This article is about the city in Ontario.
For other uses, see Toronto (disambiguation).
"City of Toronto" redirects here.
For the city's government, see Municipal government of Toronto.
The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,245,438 people (as of 2016) surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario, while the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) proper had a 2016 population of 6,417,516.
After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada.
It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation.
The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada.
While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city.
Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets.
Its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities, attract over 43 million tourists each year.
Its economy is highly diversified with strengths in technology, design, financial services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, aerospace, environmental innovation, food services, and tourism.
Main article: History of Toronto
When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot (Huron) people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500.
The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water".
This refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish.
However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" also appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, which is also an Iroquoian language.
It also appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers.
The site of Toronto lay at the entrance to one of the oldest routes to the northwest, a route known and used by the Huron, Iroquois, and Ojibwe, and was of strategic importance from the beginning of Ontario's recorded history.
By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their homeland in present-day New York.
The British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, and the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763.
The Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being created and needed a capital.
In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres (1000 km) of land in the Toronto area.
Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto.
The first 25 years after the Toronto purchase was quiet, although "there were occasional independent fur traders" present in the area, with the usual complaints of debauchery and drunkenness.
Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York, believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States.
The York garrison was built at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula.
John Strachan negotiated the town's surrender.
American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation.
Because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated later in the war with the burning of Washington, D.C.
York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name.
(Most of the latter were resettled in Nova Scotia.)
By 1834 refugee slaves from America's South were also immigrating to Toronto, settling in Canada to gain freedom.
Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada (and throughout the British Empire) in 1834.
Torontonians integrated people of colour into their society.
In the 1840s, an eating house at Frederick and King Streets, a place of mercantile prosperity in the early city, was operated by a black man named Bloxom.
As a major destination for immigrants to Canada, the city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century.
By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city.
The Scottish and English population welcomed smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants, some from what is now Northern Ireland, which gave the Orange Order significant and long-lasting influence over Toronto society.
For brief periods, Toronto was twice the capital of the united Province of Canada: first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856–1858.
After this date, Quebec was designated as the capital until 1866 (one year before Canadian Confederation).
Since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa, Ontario.
Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867.
The seat of government of the Ontario Legislature is at Queen's Park.
Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, supporters of the concept proposed military colleges in Canada.
Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month-long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto.
Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, drill and discipline, to command a company at Battalion Drill, to drill a company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a company, and the duties of a company's officer.
The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867.
In the 19th century, the city built an extensive sewage system to improve sanitation, and streets were illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service.
Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes.
The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before.
These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent.
Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular, spirits) centre in North America.
A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District.
The harbour allowed for sure access to grain and sugar imports used in processing.
Expanding port and rail facilities brought in northern timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal.
Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years.
The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.
The fire destroyed more than 100 buildings.
The fire claimed one victim, John Croft, who was an explosive expert clearing the ruins from the fire.
It caused CA$10,387,000 in damage (roughly CA$277,600,000in 2020 terms).
The city received new European immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into the early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews.
They were soon followed by Russians, Poles, and other Eastern European nations, in addition to Chinese entering from the West.
As new migrants began to prosper, they moved to better housing in other areas, in what is now understood to be succession waves of settlement.
Despite its fast-paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto's population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal, Quebec.
However, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country.
The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development and it was believed a coordinated land-use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region.
The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit.
In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding.
In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than CA$25 million in damage.
In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged with larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the former city of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, and York.
In the decades after World War II, refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived, as well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal.
Toronto's population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began and doubled to two million by 1971.
Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, Toronto became a destination for immigrants from all parts of the world.
By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada's most populous city and chief economic hub.
During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities.
On January 1, 1998, Toronto was greatly enlarged, not through traditional annexations, but as an amalgamation of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto and its six lower-tier constituent municipalities: East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York, and the original city itself.
The merger was proposed as a cost-saving measure by the Progressive Conservative provincial government under Mike Harris.
The announcement touched off vociferous public objections.
In March 1997, a referendum in all six municipalities produced a vote of more than 3∶1 against amalgamation.
However, municipal governments in Canada are creatures of the provincial governments, and referendums have little to no legal effect.
The Harris government could thus legally ignore the results of the referendum, and did so in April when it tabled the City of Toronto Act.
Both opposition parties held a filibuster in the provincial legislature, proposing more than 12,000 amendments that allowed residents on streets of the proposed megacity take part in public hearings on the merger and adding historical designations to the streets.
This only delayed the bill's inevitable passage, given the PCO's majority.
Lastman gained national attention after multiple snowstorms, including the January Blizzard of 1999, dumped 118 cm of snow and effectively immobilized the city.
He called in the Canadian Army to aid snow removal by use of their equipment to augment police and emergency services.
The move was ridiculed by some in other parts of the country, fueled in part by what was perceived as a frivolous use of resources.
The city attracted international attention in 2003 when it became the centre of a major Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak.
Public health attempts to prevent the disease from spreading elsewhere temporarily dampened the local economy.
From August 14 - 17 2003, the City has hit by a massive blackout which affected millions of Torontonians (it also affected most of Southern Ontario and parts of the United States), stranding some hundreds of people in tall buildings, knocking out traffic lights and suspending subway and streetcar service across the City during those aforementioned days.
On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the 175th anniversary of its inception as the City of Toronto in 1834.
Toronto hosted the 4th G20 summit during June 26–27, 2010.
This included the largest security operation in Canadian history.
Following large-scale protests and rioting, law enforcement conducted the largest mass arrest (more than a thousand people) in Canadian history.
On July 8, 2013, severe flash flooding hit Toronto after an afternoon of slow-moving, intense thunderstorms.
Toronto Hydro estimated 450,000 people were without power after the storm and Toronto Pearson International Airport reported 126 mm (5 in) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel.
Within six months, From December 20 to 22 2013, Toronto was brought to a near halt by the worst ice storm in the city's history, rivalling the severity of the 1998 Ice Storm (which mostly affected southeastern Ontario, and Quebec).
At the height of the storm over 300,000 Toronto Hydro customers had no electricity or heating.
The city continues to grow and attract immigrants.
A study by Ryerson University showed that Toronto was the fastest-growing city in North America.
The city added 77,435 people between July 2017 and July 2018.
The Toronto metropolitan area was the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in North America, adding 125,298 persons, compared with 131,767 in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington in Texas.
The large growth in the Toronto metropolitan area is attributed to international migration to Toronto.
Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Toronto
The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada first occurred in Toronto and is among the hotspots in the country.
Main article: Geography of Toronto
Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi), with a maximum north–south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi).
It has a maximum east–west distance of 43 km (27 mi) and it has a 46-kilometre (29 mi) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario.
An Outer Harbour was constructed south east of downtown during the 1950s and 1960s and it's now used for recreation.
The city's borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, the western boundary of Marie Curtis Park, Etobicoke Creek, Eglinton Avenue and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River and Scarborough–Pickering Townline to the east.
Main article: Toronto ravine system
The city of Toronto has a hot summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa), until the 20th century on the threshold of a warm summer humid continental climate (Dfb) but still found in the metropolitan region, with warm, humid summers and cold winters.
According to the classification applied by Natural Resources Canada, the city of Toronto is in plant hardiness zone 7a, with some suburbs & nearby towns having lower zone ratings.
The city experiences four distinct seasons, with considerable variance in length.
As a result of the rapid passage of weather systems (such as high- and low-pressure systems), the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons.
Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly low diurnal temperature range.
The denser urbanscape makes for warmer nights year around; the average nighttime temperature is about 3.0 °C (5.40 °F) warmer in the city than in rural areas in all months.
However, it can be noticeably cooler on many spring and early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze since Lake Ontario is cool, relative to the air during these seasons.
These lake breezes mostly occur in summer, bringing relief on hot days.
Winters are cold with frequent snow.
During the winter months, temperatures are usually below 0 °C (32 °F).
Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by wind chill.
Occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C (−13 °F).
Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain, can disrupt work and travel schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April.
However, mild stretches also occur in most winters, melting accumulated snow.
The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures.
Daytime temperatures are usually above 20 °C (68 °F), and often rise above 30 °C (86 °F).
However, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity.
Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods.
Daytime temperatures average around 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F) during these seasons.
Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms.
The average yearly precipitation is about 831 mm (32.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 1,220 mm (48 in).
Toronto experiences an average of 2,066 sunshine hours or 45% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 28% in December to 60% in July.
Main article: Architecture of Toronto
Lawrence Richards, a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto, has said: "Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big mix of periods and styles."
Toronto's buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the early 19th century, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the 21st century.
Bay-and-gable houses, mainly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural feature of the city.
Defining the Toronto skyline is the CN Tower, a telecommunications and tourism hub.
Toronto is a city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft).
Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto's architectural heritage were demolished to make way for redevelopment or parking.
In contrast, since 2000, Toronto has experienced a period of condo construction boom and architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened.
The mid-1800s Distillery District, on the eastern edge of downtown, has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood.
See also: List of Toronto parks
Main article: Media in Toronto
Toronto is Canada's largest media market, and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and three free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants.
The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post are broadsheet newspapers.
StarMetro is distributed as free commuter newspapers.
Daily Hive, Western Canada's largest online-only publication, opened their Toronto office in 2016.
Much (formerly MuchMusic), M3 (formerly MuchMore) and MTV Canada are the main music television channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music videos as a result of channel drift.
Main article: Tourism in Toronto
Main article: Sports in Toronto
The city's population grew by 4 per cent (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, 1 per cent (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006, 4.3 per cent (111,779 residents) between 2006 and 2011, and 4.5 per cent (116,511) between 2011 and 2016.
In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5 per cent of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 15.6 per cent.
The median age was 39.3 years.
The city's gender population is 48 per cent male and 52 per cent female.
Women outnumber men in all age groups 15 and older.
In 2016, foreign-born persons made up 47 per cent of the population, compared to 49.9 per cent in 2006.
While Miami's foreign-born population has traditionally consisted primarily of Cubans and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world.
In 2010, it was estimated over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto Area each year.
|Geographic division||2016 Census|
|Toronto (city proper)||2,731,571|
|Greater Toronto Area (metropolitan area)||6,417,516|
|Golden Horseshoe (region)||9,245,438|
|Census population centre (urban area)||5,429,524|
|Census metropolitan area (CMA)||5,928,040|
In 2016, the three most commonly reported ethnic origins overall were Chinese (332,830 or 12.5 per cent), English (331,890 or 12.3 per cent) and Canadian (323,175 or 12.0 per cent).
Common regions of ethnic origin were European (47.9 per cent), Asian (including middle-Eastern – 40.1 per cent), African (5.5 per cent), Latin/Central/South American (4.2 per cent), and North American aboriginal (1.2 per cent).
In 2016, 51.5 per cent of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1 per cent in 2011, and 13.6 per cent in 1981.
The largest visible minority groups were South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan at 338,960 or 12.6 per cent), East Asian (Chinese at 332,830 or 12.5 per cent), and Black (239,850 or 8.9 per cent).
Visible minorities are projected to increase to 63 per cent of the city's population by 2031.
This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market, Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal and Roncesvalles (Polish community).
Questions on religion is conducted in every other Canadian census, with the latest census to include them being the 2011 Canadian Census.
In 2011, the most commonly reported religion in Toronto was Christianity, adhered to by 54.1 per cent of the population.
A plurality, 28.2 per cent, of the city's population was Catholic, followed by Protestants (11.9 per cent), Christian Orthodox (4.3 per cent), and members of other Christian denominations (9.7 per cent).
Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2 per cent of Toronto's population.
English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians with approximately 95 per cent of residents having proficiency in the language, although only 54.7 per cent of Torontonians reported English as their mother tongue.
English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the other being French.
Approximately 1.6 per cent of Torontonians reported French as their mother tongue, although 9.1 per cent reported being bilingual in both official languages.
In addition to services provided by the federal government, provincial services in Toronto are available in both official languages as a result of the French Language Services Act.
Approximately 4.9 per cent of Torontonians reported having no knowledge in either official languages of the country.
Approximately 55 per cent of respondents who reported proficiency in a Chinese language reported knowledge in Mandarin in the 2016 census.
The most common form of sign language used in the city is American Sign Language (ASL), with 63 per cent of respondents who reported having knowledge of sign languages stating they had proficiency in ASL.
Approximately 0.3 per cent of people who reported having knowledge in a sign language reported having proficiency in Quebec Sign Language.
However, only 0.1 per cent Toronto's total population reported having knowledge in any sign language.
Main article: Municipal government of Toronto
The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act.
The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city.
The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits.
(Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.)
As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consisting of a chair, (some have a vice-chair), and a number of councillors.
The mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining members of the committees are appointed by city council.
An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors.
Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board.
The city has four community councils that consider local matters.
City council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council.
Each city councillor serves as a member of a community council.
There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council.
These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers.
Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.
The City of Toronto had an approved operating budget of CA$13.53 billion in 2020 and a ten-year capital budget and plan of CA$43.5 billion.
The city's revenues include subsidies from the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario (for programs mandated by those governments), 33% from property tax, 6% from the land transfer tax and the rest from other tax revenues and user fees.
The city's largest operating expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission at CA$2.14 billion, and the Toronto Police Service, CA$1.22 billion.
Main article: Crime in Toronto
The historically low crime rate in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America.
For instance, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta (19.7), Boston (10.3), Los Angeles (10.0), New York City (6.3), Vancouver (3.1), and Montreal (2.6).
Toronto's robbery rate also ranks low, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles (348.5), Vancouver (266.2), New York City (265.9), and Montreal (235.3).
Toronto has a comparable rate of car theft to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada.
In 2005, Toronto media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because of a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total.
The total number of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006; that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total.
84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of which involved guns.
Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred.
As a result, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun strategy.
In 2011, Toronto's murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26% drop from the previous year.
The 51 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47.
While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, it remained nearly flat line of 57–59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015.
2016 went to 75 for the first time in over 8 years.
2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the year at 65, with a homicide rate of 1.47 per 100,000 population.
The record year for per capita murders was previously 1991, with 3.9 murders per 100,000 people.
Main article: Education in Toronto
There are four public school boards that provide elementary and secondary education in Toronto, the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde (CSV), the Toronto Catholic District School Board (TCDSB), and the Toronto District School Board (TDSB).
CSV and MonAvenir are French first language school boards, whereas TCDSB and TDSB are English first language school boards.
TDSB operates the most schools among the four Toronto-based school boards, with 451 elementary schools, 105 secondary schools, and five adult learning centres.
TCDSB operates 163 elementary schools, 29 secondary schools, three combined institutions, and one adult learning centre.
CSV operates 11 elementary schools, and three secondary schools in the city.
MonAvenir operates nine elementary schools, and three secondary schools in Toronto.
Five public universities are based in Toronto.
The University of Guelph-Humber is also based in northwestern Toronto, although it is not an independent public university capable of issuing its own degrees.
There are four diploma and degree granting colleges based in Toronto.
The city is also home to a satellite campus of Collège Boréal, a French first language college.
Examples of such institutions include The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School; the Canadian Film Centre, a media training institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison; and Tyndale University, a Christian post-secondary institution and Canada's largest seminary.
The Toronto Public Library consists of 100 branches with more than 11 million items in its collection.
Health and medicine
Main article: Health in Toronto
See also: List of hospitals in Toronto
Toronto is home to twenty public hospitals, including The Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Etobicoke General Hospital, St. , Joseph's Health CentreScarborough General Hospital, Birchmount Hospital, Centenary Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, many of which are affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine.
In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average emergency room waiting times in Ontario.
Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment.
After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours.
Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were also provided within waiting rooms.
50% of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room.
The least-urgent 10% of cases wait over 12 hours.
The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall shortage of acute care beds.
It is on a 2.5-square-kilometre (620-acre) research park that is integrated into Toronto's downtown core.
It is also home to the MaRS Discovery District, which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario.
Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).
Specialized hospitals are also outside of the downtown core.
Toronto is also host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and Canadian residents.
Organizations include Crohn's and Colitis Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all located in the same office at Yonge–Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada, and many others.
These organizations work to help people within the GTA, Ontario or Canada who are affected by these illnesses.
Toronto is also home to the Geneva Centre for Autism.
As well, most engage in fundraising to promote research, services, and public awareness.
Main article: Transportation in Toronto
Toronto is a central transportation hub for road, rail and air networks in Southern Ontario.
Toronto also has an extensive network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths.
Main article: Public transportation in Toronto
Toronto's main public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).
Line 3 is a light metro line that exclusively serves the city's eastern district of Scarborough.
The TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars, with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse subway network.
TTC buses and streetcars use the same fare system as the subway, and many subway stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between rail and surface vehicles.
There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns.
Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the Spadina subway (line 1) extension north of Sheppard West station (formerly named Downsview) to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre in Vaughan, a suburb north of Toronto.
By November 2011, construction on Line 5 Eglinton began.
Line 5 is scheduled to finish construction by 2022.
In 2015, the Ontario government promised to fund Line 6 Finch West which is to be completed by 2023.
In 2019, the Government of Ontario released a transit plan for the Greater Toronto Area which includes a new 16-kilometres Ontario Line, Line 1 extension to Richmond Hill Centre and an extension for Line 5 Eglinton to Toronto Pearson Airport.
Construction on a new Union Station Bus Terminal is also in the works with an expected completion in 2020.
GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday (2013) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station.
Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga.
The Union Pearson Express (UP Express) train service provides a direct link between Pearson International and Union Station.
It began carrying passengers in June 2015.
Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada and the USA is offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport (IATA: YTZ) on the Toronto Islands, southwest of downtown.
Within a few hours' drive, Hamilton's John C. Munro International Airport (IATA: YHM) and Buffalo's Buffalo Niagara International Airport (IATA: BUF) serve as alternate airports for the Toronto area in addition to serving their respective cities.
Toronto Union Station serves as a hub for VIA Rail's intercity services in Central Canada and includes services to various parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal and national capital Ottawa, and long-distance services to Vancouver and New York City.
The Toronto Coach Terminal in downtown Toronto also serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive network of services in Ontario and neighbouring provinces and states.
GO Transit provides intercity bus services from the Union Station Bus Terminal and other bus terminals in the city to destinations within the greater Toronto area.
The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft (2.0 km) apart (with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they used a different survey).
Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north–south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline, though slightly angled north of Eglinton Avenue.
This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines.
Toronto's grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north.
In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core.
It is the busiest road in North America, and one of the busiest highways in the world.
Toronto's traffic congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the second highest in Canada after Vancouver.
Main article: List of people from Toronto
Main article: Sister cities of Toronto
- Outline of Toronto (extensive topic list)
- Great Lakes Megalopolis
- Largest cities in the Americas
- List of metropolitan areas in the Americas
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toronto.