Timbales

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"Pailas" redirects here. Timbales_sentence_0

For the earthenware bowl, see paila. Timbales_sentence_1

For the Brazilian drum, see timbal. Timbales_sentence_2

Timbales_table_infobox_0

TimbalesTimbales_table_caption_0
Percussion instrumentTimbales_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesTimbales_header_cell_0_1_0 Pailas, pailas criollasTimbales_cell_0_1_1
ClassificationTimbales_header_cell_0_2_0 drumTimbales_cell_0_2_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationTimbales_header_cell_0_3_0 percussion

(membranophone)Timbales_cell_0_3_1

DevelopedTimbales_header_cell_0_4_0 c. 1900 in CubaTimbales_cell_0_4_1
Related instrumentsTimbales_header_cell_0_5_0

Timbales (/tɪmˈbɑːliːz/) or pailas are shallow single-headed drums with metal casing. Timbales_sentence_3

They are shallower than single-headed tom-toms, and usually tuned much higher, especially for their size. Timbales_sentence_4

The player (called a timbalero) uses a variety of stick strokes, rim shots, and rolls to produce a wide range of percussive expression during solos and at transitional sections of music, and usually plays the shells of the drum or auxiliary percussion such as a cowbell or cymbal to keep time in other parts of the song. Timbales_sentence_5

The shells are referred to as cáscara (the Spanish word for shell), which is also the name of a rhythmic pattern common in salsa music that is played on the shells of the timbales. Timbales_sentence_6

The shells are usually made of metal, but some manufacturers offer shells of maple and other woods. Timbales_sentence_7

Nomenclature Timbales_section_0

The term timbal or timbales (pl.) has been used in Cuba for two quite different types of drum. Timbales_sentence_8

Timbales is the Spanish word for timpani (kettledrums), an instrument that was imported into Cuba in the 19th century and used by wind orchestras known as orquestas típicas. Timbales_sentence_9

These were the same general type of drum used in military bands, perhaps slung either side of a horse, and in classical orchestras. Timbales_sentence_10

These were, and are, played with mallets (sticks with large, soft, round heads). Timbales_sentence_11

The timpani were replaced by pailas criollas, which were originally designed to be used by street bands. Timbales_sentence_12

Pailas are always hit with straight batons (thicker than standard drumsticks, and not shaped: they are of uniform thickness along the length) that have no additional head. Timbales_sentence_13

Hits are made on the top and on the metal sides. Timbales_sentence_14

In a modern band the timbalero may also have a trap set to switch to for certain numbers. Timbales_sentence_15

Since the term timbales is used to refer to both timpani and pailas criollas, it is ambiguous when referring to bands playing the danzón in the 1900–1930 period. Timbales_sentence_16

In French, timbales (pronounced [tɛ̃bal) is also the word for timpani, thus the French refer to Cuban timbales as timbales latines. Timbales_sentence_17

In Brazil, the term timbal refers to an unrelated drum. Timbales_sentence_18

Timbalitos Timbales_section_1

Timbalitos or pailitas are small timbales with diameters of 6″ (15 cm), 8″ (20 cm), or 10″ (25 cm). Timbales_sentence_19

The timbalitos are used to play the part of the bongos with sticks, but are not used to play the traditional timbales part. Timbales_sentence_20

Manteca, Papaíto, Félix Escobar 'El Gallego' and Manny Oquendo were masters at playing the bongó part on timbalitos. Timbales_sentence_21

Timbalitos are sometimes incorporated into expanded timbales set-ups, or incorporated into drum kits. Timbales_sentence_22

Traditional use Timbales_section_2

Baqueteo Timbales_section_3

The basic timbales part for danzón is called the baqueteo. Timbales_sentence_23

In the example below, the slashed noteheads indicate muted drum strokes, and the regular noteheads indicate open strokes. Timbales_sentence_24

The danzón was the first written music to be based on the organizing principle of sub-Saharan African rhythm, known in Cuba as clave. Timbales_sentence_25

Timbales bell patterns Timbales_section_4

During the mambo era of the 1940s, timbaleros began to mount cowbells on their drums. Timbales_sentence_26

The cowbells, or wood blocks may be mounted slightly above and between the two timbales a little further from the player. Timbales_sentence_27

The following four timbale bell patterns are based on the folkloric rumba cáscara part. Timbales_sentence_28

They are written in 3-2 clave sequence. Timbales_sentence_29

In the 1970s José Luis Quintana "Changuito" developed the technique of simultaneously playing timbale and bongo bell parts when he held the timbales chair in the songo band Los Van Van. Timbales_sentence_30

The example below shows the combined bell patterns (written in a 2-3 clave sequence). Timbales_sentence_31

Tito Puente was frequently seen in concerts, and on posters and album covers, with seven or eight timbales in one set. Timbales_sentence_32

The timbales were occasionally expanded with drum kit pieces, such as a kick or snare drum. Timbales_sentence_33

By the late 1970s this became the norm in the genre known as songo. Timbales_sentence_34

Changuito and others brought rumba and funk influences into timbales playing. Timbales_sentence_35

In contemporary timba bands, drummers, such as Calizto Oviedo, will often use a timbales/drum kit hybrid. Timbales_sentence_36

Solos Timbales_section_5

Típico style Timbales_section_6

The original style of soloing on timbales is known as típico ('typical'). Timbales_sentence_37

Manny Oquendo (1931-2009) played timbales solos famous for their tastefully sparse, straight forward típico phrasing. Timbales_sentence_38

The following five measure excerpt is from a timbales solo by Oquendo on "Mambo." Timbales_sentence_39

The clave pattern is written above for reference. Timbales_sentence_40

Notice how the passage begins and ends by coinciding with the strokes of clave. Timbales_sentence_41

Rumba quinto rhythmic vocabulary Timbales_section_7

By the late 1940s and early 1950s, some timbaleros ('timbales players'), particularly Tito Puente, began incorporating the rhythmic vocabulary of rumba quinto into their solos. Timbales_sentence_42

Non-traditional use Timbales_section_8

Drummer John Dolmayan of System of a Down is known for using two (6″ and 8″) mini timbales in his kit. Timbales_sentence_43

Also, Bud Gaugh of Sublime and Long Beach Dub Allstars used a single, high pitched timbal on his drumkit to the left of his snare during his years with those bands. Timbales_sentence_44

Bud used his timbal usually for accents and transitions, especially in the more reggae-influenced songs, but it is used exclusively in place of the snare on the song "Waiting for My Ruca" from 40 oz. Timbales_sentence_45 to Freedom and Stand By Your Van. Timbales_sentence_46

He has not used the timbales in his recent bands Eyes Adrift and Del Mar, possibly due to the lack of reggae influence in those bands. Timbales_sentence_47

The Ohio University Marching 110's drum line features four sets of timbales in the place of quads or quints. Timbales_sentence_48

They are one of the very few marching bands in the country to still employ timbales in their drum line. Timbales_sentence_49

They also employ four sets of dual tom toms to play the lower lines that a quad or quint would cover. Timbales_sentence_50

An offshoot of the Washington DC funk genre of Go-Go known as the "Bounce Beat" features timbales as a predominant instrument. Timbales_sentence_51

Dave Mackintosh uses a pair of 8" diameter attack timbales 9" and 11" deep made by Meinl Percussion to produce a similar sound to a pair of octobans. Timbales_sentence_52

Meinl also produce a set of mini timbales of traditional depth but 8" and 10" diameter, also suitable for drum kit usage. Timbales_sentence_53

Genres Timbales_section_9

Timbales are traditionally played in: Timbales_sentence_54

Timbales_unordered_list_0

Other Latin music genres such as cumbia sometimes incorporate this instrument in lieu of their traditional percussion. Timbales_sentence_55

Many rock bands have included it in their rhythm section despite not playing Latin rock. Timbales_sentence_56


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbales.