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"Theatrical" redirects here. Theatre_sentence_0

For the racehorse, see Theatrical (horse). Theatre_sentence_1

For other uses, see Theatre (disambiguation). Theatre_sentence_2

Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. Theatre_sentence_3

The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance. Theatre_sentence_4

Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. Theatre_sentence_5

The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον (théatron, "a place for viewing"), itself from θεάομαι (theáomai, "to see", "to watch", "to observe"). Theatre_sentence_6

Modern Western theatre comes, in large measure, from the theatre of ancient Greece, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and plot elements. Theatre_sentence_7

Theatre artist Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts, literature and the arts in general. Theatre_sentence_8

Modern theatre includes performances of plays and musical theatre. Theatre_sentence_9

The art forms of ballet and opera are also theatre and use many conventions such as acting, costumes and staging. Theatre_sentence_10

They were influential to the development of musical theatre; see those articles for more information. Theatre_sentence_11

History of theatre Theatre_section_0

Main article: History of theatre Theatre_sentence_12

Classical and Hellenistic Greece Theatre_section_1

Main article: Theatre of ancient Greece Theatre_sentence_13

The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated. Theatre_sentence_14

It was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance in classical Greece that included festivals, religious rituals, politics, law, athletics and gymnastics, music, poetry, weddings, funerals, and symposia. Theatre_sentence_15

Participation in the city-state's many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member (or even as a participant in the theatrical productions) in particular—was an important part of citizenship. Theatre_sentence_16

Civic participation also involved the evaluation of the rhetoric of orators evidenced in performances in the law-court or political assembly, both of which were understood as analogous to the theatre and increasingly came to absorb its dramatic vocabulary. Theatre_sentence_17

The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture. Theatre_sentence_18

Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. Theatre_sentence_19

The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play. Theatre_sentence_20

The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle (384–322 BCE), the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. Theatre_sentence_21

The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10,000–20,000 people. Theatre_sentence_22

The stage consisted of a dancing floor (orchestra), dressing room and scene-building area (skene). Theatre_sentence_23

Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount. Theatre_sentence_24

The actors (always men) wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Theatre_sentence_25

Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Theatre_sentence_26

Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE (from the end of which it began to spread throughout the Greek world), and continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. Theatre_sentence_27

No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. Theatre_sentence_28

We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Theatre_sentence_29

The origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institutionalised in competitions (agon) held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus (the god of wine and fertility). Theatre_sentence_30

As contestants in the City Dionysia's competition (the most prestigious of the festivals to stage drama) playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays (though the individual works were not necessarily connected by story or theme), which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Theatre_sentence_31

The performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE; official records (didaskaliai) begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced. Theatre_sentence_32

Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythology, though The Persians—which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE—is the notable exception in the surviving drama. Theatre_sentence_33

When Aeschylus won first prize for it at the City Dionysia in 472 BCE, he had been writing tragedies for more than 25 years, yet its tragic treatment of recent history is the earliest example of drama to survive. Theatre_sentence_34

More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics (c. 335 BCE). Theatre_sentence_35

Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, "Old Comedy", "Middle Comedy", and "New Comedy". Theatre_sentence_36

Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, while Middle Comedy is largely lost (preserved only in relatively short fragments in authors such as Athenaeus of Naucratis). Theatre_sentence_37

New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Theatre_sentence_38

Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. Theatre_sentence_39

In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, the festival also included the Satyr Play. Theatre_sentence_40

Finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Theatre_sentence_41

Satyr's themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal woodland companions, often engaging in drunken revelry and mischief at his side. Theatre_sentence_42

The satyr play itself was classified as tragicomedy, erring on the side of the more modern burlesque traditions of the early twentieth century. Theatre_sentence_43

The plotlines of the plays were typically concerned with the dealings of the pantheon of Gods and their involvement in human affairs, backed by the chorus of Satyrs. Theatre_sentence_44

However, according to Webster, satyr actors did not always perform typical satyr actions and would break from the acting traditions assigned to the character type of a mythical forest creature. Theatre_sentence_45

Roman theatre Theatre_section_2

Main article: Theatre of ancient Rome Theatre_sentence_46

Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans. Theatre_sentence_47

The Roman historian Livy wrote that the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BCE, with a performance by Etruscan actors. Theatre_sentence_48

Beacham argues that they had been familiar with "pre-theatrical practices" for some time before that recorded contact. Theatre_sentence_49

The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Theatre_sentence_50

Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage. Theatre_sentence_51

The only surviving plays from the Roman Empire are ten dramas attributed to Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BCE–65 CE), the Corduba-born Stoic philosopher and tutor of Nero. Theatre_sentence_52

Indian theatre Theatre_section_3

Main article: Indian classical drama Theatre_sentence_53

See also: Koothu Theatre_sentence_54

See also: Koodiyattam Theatre_sentence_55

The earliest-surviving fragments of Sanskrit drama date from the 1st century CE. Theatre_sentence_56

The wealth of archeological evidence from earlier periods offers no indication of the existence of a tradition of theatre. Theatre_sentence_57

The ancient Vedas (hymns from between 1500 and 1000 BCE that are among the earliest examples of literature in the world) contain no hint of it (although a small number are composed in a form of dialogue) and the rituals of the Vedic period do not appear to have developed into theatre. Theatre_sentence_58

The Mahābhāṣya by Patañjali contains the earliest reference to what may have been the seeds of Sanskrit drama. Theatre_sentence_59

This treatise on grammar from 140 BCE provides a feasible date for the beginnings of theatre in India. Theatre_sentence_60

The major source of evidence for Sanskrit theatre is A Treatise on Theatre (Nātyaśāstra), a compendium whose date of composition is uncertain (estimates range from 200 BCE to 200 CE) and whose authorship is attributed to Bharata Muni. Theatre_sentence_61

The Treatise is the most complete work of dramaturgy in the ancient world. Theatre_sentence_62

It addresses acting, dance, music, dramatic construction, architecture, costuming, make-up, props, the organisation of companies, the audience, competitions, and offers a mythological account of the origin of theatre. Theatre_sentence_63

In doing so, it provides indications about the nature of actual theatrical practices. Theatre_sentence_64

Sanskrit theatre was performed on sacred ground by priests who had been trained in the necessary skills (dance, music, and recitation) in a [hereditary process]. Theatre_sentence_65

Its aim was both to educate and to entertain. Theatre_sentence_66

Under the patronage of royal courts, performers belonged to professional companies that were directed by a stage manager (sutradhara), who may also have acted. Theatre_sentence_67

This task was thought of as being analogous to that of a puppeteer—the literal meaning of "sutradhara" is "holder of the strings or threads". Theatre_sentence_68

The performers were trained rigorously in vocal and physical technique. Theatre_sentence_69

There were no prohibitions against female performers; companies were all-male, all-female, and of mixed gender. Theatre_sentence_70

Certain sentiments were considered inappropriate for men to enact, however, and were thought better suited to women. Theatre_sentence_71

Some performers played characters their own age, while others played ages different from their own (whether younger or older). Theatre_sentence_72

Of all the elements of theatre, the Treatise gives most attention to acting (abhinaya), which consists of two styles: realistic (lokadharmi) and conventional (natyadharmi), though the major focus is on the latter. Theatre_sentence_73

Its drama is regarded as the highest achievement of Sanskrit literature. Theatre_sentence_74

It utilised stock characters, such as the hero (nayaka), heroine (nayika), or clown (vidusaka). Theatre_sentence_75

Actors may have specialised in a particular type. Theatre_sentence_76

Kālidāsa in the 1st century BCE, is arguably considered to be ancient India's greatest Sanskrit dramatist. Theatre_sentence_77

Three famous romantic plays written by Kālidāsa are the Mālavikāgnimitram (Mālavikā and Agnimitra), Vikramuurvashiiya (Pertaining to Vikrama and Urvashi), and Abhijñānaśākuntala (The Recognition of Shakuntala). Theatre_sentence_78

The last was inspired by a story in the Mahabharata and is the most famous. Theatre_sentence_79

It was the first to be translated into English and German. Theatre_sentence_80

Śakuntalā (in English translation) influenced Goethe's Faust (1808–1832). Theatre_sentence_81

The next great Indian dramatist was Bhavabhuti (c. 7th century CE). Theatre_sentence_82

He is said to have written the following three plays: Malati-Madhava, Mahaviracharita and Uttar Ramacharita. Theatre_sentence_83

Among these three, the last two cover between them the entire epic of Ramayana. Theatre_sentence_84

The powerful Indian emperor Harsha (606–648) is credited with having written three plays: the comedy Ratnavali, Priyadarsika, and the Buddhist drama Nagananda. Theatre_sentence_85

Chinese theatre Theatre_section_4

Post-classical theatre in the West Theatre_section_5

Eastern theatrical traditions Theatre_section_6

The first form of Indian theatre was the Sanskrit theatre. Theatre_sentence_86

It began after the development of Greek and Roman theatre and before the development of theatre in other parts of Asia. Theatre_sentence_87

It emerged sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE and flourished between the 1st century CE and the 10th, which was a period of relative peace in the history of India during which hundreds of plays were written. Theatre_sentence_88

Japanese forms of Kabuki, , and Kyōgen developed in the 17th century CE. Theatre_sentence_89

Theatre in the medieval Islamic world included puppet theatre (which included hand puppets, shadow plays and marionette productions) and live passion plays known as ta'ziya, where actors re-enact episodes from Muslim history. Theatre_sentence_90

In particular, Shia Islamic plays revolved around the shaheed (martyrdom) of Ali's sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Theatre_sentence_91

Secular plays were known as akhraja, recorded in medieval adab literature, though they were less common than puppetry and ta'ziya theatre. Theatre_sentence_92

Types Theatre_section_7

Drama Theatre_section_8

Main article: Drama Theatre_sentence_93

Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. Theatre_sentence_94

The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action", which is derived from the verb δράω, dráō, "to do" or "to act". Theatre_sentence_95

The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. Theatre_sentence_96

The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Theatre_sentence_97

The early modern tragedy Hamlet (1601) by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus Rex (c. 429 BCE) by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama. Theatre_sentence_98

A modern example is Long Day's Journey into Night by Eugene O'Neill (1956). Theatre_sentence_99

Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle's Poetics (c. 335 BCE)—the earliest work of dramatic theory. Theatre_sentence_100

The use of "drama" in the narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the 19th century. Theatre_sentence_101

Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin (1873) or Chekhov's Ivanov (1887). Theatre_sentence_102

In Ancient Greece however, the word drama encompassed all theatrical plays, tragic, comic, or anything in between. Theatre_sentence_103

Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is generally sung throughout; musicals generally include both spoken dialogue and songs; and some forms of drama have incidental music or musical accompaniment underscoring the dialogue (melodrama and Japanese , for example). Theatre_sentence_104

In certain periods of history (the ancient Roman and modern Romantic) some dramas have been written to be read rather than performed. Theatre_sentence_105

In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance; performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience. Theatre_sentence_106

Musical theatre Theatre_section_9

Main article: Musical theatre Theatre_sentence_107

Music and theatre have had a close relationship since ancient times—Athenian tragedy, for example, was a form of dance-drama that employed a chorus whose parts were sung (to the accompaniment of an aulos—an instrument comparable to the modern clarinet), as were some of the actors' responses and their 'solo songs' (monodies). Theatre_sentence_108

Modern musical theatre is a form of theatre that also combines music, spoken dialogue, and dance. Theatre_sentence_109

It emerged from comic opera (especially Gilbert and Sullivan), variety, vaudeville, and music hall genres of the late 19th and early 20th century. Theatre_sentence_110

After the Edwardian musical comedy that began in the 1890s, the Princess Theatre musicals of the early 20th century, and comedies in the 1920s and 1930s (such as the works of Rodgers and Hammerstein), with Oklahoma! Theatre_sentence_111

(1943), musicals moved in a more dramatic direction. Theatre_sentence_112

Famous musicals over the subsequent decades included My Fair Lady (1956), West Side Story (1957), The Fantasticks (1960), Hair (1967), A Chorus Line (1975), Les Misérables (1980), Cats (1981), Into the Woods (1986), and The Phantom of the Opera (1986), as well as more contemporary hits including Rent (1994), The Lion King (1997), Wicked (2003), and Hamilton (2015). Theatre_sentence_113

Musical theatre may be produced on an intimate scale Off-Broadway, in regional theatres, and elsewhere, but it often includes spectacle. Theatre_sentence_114

For instance, Broadway and West End musicals often include lavish costumes and sets supported by multimillion-dollar budgets. Theatre_sentence_115

Comedy Theatre_section_10

Main article: Comedy Theatre_sentence_116

Theatre productions that use humour as a vehicle to tell a story qualify as comedies. Theatre_sentence_117

This may include a modern farce such as Boeing Boeing or a classical play such as As You Like It. Theatre_sentence_118

Theatre expressing bleak, controversial or taboo subject matter in a deliberately humorous way is referred to as black comedy. Theatre_sentence_119

Black Comedy can have several genres like slapstick humour, dark and sarcastic comedy. Theatre_sentence_120

Tragedy Theatre_section_11

Main article: Tragedy Theatre_sentence_121

Aristotle's phrase "several kinds being found in separate parts of the play" is a reference to the structural origins of drama. Theatre_sentence_122

In it the spoken parts were written in the Attic dialect whereas the choral (recited or sung) ones in the Doric dialect, these discrepancies reflecting the differing religious origins and poetic metres of the parts that were fused into a new entity, the theatrical drama. Theatre_sentence_123

Tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilisation. Theatre_sentence_124

That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it. Theatre_sentence_125

From its obscure origins in the theatres of Athens 2,500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Racine, and Schiller, to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Strindberg, Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering, and Müller's postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change. Theatre_sentence_126

In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics (335 BCE), tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general (where the tragic divides against epic and lyric) or at the scale of the drama (where tragedy is opposed to comedy). Theatre_sentence_127

In the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre. Theatre_sentence_128

Improvisation Theatre_section_12

Main article: Improvisational theatre Theatre_sentence_129

Improvisation has been a consistent feature of theatre, with the Commedia dell'arte in the sixteenth century being recognised as the first improvisation form. Theatre_sentence_130

Popularized by Nobel Prize Winner Dario Fo and troupes such as the Upright Citizens Brigade improvisational theatre continues to evolve with many different streams and philosophies. Theatre_sentence_131

Keith Johnstone and Viola Spolin are recognized as the first teachers of improvisation in modern times, with Johnstone exploring improvisation as an alternative to scripted theatre and Spolin and her successors exploring improvisation principally as a tool for developing dramatic work or skills or as a form for situational comedy. Theatre_sentence_132

Spolin also became interested in how the process of learning improvisation was applicable to the development of human potential. Theatre_sentence_133

Spolin's son, Paul Sills popularized improvisational theatre as a theatrical art form when he founded, as its first director, The Second City in Chicago. Theatre_sentence_134

Theories Theatre_section_13

Main article: Dramatic theory Theatre_sentence_135

Having been an important part of human culture for more than 2,500 years, theatre has evolved a wide range of different theories and practices. Theatre_sentence_136

Some are related to political or spiritual ideologies, while others are based purely on "artistic" concerns. Theatre_sentence_137

Some processes focus on a story, some on theatre as event, and some on theatre as catalyst for social change. Theatre_sentence_138

The classical Greek philosopher Aristotle, in his seminal treatise, Poetics (c. 335 BCE) is the earliest-surviving example and its arguments have influenced theories of theatre ever since. Theatre_sentence_139

In it, he offers an account of what he calls "poetry" (a term which in Greek literally means "making" and in this context includes dramacomedy, tragedy, and the satyr play—as well as lyric poetry, epic poetry, and the dithyramb). Theatre_sentence_140

He examines its "first principles" and identifies its genres and basic elements; his analysis of tragedy constitutes the core of the discussion. Theatre_sentence_141

Aristotle argues that tragedy consists of six qualitative parts, which are (in order of importance) mythos or "plot", ethos or "character", dianoia or "thought", lexis or "diction", or "song", and opsis or "spectacle". Theatre_sentence_142

"Although Aristotle's Poetics is universally acknowledged in the Western critical tradition", Marvin Carlson explains, "almost every detail about his seminal work has aroused divergent opinions." Theatre_sentence_143

Important theatre practitioners of the 20th century include Konstantin Stanislavski, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Jacques Copeau, Edward Gordon Craig, Bertolt Brecht, Antonin Artaud, Joan Littlewood, Peter Brook, Jerzy Grotowski, Augusto Boal, Eugenio Barba, Dario Fo, Viola Spolin, Keith Johnstone and Robert Wilson (director). Theatre_sentence_144

Stanislavski treated the theatre as an art-form that is autonomous from literature and one in which the playwright's contribution should be respected as that of only one of an ensemble of creative artists. Theatre_sentence_145

His innovative contribution to modern acting theory has remained at the core of mainstream western performance training for much of the last century. Theatre_sentence_146

That many of the precepts of his system of actor training seem to be common sense and self-evident testifies to its hegemonic success. Theatre_sentence_147

Actors frequently employ his basic concepts without knowing they do so. Theatre_sentence_148

Thanks to its promotion and elaboration by acting teachers who were former students and the many translations of his theoretical writings, Stanislavski's 'system' acquired an unprecedented ability to cross cultural boundaries and developed an international reach, dominating debates about acting in Europe and the United States. Theatre_sentence_149

Many actors routinely equate his 'system' with the North American Method, although the latter's exclusively psychological techniques contrast sharply with Stanislavski's multivariant, holistic and psychophysical approach, which explores character and action both from the 'inside out' and the 'outside in' and treats the actor's mind and body as parts of a continuum. Theatre_sentence_150

Technical aspects Theatre_section_14

Main article: Stagecraft Theatre_sentence_151

Theatre presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. Theatre_sentence_152

The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Theatre_sentence_153

The production of plays usually involves contributions from a playwright, director, a cast of actors, and a technical production team that includes a scenic or set designer, lighting designer, costume designer, sound designer, stage manager, production manager and technical director. Theatre_sentence_154

Depending on the production, this team may also include a composer, dramaturg, video designer or fight director. Theatre_sentence_155

Stagecraft is a generic term referring to the technical aspects of theatrical, film, and video production. Theatre_sentence_156

It includes, but is not limited to, constructing and rigging scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and procurement of costumes, makeup, procurement of props, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound. Theatre_sentence_157

Stagecraft is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography. Theatre_sentence_158

Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it relates primarily to the practical implementation of a designer's artistic vision. Theatre_sentence_159

In its most basic form, stagecraft is managed by a single person (often the stage manager of a smaller production) who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound, and organizes the cast. Theatre_sentence_160

At a more professional level, for example in modern Broadway houses, stagecraft is managed by hundreds of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, stitchers, wigmakers, and the like. Theatre_sentence_161

This modern form of stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition. Theatre_sentence_162

The majority of stagecraft lies between these two extremes. Theatre_sentence_163

Regional theatres and larger community theatres will generally have a technical director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their respective designs. Theatre_sentence_164

Sub-categories and organization Theatre_section_15

There are many modern theatre movements which go about producing theatre in a variety of ways. Theatre_sentence_165

Theatrical enterprises vary enormously in sophistication and purpose. Theatre_sentence_166

People who are involved vary from novices and hobbyists (in community theatre) to professionals (in Broadway and similar productions). Theatre_sentence_167

Theatre can be performed with a shoestring budget or on a grand scale with multimillion-dollar budgets. Theatre_sentence_168

This diversity manifests in the abundance of theatre sub-categories, which include: Theatre_sentence_169


Repertory companies Theatre_section_16

While most modern theatre companies rehearse one piece of theatre at a time, perform that piece for a set "run", retire the piece, and begin rehearsing a new show, repertory companies rehearse multiple shows at one time. Theatre_sentence_170

These companies are able to perform these various pieces upon request and often perform works for years before retiring them. Theatre_sentence_171

Most dance companies operate on this repertory system. Theatre_sentence_172

The Royal National Theatre in London performs on a repertory system. Theatre_sentence_173

Repertory theatre generally involves a group of similarly accomplished actors, and relies more on the reputation of the group than on an individual star actor. Theatre_sentence_174

It also typically relies less on strict control by a director and less on adherence to theatrical conventions, since actors who have worked together in multiple productions can respond to each other without relying as much on convention or external direction. Theatre_sentence_175

Producing vs. presenting Theatre_section_17

In order to put on a piece of theatre, both a theatre company and a theatre venue are needed. Theatre_sentence_176

When a theatre company is the sole company in residence at a theatre venue, this theatre (and its corresponding theatre company) are called a resident theatre or a producing theatre, because the venue produces its own work. Theatre_sentence_177

Other theatre companies, as well as dance companies, who do not have their own theatre venue, perform at rental theatres or at presenting theatres. Theatre_sentence_178

Both rental and presenting theatres have no full-time resident companies. Theatre_sentence_179

They do, however, sometimes have one or more part-time resident companies, in addition to other independent partner companies who arrange to use the space when available. Theatre_sentence_180

A rental theatre allows the independent companies to seek out the space, while a presenting theatre seeks out the independent companies to support their work by presenting them on their stage. Theatre_sentence_181

Some performance groups perform in non-theatrical spaces. Theatre_sentence_182

Such performances can take place outside or inside, in a non-traditional performance space, and include street theatre, and site-specific theatre. Theatre_sentence_183

Non-traditional venues can be used to create more immersive or meaningful environments for audiences. Theatre_sentence_184

They can sometimes be modified more heavily than traditional theatre venues, or can accommodate different kinds of equipment, lighting and sets. Theatre_sentence_185

A touring company is an independent theatre or dance company that travels, often internationally, being presented at a different theatre in each city. Theatre_sentence_186

Unions Theatre_section_18

There are many theatre unions including: Actors' Equity Association (for actors and stage managers), the Stage Directors and Choreographers Society (SDC), and the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE, for designers and technicians). Theatre_sentence_187

Many theatres require that their staff be members of these organizations. Theatre_sentence_188

See also Theatre_section_19

Main article: Outline of theatre Theatre_sentence_189

Explanatory notes Theatre_section_20

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: