances such as Live Aid in 1985, a 25th anniversary tour in 1989 and a tour of Quadrophenia in 1996–1997. The Who_sentence_17

They resumed regular touring in 1999, with drummer Zak Starkey. The Who_sentence_18

After Entwistle's death in 2002, plans for a new album were delayed. The Who_sentence_19

Townshend and Daltrey continued as the Who, releasing Endless Wire in 2006, and continue to play live regularly, with Starkey, bassists Pino Palladino (2006–2017) and Jon Button (2017–present), and guitarist Simon Townshend (Pete's brother) serving as touring players. The Who_sentence_20

In 2019, they toured with a complete symphony orchestra, which also supported the release of Who, their twelfth album. The Who_sentence_21

The Who's major contributions to rock music include the development of the Marshall stack, large PA systems, use of the synthesizer, Entwistle and Moon's lead playing styles, Townshend's feedback and power chord guitar technique, and the development of the rock opera. The Who_sentence_22

They are cited as an influence by hard rock, punk rock and mod bands, and their songs still receive regular exposure. The Who_sentence_23

History The Who_section_0

Background The Who_section_1

The founding members of the Who, Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend and John Entwistle, grew up in Acton, London and went to Acton County Grammar School. The Who_sentence_24

Townshend's father, Cliff, played saxophone and his mother, Betty, had sung in the entertainment division of the Royal Air Force during World War II, and both supported their son's interest in rock and roll. The Who_sentence_25

Townshend and Entwistle became friends in their second year of Acton County, and formed a trad jazz group; Entwistle also played French horn in the Middlesex Schools' Symphony Orchestra. The Who_sentence_26

Both were interested in rock, and Townshend particularly admired Cliff Richard's début single, "Move It". The Who_sentence_27

Entwistle moved to guitar, but struggled with it due to his large fingers, and moved to bass on hearing the guitar work of Duane Eddy. The Who_sentence_28

He was unable to afford a bass and built one at home. The Who_sentence_29

After Acton County, Townshend attended Ealing Art College, a move he later described as profoundly influential on the course of the Who. The Who_sentence_30

Daltrey, who was in the year above, had moved to Acton from Shepherd's Bush, a more working-class area. The Who_sentence_31

He had trouble fitting in at the school, and discovered gangs and rock and roll. The Who_sentence_32

He was expelled at 15 and found work on a building site. The Who_sentence_33

In 1959 he started the Detours, the band that was to evolve into the Who. The Who_sentence_34

The band played professional gigs, such as corporate and wedding functions, and Daltrey kept a close eye on the finances as well as the music. The Who_sentence_35

Daltrey spotted Entwistle by chance on the street carrying a bass and recruited him into the Detours. The Who_sentence_36

In mid-1961, Entwistle suggested Townshend as a guitarist, Daltrey on lead guitar, Entwistle on bass, Harry Wilson on drums, and Colin Dawson on vocals. The Who_sentence_37

The band played instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, and a variety of pop and trad jazz covers. The Who_sentence_38

Daltrey was considered the leader and, according to Townshend, "ran things the way he wanted them". The Who_sentence_39

Wilson was fired in mid-1962 and replaced by Doug Sandom, though he was older than the rest of the band, married, and a more proficient musician, having been playing semi-professionally for two years. The Who_sentence_40

Dawson left after frequently arguing with Daltrey and after being briefly replaced by Gabby Connolly, Daltrey moved to lead vocals. The Who_sentence_41

Townshend, with Entwistle's encouragement, became the sole guitarist. The Who_sentence_42

Through Townshend's mother, the group obtained a management contract with local promoter Robert Druce, who started booking the band as a support act. The Who_sentence_43

The Detours were influenced by the bands they supported, including Screaming Lord Sutch, Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, and Johnny Kidd and the Pirates. The Who_sentence_44

The Detours were particularly interested in the Pirates as they also only had one guitarist, Mick Green, who inspired Townshend to combine rhythm and lead guitar in his style. The Who_sentence_45

Entwistle's bass became more of a lead instrument, playing melodies. The Who_sentence_46

In February 1964, the Detours became aware of the group Johnny Devlin and the Detours and changed their name. The Who_sentence_47

Townshend and his room-mate Richard Barnes spent a night considering names, focusing on a theme of joke announcements, including "No One" and "the Group". The Who_sentence_48

Townshend preferred "the Hair", and Barnes liked "the Who" because it "had a pop punch". The Who_sentence_49

Daltrey chose "the Who" the next morning. The Who_sentence_50

1964–1978 The Who_section_2

Early career The Who_section_3

By the time the Detours had become the Who, they had already found regular gigs, including at the Oldfield Hotel in Greenford, the White Hart Hotel in Acton, the Goldhawk Social Club in Shepherd's Bush, and the Notre Dame Hall in Leicester Square. The Who_sentence_51

They had also replaced Druce as manager with Helmut Gorden, with whom they secured an audition with Chris Parmeinter for Fontana Records. The Who_sentence_52

Parmeinter found problems with the drumming and, according to Sandom, Townshend immediately turned on him and threatened to fire him if his playing did not immediately improve. The Who_sentence_53

Sandom left in disgust, but was persuaded to lend his kit to any potential stand-ins or replacements. The Who_sentence_54

Sandom and Townshend did not speak to each other again for 14 years. The Who_sentence_55

During a gig with a stand-in drummer in late April at the Oldfield, the band first met Keith Moon. The Who_sentence_56

Moon grew up in Wembley, and had been drumming in bands since 1961. The Who_sentence_57

He was performing with a semi-professional band called the Beachcombers, and wanted to play full-time. The Who_sentence_58

Moon played a few songs with the group, breaking a bass drum pedal and tearing a drum skin. The Who_sentence_59

The band were impressed with his energy and enthusiasm, and offered him the job. The Who_sentence_60

Moon performed with the Beachcombers a few more times, but dates clashed and he chose to devote himself to the Who. The Who_sentence_61

The Beachcombers auditioned Sandom, but were unimpressed and did not ask him to join. The Who_sentence_62

The Who changed managers to Peter Meaden. The Who_sentence_63

He decided that the group would be ideal to represent the growing mod movement in Britain which involved fashion, scooters and music genres such as rhythm and blues, soul and beat. The Who_sentence_64

He renamed the group the High Numbers, dressed them up in mod clothes, secured a second, more favourable audition with Fontana and wrote the lyrics for both sides of their single "Zoot Suit"/"I'm the Face" to appeal to mods. The Who_sentence_65

The tune for "Zoot Suit" was "Misery" by the Dynamics, and "I'm the Face" borrowed from Slim Harpo's "I Got Love If You Want It". The Who_sentence_66

Although Meaden tried to promote the single, it failed to reach the top 50 and the band reverted to calling themselves the Who. The Who_sentence_67

The group – none of whom played their instruments conventionally – began to improve their stage image; Daltrey started using his microphone cable as a whip on stage, and occasionally leapt into the crowd; Moon threw drumsticks into the air mid-beat; Townshend mimed machine-gunning the crowd with his guitar while jumping on stage and playing guitar with a fast arm-windmilling motion, or stood with his arms aloft allowing his guitar to produce feedback in a posture dubbed "the Bird Man". The Who_sentence_68

Meaden was replaced as manager by two filmmakers, Kit Lambert and Chris Stamp. The Who_sentence_69

They were looking for a young, unsigned rock group that they could make a film about, and had seen the band at the Railway Hotel in Wealdstone, which had become a regular venue for them. The Who_sentence_70

Lambert related to Townshend and his art school background, and encouraged him to write songs. The Who_sentence_71

In August, Lambert and Stamp made a promotional film featuring the group and their audience at the Railway. The Who_sentence_72

The band changed their set towards soul, rhythm and blues and Motown covers, and created the slogan "Maximum R&B". The Who_sentence_73

In June 1964, during a performance at the Railway, Townshend accidentally broke the head of his guitar on the low ceiling of the stage. The Who_sentence_74

Angered by the audience's laughter, he smashed the instrument on the stage, then picked up another guitar and continued the show. The Who_sentence_75

The following week, the audience were keen to see a repeat of the event. The Who_sentence_76

Moon obliged by kicking his drum kit over, and auto-destructive art became a feature of the Who's live set. The Who_sentence_77

First singles and My Generation The Who_section_4

By late 1964, the Who were becoming popular in London's Marquee Club, and a rave review of their live act appeared in Melody Maker. The Who_sentence_78

Lambert and Stamp attracted the attention of the American producer Shel Talmy, who had produced the Kinks. The Who_sentence_79

Townshend had written a song, "I Can't Explain", that deliberately sounded like the Kinks to attract Talmy's attention. The Who_sentence_80

Talmy saw the group in rehearsals and was impressed. The Who_sentence_81

He signed them to his production company, and sold the recording to the US arm of Decca Records, which meant that the group's early singles were released in Britain on Brunswick Records, one of UK Decca's labels for US artists. The Who_sentence_82

"I Can't Explain" was recorded in early November 1964 at Pye Studios in Marble Arch with the Ivy League on backing vocals, and Jimmy Page played fuzz guitar on the B-side, "Bald Headed Woman". The Who_sentence_83

"I Can't Explain" became popular with pirate radio stations such as Radio Caroline. The Who_sentence_84

Pirate radio was important for bands as there were no commercial radio stations in the UK and BBC Radio played little pop music. The Who_sentence_85

The group gained further exposure when they appeared on the television programme Ready Steady Go! The Who_sentence_86

Lambert and Stamp were tasked with finding "typical teens", and invited the group's regular audience from the Goldhawk Social Club. The Who_sentence_87

Enthusiastic reception on television and regular airplay on pirate radio helped the single slowly climb the charts in early 1965 until it reached the top 10. The Who_sentence_88

The follow-up single, "Anyway, Anyhow, Anywhere", by Townshend and Daltrey, features guitar noises such as pick sliding, toggle switching and feedback, which was so unconventional that it was initially rejected by the US arm of Decca. The Who_sentence_89

The single reached the top 10 in the UK and was used as the theme song to Ready Steady Go! The Who_sentence_90

The transition to a hit-making band with original material, encouraged by Lambert, did not sit well with Daltrey, and a recording session of R&B covers went unreleased. The Who_sentence_91

The Who were not close friends either, apart from Moon and Entwistle, who enjoyed visiting nightclubs together in the West End of London. The Who_sentence_92

The group experienced a difficult time when touring Denmark in September, which culminated in Daltrey throwing Moon's amphetamines down the toilet and assaulting him. The Who_sentence_93

Immediately on returning to Britain, Daltrey was sacked, but was reinstated on the condition that the group became a democracy without his dominant leadership. The Who_sentence_94

At this time, the group enlisted Richard Cole as a roadie. The Who_sentence_95

The next single, "My Generation", followed in October. The Who_sentence_96

Townshend had written it as a slow blues, but after several abortive attempts, it was turned into a more powerful song with a bass solo from Entwistle. The Who_sentence_97

The song used gimmicks such as a vocal stutter to simulate the speech of a mod on amphetamines, and two key changes. The Who_sentence_98

Townshend insisted in interviews that the lyrics "Hope I die before I get old" were not meant to be taken literally. The Who_sentence_99

Peaking at No. The Who_sentence_100

2, "My Generation" is the group's highest-charting single in the UK. The Who_sentence_101

The self-titled debut album My Generation was released in late 1965. The Who_sentence_102

Among original material by Townshend, including the title track and "The Kids Are Alright", the album has several James Brown covers from the session earlier that year that Daltrey favoured. The Who_sentence_103

After My Generation, the Who fell out with Talmy, which meant an abrupt end to their recording contract. The Who_sentence_104

The resulting legal acrimony resulted in Talmy holding the rights to the master tapes, which prevented the album from being reissued until 2002. The Who_sentence_105

The Who were signed to Robert Stigwood's label, Reaction, and released "Substitute". The Who_sentence_106

Townshend said he wrote the song about identity crisis, and as a parody of the Rolling Stones's "19th Nervous Breakdown". The Who_sentence_107

It was the first single to feature him playing an acoustic twelve-string guitar. The Who_sentence_108

Talmy took legal action over the B-side, "Instant Party", and the single was withdrawn. The Who_sentence_109

A new B-side, "Waltz for a Pig", was recorded by the Graham Bond Organisation under the pseudonym "the Who Orchestra". The Who_sentence_110

In 1966 the Who released "I'm a Boy", about a boy dressed as a girl, taken from an abortive collection of songs called Quads; "Happy Jack"; and an EP, Ready Steady Who, that tied in with their regular appearances on Ready Steady Go! The Who_sentence_111

The group continued to have conflict; on 20 May, Moon and Entwistle were late to a gig having been on the Ready Steady Go! The Who_sentence_112

set with The Beach Boys' Bruce Johnston. The Who_sentence_113

During "My Generation", Townshend attacked Moon with his guitar; Moon suffered a black eye and bruises, and he and Entwistle left the band, but changed their minds and rejoined a week later. The Who_sentence_114

Moon kept looking for other work, and Jeff Beck had him play drums on his song "Beck's Bolero" (with Page, John Paul Jones and Nicky Hopkins) because he was "trying to get Keith out of the Who". The Who_sentence_115

A Quick One and The Who Sell Out The Who_section_5

To alleviate financial pressure on the band, Lambert arranged a song-writing deal which required each member to write two songs for the next album. The Who_sentence_116

Entwistle contributed "Boris the Spider" and "Whiskey Man" and found a niche role as second songwriter. The Who_sentence_117

The band found they needed to fill an extra ten minutes, and Lambert encouraged Townshend to write a longer piece, "A Quick One, While He's Away". The Who_sentence_118

The suite of song fragments is about a girl who has an affair while her lover is away, but is ultimately forgiven. The Who_sentence_119

The album was titled A Quick One (Happy Jack in the US), and reached No. The Who_sentence_120

4 in the UK charts. The Who_sentence_121

It was followed in 1967 by the UK Top 5 single "Pictures of Lily". The Who_sentence_122

By 1966, Ready Steady Go! The Who_sentence_123

had ended, the mod movement was becoming unfashionable, and the Who found themselves in competition on the London circuit with groups including Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience. The Who_sentence_124

Lambert and Stamp realised that commercial success in the US was paramount to the group's future, and arranged a deal with promoter Frank Barsalona for a short package tour in New York. The Who_sentence_125

The group's performances, which still involved smashing guitars and kicking over drums, were well received, and led to their first major US appearance at the Monterey Pop Festival. The Who_sentence_126

The group, especially Moon, were not fond of the hippie movement, and thought their violent stage act would stand in sharp contrast to the peaceful atmosphere of the festival. The Who_sentence_127

Hendrix was also on the bill, and was also going to smash his guitar on stage. The Who_sentence_128

Townshend verbally abused Hendrix and accused him of stealing his act, and the pair argued about who should go on stage first, with the Who winning the argument. The Who_sentence_129

The Who brought hired equipment to the festival; Hendrix shipped over his regular touring gear from Britain, including a full Marshall stack. The Who_sentence_130

According to biographer Tony Fletcher, Hendrix sounded "so much better than the Who it was embarrassing". The Who_sentence_131

The Who's appearance at Monterey gave them recognition in the US, and "Happy Jack" reached the top 30. The Who_sentence_132

The group followed Monterey with a US tour supporting Herman's Hermits. The Who_sentence_133

The Hermits were a straightforward pop band and enjoyed drugs and practical jokes. The Who_sentence_134

They bonded with Moon, who was excited to learn that cherry bombs were legal to purchase in Alabama. The Who_sentence_135

Moon acquired a reputation of destroying hotel rooms while on tour, with a particular interest in blowing up toilets. The Who_sentence_136

Entwistle said the first cherry bomb they tried "blew a hole in the suitcase and the chair". The Who_sentence_137

Moon recalled his first attempt to flush one down the toilet: "[A]ll that porcelain flying through the air was quite unforgettable. The Who_sentence_138

I never realised dynamite was so powerful." The Who_sentence_139

After a gig in Flint, Michigan on Moon's 21st birthday on 23 August 1967, the entourage caused $24,000 of damage at the hotel, and Moon knocked out one of his front teeth. The Who_sentence_140

Daltrey later said that the tour brought the band closer, and as the support act, they could turn up and perform a short show without any major responsibilities. The Who_sentence_141

After the Hermits tour, the Who recorded their next single, "I Can See for Miles", which Townshend had written in 1966 but had avoided recording until he was sure it could be produced well. The Who_sentence_142

Townshend called it "the ultimate Who record", and was disappointed it reached only No. The Who_sentence_143

10 in the UK. The Who_sentence_144

It became their best selling single in the US, reaching No. The Who_sentence_145

9. The Who_sentence_146

The group toured the US again with Eric Burdon and the Animals, including an appearance on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, miming to "I Can See For Miles" and "My Generation". The Who_sentence_147

Moon bribed a stage hand to put explosives in his drum kit, who loaded it with ten times the expected quantity. The Who_sentence_148

The resulting detonation threw Moon off his drum riser and his arm was cut by flying cymbal shrapnel. The Who_sentence_149

Townshend's hair was singed and his left ear left ringing, and a camera and studio monitor were destroyed. The Who_sentence_150

The next album was The Who Sell Out – a concept album paying tribute to pirate radio, which had been outlawed in August 1967 by the Marine, &c., Broadcasting (Offences) Act 1967. The Who_sentence_151

It included humorous jingles and mock commercials between songs, a mini rock opera called "Rael", and "I Can See For Miles". The Who_sentence_152

The Who declared themselves a pop art group and thus viewed advertising as an artform; they recorded a wide variety of radio advertisements, such as for canned milkshakes and the American Cancer Society, in defiance of the rising anti-consumerist ethos of the hippie counterculture. The Who_sentence_153

Townshend stated, "We don't change offstage. The Who_sentence_154

We live pop art." The Who_sentence_155

Later that year, Lambert and Stamp formed a record label, Track Records, with distribution by Polydor. The Who_sentence_156

As well as signing Hendrix, Track became the imprint for all the Who's UK output until the mid-1970s. The Who_sentence_157

The group started 1968 by touring Australia and New Zealand with the Small Faces. The Who_sentence_158

The groups had trouble with the local authorities and the New Zealand Truth called them "unwashed, foul-smelling, booze-swilling no-hopers". The Who_sentence_159

After an incident that took place on a flight to Sydney, the band were briefly arrested in Melbourne and then forced to leave the country; Prime Minister John Gorton sent a telegram to The Who telling them never to return to Australia. The Who_sentence_160

The Who would not return to Australia again until 2004. The Who_sentence_161

They continued to tour across the US and Canada during the first half of the year. The Who_sentence_162

Tommy, Woodstock, Isle of Wight and Live at Leeds The Who_section_6

By 1968 the Who had started to attract attention in the underground press. The Who_sentence_163

Townshend had stopped using drugs and became interested in the teachings of Meher Baba. The Who_sentence_164

In August, he gave an interview to Rolling Stone editor Jann Wenner describing in detail the plot of a new album project and its relationship to Baba's teachings. The Who_sentence_165

The album went through several names during recording, including Deaf Dumb and Blind Boy and Amazing Journey; Townshend settled on Tommy for the album about the life of a deaf, dumb and blind boy, and his attempt to communicate with others. The Who_sentence_166

Some songs, such as "Welcome" and "Amazing Journey", were inspired by Baba's teaching, and others came from observations within the band. The Who_sentence_167

"Sally Simpson" is about a fan who tried to climb on stage at a gig by the Doors that they attended and "Pinball Wizard" was written so that New York Times journalist Nik Cohn, a pinball enthusiast, would give the album a good review. The Who_sentence_168

Townshend later said, "I wanted the story of Tommy to have several levels ... a rock singles level and a bigger concept level", containing the spiritual message he wanted as well as being entertaining. The Who_sentence_169

The album was projected for a Christmas 1968 release but recording stalled after Townshend decided to make a double album to cover the story in sufficient depth. The Who_sentence_170

By the end of the year, 18 months of touring had led to a well-rehearsed and tight live band, which was evident when they performed "A Quick One While He's Away" at The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus television special. The Who_sentence_171

The Stones considered their own performance lacklustre, and the project was never broadcast. The Who_sentence_172

The Who had not released an album in over a year, and had not completed the recording of Tommy, which continued well into 1969, interspersed with gigs at weekends. The Who_sentence_173

Lambert was a key figure in keeping the group focused and getting the album completed, and typed up a script to help them understand the story and how the songs fitted together. The Who_sentence_174

The album was released in May with the accompanying single, "Pinball Wizard", a début performance at Ronnie Scott's, and a tour, playing most of the new album live. The Who_sentence_175

Tommy sold 200,000 copies in the US in its first two weeks, and was a critical smash, Life saying, "for sheer power, invention and brilliance of performance, Tommy outstrips anything which has ever come out of a recording studio". The Who_sentence_176

Melody Maker declared: "Surely the Who are now the band against which all others are to be judged." The Who_sentence_177

Daltrey had significantly improved as a singer, and set a template for rock singers in the 1970s by growing his hair long and wearing open shirts on stage. The Who_sentence_178

Townshend had taken to wearing a boiler suit and Doctor Martens shoes. The Who_sentence_179

In August, the Who performed at the Woodstock Festival, despite being reluctant and demanding $13,000 up front. The Who_sentence_180

The group were scheduled to appear on Saturday night, 16 August, but the festival ran late and they did not take to the stage until 5 am on Sunday; they played most of Tommy. The Who_sentence_181

During their performance, Yippie leader Abbie Hoffman interrupted the set to give a political speech about the arrest of John Sinclair; Townshend kicked him off stage, shouting: "Fuck off my fucking stage!" The Who_sentence_182

During "See Me, Feel Me", the sun rose almost as if on cue; Entwistle later said, "God was our lighting man". The Who_sentence_183

At the end, Townshend threw his guitar into the audience. The Who_sentence_184

The set was professionally recorded and filmed, and portions appear on the Woodstock film, The Old Grey Whistle Test and The Kids Are Alright. The Who_sentence_185

Woodstock has been regarded as culturally significant, but the Who were critical of the event. The Who_sentence_186

Roadie John "Wiggie" Wolff, who arranged the band's payment, described it as "a shambles". The Who_sentence_187

Daltrey declared it as "the worst gig [they] ever played" and Townshend said, "I thought the whole of America had gone mad." The Who_sentence_188

A more enjoyable appearance came a few weeks later at the 1969 Isle of Wight Festival in England, which Townshend described as "a great concert for" the band. The Who_sentence_189

According to Townshend, at the end of the Isle of Wight gig the field was covered in rubbish left by fans (which the band's roadies helped to clear up), which inspired the line "teenage wasteland" from their single "Baba O'Riley". The Who_sentence_190

By 1970, the Who were widely considered one of the best and most popular live rock bands; Chris Charlesworth described their concerts as "leading to a kind of rock nirvana that most bands can only dream about". The Who_sentence_191

They decided a live album would help demonstrate how different the sound at their gigs was to Tommy, and set about listening to the hours of recordings they had accumulated. The Who_sentence_192

Townshend baulked at the prospect of doing so, and demanded that all the tapes be burned. The Who_sentence_193

Instead, they booked two shows, one in Leeds on 14 February, and one in Hull the following day, with the intention of recording a live album. The Who_sentence_194

Technical problems from the Hull gig resulted in the Leeds gig being used, which became Live at Leeds. The Who_sentence_195

The album is viewed by several critics including The Independent, The Telegraph and the BBC, as one of the best live rock albums of all time. The Who_sentence_196

The Tommy tour included shows in European opera houses and saw the Who become the first rock act to play at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. The Who_sentence_197

In March the Who released the UK top 20 hit "The Seeker", continuing a theme of issuing singles separate to albums. The Who_sentence_198

Townshend wrote the song to commemorate the common man, as a contrast to the themes on Tommy. The Who_sentence_199

The tour included their second appearance at the Isle of Wight Festival. The Who_sentence_200

A record attendance in England which the Guinness Book of Records estimated at between 600,000 and 700,000 people, the Who began their set at 2:00 A.M. on Sunday 30 August. The Who_sentence_201

Lifehouse and Who's Next The Who_section_7

Tommy secured the Who's future, and made them millionaires. The Who_sentence_202

The group reacted in different ways – Daltrey and Entwistle lived comfortably, Townshend was embarrassed at his wealth, which he felt was at odds with Meher Baba's ideals, and Moon spent frivolously. The Who_sentence_203

During the latter part of 1970, Townshend plotted a follow up Tommy: Lifehouse, which was to be a multi-media project symbolising the relationship between an artist and his audience. The Who_sentence_204

He developed ideas in his home studio, creating layers of synthesizers, and the Young Vic theatre in London was booked for a series of experimental concerts. The Who_sentence_205

Townshend approached the gigs with optimism; the rest of the band were just happy to be gigging again. The Who_sentence_206

Eventually, the others complained to Townshend that the project was too complicated and they should simply record another album. The Who_sentence_207

Things deteriorated until Townshend had a nervous breakdown and abandoned Lifehouse. The Who_sentence_208

Entwistle was the first member of the group to release a solo album, Smash Your Head Against the Wall, in May 1971. The Who_sentence_209

Recording at the Record Plant in New York City in March 1971 was abandoned when Lambert's addiction to hard drugs interfered with his ability to produce. The Who_sentence_210

The group restarted with Glyn Johns in April. The Who_sentence_211

The album was mostly Lifehouse material, with one unrelated song by Entwistle, "My Wife", and was released as Who's Next in August. The Who_sentence_212

The album reached No. The Who_sentence_213

1 in the UK and No. The Who_sentence_214

4 in the US. The Who_sentence_215

"Baba O'Riley" and "Won't Get Fooled Again" are early examples of synthesizer use in rock, featuring keyboard sounds generated in real time by a Lowrey organ; on "Won't Get Fooled Again", it was further processed through a VCS3 synthesizer. The Who_sentence_216

The synthesizer intro to "Baba O'Riley" was programmed based on Meher Baba's vital stats, and the track featured a violin solo by Dave Arbus. The Who_sentence_217

The album was a critical and commercial success, and has been certified 3x platinum by the RIAA. The Who_sentence_218

The Who continued to issue Lifehouse-related material over the next few years, including the singles "Let's See Action", "Join Together" and "Relay". The Who_sentence_219

The band went back on tour, and "Baba O' Riley" and "Won't Get Fooled Again" became live favourites. The Who_sentence_220

In November they performed at the newly opened Rainbow Theatre in London for three nights, continuing in the US later that month, where Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times described the Who as "the Greatest Show on Earth". The Who_sentence_221

The tour was slightly disrupted at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco on 12 December when Moon passed out over his kit after overdosing on brandy and barbiturates. The Who_sentence_222

He recovered and completed the gig, playing to his usual strength. The Who_sentence_223

Quadrophenia, Tommy film and The Who by Numbers The Who_section_8

After touring Who's Next, and needing time to write a follow-up, Townshend insisted that the Who take a lengthy break, as they had not stopped touring since the band started. The Who_sentence_224

There was no group activity until May 1972, when they started working on a proposed new album, Rock Is Dead—Long Live Rock! The Who_sentence_225 , but, unhappy with the recordings, abandoned the sessions. The Who_sentence_226

Tensions began to emerge as Townshend believed Daltrey just wanted a money-making band and Daltrey thought Townshend's projects were getting pretentious. The Who_sentence_227

Moon's behaviour was becoming increasingly destructive and problematic through excessive drinking and drugs use, and a desire to party and tour. The Who_sentence_228

Daltrey performed an audit of the group's finances and discovered that Lambert and Stamp had not kept sufficient records. The Who_sentence_229

He believed them to be no longer effective managers, which Townshend and Moon disputed. The Who_sentence_230

The painful dissolution of the managerial and personal relationships are recounted in James D. Cooper's 2014 retrospective documentary, Lambert & Stamp. The Who_sentence_231

Following a short European tour, the remainder of 1972 was spent working on an orchestral version of Tommy with Lou Reizner. The Who_sentence_232

By 1973, the Who turned to recording the album Quadrophenia about mod and its subculture, set against clashes with Rockers in early 1960s Britain. The Who_sentence_233

The story is about a boy named Jimmy, who undergoes a personality crisis, and his relationship with his family, friends and mod culture. The Who_sentence_234

The music features four themes, reflecting the four personalities of the Who. The Who_sentence_235

Townshend played multi-tracked synthesizers, and Entwistle played several overdubbed horn parts. The Who_sentence_236

By the time the album was being recorded, relationships between the band and Lambert and Stamp had broken down irreparably, and Bill Curbishley replaced them. The Who_sentence_237

The album reached No. The Who_sentence_238

2 in both the UK and US. The Who_sentence_239

The Quadrophenia tour started in Stoke on Trent in October and was immediately beset with problems. The Who_sentence_240

Daltrey resisted Townshend's wish to add Joe Cocker's keyboardist Chris Stainton (who played on the album) to the touring band. The Who_sentence_241

As a compromise, Townshend assembled the keyboard and synthesizer parts on backing tapes, as such a strategy had been successful with "Baba O'Riley" and "Won't Get Fooled Again". The Who_sentence_242

Unfortunately, the technology was not sophisticated enough to deal with the demands of the music; added to this issue, tour rehearsals had been interrupted due to an argument that culminated in Daltrey punching Townshend and knocking him out cold. The Who_sentence_243

At a gig in Newcastle, the tapes completely malfunctioned, and an enraged Townshend dragged sound-man Bob Pridden on-stage, screamed at him, kicked all the amps over and partially destroyed the backing tapes. The Who_sentence_244

The show was abandoned for an "oldies" set, at the end of which Townshend smashed his guitar and Moon kicked over his drumkit. The Who_sentence_245

The Independent described this gig as one of the worst of all time. The Who_sentence_246

The US tour started on 20 November at the Cow Palace in Daly City, California; Moon passed out during "Won't Get Fooled Again" and during "Magic Bus". The Who_sentence_247

Townshend asked the audience, "Can anyone play the drums? The Who_sentence_248

– I mean somebody good." The Who_sentence_249

An audience member, Scot Halpin, filled in for the rest of the show. The Who_sentence_250

After a show in Montreal, the band (except for Daltrey, who retired to bed early) caused so much damage to their hotel room, including destroying an antique painting and ramming a marble table through a wall, that federal law enforcement arrested them. The Who_sentence_251

By 1974, work had begun in earnest on a Tommy film. The Who_sentence_252

Stigwood suggested Ken Russell as director, whose previous work Townshend had admired. The Who_sentence_253

The film featured a star-studded cast, including the band members. The Who_sentence_254

David Essex auditioned for the title role, but the band persuaded Daltrey to take it. The Who_sentence_255

The cast included Ann-Margret, Oliver Reed, Eric Clapton, Tina Turner, Elton John and Jack Nicholson. The Who_sentence_256

Townshend and Entwistle worked on the soundtrack for most of the year, handling the bulk of the instrumentation. The Who_sentence_257

Moon had moved to Los Angeles, so they used session drummers, including Kenney Jones. The Who_sentence_258

Elton John used his own band for "Pinball Wizard". The Who_sentence_259

Filming was from April until August. The Who_sentence_260

1500 extras appeared in the "Pinball Wizard" sequence. The Who_sentence_261

The film premiered on 18 March 1975 to a standing ovation. The Who_sentence_262

Townshend was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Score. The Who_sentence_263

Tommy was shown at the 1975 Cannes Film Festival, but not in the main competition. The Who_sentence_264

It won the award for Rock Movie of the Year in the First Annual Rock Music Awards and generated over $2 million in its first month. The Who_sentence_265

The soundtrack reached number two on the Billboard charts. The Who_sentence_266

Work on Tommy took up most of 1974, and live performances by the Who were restricted to a show in May at the Valley, the home of Charlton Athletic, in front of 80,000 fans, and a few dates at Madison Square Garden in June. The Who_sentence_267

Towards the end of the year, the group released the out-takes album Odds & Sods, which featured several songs from the aborted Lifehouse project. The Who_sentence_268

In 1975, Daltrey and Townshend disagreed about the band's future and criticised each other via interviews in the music paper New Musical Express. The Who_sentence_269

Daltrey was grateful that the Who had saved him from a career as a sheet-metal worker and was unhappy at Townshend not playing well; Townshend felt the commitment of the group prevented him from releasing solo material. The Who_sentence_270

The next album, The Who by Numbers, had introspective songs from Townshend that dealt with disillusionment such as "However Much I Booze" and "How Many Friends"; they resembled his later solo work. The Who_sentence_271

Entwistle's "Success Story" gave a humorous look at the music industry, and "Squeeze Box" was a hit single. The Who_sentence_272

The group toured from October, playing little new material and few Quadrophenia numbers, and reintroducing several from Tommy. The Who_sentence_273

The American leg of the tour began in Houston to a crowd of 18,000 at The Summit Arena, and was supported by Toots and the Maytals. The Who_sentence_274

On 6 December 1975, the Who set the record for largest indoor concert at the Pontiac Silverdome, attended by 78,000. The Who_sentence_275

On 31 May 1976, they played a second concert at the Valley which was listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the world's loudest concert at over 120 dB. The Who_sentence_276

Townshend had become fed up of touring but Entwistle considered live performance to be at a peak. The Who_sentence_277

Who Are You and Moon's death The Who_section_9

After the 1976 tour, Townshend took most of the following year off to spend time with his family. The Who_sentence_278

He discovered that former Beatles and Rolling Stones manager Allen Klein had bought a stake in his publishing company. The Who_sentence_279

A settlement was reached, but Townshend was upset and disillusioned that Klein had attempted to take ownership of his songs. The Who_sentence_280

Townshend went to the Speakeasy where he met the Sex Pistols' Steve Jones and Paul Cook, fans of the Who. The Who_sentence_281

After leaving, he passed out in a doorway, where a policeman said he would not be arrested if he could stand and walk. The Who_sentence_282

The events inspired the title track of the next album, Who Are You. The Who_sentence_283

The group reconvened in September 1977, but Townshend announced there would be no live performances for the immediate future, a decision that Daltrey endorsed. The Who_sentence_284

By this point, Moon was so unhealthy that the Who conceded it would be difficult for him to cope with touring. The Who_sentence_285

The only gig that year was an informal show on 15 December at the Gaumont State Cinema in Kilburn, London, filmed for the documentary The Kids Are Alright. The Who_sentence_286

The band had not played for 14 months, and their performance was so weak that the footage was unused. The Who_sentence_287

Moon's playing was particularly lacklustre and he had gained a lot of weight, though Daltrey later said, "even at his worst, Keith Moon was amazing." The Who_sentence_288

Recording of Who Are You started in January 1978. The Who_sentence_289

Daltrey clashed with Johns over the production of his vocals, and Moon's drumming was so poor that Daltrey and Entwistle considered firing him. The Who_sentence_290

Moon's playing improved, but on one track, "Music Must Change", he was replaced as he could not play in 6/8 time. The Who_sentence_291

In May, the Who filmed another performance at Shepperton Sound Studios for The Kids Are Alright. The Who_sentence_292

This performance was strong, and several tracks were used in the film. The Who_sentence_293

It was the last gig Moon performed with the Who. The Who_sentence_294

The album was released on 18 August, and became their biggest and fastest seller to date, peaking at No. The Who_sentence_295

6 in the UK and No. The Who_sentence_296

2 in the US. The Who_sentence_297

Instead of touring, Daltrey, Townshend and Moon did a series of promotional television interviews, and Entwistle worked on the soundtrack for The Kids Are Alright. The Who_sentence_298

On 6 September, Moon attended a party held by Paul McCartney to celebrate Buddy Holly's birthday. The Who_sentence_299

Returning to his flat, Moon took 32 tablets of clomethiazole which had been prescribed to combat his alcohol withdrawal. The Who_sentence_300

He passed out the following morning and was discovered dead later that day. The Who_sentence_301

1978–1983 The Who_section_10

The day after Moon's death, Townshend issued the statement: "We are more determined than ever to carry on, and we want the spirit of the group to which Keith contributed so much to go on, although no human being can ever take his place." The Who_sentence_302

Drummer Phil Collins, having a temporary break from Genesis after his first marriage had failed, was at a loose end and asked to replace Moon, but Townshend had already asked Kenney Jones, who had previously played with the Small Faces and Faces. The Who_sentence_303

Jones officially joined the band in November 1978. The Who_sentence_304

John "Rabbit" Bundrick joined the live band as an unofficial keyboardist. The Who_sentence_305

On 2 May 1979, the Who returned to the stage with a concert at the Rainbow Theatre, followed by the Cannes Film Festival in France and dates at Madison Square Garden in New York. The Who_sentence_306

The Quadrophenia film was released that year. The Who_sentence_307

It was directed by Franc Roddam in his feature-directing début, and had straightforward acting rather than musical numbers as in Tommy. The Who_sentence_308

John Lydon was considered for Jimmy, but the role went to Phil Daniels. The Who_sentence_309

Sting played Jimmy's friend and fellow mod, the Ace Face. The Who_sentence_310

The soundtrack was Jones' first appearance on a Who record, performing on newly written material not on the original album. The Who_sentence_311

The film was a critical and box office success in the UK and appealed to the growing mod revival movement. The Who_sentence_312

The Jam were influenced by the Who, and critics noticed a similarity between Townshend and the group's leader, Paul Weller. The Who_sentence_313

The Kids Are Alright was also completed in 1979. The Who_sentence_314

It was a retrospective of the band's career, directed by Jeff Stein. The Who_sentence_315

The film included footage of the band at Monterey, Woodstock and Pontiac, and clips from the Smothers Brothers' show and Russell Harty Plus. The Who_sentence_316

Moon had died one week after seeing the rough cut with Daltrey. The Who_sentence_317

The film contains the Shepperton concert, and an audio track of him playing over silent footage of himself was the last time he ever played the drums. The Who_sentence_318

In December, the Who became the third band, after the Beatles and the Band, to appear on the cover of Time. The Who_sentence_319

The article, by Jay Cocks, said the band had outpaced, outlasted, outlived and outclassed all of their rock band contemporaries. The Who_sentence_320

Cincinnati tragedy The Who_section_11

Main article: The Who concert disaster The Who_sentence_321

On 3 December 1979, a crowd crush at a Who gig at the Riverfront Coliseum, Cincinnati killed 11 fans. The Who_sentence_322

This was partly due to the festival seating, where the first to enter get the best positions. The Who_sentence_323

Some fans waiting outside mistook the band's soundcheck for the concert, and attempted to force their way inside. The Who_sentence_324

As only a few entrance doors were opened, a bottleneck situation ensued with thousands trying to gain entry, and the crush became deadly. The Who_sentence_325

The Who were not told until after the show because civic authorities feared crowd problems if the concert were cancelled. The Who_sentence_326

The band were deeply shaken upon learning of it and requested that appropriate safety precautions be taken in the future. The Who_sentence_327

The following evening, in Buffalo, New York, Daltrey told the crowd that the band had "lost a lot of family last night and this show's for them". The Who_sentence_328

Change and break-up The Who_section_12

Daltrey took a break in 1980 to work on the film McVicar, in which he took the lead role of bank robber John McVicar. The Who_sentence_329

The soundtrack album is a Daltrey solo album, though all members of the Who are included in the supporting musicians, and was his most successful solo release. The Who_sentence_330

The Who released two studio albums with Jones as drummer, Face Dances (1981) and It's Hard (1982). The Who_sentence_331

Face Dances produced a US top 20 and UK top ten hit with the single "You Better You Bet", whose video was one of the first shown on MTV. The Who_sentence_332

Both Face Dances and It's Hard sold well and the latter received a five-star review in Rolling Stone. The Who_sentence_333

The single "Eminence Front" from It's Hard was a hit, and became a regular at live shows. The Who_sentence_334

By this time Townshend had fallen into depression, wondering if he was no longer a visionary. The Who_sentence_335

He was again at odds with Daltrey and Entwistle, who merely wanted to tour and play hits and thought Townshend had saved his best songs for his solo album, Empty Glass (1980). The Who_sentence_336

Jones' drumming style was very different from Moon's and this drew criticism within the band. The Who_sentence_337

Townshend briefly became addicted to heroin before cleaning up early in 1982 after treatment with Meg Patterson. The Who_sentence_338

Townshend wanted the Who to stop touring and become a studio act; Entwistle threatened to quit, saying, "I don't intend to get off the road ... there's not much I can do about it except hope they change their minds." The Who_sentence_339

Townshend did not change his mind, and so the Who embarked on a farewell tour of the US and Canada with the Clash as support, ending in Toronto on 17 December 1982. The Who_sentence_340

Townshend spent part of 1983 writing material for a Who studio album owed to Warner Bros. Records from a contract in 1980, but he found himself unable to generate music appropriate for the Who and at the end of 1983 paid for himself and Jones to be released from the contract. The Who_sentence_341

On 16 December 1983, Townshend announced at a press conference that he was leaving the Who, effectively ending the band. The Who_sentence_342

After the Who break-up, Townshend focused on solo albums such as White City: A Novel (1985), The Iron Man (1989, featuring Daltrey and Entwistle and two songs credited to the Who), and Psychoderelict (1993). The Who_sentence_343

Reunions The Who_section_13

In July 1985, the Who performed at Live Aid at Wembley Stadium, London. The Who_sentence_344

The BBC transmission truck blew a fuse during the set, temporarily interrupting the broadcast. The Who_sentence_345

At the 1988 Brit Awards, at the Royal Albert Hall, the band were given the British Phonographic Industry's Lifetime Achievement Award. The Who_sentence_346

The short set they played there was the last time Jones played with the Who. The Who_sentence_347

1989 tour The Who_section_14

In 1989, the band embarked on a 25th-anniversary The Kids Are Alright reunion tour with Simon Phillips on drums and Steve "Boltz" Bolton as a second guitarist. The Who_sentence_348

Townshend had announced in 1987 that he suffered from tinnitus and alternated acoustic, rhythm and lead guitar to preserve his hearing. The Who_sentence_349

Their two shows at Sullivan Stadium in Foxborough, Massachusetts, sold 100,000 tickets in less than eight hours, beating previous records set there by U2 and David Bowie. The Who_sentence_350

The tour was briefly marred at a gig in Tacoma, Washington, where Townshend injured his arm on-stage. The Who_sentence_351

Some critics disliked the tour's over-produced and expanded line-up, calling it "The Who on Ice"; Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic said the tour "tarnished the reputation of the Who almost irreparably". The Who_sentence_352

The tour included most of Tommy and included such guests as Phil Collins, Billy Idol and Elton John. The Who_sentence_353

A 2-CD live album, Join Together, was released in 1990. The Who_sentence_354

Partial reunions The Who_section_15

In 1990, the Who were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The Who_sentence_355

The group have a featured collection in the hall's museum, including one of Moon's velvet suits, a Warwick bass of Entwistle's, and a drumhead from 1968. The Who_sentence_356

In 1991, the Who recorded a cover of Elton John's "Saturday Night's Alright for Fighting" for the tribute album Two Rooms: Celebrating the Songs of Elton John & Bernie Taupin. The Who_sentence_357

It was the last studio recording to feature Entwistle. The Who_sentence_358

In 1994, Daltrey turned 50 and celebrated with two concerts at New York's Carnegie Hall. The Who_sentence_359

The shows included guest spots by Entwistle and Townshend. The Who_sentence_360

Although all three surviving original members of the Who attended, they appeared on stage together only during the finale, "Join Together", with the other guests. The Who_sentence_361

Daltrey toured that year with Entwistle, Zak Starkey on drums and Simon Townshend filling in for his brother as guitarist. The Who_sentence_362

Re-formation The Who_section_16

Revival of Quadrophenia The Who_section_17

In 1996, Townshend, Entwistle and Daltrey performed Quadrophenia with guests and Starkey on drums at Hyde Park. The Who_sentence_363

The performance was narrated by Daniels, who had played Jimmy in the 1979 film. The Who_sentence_364

Despite technical difficulties the show led to a six-night residency at Madison Square Garden and a US and European tour through 1996 and 1997. The Who_sentence_365

Townshend played mostly acoustic guitar, but eventually was persuaded to play some electric. The Who_sentence_366

In 1998, VH1 ranked the Who ninth in their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of Rock 'n' Roll". The Who_sentence_367

Charity shows and Entwistle's death The Who_section_18

In late 1999, the Who performed as a five-piece for the first time since 1985, with Bundrick on keyboards and Starkey on drums. The Who_sentence_368

The first show in Las Vegas at the MGM Grand Garden Arena was partially broadcast on TV and the Internet and released as the DVD The Vegas Job. The Who_sentence_369

They then performed acoustic shows at Neil Young's Bridge School Benefit at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, California, followed by gigs at the House of Blues in Chicago and two Christmas charity shows at the Shepherds Bush Empire in London. The Who_sentence_370

Critics were delighted to see a rejuvenated band with a basic line-up comparable to the tours of the 1960s and 1970s. The Who_sentence_371

Andy Greene in Rolling Stone called the 1999 tour better than the final one with Moon in 1976. The Who_sentence_372

The band toured the US and UK from June to October 2000, to generally favourable reviews, culminating in a charity show at the Royal Albert Hall for the Teenage Cancer Trust with guest performances from Paul Weller, Eddie Vedder, Noel Gallagher, Bryan Adams and Nigel Kennedy. The Who_sentence_373

Stephen Tomas Erlewine described the gig as "an exceptional reunion concert". The Who_sentence_374

In October 2001 the band performed the Concert for New York City at Madison Square Garden for families of firefighters and police who had lost their lives following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center; with Forbes describing their performance as a "catharsis" for the law enforcement in attendance. The Who_sentence_375

Earlier that year the hand were honoured with a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The Who_sentence_376

The Who played concerts in the UK in early 2002 in preparation for a full US tour. The Who_sentence_377

On 27 June, the day before the first date, Entwistle was found dead of a heart attack at 57 at the Hard Rock Hotel in Las Vegas. The Who_sentence_378

Cocaine was a contributing factor. The Who_sentence_379

After Entwistle: Tours and Endless Wire The Who_section_19

Entwistle's son, Christopher, gave a statement supporting the Who's decision to carry on. The Who_sentence_380

The US tour began at the Hollywood Bowl with touring bassist Pino Palladino. The Who_sentence_381

Townshend dedicated the show to Entwistle, and ended with a montage of pictures of him. The Who_sentence_382

The tour lasted until September. The Who_sentence_383

The loss of a founding member of the Who caused Townshend to re-evaluate his relationship with Daltrey, which had been strained over the band's career. The Who_sentence_384

He decided their friendship was important, and this ultimately led to writing and recording new material. The Who_sentence_385

To combat bootlegging, in 2002 the band began to release the Encore Series of official soundboard recordings via The Who_sentence_386

An official statement read: "to satisfy this demand they have agreed to release their own official recordings to benefit worthy causes". The Who_sentence_387

In 2004, the Who released "Old Red Wine" and "Real Good Looking Boy" (with Palladino and Greg Lake, respectively, on bass) on a singles anthology, The Who: Then and Now, and went on an 18-date tour of Japan, Australia, the UK and the US, including a return appearance at the Isle of Wight. The Who_sentence_388

Later that year, Rolling Stone ranked the Who No. The Who_sentence_389

29 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. The Who_sentence_390

The Who announced in 2005 that they were working on a new album. The Who_sentence_391

Townshend posted a novella called The Boy Who Heard Music on his blog, which developed into a mini-opera called Wire & Glass, forming the basis for the album. The Who_sentence_392

Endless Wire, released in 2006, was the first full studio album of new material since 1982's It's Hard and contained the band's first mini-opera since "Rael" in 1967. The Who_sentence_393

The album reached No. The Who_sentence_394

7 in the US and No. The Who_sentence_395

9 in the UK. The Who_sentence_396

Starkey was invited to join Oasis in April 2006 and the Who in November 2006, but he declined and split his time between the two. The Who_sentence_397

In November 2007, the documentary Amazing Journey: The Story of The Who was released, featuring unreleased footage of the 1970 Leeds appearance and a 1964 performance at the Railway Hotel when the group were The High Numbers. The Who_sentence_398

Amazing Journey was nominated for a 2009 Grammy Award. The Who_sentence_399

The Who toured in support of Endless Wire, including the BBC Electric Proms at the Roundhouse in London in 2006, headlining the 2007 Glastonbury Festival, a half-time appearance at the Super Bowl XLIV in 2010 and being the final act at the closing ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games. The Who_sentence_400

In November 2012, the Who released Live at Hull, an album of the band's performance the night after the Live at Leeds gig. The Who_sentence_401

Quadrophenia and More The Who_section_20

Main article: Quadrophenia and More The Who_sentence_402

In 2010, the Who performed Quadrophenia with parts played by Vedder and Tom Meighan at the Royal Albert Hall as part of the Teenage Cancer Trust series of 10 gigs. The Who_sentence_403

A planned tour for early 2010 was jeopardised by the return of Townshend's tinnitus. The Who_sentence_404

He experimented with an in-ear monitoring system that was recommended by Neil Young and his audiologist. The Who_sentence_405

The Quadrophenia and More tour started in November 2012 in Ottawa with keyboardists John Corey, Loren Gold and Frank Simes, the last of whom was also musical director. The Who_sentence_406

In February 2013, Starkey pulled a tendon and was replaced for a gig by Scott Devours, who performed with less than four hours' notice. The Who_sentence_407

The tour moved to Europe and the UK, and ended at the Wembley Arena in July 2013. The Who_sentence_408

The Who Hits 50! and beyond The Who_section_21

In October 2013, Townshend announced the Who would stage their final tour in 2015, performing in locations they have never played before. The Who_sentence_409

Daltrey clarified that the tour was unrelated to the band's 50th anniversary and indicated that he and Townshend were considering recording new material. The Who_sentence_410

Daltrey stated, "We can't go on touring forever ... it could be open-ended, but it will have a finality to it." The Who_sentence_411

Jones reunited with the Who in June 2014 at a charity gig for Prostate Cancer UK his Hurtwood Polo Club, alongside Jeff Beck, Procol Harum and Mike Rutherford. The Who_sentence_412

Later that month, the Who announced plans for a world tour with a possible accompanying album. The Who_sentence_413

In September, the Who released the song "Be Lucky", which was included on the compilation The Who Hits 50! The Who_sentence_414

in October. The Who_sentence_415

That November, the group released a virtual reality app co-designed by Daltrey's son, Jamie, featuring events and images from the band's history. The Who_sentence_416

The Who headlined 2015's Hyde Park Festival in June, and two days later, the Glastonbury Festival. The Who_sentence_417

Townshend suggested to Mojo that it could be the group's last UK gig. The Who_sentence_418

To coincide with The Who's 50th anniversary, all studio albums, including the new compilation, The Who Hits 50!, were reissued on vinyl. The Who_sentence_419

In September 2015, all remaining US tour dates were cancelled after Daltrey contracted viral meningitis. The Who_sentence_420

Then Townshend promised the band would come back "stronger than ever". The Who_sentence_421

The Who embarked on the Back to the Who Tour 51! The Who_sentence_422

in 2016, a continuation of the previous year's tour. The Who_sentence_423

This included a return visit to the Isle of Wight Festival (at the Seaclose Park in Newport) on the 11 June opening date. The Who_sentence_424

After 13 concerts, it concluded with a performance at the Desert Trip festival at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, California on 16 October. The Who_sentence_425

In November, The Who announced that five UK dates the following April (previously scheduled for that August and September) would include a full live performance of Tommy. The Who_sentence_426

The five-date tour was renamed "2017 Tommy & More" and included the largest selections from the album since 1989. The Who_sentence_427

Two preliminary concerts at the Royal Albert Hall for the Teenage Cancer Trust on 30 March and 1 April featured Tommy in full. The Who_sentence_428

In January 2019, the band announced the Moving On! The Who_sentence_429 Tour. The Who_sentence_430

The tour began on 7 May in Grand Rapids, Michigan, but was interrupted during a show at Houston, Texas in September 2019 Houston after Daltrey lost his voice. The Who_sentence_431

The COVID-19 pandemic put the remainder of the tour on hold. The Who_sentence_432

A new album titled Who was released on 6 December. The Who_sentence_433

Musical style and equipment The Who_section_22

See also: The Who's musical equipment The Who_sentence_434

The Who have been regarded primarily as a rock band, yet have taken influence from several other styles of music during their career. The Who_sentence_435

The original group played a mixture of trad jazz and contemporary pop hits as the Detours, and R&B in 1963. The Who_sentence_436

The group move to a mod sound the following year, particularly after hearing the Small Faces fuse Motown with a harsher R&B sound. The Who_sentence_437

The group's early work was geared towards singles, though it was not straightforward pop. The Who_sentence_438

In 1967, Townshend coined the term "power pop" to describe the Who's style. The Who_sentence_439

Like their contemporaries, the group were influenced by the arrival of Hendrix, particularly after the Who and the Experience met at Monterey. The Who_sentence_440

This and lengthy touring strengthened the band's sound. The Who_sentence_441

In the studio, they began to develop softer pieces, particularly from Tommy onwards, and turned their attention towards albums more than singles. The Who_sentence_442

From the early 1970s, the band's sound included synthesizers, particularly on Who's Next and Quadrophenia. The Who_sentence_443

Although groups had used synthesizers before, the Who were one of the first to integrate the sound into a basic rock structure. The Who_sentence_444

In By Numbers the group's style had scaled back to more standard rock, but synthesisers regained prominence on Face Dances. The Who_sentence_445

Townshend and Entwistle were instrumental in making extreme volumes and distortion standard rock practices. The Who_sentence_446

The Who were early adopters of Marshall Amplification. The Who_sentence_447

Entwistle was the first member to get two 4×12 speaker cabinets, quickly followed by Townshend. The Who_sentence_448

The group used feedback as part of their guitar sound, both live and in the studio. The Who_sentence_449

In 1967, Townshend changed to using Sound City amplifiers, customised by Dave Reeves, then in 1970 to Hiwatt. The Who_sentence_450

The group were the first to use a 1000 watt PA systems for live gigs, which led to competition from bands such as the Rolling Stones and Pink Floyd. The Who_sentence_451

Throughout their careers, the members of the Who have said their live sound has never been captured as they wished on record. The Who_sentence_452

Live gigs and the audience have always been important to the group. The Who_sentence_453

"Irish" Jack Lyons said, "The Who weren't a joke, they were fucking real, and so were we." The Who_sentence_454

Vocals The Who_section_23

Daltrey initially based his style on Motown and rock and roll, but from Tommy onwards he tackled a wider range of styles. The Who_sentence_455

His trademark sound with the band, as noted in 1983, has been a characteristic scream, as heard at the end of "Won't Get Fooled Again". The Who_sentence_456

Group backing vocals are prominent in the Who. The Who_sentence_457

After "I Can't Explain" used session men for backing vocals, Townshend and Entwistle resolved to do better themselves on subsequent releases, producing strong backing harmonies. The Who_sentence_458

Daltrey, Townshend and Entwistle sang lead on various songs, and occasionally Moon joined in. The Who_sentence_459

Who's Next featured Daltrey and Townshend sharing the lead vocals on several songs, and biographer Dave Marsh considers the contrast between Daltrey's strong, guttural tone and Townshend's higher and gentler sound to be one of the album's highlights. The Who_sentence_460

Daltrey's voice is negatively affected by marijuana smoke, to which he says he is allergic. The Who_sentence_461

On 20 May 2015, during a Who concert at Nassau Coliseum, he smelled a joint burning and told the smoker to put it out or "the show will be over". The Who_sentence_462

The fan obliged, without taking Pete Townshend's advice that "the quickest way" to extinguish a joint is "up your fucking arse". The Who_sentence_463

Guitars The Who_section_24

Townshend considered himself less technical than guitarists such as Eric Clapton and Jeff Beck and wanted to stand out visually instead. The Who_sentence_464

His playing style evolved from the banjo, favouring down strokes and using a combination of the plectrum and fingerpicking. The Who_sentence_465

His rhythm playing frequently used seventh chords and suspended fourths, and he is associated with the power chord, an easy-to-finger chord built from the root and fifth that has since become a fundamental part of the rock guitar vocabulary. The Who_sentence_466

Townshend also produced noises by manipulating controls on his guitar and by allowing the instrument to feedback. The Who_sentence_467

In the group's early career, Townshend favoured Rickenbacker guitars as they allowed him to fret rhythm guitar chords easily and move the neck back and forwards to create vibrato. The Who_sentence_468

From 1968 to 1973, he favoured a Gibson SG Special live, and later used customised Les Pauls in different tunings. The Who_sentence_469

In the studio for Who's Next and thereafter, Townshend used a 1959 Gretsch 6120 Chet Atkins hollow-body guitar, a Fender Bandmaster amp and an Edwards volume pedal, all gifts from Joe Walsh. The Who_sentence_470

Townshend started his career with an acoustic guitar and has regularly recorded and written with a Gibson J-200. The Who_sentence_471

Bass The Who_section_25

A distinctive part of the original band's sound was Entwistle's lead bass playing, while Townshend concentrated on rhythm and chords. The Who_sentence_472

Entwistle's was the first popular use of Rotosound strings in 1966, trying to find a piano-like sound. The Who_sentence_473

His bassline on "Pinball Wizard" was described by Who biographer John Atkins as "a contribution of its own without diminishing the guitar lines"; he described his part on "The Real Me" from Quadrophenia, recorded in one take, as "a bass solo with vocals". The Who_sentence_474

Entwistle's basses include a "Frankenstein" assembled from five Fender Precision and Jazz basses, and Warwick, Alembic, Gretsch and Guild basses. The Who_sentence_475

Drums The Who_section_26

Moon further strengthened the reversal of traditional rock instrumentation by playing lead parts on his drums. The Who_sentence_476

His style was at odds with British rock contemporaries such as The Kinks' Mick Avory and The Shadows' Brian Bennett who did not consider tom-toms necessary for rock music. The Who_sentence_477

Moon used Premier kits starting in 1966. The Who_sentence_478

He avoided the hi-hat, and concentrated on a mix of tom rolls and cymbals. The Who_sentence_479

Jones' drumming style was in sharp contrast to Moon's. The Who_sentence_480

The Who were initially enthusiastic about working with a completely different drummer, though Townshend later stated, "we've never really been able to replace Keith." The Who_sentence_481

Starkey knew Moon from childhood and Moon gave him his first drum kit. The Who_sentence_482

Starkey has been praised for his playing style which echoes Moon's without being a copy. The Who_sentence_483

Songwriting The Who_section_27

Townshend focused on writing meaningful lyrics inspired by Bob Dylan, whose words dealt with subjects other than boy–girl relationships that were common in rock music; in contrast to Dylan's intellectualism, Townshend believed his lyrics should be about things kids could relate to. The Who_sentence_484

Early material focused on the frustration and anxiety shared by mod audiences, which Townshend said was a result of "searching for [his] niche". The Who_sentence_485

By The Who Sell Out, he began to work narrative and characters into songs, which he fully developed by Tommy, including spiritual themes influenced by Baba. The Who_sentence_486

From the mid-1970s onwards, his songs tended to be more personal, which influenced his decision to go solo. The Who_sentence_487

Entwistle's songs, by contrast, typically feature black humour and darker themes. The Who_sentence_488

His two contributions to Tommy ("Cousin Kevin" and "Fiddle About") appeared because Townshend did not believe he could write songs as "nasty" as Entwistle's. The Who_sentence_489

Personal relationships The Who_section_28

The Who are perceived as having had a poor working relationship. The Who_sentence_490

In the original band, Sandom had been the peacemaker and settled disputes. The Who_sentence_491

Moon, by contrast, was as volatile as Daltrey and Townshend. The Who_sentence_492

Entwistle was too passive to become involved in arguments. The Who_sentence_493

The group established their live reputation and stage show in part out of insecurity and aggression amongst its members, and Townshend recalled that all decisions had to be made democratically "because we always disagreed". The Who_sentence_494

The only genuine friendship in the Who during the 1960s was between Entwistle and Moon. The Who_sentence_495

The pair enjoyed each other's sense of humour and shared a fondness for clubbing. The Who_sentence_496

Journalist Richard Green noted a "chemistry of playfullness that would go beyond playfullness". The Who_sentence_497

Their relationship diminished somewhat when Entwistle got married in 1967, though they still socialised on tour. The Who_sentence_498

When Moon was destroying toilets in hotels, Entwistle confessed he "was standing behind him with the matches". The Who_sentence_499

The group regularly argued in the press, though Townshend said disputes were amplified in print and the group simply found it difficult to agree on things. The Who_sentence_500

Tommy mutually benefitted Townshend and Daltrey's standing in the band because of the former's songwriting and the latter's stage presence, yet even this did not make them close friends. The Who_sentence_501

The pair quarrelled, particularly in the mid-1970s, over the group's direction. The Who_sentence_502

During his time with the band, Jones was subject to intermittent criticism from Daltrey. The Who_sentence_503

Entwistle's death came as a shock to both Townshend and Daltrey, and caused them to re-evaluate their relationship. The Who_sentence_504

Townshend has said that he and Daltrey have since become close friends. The Who_sentence_505

In 2015, Townshend confirmed their friendship was still strong, adding their acceptance of each other's differences "brought us to a really genuine and compassionate relationship, which can only be described as love." The Who_sentence_506

Legacy and influence The Who_section_29

The Who are one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century. The Who_sentence_507

Their appearances at Monterey and Woodstock helped give them a reputation as one of the greatest live rock acts and they have been credited with originating the "rock opera". The Who_sentence_508

The band has sold over 100 million records worldwide. The Who_sentence_509

The group's contributions to rock include the power chord, windmill strum and the use of non-musical instrument noise such as feedback. The Who_sentence_510

The band influenced fashion from their earliest days with their embrace of pop art and the use of the Union Jack for clothing. The Who_sentence_511

The guitar-smashing incident at the Railway Hotel in 1964 is one of Rolling Stone magazine's "50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock 'n' Roll". The Who_sentence_512

Pink Floyd began to use feedback from their early shows in 1966, inspired by the Who, whom they considered a formative influence. The Who_sentence_513

Shortly after arriving in London in 1966, Jimi Hendrix visited Marshall's music shop demanding an amp setup like Townshend's and manipulated electronic noises in ways that Townshend had pioneered. The Who_sentence_514

The Beatles were fans and socialised with Moon in particular during the mid-1960s. The Who_sentence_515

In 1965, Paul McCartney said the Who "are the most exciting thing around" and was inspired to write "Helter Skelter" in the group's "heavy" style; John Lennon borrowed the acoustic guitar style in "Pinball Wizard" for "Polythene Pam". The Who_sentence_516

The loud volume of the band's live show influenced the approach of hard rock and heavy metal. The Who_sentence_517

Proto punk and punk rock bands such as the MC5, the Stooges, the Ramones the Sex Pistols, the Clash and Green Day cite the Who as an influence. The Who_sentence_518

The Who inspired mod revival bands, particularly the Jam, which helped other groups influenced by the Who become popular. The Who_sentence_519

The Who influenced hard rock bands such as Guns N' Roses. The Who_sentence_520

In the mid-1990s, Britpop bands such as Blur and Oasis were influenced by the Who. The Who_sentence_521

The Who have also influenced pop punk band Panic! The Who_sentence_522 at the Disco. The Who_sentence_523

The Who have inspired many tribute bands; Daltrey has endorsed the Whodlums, who raise money for the Teenage Cancer Trust. The Who_sentence_524

Many bands have covered Who songs; Elton John's version of "Pinball Wizard" reached No. The Who_sentence_525

7 in the UK. The Who_sentence_526

Media The Who_section_30

During the Who's hiatuses in the 1980s and 90s, Townshend developed his skills as a music publisher to be financially successful from the Who without recording or touring. The Who_sentence_527

He countered criticism of "selling out" by saying that licensing the songs to other media allows a wider exposure and widens the group's appeal. The Who_sentence_528

The American forensic drama CSI (CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, and CSI: Cyber) feature Who songs as theme music, "Who Are You", "Won't Get Fooled Again", "Baba O'Riley" and "I Can See for Miles" respectively. The Who_sentence_529

The group's songs have featured in other popular TV series such as The Simpsons, and Top Gear, which had an episode where the presenters were tasked with being roadies for the band. The Who_sentence_530

Rock-orientated films such as Almost Famous, School of Rock and Tenacious D in the Pick of Destiny refer to the band and feature their songs, and other films have used the band's material in their soundtracks, including Apollo 13 (which used "I Can See For Miles") and Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me (which used a take of "My Generation" recorded for the BBC). The Who_sentence_531

Several of the band's tracks have appeared in the video game Rock Band and its sequels. The Who_sentence_532

The New York Times Magazine has listed The Who among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. The Who_sentence_533

Awards and nominations The Who_section_31

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by the Who The Who_sentence_534

The Who have received many awards and accolades from the music industry for their recordings and their influence. The Who_sentence_535

They received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the British Phonographic Industry in 1988, and from the Grammy Foundation in 2001. The Who_sentence_536

The band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990 where their display describes them as "prime contenders, in the minds of many, for the title of World's Greatest Rock Band", and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. The Who_sentence_537

Seven of the group's albums appeared on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (determined in 2003), and five songs are on the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time list. The Who_sentence_538

Seven albums is more than any act except the Beatles, Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones and Bruce Springsteen. The Who_sentence_539

They are ranked the 29th greatest artist of all time by Rolling Stone magazine, and the same magazine ranked Pete Townshend among the greatest songwriters. The Who_sentence_540

The single "My Generation" and the albums Tommy and Who's Next have each been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. The Who_sentence_541

In 2008, Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey received Kennedy Center Honors as members of the Who. The Who_sentence_542

In 2009, My Generation was selected for preservation in the United States National Recording Registry. The Who_sentence_543

Band members The Who_section_32

Main article: List of the Who band members The Who_sentence_544

Current members The Who_section_33

The Who_unordered_list_0

  • Roger Daltrey – lead and backing vocals, rhythm guitar, harmonica, percussion (1964–1983, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1996–present)The Who_item_0_0
  • Pete Townshend – lead and rhythm guitar, backing and lead vocals, keyboards (1964–1983, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1996–present)The Who_item_0_1

Current touring musicians The Who_section_34

The Who_unordered_list_1

  • Zak Starkey – drums, percussion (1996–present)The Who_item_1_2
  • Simon Townshend – guitar, backing vocals (1996–1997, 2002–present)The Who_item_1_3
  • Loren Gold – keyboards, backing vocals (2012–present)The Who_item_1_4
  • Jon Button – bass guitar (2017–present)The Who_item_1_5

Former members The Who_section_35

The Who_unordered_list_2

  • John Entwistle – bass guitar, horns, backing and lead vocals (1964–1983, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1996–2002; died 2002)The Who_item_2_6
  • Doug Sandom – drums (1964; died 2019)The Who_item_2_7
  • Keith Moon – drums, backing and lead vocals (1964–1978; died 1978)The Who_item_2_8
  • Kenney Jones – drums (1978–1983, 1985, 1988, 2014)The Who_item_2_9

Former touring musicians The Who_section_36

For a complete list, see former touring members The Who_sentence_545

The Who_unordered_list_3

  • John Bundrick – keyboards (1979–1981, 1985, 1999–2012)The Who_item_3_10
  • Simon Phillips – drums (1989)The Who_item_3_11
  • Steve Bolton– guitar (1989)The Who_item_3_12
  • Pino Palladino – bass guitar (2002–2017)The Who_item_3_13
  • John Corey – keyboards, backing vocals (2012–2017)The Who_item_3_14
  • Frank Simes – keyboards, mandolin, banjo, percussion, backing vocals, musical director (2012–2017)The Who_item_3_15

Timeline of members The Who_section_37

Discography The Who_section_38

Main articles: The Who discography and List of songs recorded by the Who The Who_sentence_546

The Who_unordered_list_4

Tours and performances The Who_section_39

Headlining 1960s–1990s The Who_section_40

Headlining 2000s–2010s The Who_section_41

See also The Who_section_42

The Who_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Who.