The arts

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This article is about the group of creative disciplines. The arts_sentence_0

For the concept of art, see Art. The arts_sentence_1

For other uses, see Art (disambiguation). The arts_sentence_2

"Arts" redirects here. The arts_sentence_3

For the acronym, see ARTS. The arts_sentence_4

The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. The arts_sentence_5

Major constituents of the arts include visual arts (including architecture, ceramics, drawing, filmmaking, painting, photography, and sculpting), literary arts (including fiction, drama, poetry, and prose), performing arts (including dance, music, and theatre), and culinary arts (including cooking, chocolate making and winemaking). The arts_sentence_6

Some art forms combine a visual element with performance (e.g. cinematography), or artwork with the written word (e.g. comics). The arts_sentence_7

From prehistoric cave paintings to modern-day films, art serves as a vessel for storytelling and conveying humankind's relationship with the environment. The arts_sentence_8

Definition The arts_section_0

Main articles: Art, Classificatory disputes about art, and Liberal arts education The arts_sentence_9

There are several possible meanings for the definitions of the terms Art and Arts. The arts_sentence_10

The first meaning of the word art is « way of doing ». The arts_sentence_11

The most basic present meaning defines the arts as specific activities that produce sensitivity in humans. The arts_sentence_12

The arts are also referred to as bringing together all creative and imaginative activities, without including science. The arts_sentence_13

In its most basic abstract definition, art is a documented expression of a sentient being through or on an accessible medium so that anyone can view, hear or experience it. The arts_sentence_14

The act itself of producing an expression can also be referred to as a certain art, or as art in general. The arts_sentence_15

If this solidified expression, or the act of producing it, is "good" or has value depends on those who access and rate it and this public rating is dependent on various subjective factors. The arts_sentence_16

Merriam-Webster defines "the arts" as "painting, sculpture, music, theatre, literature, etc., considered as a group of activities done by people with skill and imagination." The arts_sentence_17

Similarly, the United States Congress, in the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act, defined "the arts" as follows: The arts_sentence_18

Art is a global activity in which a large number of disciplines are included, such as: fine arts, liberal arts, visual arts, decorative arts, applied arts, design, crafts, performing arts, ... We are talking about "the arts" when several of them are mentioned: "As in all arts the enjoyment increases with the knowledge of the art". The arts_sentence_19

The arts can be divided into several areas, the fine arts which bring together, in the broad sense, all the arts whose aim is to produce true aesthetic pleasure, decorative arts and applied arts which relate to an aesthetic side in everyday life. The arts_sentence_20

The earliest surviving form of any of the arts are cave paintings, possibly from 70,000 BCE, but definitely from at least 40,000 BCE. The arts_sentence_21

The oldest known musical instrument, the Divje Babe Flute, is also dated to at least 40,000 BCE, while the earliest surviving literature, the Instructions of Shuruppak and Kesh temple hymn among other Sumerian cuneiform tablets, are thought to only be from 2600 BCE. The arts_sentence_22

History The arts_section_1

Main articles: History of art, History of music, and History of literature The arts_sentence_23

In Ancient Greece, all art and craft was referred to by the same word, techne. The arts_sentence_24

Thus, there was no distinction among the arts. The arts_sentence_25

Ancient Greek art brought the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions. The arts_sentence_26

Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (e.g. Zeus' thunderbolt). The arts_sentence_27

In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths. The arts_sentence_28

Eastern art has generally worked in a style akin to Western medieval art, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local colour (meaning the plain colour of an object, such as basic red for a red robe, rather than the modulations of that colour brought about by light, shade and reflection). The arts_sentence_29

A characteristic of this style is that the local colour is often defined by an outline (a contemporary equivalent is the cartoon). The arts_sentence_30

This is evident in, for example, the art of India, Tibet and Japan. The arts_sentence_31

Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and instead expresses religious ideas through calligraphy and geometrical designs. The arts_sentence_32

Classifications The arts_section_2

In the Middle Ages, the Artes Liberales (liberal arts) were taught in universities as part of the Trivium, an introductory curriculum involving grammar, rhetoric, and logic, and of the Quadrivium, a curriculum involving the "mathematical arts" of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. The arts_sentence_33

The Artes Mechanicae (consisting of vestiaria – tailoring and weaving; agricultura – agriculture; architectura – architecture and masonry; militia and venatoria – warfare, hunting, military education, and the martial arts; mercatura – trade; coquinaria – cooking; and metallaria – blacksmithing and metallurgy) were practised and developed in guild environments. The arts_sentence_34

The modern distinction between "artistic" and "non-artistic" skills did not develop until the Renaissance. The arts_sentence_35

In modern academia, the arts are usually grouped with or as a subset of the humanities. The arts_sentence_36

Some subjects in the humanities are history, linguistics, literature, theology, philosophy, and logic. The arts_sentence_37

The arts have also been classified as seven: painting, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, performing and cinema. The arts_sentence_38

Some view literature, painting, sculpture, and music as the main four arts, of which the others are derivative; drama is literature with acting, dance is music expressed through motion, and song is music with literature and voice. The arts_sentence_39

Visual arts The arts_section_3

Main articles: Visual art and Fine art The arts_sentence_40

Further information: Plastic arts and Work of art The arts_sentence_41

Architecture The arts_section_4

Main article: Architecture The arts_sentence_42

Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. The arts_sentence_43

The word architecture comes from the Greek arkhitekton, "master builder, director of works," from αρχι- (arkhi) "chief" + τεκτων (tekton) "builder, carpenter". The arts_sentence_44

A wider definition would include the design of the built environment, from the macrolevel of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the microlevel of creating furniture. The arts_sentence_45

Architectural design usually must address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as function and aesthetics for the user. The arts_sentence_46

In modern usage, architecture is the art and discipline of creating, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of, a complex object or system. The arts_sentence_47

The term can be used to connote the implied architecture of abstract things such as music or mathematics, the apparent architecture of natural things, such as geological formations or the structure of biological cells, or explicitly planned architectures of human-made things such as software, computers, enterprises, and databases, in addition to buildings. The arts_sentence_48

In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a subjective mapping from a human perspective (that of the user in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the elements or components of some kind of structure or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components. The arts_sentence_49

Planned architecture manipulates space, volume, texture, light, shadow, or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing aesthetics. The arts_sentence_50

This distinguishes it from applied science or engineering, which usually concentrate more on the functional and feasibility aspects of the design of constructions or structures. The arts_sentence_51

In the field of building architecture, the skills demanded of an architect range from the more complex, such as for a hospital or a stadium, to the apparently simpler, such as planning residential houses. The arts_sentence_52

Many architectural works may be seen also as cultural and political symbols, or works of art. The arts_sentence_53

The role of the architect, though changing, has been central to the successful (and sometimes less than successful) design and implementation of pleasingly built environments in which people live. The arts_sentence_54

Ceramics The arts_section_5

Main article: Ceramic art The arts_sentence_55

Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials (including clay), which may take forms such as pottery, tile, figurines, sculpture, and tableware. The arts_sentence_56

While some ceramic products are considered fine art, some are considered to be decorative, industrial, or applied art objects. The arts_sentence_57

Ceramics may also be considered artefacts in archaeology. The arts_sentence_58

Ceramic art can be made by one person or by a group of people. The arts_sentence_59

In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design, manufacture, and decorate the pottery. The arts_sentence_60

Products from a pottery are sometimes referred to as "art pottery." The arts_sentence_61

In a one-person pottery studio, ceramists or potters produce studio pottery. The arts_sentence_62

In modern ceramic engineering usage, "ceramics" is the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat. The arts_sentence_63

It excludes glass and mosaic made from glass tesserae. The arts_sentence_64

Conceptual art The arts_section_6

Main article: Conceptual art The arts_sentence_65

Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work takes precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The arts_sentence_66

The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. The arts_sentence_67

Through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular usage, particularly in the United Kingdom, developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practise the traditional skills of painting and sculpture. The arts_sentence_68

Drawing The arts_section_7

Main article: Drawing The arts_sentence_69

Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. The arts_sentence_70

It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. The arts_sentence_71

Common tools are graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax colour pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. The arts_sentence_72

Digital tools which can simulate the effects of these are also used. The arts_sentence_73

The main techniques used in drawing are line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. The arts_sentence_74

An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a drafter, draftswoman, or draughtsman. The arts_sentence_75

Drawing can be used to create art used in cultural industries such as illustrations, comics and animation. The arts_sentence_76

Comics are often called the "ninth art" (le neuvième art) in Francophone scholarship, adding to the traditional "Seven Arts". The arts_sentence_77

Painting The arts_section_8

Main article: Painting The arts_sentence_78

Painting is a mode of creative expression, and can be done in numerous forms. The arts_sentence_79

Drawing, gesture (as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. The arts_sentence_80

Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism). The arts_sentence_81

Modern painters have extended the practice considerably to include, for example, collage. The arts_sentence_82

Collage is not painting in the strict sense since it includes other materials. The arts_sentence_83

Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw, wood or strands of hair for their artwork texture. The arts_sentence_84

Examples of this are the works of Elito Circa, Jean Dubuffet or Anselm Kiefer. The arts_sentence_85

Photography The arts_section_9

Main article: Fine art photography The arts_sentence_86

Photography as an art form refers to photographs that are created in accordance with the creative vision of the photographer. The arts_sentence_87

Art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism, which provides a visual account for news events, and commercial photography, the primary focus of which is to advertise products or services. The arts_sentence_88

Sculpture The arts_section_10

Main article: Sculpture The arts_sentence_89

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. The arts_sentence_90

It is one of the plastic arts. The arts_sentence_91

Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials; but since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led to an almost complete freedom of materials and process. The arts_sentence_92

A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or moulded, or cast. The arts_sentence_93

Literary arts The arts_section_11

Main articles: Language and Literature The arts_sentence_94

Literature is literally "acquaintance with letters" as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary. The arts_sentence_95

The noun "literature" comes from the Latin word littera meaning "an individual written character (letter)." The arts_sentence_96

The term has generally come to identify a collection of writings, which in Western culture are mainly prose (both fiction and non-fiction), drama and poetry. The arts_sentence_97

In much, if not all of the world, the artistic linguistic expression can be oral as well, and include such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, other forms of oral poetry, and as folktale. The arts_sentence_98

Comics, the combination of drawings or other visual arts with narrating literature, are often called the "ninth art" (le neuvième art) in Francophone scholarship. The arts_sentence_99

Performing arts The arts_section_12

Main article: Performing arts The arts_sentence_100

Performing arts comprise dance, music, theatre, opera, mime, and other art forms in which a human performance is the principal product. The arts_sentence_101

Performing arts are distinguished by this performance element in contrast with disciplines such as visual and literary arts where the product is an object that does not require a performance to be observed and experienced. The arts_sentence_102

Each discipline in the performing arts is temporal in nature, meaning the product is performed over a period of time. The arts_sentence_103

Products are broadly categorized as being either repeatable (for example, by script or score) or improvised for each performance. The arts_sentence_104

Artists who participate in these arts in front of an audience are called performers, including actors, magicians, comedians, dancers, musicians, and singers. The arts_sentence_105

Performing arts are also supported by the services of other artists or essential workers, such as songwriting and stagecraft. The arts_sentence_106

Performers often adapt their appearance with tools such as costume and stage makeup. The arts_sentence_107

Dance The arts_section_13

Main article: Dance The arts_sentence_108

Dance (from Old French dancier, of unknown origin) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. The arts_sentence_109

Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (e.g. bee dance, mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (e.g. the leaves danced in the wind), and certain musical forms or genres. The arts_sentence_110

Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is called a choreographer. The arts_sentence_111

Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as Folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. The arts_sentence_112

In sports, gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while Martial arts "kata" are often compared to dances. The arts_sentence_113

Music The arts_section_14

Main article: Music The arts_sentence_114

Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence, occurring in time. The arts_sentence_115

Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, metre, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The arts_sentence_116

The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. The arts_sentence_117

Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their reproduction in performance) through improvisational music to aleatoric pieces. The arts_sentence_118

Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. The arts_sentence_119

Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. The arts_sentence_120

Theatre The arts_section_15

Main article: Theatre The arts_sentence_121

Theatre or theater (from Greek theatron (θέατρον); from theasthai, "behold") is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle – indeed, any one or more elements of the other performing arts. The arts_sentence_122

In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style, theatre takes such forms as opera, ballet, mime, kabuki, classical Indian dance, Chinese opera and mummers' plays. The arts_sentence_123

Multidisciplinary artistic works The arts_section_16

Areas exist in which artistic works incorporate multiple artistic fields, such as film, opera and performance art. The arts_sentence_124

While opera is often categorized in the performing arts of music, the word itself is Italian for "works", because opera combines several artistic disciplines in a singular artistic experience. The arts_sentence_125

In a typical traditional opera, the entire work utilizes the following: the sets (visual arts), costumes (fashion), acting (dramatic performing arts), the libretto, or the words/story (literature), and singers and an orchestra (music). The arts_sentence_126

The composer Richard Wagner recognized the fusion of so many disciplines into a single work of opera, exemplified by his cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen ("The Ring of the Nibelung"). The arts_sentence_127

He did not use the term opera for his works, but instead Gesamtkunstwerk ("synthesis of the arts"), sometimes referred to as "Music Drama" in English, emphasizing the literary and theatrical components which were as important as the music. The arts_sentence_128

Classical ballet is another form which emerged in the 17th century in which orchestral music is combined with dance. The arts_sentence_129

Other works in the late 19th, 20th and 21st centuries have fused other disciplines in unique and creative ways, such as performance art. The arts_sentence_130

Performance art is a performance over time which combines any number of instruments, objects, and art within a predefined or less well-defined structure, some of which can be improvised. The arts_sentence_131

Performance art may be scripted, unscripted, random or carefully organized; even audience participation may occur. The arts_sentence_132

John Cage is regarded by many as a performance artist rather than a composer, although he preferred the latter term. The arts_sentence_133

He did not compose for traditional ensembles. The arts_sentence_134

Cage's composition Living Room Music composed in 1940 is a "quartet" for unspecified instruments, really non-melodic objects, which can be found in a living room of a typical house, hence the title. The arts_sentence_135

Other arts The arts_section_17

There is no clear line between art and culture. The arts_sentence_136

Cultural fields like gastronomy are sometimes considered as arts. The arts_sentence_137

Applied arts The arts_section_18

Main article: Applied arts The arts_sentence_138

The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday, functional, objects to make them aesthetically pleasing. The arts_sentence_139

The applied arts includes fields such as industrial design, illustration, and commercial art. The arts_sentence_140

The term "applied art" is used in distinction to the fine arts, where the latter is defined as arts that aims to produce objects which are beautiful or provide intellectual stimulation but have no primary everyday function. The arts_sentence_141

In practice, the two often overlap. The arts_sentence_142

Video games The arts_section_19

See also: Video games as an art form The arts_sentence_143

A debate exists in the fine arts and video game cultures over whether video games can be counted as an art form. The arts_sentence_144

Game designer Hideo Kojima professes that video games are a type of service, not an art form, because they are meant to entertain and attempt to entertain as many people as possible, rather than being a single artistic voice (despite Kojima himself being considered a gaming auteur, and the mixed opinions his games typically receive). The arts_sentence_145

However, he acknowledged that since video games are made up of artistic elements (for example, the visuals), game designers could be considered museum curators – not creating artistic pieces, but arranging them in a way that displays their artistry and sells tickets. The arts_sentence_146

Within social sciences, cultural economists show how video games playing is conducive to the involvement in more traditional art forms and cultural practices, which suggests the complementarity between video games and the arts. The arts_sentence_147

In May 2011, the National Endowment of the Arts included video games in its redefinition of what is considered a "work of art" when applying of a grant. The arts_sentence_148

In 2012, the Smithsonian American Art Museum presented an exhibit, The Art of the Video Game. The arts_sentence_149

Reviews of the exhibit were mixed, including questioning whether video games belong in an art museum. The arts_sentence_150

Arts criticism The arts_section_20

The arts_unordered_list_0

See also The arts_section_21

The arts_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: arts.