Theophrastus

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For the crater, see Theophrastus (crater). Theophrastus_sentence_0

Theophrastus_table_infobox_0

TheophrastusTheophrastus_header_cell_0_0_0
BornTheophrastus_header_cell_0_1_0 c. 371 BC

EresosTheophrastus_cell_0_1_1

DiedTheophrastus_header_cell_0_2_0 c. 287 BC (aged 83 or 84)

AthensTheophrastus_cell_0_2_1

EraTheophrastus_header_cell_0_3_0 Ancient philosophyTheophrastus_cell_0_3_1
RegionTheophrastus_header_cell_0_4_0 Western philosophyTheophrastus_cell_0_4_1
SchoolTheophrastus_header_cell_0_5_0 Peripatetic schoolTheophrastus_cell_0_5_1
Main interestsTheophrastus_header_cell_0_6_0 Ethics, grammar, history, logic, metaphysics, natural history, physics, botanyTheophrastus_cell_0_6_1
Notable ideasTheophrastus_header_cell_0_7_0 Prosleptic and hypothetical syllogisms

Modus ponens and modus tollensTheophrastus_cell_0_7_1

Theophrastus (/ˌθiːəˈfræstəs/; Greek: Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. Theophrastus_sentence_1

His given name was Tyrtamus (Τύρταμος); his nickname Θεόφραστος (or 'godly phrased') was given by Aristotle for his 'divine style of expression'. Theophrastus_sentence_2

He came to Athens at a young age and initially studied in Plato's school. Theophrastus_sentence_3

After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle who took to Theophrastus in his writings. Theophrastus_sentence_4

When Aristotle fled Athens, Theophrastus took over as head of the Lyceum. Theophrastus_sentence_5

Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly. Theophrastus_sentence_6

He is often considered the father of botany for his works on plants. Theophrastus_sentence_7

After his death, the Athenians honoured him with a public funeral. Theophrastus_sentence_8

His successor as head of the school was Strato of Lampsacus. Theophrastus_sentence_9

The interests of Theophrastus were wide ranging, extending from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics. Theophrastus_sentence_10

His two surviving botanical works, Enquiry into Plants (Historia Plantarum) and On the Causes of Plants, were an important influence on Renaissance science. Theophrastus_sentence_11

There are also surviving works On Moral Characters, On Sense Perception, and On Stones, as well as fragments on Physics and Metaphysics. Theophrastus_sentence_12

In philosophy, he studied grammar and language and continued Aristotle's work on logic. Theophrastus_sentence_13

He also regarded space as the mere arrangement and position of bodies, time as an accident of motion, and motion as a necessary consequence of all activity. Theophrastus_sentence_14

In ethics, he regarded happiness as depending on external influences as well as on virtue. Theophrastus_sentence_15

Life Theophrastus_section_0

Most of the biographical information about Theophrastus was provided by Diogenes Laërtius' Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, written more than four hundred years after Theophrastus' time. Theophrastus_sentence_16

He was a native of Eresos in Lesbos. Theophrastus_sentence_17

His given name was Tyrtamus (Τύρταμος), but he later became known by the nickname "Theophrastus", given to him, it is said, by Aristotle to indicate the grace of his conversation (from Ancient Greek Θεός "god" and φράζειν "to phrase", i.e. divine expression). Theophrastus_sentence_18

After receiving instruction in philosophy in Lesbos from one Alcippus, he moved to Athens, where he may have studied under Plato. Theophrastus_sentence_19

He became friends with Aristotle, and when Plato died (348/7 BC) Theophrastus may have joined Aristotle in his self-imposed exile from Athens. Theophrastus_sentence_20

When Aristotle moved to Mytilene on Lesbos in 345/4, it is very likely that he did so at the urging of Theophrastus. Theophrastus_sentence_21

It seems that it was on Lesbos that Aristotle and Theophrastus began their research into natural science, with Aristotle studying animals and Theophrastus studying plants. Theophrastus_sentence_22

Theophrastus probably accompanied Aristotle to Macedonia when Aristotle was appointed tutor to Alexander the Great in 343/2. Theophrastus_sentence_23

Around 335 BC, Theophrastus moved with Aristotle to Athens, where Aristotle began teaching in the Lyceum. Theophrastus_sentence_24

When, after the death of Alexander, anti-Macedonian feeling forced Aristotle to leave Athens, Theophrastus remained behind as head (scholarch) of the Peripatetic school, a position he continued to hold after Aristotle's death in 322/1. Theophrastus_sentence_25

Aristotle in his will made him guardian of his children, including Nicomachus, with whom he was close. Theophrastus_sentence_26

Aristotle likewise bequeathed to him his library and the originals of his works, and designated him as his successor at the Lyceum. Theophrastus_sentence_27

Eudemus of Rhodes also had some claims to this position, and Aristoxenus is said to have resented Aristotle's choice. Theophrastus_sentence_28

Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-five years, and died at the age of eighty-five according to Diogenes. Theophrastus_sentence_29

He is said to have remarked, "We die just when we are beginning to live". Theophrastus_sentence_30

Under his guidance the school flourished greatly—there were at one period more than 2000 students, Diogenes affirms—and at his death, according to the terms of his will preserved by Diogenes, he bequeathed to it his garden with house and colonnades as a permanent seat of instruction. Theophrastus_sentence_31

The comic poet Menander was among his pupils. Theophrastus_sentence_32

His popularity was shown in the regard paid to him by Philip, Cassander, and Ptolemy, and by the complete failure of a charge of impiety brought against him. Theophrastus_sentence_33

He was honored with a public funeral, and "the whole population of Athens, honouring him greatly, followed him to the grave." Theophrastus_sentence_34

He was succeeded as head of the Lyceum by Strato of Lampsacus. Theophrastus_sentence_35

Writings Theophrastus_section_1

From the lists of Diogenes, giving 227 titles, it appears that the activity of Theophrastus extended over the whole field of contemporary knowledge. Theophrastus_sentence_36

His writing probably differed little from Aristotle's treatment of the same themes, though supplementary in details. Theophrastus_sentence_37

Like Aristotle, most of his writings are lost works. Theophrastus_sentence_38

Thus Theophrastus, like Aristotle, had composed a first and second Analytic (Ἀναλυτικῶν προτέρων and Ἀναλυτικῶν ὑστέρων). Theophrastus_sentence_39

He had also written books on Topics (Ἀνηγμένων τόπων, Τοπικῶν and Τὰ πρὸ τῶν τόπων); on the Analysis of Syllogisms (Περὶ ἀναλύσεως συλλογισμῶν and Περὶ συλλογισμῶν λύσεως), on Sophisms (Σοφισμάτων) and on Affirmation and Denial (Περὶ καταφάσεως καὶ ἀποφάσεως) as well as on the Natural Philosophy (Περὶ φύσεως, Περὶ φυσικῶν, Φυσικῶν and others), on Heaven (Περὶ οὐρανοῦ), and on Meteorological Phenomena (Τῆς μεταρσιολεσχίας and Μεταρσιολογικῶν). Theophrastus_sentence_40

In addition, Theophrastus wrote on the Warm and the Cold (Περὶ θερμοῦ καὶ ψυχροῦ), on Water (Περὶ ὕδατος), Fire (Περὶ πυρóς), the Sea (Περὶ θαλάττης), on Coagulation and Melting (Περὶ πήξεων καὶ τήξεων), on various phenomena of organic and spiritual life, and on the Soul (Περὶ ψυχῆς), on Experience (Περὶ ἐμπειρίας) and On Sense Perception (also known as On the Senses; Περὶ αἰσθήσεων). Theophrastus_sentence_41

Likewise, we find mention of monographs of Theophrastus on the early Greek philosophers Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Archelaus, Diogenes of Apollonia, Democritus, which were made use of by Simplicius; and also on Xenocrates, against the Academics, and a sketch of the political doctrine of Plato. Theophrastus_sentence_42

He studied general history, as we know from Plutarch's lives of Lycurgus, Solon, Aristides, Pericles, Nicias, Alcibiades, Lysander, Agesilaus, and Demosthenes, which were probably borrowed from the work on Lives (Περὶ βίων). Theophrastus_sentence_43

But his main efforts were to continue the labours of Aristotle in natural history. Theophrastus_sentence_44

This is testified to not only by a number of treatises on individual subjects of zoology, of which, besides the titles, only fragments remain, but also by his books On Stones, his Enquiry into Plants, and On the Causes of Plants (see below), which have come down to us entire. Theophrastus_sentence_45

In politics, also, he seems to have trodden in the footsteps of Aristotle. Theophrastus_sentence_46

Besides his books on the State (Πολιτικῶν and Πολιτικοῦ), we find quoted various treatises on Education (Περὶ παιδείας βασιλέως and Περὶ παιδείας), on Royalty (Περὶ βασιλείας, Περὶ παιδείας βασιλέως and Πρὸς Κάσανδρον περὶ βασιλείας), on the Best State (Περὶ τῆς ἀρίστης πολιτείας), on Political Morals (Πολιτικῶν ἐθῶν), and particularly his works on the Laws (Νόμων κατὰ στοιχεῖον, Νόμων ἐπιτομῆς and Περὶ νόμων), one of which, containing a recapitulation of the laws of various barbarian as well as Greek states, was intended to be a companion to Aristotle's outline of Politics, and must have been similar to it. Theophrastus_sentence_47

He also wrote on oratory and poetry. Theophrastus_sentence_48

Theophrastus, without doubt, departed further from Aristotle in his ethical writings, as also in his metaphysical investigations of motion, the soul, and God. Theophrastus_sentence_49

Besides these writings, Theophrastus wrote several collections of problems, out of which some things at least have passed into the Problems that have come down to us under the name of Aristotle, and commentaries, partly dialogues, to which probably belonged the Erotikos (Ἐρωτικός), Megacles (Μεγακλῆς), Callisthenes (Καλλισθένης), and Megarikos (Μεγαρικός), and letters, partly books on mathematical sciences and their history. Theophrastus_sentence_50

Many of his surviving works exist only in fragmentary form. Theophrastus_sentence_51

"The style of these works, as of the botanical books, suggests that, as in the case of Aristotle, what we possess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken of lectures," his translator Arthur F. Hort remarks. Theophrastus_sentence_52

"There is no literary charm; the sentences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical, to the point sometimes of obscurity". Theophrastus_sentence_53

The text of these fragments and extracts is often so corrupt that there is a certain plausibility to the well-known story that the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus were allowed to languish in the cellar of Neleus of Scepsis and his descendants. Theophrastus_sentence_54

On plants Theophrastus_section_2

Main article: Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus) Theophrastus_sentence_55

The most important of his books are two large botanical treatises, Enquiry into Plants (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία, generally known as Historiae Plantarum), and On the Causes of Plants (Greek: Περὶ αἰτιῶν φυτικῶν, Latin: De causis plantarum), which constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and the Middle Ages, the first systemization of the botanical world; on the strength of these works some, following Linnaeus, call him the "father of botany". Theophrastus_sentence_56

The Enquiry into Plants was originally ten books, of which nine survive. Theophrastus_sentence_57

The work is arranged into a system whereby plants are classified according to their modes of generation, their localities, their sizes, and according to their practical uses such as foods, juices, herbs, etc. Theophrastus_sentence_58

The first book deals with the parts of plants; the second book with the reproduction of plants and the times and manner of sowing; the third, fourth, and fifth books are devoted to trees, their types, their locations, and their practical applications; the sixth book deals with shrubs and spiny plants; the seventh book deals with herbs; the eighth book deals with plants that produce edible seeds; and the ninth book deals with plants that produce useful juices, gums, resins, etc. Theophrastus_sentence_59

On the Causes of Plants was originally eight books, of which six survive. Theophrastus_sentence_60

It concerns the growth of plants; the influences on their fecundity; the proper times they should be sown and reaped; the methods of preparing the soil, manuring it, and the use of tools; and of the smells, tastes, and properties of many types of plants. Theophrastus_sentence_61

The work deals mainly with the economical uses of plants rather than their medicinal uses, although the latter is sometimes mentioned. Theophrastus_sentence_62

A book on wines and a book on plant smells may have once been part of the complete work. Theophrastus_sentence_63

Although these works contain many absurd and fabulous statements, they include valuable observations concerning the functions and properties of plants. Theophrastus_sentence_64

Theophrastus detected the process of germination and realized the importance of climate and soil to plants. Theophrastus_sentence_65

Much of the information on the Greek plants may have come from his own observations, as he is known to have travelled throughout Greece, and to have had a botanical garden of his own; but the works also profit from the reports on plants of Asia brought back from those who followed Alexander the Great: Theophrastus_sentence_66

Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants was first published in a Latin translation by Theodore Gaza, at Treviso, 1483; in its original Greek it first appeared from the press of Aldus Manutius at Venice, 1495–98, from a third-rate manuscript, which, like the majority of the manuscripts that were sent to printers' workshops in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, has disappeared. Theophrastus_sentence_67

Christian Wimmer identified two manuscripts of first quality, the Codex Urbinas in the Vatican Library, which was not made known to J. Theophrastus_sentence_68 G. Schneider, who made the first modern critical edition, 1818–21, and the excerpts in the Codex Parisiensis in the Bibliothèque nationale de France. Theophrastus_sentence_69

On moral characters Theophrastus_section_3

His book Characters (Ἠθικοὶ χαρακτῆρες) contains thirty brief outlines of moral types. Theophrastus_sentence_70

They are the first recorded attempt at systematic character writing. Theophrastus_sentence_71

The book has been regarded by some as an independent work; others incline to the view that the sketches were written from time to time by Theophrastus, and collected and edited after his death; others, again, regard the Characters as part of a larger systematic work, but the style of the book is against this. Theophrastus_sentence_72

Theophrastus has found many imitators in this kind of writing, notably Joseph Hall (1608), Sir Thomas Overbury (1614–16), Bishop Earle (1628), and Jean de La Bruyère (1688), who also translated the Characters. Theophrastus_sentence_73

George Eliot also took inspiration from Theophrastus' Characters, most notably in her book of caricatures, Impressions of Theophrastus Such. Theophrastus_sentence_74

Writing the "character sketch" as a scholastic exercise also originated in Theophrastus's typology. Theophrastus_sentence_75

On sensation Theophrastus_section_4

A treatise On Sense Perception (Περὶ αἰσθήσεων) and its objects is important for a knowledge of the doctrines of the more ancient Greek philosophers regarding the subject. Theophrastus_sentence_76

A paraphrase and commentary on this work was written by Priscian of Lydia in the sixth century. Theophrastus_sentence_77

With this type of work we may connect the fragments on Smells, on Fatigue, on Dizziness, on Sweat, on Swooning, on Palsy, and on Honey. Theophrastus_sentence_78

Physics Theophrastus_section_5

Fragments of a History of Physics (Περὶ φυσικῶν ἱστοριῶν) are extant. Theophrastus_sentence_79

To this class of work belong the still extant sections on Fire, on the Winds, and on the signs of Waters, Winds, and Storms. Theophrastus_sentence_80

Various smaller scientific fragments have been collected in the editions of Johann Gottlob Schneider (1818–21) and Friedrich Wimmer (1842—62) and in Hermann Usener's Analecta Theophrastea. Theophrastus_sentence_81

Metaphysics Theophrastus_section_6

The Metaphysics (anachronistic Greek title: Θεοφράστου τῶν μετὰ τὰ φυσικά), in nine chapters (also known as On First Principles), was considered a fragment of a larger work by Usener in his edition (Theophrastos, Metaphysica, Bonn, 1890), but according to Ross and Fobes in their edition (Theophrastus, Metaphysica, Oxford, 1929), the treatise is complete (p. X) and this opinion is now widely accepted. Theophrastus_sentence_82

There is no reason for assigning this work to some other author because it is not noticed in Hermippus and Andronicus, especially as Nicolaus of Damascus had already mentioned it. Theophrastus_sentence_83

On stones Theophrastus_section_7

In his treatise On Stones (Περὶ λίθων), which was to be used as a source for other lapidaries until at least the Renaissance, Theophrastus classified rocks and gems based on their behavior when heated, further grouping minerals by common properties, such as amber and magnetite, which both have the power of attraction. Theophrastus_sentence_84

He also comments on the different hardnesses of minerals. Theophrastus_sentence_85

Theophrastus describes different marbles; mentions coal, which he says is used for heating by metal-workers; describes the various metal ores; and knew that pumice-stones had a volcanic origin. Theophrastus_sentence_86

He also deals with precious stones, emeralds, amethysts, onyx, jasper, etc., and describes a variety of "sapphire" that was blue with veins of gold, and thus was presumably lapis-lazuli. Theophrastus_sentence_87

He knew that pearls came from shell-fish, that coral came from India, and speaks of the fossilized remains of organic life. Theophrastus_sentence_88

Theophrastus made the first known reference to the phenomenon, now known to be caused by pyroelectricity, that the mineral lyngurium (probably tourmaline) attracts straws and bits of wood when heated. Theophrastus_sentence_89

He also considers the practical uses of various stones, such as the minerals necessary for the manufacture of glass; for the production of various pigments of paint such as ochre; and for the manufacture of plaster. Theophrastus_sentence_90

He discusses the use of the touchstone for assaying gold and gold alloys, an important property which would require the genius of Archimedes to resolve in quantitative detail when he was asked to investigate the suspected debasement of a crown a few years later. Theophrastus_sentence_91

Many of the rarer minerals were found in mines, and he mentions the famous copper mines of Cyprus and the even more famous silver mines, presumably of Laurium near Athens, and upon which the wealth of the city was based, as well as referring to gold mines. Theophrastus_sentence_92

The Laurium silver mines, which were the property of the state, were usually leased for a fixed sum and a percentage on the working. Theophrastus_sentence_93

Towards the end of the fifth century the output fell, partly owing to the Spartan occupation of Decelea. Theophrastus_sentence_94

But the mines continued to be worked, though Strabo records that in his time the tailings were being worked over, and Pausanias speaks of the mines as a thing of the past. Theophrastus_sentence_95

The ancient workings, consisting of shafts and galleries for excavating the ore, and washing tables for extracting the metal, may still be seen. Theophrastus_sentence_96

Theophrastus wrote a separate work On Mining, which like most of his writings is a lost work. Theophrastus_sentence_97

Pliny the Elder makes clear references to his use of On Stones in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD, while updating and making much new information available on minerals himself. Theophrastus_sentence_98

Although Pliny's treatment of the subject is more extensive, Theophrastus is more systematic and his work is comparatively free from fable and magic, although he did describe lyngurium, a gemstone supposedly formed of the solidified urine of the lynx (the best ones coming from wild males), which was included in many lapidiaries until it gradually disappeared from view in the 17th century. Theophrastus_sentence_99

From both of these early texts was to emerge the science of mineralogy, and ultimately geology. Theophrastus_sentence_100

Pliny is especially observant on crystal habit and mineral hardness, for example. Theophrastus_sentence_101

Philosophy Theophrastus_section_8

The extent to which Theophrastus followed Aristotle's doctrines, or defined them more accurately, or conceived them in a different form, and what additional structures of thought he placed upon them, can only be partially determined because of the loss of so many of his writings. Theophrastus_sentence_102

Many of his opinions have to be reconstructed from the works of later writers such as Alexander of Aphrodisias and Simplicius. Theophrastus_sentence_103

Logic Theophrastus_section_9

Theophrastus seems to have carried out still further the grammatical foundation of logic and rhetoric, since in his book on the elements of speech, he distinguished the main parts of speech from the subordinate parts, and also direct expressions (κυρία λέξις kuria lexis) from metaphorical expressions, and dealt with the emotions (πάθη pathe) of speech. Theophrastus_sentence_104

He further distinguished a twofold reference of speech (σχίσις schisis) to things (πράγματα pragmata) and to the hearers, and referred poetry and rhetoric to the latter. Theophrastus_sentence_105

He wrote at length on the unity of judgment, on the different kinds of negation, and on the difference between unconditional and conditional necessity. Theophrastus_sentence_106

In his doctrine of syllogisms he brought forward the proof for the conversion of universal affirmative judgments, differed from Aristotle here and there in the laying down and arranging the modi of the syllogisms, partly in the proof of them, partly in the doctrine of mixture, i.e. of the influence of the modality of the premises upon the modality of the conclusion. Theophrastus_sentence_107

Then, in two separate works, he dealt with the reduction of arguments to the syllogistic form and on the resolution of them; and further, with hypothetical conclusions. Theophrastus_sentence_108

For the doctrine of proof, Galen quotes the second Analytic of Theophrastus, in conjunction with that of Aristotle, as the best treatises on that doctrine. Theophrastus_sentence_109

In different monographs he seems to have tried to expand it into a general theory of science. Theophrastus_sentence_110

To this, too, may have belonged the proposition quoted from his Topics, that the principles of opposites are themselves opposed, and cannot be deduced from one and the same higher genus. Theophrastus_sentence_111

For the rest, some minor deviations from the Aristotelian definitions are quoted from the Topica of Theophrastus. Theophrastus_sentence_112

Closely connected with this treatise was that upon ambiguous words or ideas, which, without doubt, corresponded to book Ε of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Theophrastus_sentence_113

Physics and metaphysics Theophrastus_section_10

Theophrastus introduced his Physics with the proof that all natural existence, being corporeal and composite, requires principles, and first and foremost, motion, as the basis of all change. Theophrastus_sentence_114

Denying the substance of space, he seems to have regarded it, in opposition to Aristotle, as the mere arrangement and position (taxis and thesis) of bodies. Theophrastus_sentence_115

Time he called an accident of motion, without, it seems, viewing it, with Aristotle, as the numerical determinant of motion. Theophrastus_sentence_116

He attacked the doctrine of the four classical elements and challenged whether fire could be called a primary element when it appears to be compound, requiring, as it does, another material for its own nutriment. Theophrastus_sentence_117

He departed more widely from Aristotle in his doctrine of motion, since on the one hand he extended it over all categories, and did not limit it to those laid down by Aristotle. Theophrastus_sentence_118

He viewed motion, with Aristotle, as an activity, not carrying its own goal in itself (ateles), of that which only potentially exists, but he opposed Aristotle's view that motion required a special explanation, and he regarded it as something proper both to nature in general and the celestial system in particular: Theophrastus_sentence_119

He recognised no activity without motion, and so referred all activities of the soul to motion: the desires and emotions to corporeal motion, judgment (kriseis) and contemplation to spiritual motion. Theophrastus_sentence_120

The idea of a spirit entirely independent of organic activity, must therefore have appeared to him very doubtful; yet he appears to have contented himself with developing his doubts and difficulties on the point, without positively rejecting it. Theophrastus_sentence_121

Other Peripatetics, like Dicaearchus, Aristoxenus, and especially Strato, developed further this naturalism in Aristotelian doctrine. Theophrastus_sentence_122

Theophrastus seems, generally speaking, where the investigation overstepped the limits of experience, to have preferred to develop the difficulties rather than solve them, as is especially apparent in his Metaphysics. Theophrastus_sentence_123

He was doubtful of Aristotle's teleology and recommended that such ideas be used with caution: Theophrastus_sentence_124

He did not follow the incessant attempts by Aristotle to refer phenomena to their ultimate foundations, or his attempts to unfold the internal connections between the latter, and between them and phenomena. Theophrastus_sentence_125

In antiquity, it was a subject of complaint that Theophrastus had not expressed himself with precision and consistency respecting God, and had understood it at one time as Heaven, at another an (enlivening) breath (pneuma). Theophrastus_sentence_126

Ethics Theophrastus_section_11

Theophrastus did not allow a happiness resting merely upon virtue, or, consequently, to hold fast by the unconditional value of morality. Theophrastus_sentence_127

He subordinated moral requirements to the advantage at least of a friend, and had allowed in prosperity the existence of an influence injurious to them. Theophrastus_sentence_128

In later times, fault was found with his expression in the Callisthenes, "life is ruled by fortune, not wisdom" (vitam regit fortuna non sapientia). Theophrastus_sentence_129

That in the definition of pleasure, likewise, he did not coincide with Aristotle, seems to be indicated by the titles of two of his writings, one of which dealt with pleasure generally, the other with pleasure as Aristotle had defined it. Theophrastus_sentence_130

Although, like his teacher, he preferred contemplative (theoretical), to active (practical) life, he preferred to set the latter free from the restraints of family life, etc. in a manner of which Aristotle would not have approved. Theophrastus_sentence_131

Theophrastus was opposed to eating meat on the grounds that it robbed animals of life and was therefore unjust. Theophrastus_sentence_132

Non-human animals, he said, can reason, sense, and feel just as human beings do. Theophrastus_sentence_133

The "portrait" of Theophrastus Theophrastus_section_12

The marble herm figure with the bearded head of philosopher type, bearing the explicit inscription, must be taken as purely conventional. Theophrastus_sentence_134

Unidentified portrait heads did not find a ready market in post-Renaissance Rome. Theophrastus_sentence_135

This bust was formerly in the collection of marchese Pietro Massimi at Palazzo Massimi and belonged to marchese L. Massimi at the time the engraving was made. Theophrastus_sentence_136

It is now in the Villa Albani, Rome (inv. Theophrastus_sentence_137

1034). Theophrastus_sentence_138

The inscribed bust has often been illustrated in engravings and photographs: a photograph of it forms the frontispiece to the Loeb Classical Library Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants vol. Theophrastus_sentence_139

I, 1916. Theophrastus_sentence_140

André Thevet illustrated in his iconographic compendium, Les vraies Pourtrats et vies des Hommes Illustres (Paris, 1584), an alleged portrait plagiarized from the bust, supporting his fraud with the invented tale that he had obtained it from the library of a Greek in Cyprus and that he had seen a confirming bust in the ruins of Antioch. Theophrastus_sentence_141

In popular culture Theophrastus_section_13

A world is named Theophrastus in the 2014 Firefly graphic novel Serenity: Leaves on the Wind. Theophrastus_sentence_142

Theodor Geisel used the name "Theophrastus" as the given name of his pen-name alter ego, Dr. Theophrastus_sentence_143 Seuss. Theophrastus_sentence_144

A board game named Theophrastus was released in 2001. Theophrastus_sentence_145

Players compete through a series of Alchemy experiments in order to become Theophrastus' apprentice. Theophrastus_sentence_146


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theophrastus.