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For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). Toad_sentence_0


Scientific classification AnuraToad_header_cell_0_1_0
Kingdom:Toad_cell_0_2_0 AnimaliaToad_cell_0_2_1
Phylum:Toad_cell_0_3_0 ChordataToad_cell_0_3_1
Class:Toad_cell_0_4_0 AmphibiaToad_cell_0_4_1
Clade:Toad_cell_0_5_0 SalientiaToad_cell_0_5_1
Order:Toad_cell_0_6_0 Anura

Merrem, 1820Toad_cell_0_6_1


Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands. Toad_sentence_1

A distinction between frogs and toads is not made in scientific taxonomy, but is common in popular culture (folk taxonomy), in which toads are associated with drier, rougher skin and more terrestrial habitats. Toad_sentence_2

Biology Toad_section_0

In scientific taxonomy, toads are found in the families Bufonidae, Bombinatoridae, Calyptocephalellidae, Discoglossidae, Myobatrachidae, Pelobatidae, Rhinophrynidae, Scaphiopodidae and Microhylidae. Toad_sentence_3

Usually the largest of the bumps on the skin of a toad are those that cover the parotoid glands. Toad_sentence_4

The bumps are commonly called warts, but they have nothing to do with pathologic warts, being fixed in size, present on healthy specimens and not caused by infection. Toad_sentence_5

Toads travel from non-breeding to breeding areas of ponds and lakes. Toad_sentence_6

Bogert (1947) suggests that the toads' call is the most important cue in the homing to ponds. Toad_sentence_7

Toads, like many amphibians, exhibit breeding site fidelity (philopatry). Toad_sentence_8

Individual American toads return to their natal ponds to breed where they are likely to encounter siblings as potential mates. Toad_sentence_9

Although inbred examples within a species is possible, siblings rarely mate. Toad_sentence_10

Toads recognize and avoid mating with close kin. Toad_sentence_11

Advertisement vocalizations given by males appear to serve as cues by which females recognize kin. Toad_sentence_12

Kin recognition thus allows avoidance of inbreeding and consequent inbreeding depression. Toad_sentence_13

Cultural depictions Toad_section_1

Further information: Toadstone and List of fictional frogs and toads Toad_sentence_14

In Kenneth Grahame's novel The Wind in the Willows (1908), Mr. Toad_sentence_15 Toad is a likeable and popular, if selfish and narcissistic, comic character. Toad_sentence_16

Mr. Toad reappears as the lead character in A.A. Toad_sentence_17 Milne's play Toad of Toad Hall (1929), based on the book. Toad_sentence_18

In Chinese culture, the Money Toad (or Frog) Jin Chan appears as a Feng Shui charm for prosperity. Toad_sentence_19

See also Toad_section_2


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