Toronto

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This article is about the city in Ontario. Toronto_sentence_0

For other uses, see Toronto (disambiguation). Toronto_sentence_1

"City of Toronto" redirects here. Toronto_sentence_2

For the city's government, see Municipal government of Toronto. Toronto_sentence_3

Toronto_table_infobox_0

TorontoToronto_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryToronto_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaToronto_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceToronto_header_cell_0_2_0 OntarioToronto_cell_0_2_1
DistrictsToronto_header_cell_0_3_0 Toronto_cell_0_3_1
Historic countriesToronto_header_cell_0_4_0 Kingdom of France

Kingdom of Great Britain United KingdomToronto_cell_0_4_1

SettledToronto_header_cell_0_5_0 1750 (as Fort Rouillé)Toronto_cell_0_5_1
EstablishedToronto_header_cell_0_6_0 August 27, 1793 (as York)Toronto_cell_0_6_1
IncorporatedToronto_header_cell_0_7_0 March 6, 1834 (as Toronto)Toronto_cell_0_7_1
Amalgamated into divisionToronto_header_cell_0_8_0 January 20, 1953 (as Metropolitan Toronto)Toronto_cell_0_8_1
AmalgamatedToronto_header_cell_0_9_0 January 1, 1998 (as City of Toronto)Toronto_cell_0_9_1
GovernmentToronto_header_cell_0_10_0
TypeToronto_header_cell_0_11_0 Single-tier municipality with a Mayor–council systemToronto_cell_0_11_1
MayorToronto_header_cell_0_12_0 John ToryToronto_cell_0_12_1
Deputy MayorsToronto_header_cell_0_13_0 Toronto_cell_0_13_1
BodyToronto_header_cell_0_14_0 Toronto City CouncilToronto_cell_0_14_1
Federal representationToronto_header_cell_0_15_0 List of MPsToronto_cell_0_15_1
Provincial representationToronto_header_cell_0_16_0 List of MPPsToronto_cell_0_16_1
AreaToronto_header_cell_0_17_0
City (single-tier)Toronto_header_cell_0_18_0 630.20 km (243.32 sq mi)Toronto_cell_0_18_1
UrbanToronto_header_cell_0_19_0 1,792.99 km (692.28 sq mi)Toronto_cell_0_19_1
MetroToronto_header_cell_0_20_0 5,905.71 km (2,280.21 sq mi)Toronto_cell_0_20_1
ElevationToronto_header_cell_0_21_0 76.5 m (251.0 ft)Toronto_cell_0_21_1
Population (2016 Census)Toronto_header_cell_0_22_0
City (single-tier)Toronto_header_cell_0_23_0 2,731,571 (1st)Toronto_cell_0_23_1
DensityToronto_header_cell_0_24_0 4,334.4/km (11,226/sq mi)Toronto_cell_0_24_1
UrbanToronto_header_cell_0_25_0 5,429,524Toronto_cell_0_25_1
Greater Toronto Area (metro)Toronto_header_cell_0_26_0 6,417,516 (1st)Toronto_cell_0_26_1
RegionToronto_header_cell_0_27_0 9,245,438Toronto_cell_0_27_1
Demonym(s)Toronto_header_cell_0_28_0 TorontonianToronto_cell_0_28_1
Time zoneToronto_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC−5 (EST)Toronto_cell_0_29_1
Summer (DST)Toronto_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Toronto_cell_0_30_1
Postal code spanToronto_header_cell_0_31_0 MToronto_cell_0_31_1
Area codesToronto_header_cell_0_32_0 416, 647, 437Toronto_cell_0_32_1
NTS MapToronto_header_cell_0_33_0 030M11Toronto_cell_0_33_1
GNBC CodeToronto_header_cell_0_34_0 FEUZBToronto_cell_0_34_1
Major airportsToronto_header_cell_0_35_0 Toronto Pearson International Airport, Billy Bishop Toronto City AirportToronto_cell_0_35_1
HighwaysToronto_header_cell_0_36_0 2A, 27, 400, 401, 404, 409, 427, Black Creek Drive, Allen Road, Don Valley Parkway, Gardiner Expressway, Queen Elizabeth WayToronto_cell_0_36_1
Rapid transitToronto_header_cell_0_37_0 Toronto subwayToronto_cell_0_37_1
Commuter railToronto_header_cell_0_38_0 GO TransitToronto_cell_0_38_1
WaterwaysToronto_header_cell_0_39_0 Black Creek, Burke Brook, Don River, Etobicoke Creek, German Mills Creek, Humber River, Keating Channel, Mimico Creek, Rouge River, Taylor-Massey CreekToronto_cell_0_39_1
GDP (Toronto CMA)Toronto_header_cell_0_40_0 CA$385.1 billion (2016)Toronto_cell_0_40_1
GDP per capita (Toronto CMA)Toronto_header_cell_0_41_0 CA$57,004 (2016)Toronto_cell_0_41_1
WebsiteToronto_header_cell_0_42_0 Toronto_cell_0_42_1

Toronto is the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario. Toronto_sentence_4

With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. Toronto_sentence_5

The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,245,438 people (as of 2016) surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario, while the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) proper had a 2016 population of 6,417,516. Toronto_sentence_6

Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. Toronto_sentence_7

People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, located on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, and urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. Toronto_sentence_8

After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. Toronto_sentence_9

During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by American troops. Toronto_sentence_10

York was renamed and incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. Toronto_sentence_11

It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation. Toronto_sentence_12

The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km (243.3 sq mi). Toronto_sentence_13

The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. Toronto_sentence_14

More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, and over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. Toronto_sentence_15

While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto_sentence_16

Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto_sentence_17

Its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities, attract over 43 million tourists each year. Toronto_sentence_18

Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. Toronto_sentence_19

The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, and the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations. Toronto_sentence_20

Its economy is highly diversified with strengths in technology, design, financial services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, aerospace, environmental innovation, food services, and tourism. Toronto_sentence_21

History Toronto_section_0

Main article: History of Toronto Toronto_sentence_22

See also: Amalgamation of Toronto and Name of Toronto Toronto_sentence_23

Before 1800 Toronto_section_1

When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot (Huron) people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. Toronto_sentence_24

The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water". Toronto_sentence_25

This refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. Toronto_sentence_26

However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" also appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, which is also an Iroquoian language. Toronto_sentence_27

It also appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers. Toronto_sentence_28

A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. Toronto_sentence_29

The site of Toronto lay at the entrance to one of the oldest routes to the northwest, a route known and used by the Huron, Iroquois, and Ojibwe, and was of strategic importance from the beginning of Ontario's recorded history. Toronto_sentence_30

In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. Toronto_sentence_31

By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their homeland in present-day New York. Toronto_sentence_32

French traders founded Fort Rouillé in 1750 (the current Exhibition grounds were later developed here), but abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War. Toronto_sentence_33

The British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, and the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. Toronto_sentence_34

During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario. Toronto_sentence_35

The Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies. Toronto_sentence_36

The new province of Upper Canada was being created and needed a capital. Toronto_sentence_37

In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres (1000 km) of land in the Toronto area. Toronto_sentence_38

Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. Toronto_sentence_39

The first 25 years after the Toronto purchase was quiet, although "there were occasional independent fur traders" present in the area, with the usual complaints of debauchery and drunkenness. Toronto_sentence_40

In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Toronto_sentence_41

Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York, believing the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States. Toronto_sentence_42

The York garrison was built at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. Toronto_sentence_43

The town's settlement formed at the harbour's eastern end behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street (in the "Old Town" area). Toronto_sentence_44

19th century Toronto_section_2

In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces. Toronto_sentence_45

John Strachan negotiated the town's surrender. Toronto_sentence_46

American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. Toronto_sentence_47

Because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated later in the war with the burning of Washington, D.C. Toronto_sentence_48

York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. Toronto_sentence_49

Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first mayor of Toronto and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. Toronto_sentence_50

Toronto's population of 9,000 included African-American slaves, some of whom were brought by the Loyalists, including Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, and fewer Black Loyalists, whom the Crown had freed. Toronto_sentence_51

(Most of the latter were resettled in Nova Scotia.) Toronto_sentence_52

By 1834 refugee slaves from America's South were also immigrating to Toronto, settling in Canada to gain freedom. Toronto_sentence_53

Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada (and throughout the British Empire) in 1834. Toronto_sentence_54

Torontonians integrated people of colour into their society. Toronto_sentence_55

In the 1840s, an eating house at Frederick and King Streets, a place of mercantile prosperity in the early city, was operated by a black man named Bloxom. Toronto_sentence_56

As a major destination for immigrants to Canada, the city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century. Toronto_sentence_57

The first significant wave of immigrants were Irish, fleeing the Great Irish Famine; most of them were Catholic. Toronto_sentence_58

By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Toronto_sentence_59

The Scottish and English population welcomed smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants, some from what is now Northern Ireland, which gave the Orange Order significant and long-lasting influence over Toronto society. Toronto_sentence_60

For brief periods, Toronto was twice the capital of the united Province of Canada: first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856–1858. Toronto_sentence_61

After this date, Quebec was designated as the capital until 1866 (one year before Canadian Confederation). Toronto_sentence_62

Since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa, Ontario. Toronto_sentence_63

Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867. Toronto_sentence_64

The seat of government of the Ontario Legislature is at Queen's Park. Toronto_sentence_65

Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House, the residence of the viceregal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario. Toronto_sentence_66

Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, supporters of the concept proposed military colleges in Canada. Toronto_sentence_67

Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month-long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto. Toronto_sentence_68

Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, drill and discipline, to command a company at Battalion Drill, to drill a company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a company, and the duties of a company's officer. Toronto_sentence_69

The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. Toronto_sentence_70

In 1868, Schools of cavalry and artillery instruction were formed in Toronto. Toronto_sentence_71

In the 19th century, the city built an extensive sewage system to improve sanitation, and streets were illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service. Toronto_sentence_72

Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. Toronto_sentence_73

The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Station in downtown. Toronto_sentence_74

The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before. Toronto_sentence_75

These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent. Toronto_sentence_76

Toronto became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular, spirits) centre in North America. Toronto_sentence_77

By the 1860s the Gooderham and Worts Distillery operations became the world's largest whiskey factory. Toronto_sentence_78

A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District. Toronto_sentence_79

The harbour allowed for sure access to grain and sugar imports used in processing. Toronto_sentence_80

Expanding port and rail facilities brought in northern timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal. Toronto_sentence_81

Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years. Toronto_sentence_82

Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. Toronto_sentence_83

The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, later renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. Toronto_sentence_84

The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America. Toronto_sentence_85

20th century Toronto_section_3

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto. Toronto_sentence_86

The fire destroyed more than 100 buildings. Toronto_sentence_87

The fire claimed one victim, John Croft, who was an explosive expert clearing the ruins from the fire. Toronto_sentence_88

It caused CA$10,387,000 in damage (roughly CA$277,600,000in 2020 terms). Toronto_sentence_89

The city received new European immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into the early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews. Toronto_sentence_90

They were soon followed by Russians, Poles, and other Eastern European nations, in addition to Chinese entering from the West. Toronto_sentence_91

As the Irish before them, many of these migrants lived in overcrowded shanty-type slums, such as "the Ward" which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the country's Financial District. Toronto_sentence_92

As new migrants began to prosper, they moved to better housing in other areas, in what is now understood to be succession waves of settlement. Toronto_sentence_93

Despite its fast-paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto's population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal, Quebec. Toronto_sentence_94

However, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country. Toronto_sentence_95

In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto_sentence_96

The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development and it was believed a coordinated land-use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. Toronto_sentence_97

The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. Toronto_sentence_98

In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding. Toronto_sentence_99

In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than CA$25 million in damage. Toronto_sentence_100

In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged with larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the former city of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, and York. Toronto_sentence_101

In the decades after World War II, refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived, as well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Toronto_sentence_102

Toronto's population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began and doubled to two million by 1971. Toronto_sentence_103

Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, Toronto became a destination for immigrants from all parts of the world. Toronto_sentence_104

By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada's most populous city and chief economic hub. Toronto_sentence_105

During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities. Toronto_sentence_106

On January 1, 1998, Toronto was greatly enlarged, not through traditional annexations, but as an amalgamation of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto and its six lower-tier constituent municipalities: East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York, and the original city itself. Toronto_sentence_107

They were dissolved by an act of the Government of Ontario, and formed into a single-tier City of Toronto (colloquially dubbed the "megacity") replacing all six governments. Toronto_sentence_108

The merger was proposed as a cost-saving measure by the Progressive Conservative provincial government under Mike Harris. Toronto_sentence_109

The announcement touched off vociferous public objections. Toronto_sentence_110

In March 1997, a referendum in all six municipalities produced a vote of more than 3∶1 against amalgamation. Toronto_sentence_111

However, municipal governments in Canada are creatures of the provincial governments, and referendums have little to no legal effect. Toronto_sentence_112

The Harris government could thus legally ignore the results of the referendum, and did so in April when it tabled the City of Toronto Act. Toronto_sentence_113

Both opposition parties held a filibuster in the provincial legislature, proposing more than 12,000 amendments that allowed residents on streets of the proposed megacity take part in public hearings on the merger and adding historical designations to the streets. Toronto_sentence_114

This only delayed the bill's inevitable passage, given the PCO's majority. Toronto_sentence_115

North York mayor Mel Lastman became the first "megacity" mayor, and the 62nd mayor of Toronto, with his electoral victory. Toronto_sentence_116

Lastman gained national attention after multiple snowstorms, including the January Blizzard of 1999, dumped 118 cm of snow and effectively immobilized the city. Toronto_sentence_117

He called in the Canadian Army to aid snow removal by use of their equipment to augment police and emergency services. Toronto_sentence_118

The move was ridiculed by some in other parts of the country, fueled in part by what was perceived as a frivolous use of resources. Toronto_sentence_119

21st century Toronto_section_4

The city attracted international attention in 2003 when it became the centre of a major Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. Toronto_sentence_120

Public health attempts to prevent the disease from spreading elsewhere temporarily dampened the local economy. Toronto_sentence_121

From August 14 - 17 2003, the City has hit by a massive blackout which affected millions of Torontonians (it also affected most of Southern Ontario and parts of the United States), stranding some hundreds of people in tall buildings, knocking out traffic lights and suspending subway and streetcar service across the City during those aforementioned days. Toronto_sentence_122

On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the 175th anniversary of its inception as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto_sentence_123

Toronto hosted the 4th G20 summit during June 26–27, 2010. Toronto_sentence_124

This included the largest security operation in Canadian history. Toronto_sentence_125

Following large-scale protests and rioting, law enforcement conducted the largest mass arrest (more than a thousand people) in Canadian history. Toronto_sentence_126

On July 8, 2013, severe flash flooding hit Toronto after an afternoon of slow-moving, intense thunderstorms. Toronto_sentence_127

Toronto Hydro estimated 450,000 people were without power after the storm and Toronto Pearson International Airport reported 126 mm (5 in) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel. Toronto_sentence_128

Within six months, From December 20 to 22 2013, Toronto was brought to a near halt by the worst ice storm in the city's history, rivalling the severity of the 1998 Ice Storm (which mostly affected southeastern Ontario, and Quebec). Toronto_sentence_129

At the height of the storm over 300,000 Toronto Hydro customers had no electricity or heating. Toronto_sentence_130

Toronto hosted WorldPride in June 2014, and the Pan American Games in 2015. Toronto_sentence_131

The city continues to grow and attract immigrants. Toronto_sentence_132

A study by Ryerson University showed that Toronto was the fastest-growing city in North America. Toronto_sentence_133

The city added 77,435 people between July 2017 and July 2018. Toronto_sentence_134

The Toronto metropolitan area was the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in North America, adding 125,298 persons, compared with 131,767 in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington in Texas. Toronto_sentence_135

The large growth in the Toronto metropolitan area is attributed to international migration to Toronto. Toronto_sentence_136

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Toronto Toronto_sentence_137

The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada first occurred in Toronto and is among the hotspots in the country. Toronto_sentence_138

Geography Toronto_section_5

Main article: Geography of Toronto Toronto_sentence_139

Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi), with a maximum north–south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi). Toronto_sentence_140

It has a maximum east–west distance of 43 km (27 mi) and it has a 46-kilometre (29 mi) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. Toronto_sentence_141

The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered Toronto Harbour south of the downtown core. Toronto_sentence_142

An Outer Harbour was constructed south east of downtown during the 1950s and 1960s and it's now used for recreation. Toronto_sentence_143

The city's borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, the western boundary of Marie Curtis Park, Etobicoke Creek, Eglinton Avenue and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north and the Rouge River and Scarborough–Pickering Townline to the east. Toronto_sentence_144

Topography Toronto_section_6

Main article: Toronto ravine system Toronto_sentence_145

Climate Toronto_section_7

The city of Toronto has a hot summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa), until the 20th century on the threshold of a warm summer humid continental climate (Dfb) but still found in the metropolitan region, with warm, humid summers and cold winters. Toronto_sentence_146

According to the classification applied by Natural Resources Canada, the city of Toronto is in plant hardiness zone 7a, with some suburbs & nearby towns having lower zone ratings. Toronto_sentence_147

The city experiences four distinct seasons, with considerable variance in length. Toronto_sentence_148

As a result of the rapid passage of weather systems (such as high- and low-pressure systems), the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons. Toronto_sentence_149

Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto has a fairly low diurnal temperature range. Toronto_sentence_150

The denser urbanscape makes for warmer nights year around; the average nighttime temperature is about 3.0 °C (5.40 °F) warmer in the city than in rural areas in all months. Toronto_sentence_151

However, it can be noticeably cooler on many spring and early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze since Lake Ontario is cool, relative to the air during these seasons. Toronto_sentence_152

These lake breezes mostly occur in summer, bringing relief on hot days. Toronto_sentence_153

Other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include lake-effect snow, fog, and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal lag. Toronto_sentence_154

Winters are cold with frequent snow. Toronto_sentence_155

During the winter months, temperatures are usually below 0 °C (32 °F). Toronto_sentence_156

Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by wind chill. Toronto_sentence_157

Occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C (−13 °F). Toronto_sentence_158

Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain, can disrupt work and travel schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. Toronto_sentence_159

However, mild stretches also occur in most winters, melting accumulated snow. Toronto_sentence_160

The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures. Toronto_sentence_161

Daytime temperatures are usually above 20 °C (68 °F), and often rise above 30 °C (86 °F). Toronto_sentence_162

However, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity. Toronto_sentence_163

Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. Toronto_sentence_164

Daytime temperatures average around 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F) during these seasons. Toronto_sentence_165

Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. Toronto_sentence_166

The average yearly precipitation is about 831 mm (32.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 1,220 mm (48 in). Toronto_sentence_167

Toronto experiences an average of 2,066 sunshine hours or 45% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 28% in December to 60% in July. Toronto_sentence_168

Cityscape Toronto_section_8

Architecture Toronto_section_9

Main article: Architecture of Toronto Toronto_sentence_169

See also: List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto and List of tallest buildings in Toronto Toronto_sentence_170

Lawrence Richards, a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto, has said: "Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big mix of periods and styles." Toronto_sentence_171

Toronto's buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the early 19th century, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the 21st century. Toronto_sentence_172

Bay-and-gable houses, mainly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural feature of the city. Toronto_sentence_173

Defining the Toronto skyline is the CN Tower, a telecommunications and tourism hub. Toronto_sentence_174

Completed in 1976 at a height of 553.33 metres (1,815 ft 5 in), it was the world's tallest freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Toronto_sentence_175

Toronto is a city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft). Toronto_sentence_176

Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto's architectural heritage were demolished to make way for redevelopment or parking. Toronto_sentence_177

In contrast, since 2000, Toronto has experienced a period of condo construction boom and architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened. Toronto_sentence_178

Daniel Libeskind's Royal Ontario Museum addition, Frank Gehry's remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop's distinctive OCAD University expansion are among the city's new showpieces. Toronto_sentence_179

The mid-1800s Distillery District, on the eastern edge of downtown, has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood. Toronto_sentence_180

Neighbourhoods Toronto_section_10

See also: History of neighbourhoods in Toronto and List of neighbourhoods in Toronto Toronto_sentence_181

Public spaces Toronto_section_11

See also: List of Toronto parks Toronto_sentence_182

Media Toronto_section_12

Main article: Media in Toronto Toronto_sentence_183

Toronto is Canada's largest media market, and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and three free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants. Toronto_sentence_184

The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the prominent daily city newspapers, while national dailies The Globe and Mail and the National Post are also headquartered in the city. Toronto_sentence_185

The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post are broadsheet newspapers. Toronto_sentence_186

StarMetro is distributed as free commuter newspapers. Toronto_sentence_187

Several magazines and local newspapers cover Toronto, including Now and Toronto Life, while numerous magazines are produced in Toronto, such as Canadian Business, Chatelaine, Flare and Maclean's. Toronto_sentence_188

Daily Hive, Western Canada's largest online-only publication, opened their Toronto office in 2016. Toronto_sentence_189

Toronto contains the headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks CBC, CTV, Citytv, Global, The Sports Network (TSN) and Sportsnet. Toronto_sentence_190

Much (formerly MuchMusic), M3 (formerly MuchMore) and MTV Canada are the main music television channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music videos as a result of channel drift. Toronto_sentence_191

Tourism Toronto_section_13

Main article: Tourism in Toronto Toronto_sentence_192

Sports Toronto_section_14

Main article: Sports in Toronto Toronto_sentence_193

See also: Amateur sport in Toronto and List of sports teams in Toronto Toronto_sentence_194

Population Toronto_section_15

The city's population grew by 4 per cent (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, 1 per cent (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006, 4.3 per cent (111,779 residents) between 2006 and 2011, and 4.5 per cent (116,511) between 2011 and 2016. Toronto_sentence_195

In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5 per cent of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 15.6 per cent. Toronto_sentence_196

The median age was 39.3 years. Toronto_sentence_197

The city's gender population is 48 per cent male and 52 per cent female. Toronto_sentence_198

Women outnumber men in all age groups 15 and older. Toronto_sentence_199

In 2016, foreign-born persons made up 47 per cent of the population, compared to 49.9 per cent in 2006. Toronto_sentence_200

According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest percentage of constant foreign-born population among world cities, after Miami, Florida. Toronto_sentence_201

While Miami's foreign-born population has traditionally consisted primarily of Cubans and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world. Toronto_sentence_202

In 2010, it was estimated over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto Area each year. Toronto_sentence_203

Toronto_table_general_1

Toronto regional population statisticsToronto_table_caption_1
Geographic divisionToronto_header_cell_1_0_0 2016 CensusToronto_header_cell_1_0_1
Toronto (city proper)Toronto_cell_1_1_0 2,731,571Toronto_cell_1_1_1
Greater Toronto Area (metropolitan area)Toronto_cell_1_2_0 6,417,516Toronto_cell_1_2_1
Golden Horseshoe (region)Toronto_cell_1_3_0 9,245,438Toronto_cell_1_3_1
Census population centre (urban area)Toronto_cell_1_4_0 5,429,524Toronto_cell_1_4_1
Census metropolitan area (CMA)Toronto_cell_1_5_0 5,928,040Toronto_cell_1_5_1

Ethnicity Toronto_section_16

In 2016, the three most commonly reported ethnic origins overall were Chinese (332,830 or 12.5 per cent), English (331,890 or 12.3 per cent) and Canadian (323,175 or 12.0 per cent). Toronto_sentence_204

Common regions of ethnic origin were European (47.9 per cent), Asian (including middle-Eastern – 40.1 per cent), African (5.5 per cent), Latin/Central/South American (4.2 per cent), and North American aboriginal (1.2 per cent). Toronto_sentence_205

In 2016, 51.5 per cent of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1 per cent in 2011, and 13.6 per cent in 1981. Toronto_sentence_206

The largest visible minority groups were South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan at 338,960 or 12.6 per cent), East Asian (Chinese at 332,830 or 12.5 per cent), and Black (239,850 or 8.9 per cent). Toronto_sentence_207

Visible minorities are projected to increase to 63 per cent of the city's population by 2031. Toronto_sentence_208

This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market, Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal and Roncesvalles (Polish community). Toronto_sentence_209

Religion Toronto_section_17

Questions on religion is conducted in every other Canadian census, with the latest census to include them being the 2011 Canadian Census. Toronto_sentence_210

In 2011, the most commonly reported religion in Toronto was Christianity, adhered to by 54.1 per cent of the population. Toronto_sentence_211

A plurality, 28.2 per cent, of the city's population was Catholic, followed by Protestants (11.9 per cent), Christian Orthodox (4.3 per cent), and members of other Christian denominations (9.7 per cent). Toronto_sentence_212

Other religions significantly practised in the city are Islam (8.2 per cent), Hinduism (5.6 per cent), Judaism (3.8 per cent), Buddhism (2.7 per cent), and Sikhism (0.8 per cent). Toronto_sentence_213

Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2 per cent of Toronto's population. Toronto_sentence_214

Language Toronto_section_18

English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians with approximately 95 per cent of residents having proficiency in the language, although only 54.7 per cent of Torontonians reported English as their mother tongue. Toronto_sentence_215

English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the other being French. Toronto_sentence_216

Approximately 1.6 per cent of Torontonians reported French as their mother tongue, although 9.1 per cent reported being bilingual in both official languages. Toronto_sentence_217

In addition to services provided by the federal government, provincial services in Toronto are available in both official languages as a result of the French Language Services Act. Toronto_sentence_218

Approximately 4.9 per cent of Torontonians reported having no knowledge in either official languages of the country. Toronto_sentence_219

Because the city is also home to many other languages, municipal services, most notably its 9-1-1 emergency telephone service, is equipped to respond in over 150 languages. Toronto_sentence_220

In the 2001 Canadian Census, the collective varieties of Chinese, and Italian are the most widely spoken languages at work after English. Toronto_sentence_221

Approximately 55 per cent of respondents who reported proficiency in a Chinese language reported knowledge in Mandarin in the 2016 census. Toronto_sentence_222

The most common form of sign language used in the city is American Sign Language (ASL), with 63 per cent of respondents who reported having knowledge of sign languages stating they had proficiency in ASL. Toronto_sentence_223

Approximately 0.3 per cent of people who reported having knowledge in a sign language reported having proficiency in Quebec Sign Language. Toronto_sentence_224

However, only 0.1 per cent Toronto's total population reported having knowledge in any sign language. Toronto_sentence_225

Government Toronto_section_19

Main article: Municipal government of Toronto Toronto_sentence_226

See also: Politics of Toronto and Public services in Toronto Toronto_sentence_227

Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council system. Toronto_sentence_228

The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. Toronto_sentence_229

The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. Toronto_sentence_230

The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 25 councillors, since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographical wards throughout the city. Toronto_sentence_231

The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. Toronto_sentence_232

(Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.) Toronto_sentence_233

As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consisting of a chair, (some have a vice-chair), and a number of councillors. Toronto_sentence_234

The mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining members of the committees are appointed by city council. Toronto_sentence_235

An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Toronto_sentence_236

Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board. Toronto_sentence_237

The city has four community councils that consider local matters. Toronto_sentence_238

City council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Toronto_sentence_239

Each city councillor serves as a member of a community council. Toronto_sentence_240

There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. Toronto_sentence_241

These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Toronto_sentence_242

Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don. Toronto_sentence_243

The City of Toronto had an approved operating budget of CA$13.53 billion in 2020 and a ten-year capital budget and plan of CA$43.5 billion. Toronto_sentence_244

The city's revenues include subsidies from the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario (for programs mandated by those governments), 33% from property tax, 6% from the land transfer tax and the rest from other tax revenues and user fees. Toronto_sentence_245

The city's largest operating expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission at CA$2.14 billion, and the Toronto Police Service, CA$1.22 billion. Toronto_sentence_246

Crime Toronto_section_20

Main article: Crime in Toronto Toronto_sentence_247

See also: Crime in Canada and Gun politics in Canada Toronto_sentence_248

The historically low crime rate in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America. Toronto_sentence_249

For instance, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta (19.7), Boston (10.3), Los Angeles (10.0), New York City (6.3), Vancouver (3.1), and Montreal (2.6). Toronto_sentence_250

Toronto's robbery rate also ranks low, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles (348.5), Vancouver (266.2), New York City (265.9), and Montreal (235.3). Toronto_sentence_251

Toronto has a comparable rate of car theft to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada. Toronto_sentence_252

In 2005, Toronto media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because of a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total. Toronto_sentence_253

The total number of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006; that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total. Toronto_sentence_254

84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of which involved guns. Toronto_sentence_255

Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. Toronto_sentence_256

As a result, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun strategy. Toronto_sentence_257

In 2011, Toronto's murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26% drop from the previous year. Toronto_sentence_258

The 51 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47. Toronto_sentence_259

While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, it remained nearly flat line of 57–59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015. Toronto_sentence_260

2016 went to 75 for the first time in over 8 years. Toronto_sentence_261

2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the year at 65, with a homicide rate of 1.47 per 100,000 population. Toronto_sentence_262

The total number of homicides in Toronto reached a record 96 in 2018; the number included fatalities from the Toronto van attack and the Danforth shooting. Toronto_sentence_263

The record year for per capita murders was previously 1991, with 3.9 murders per 100,000 people. Toronto_sentence_264

The 2018 homicide rate was higher than in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, Hamilton, New York City, San Diego, and Austin. Toronto_sentence_265

Education Toronto_section_21

Main article: Education in Toronto Toronto_sentence_266

There are four public school boards that provide elementary and secondary education in Toronto, the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde (CSV), the Toronto Catholic District School Board (TCDSB), and the Toronto District School Board (TDSB). Toronto_sentence_267

CSV and TDSB are secular public school boards, whereas MonAvenir and TCDSB are separate public school boards. Toronto_sentence_268

CSV and MonAvenir are French first language school boards, whereas TCDSB and TDSB are English first language school boards. Toronto_sentence_269

TDSB operates the most schools among the four Toronto-based school boards, with 451 elementary schools, 105 secondary schools, and five adult learning centres. Toronto_sentence_270

TCDSB operates 163 elementary schools, 29 secondary schools, three combined institutions, and one adult learning centre. Toronto_sentence_271

CSV operates 11 elementary schools, and three secondary schools in the city. Toronto_sentence_272

MonAvenir operates nine elementary schools, and three secondary schools in Toronto. Toronto_sentence_273

Five public universities are based in Toronto. Toronto_sentence_274

Four of these universities are based in downtown Toronto, OCAD University, Ryerson University, the Université de l'Ontario français, and the University of Toronto. Toronto_sentence_275

The University of Toronto also operates two satellite campuses, one of which is in the city's eastern district of Scarborough, while the other is in the neighbouring city of Mississauga. Toronto_sentence_276

York University is the only Toronto-based university not situated in downtown Toronto, operating a campus in the northwestern portion of North York, and a secondary campus in midtown Toronto. Toronto_sentence_277

The University of Guelph-Humber is also based in northwestern Toronto, although it is not an independent public university capable of issuing its own degrees. Toronto_sentence_278

Guelph-Humber is jointly managed by the University of Guelph, based in Guelph, Ontario, and Humber College in Toronto. Toronto_sentence_279

There are four diploma and degree granting colleges based in Toronto. Toronto_sentence_280

These four colleges, Centennial College, George Brown College, Humber College, and Seneca College, operate several campuses throughout the city. Toronto_sentence_281

The city is also home to a satellite campus of Collège Boréal, a French first language college. Toronto_sentence_282

The city is also home to several supplementary schools, seminaries, and vocational schools. Toronto_sentence_283

Examples of such institutions include The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School; the Canadian Film Centre, a media training institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison; and Tyndale University, a Christian post-secondary institution and Canada's largest seminary. Toronto_sentence_284

The Toronto Public Library consists of 100 branches with more than 11 million items in its collection. Toronto_sentence_285

Infrastructure Toronto_section_22

Health and medicine Toronto_section_23

Main article: Health in Toronto Toronto_sentence_286

See also: List of hospitals in Toronto Toronto_sentence_287

Toronto is home to twenty public hospitals, including The Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Etobicoke General Hospital, St. Toronto_sentence_288 Joseph's Health Centre, Scarborough General Hospital, Birchmount Hospital, Centenary Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, many of which are affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. Toronto_sentence_289

In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average emergency room waiting times in Ontario. Toronto_sentence_290

Toronto hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment. Toronto_sentence_291

After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours. Toronto_sentence_292

Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were also provided within waiting rooms. Toronto_sentence_293

50% of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room. Toronto_sentence_294

The least-urgent 10% of cases wait over 12 hours. Toronto_sentence_295

The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall shortage of acute care beds. Toronto_sentence_296

Toronto's Discovery District is a centre of research in biomedicine. Toronto_sentence_297

It is on a 2.5-square-kilometre (620-acre) research park that is integrated into Toronto's downtown core. Toronto_sentence_298

It is also home to the MaRS Discovery District, which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Toronto_sentence_299

Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM). Toronto_sentence_300

Specialized hospitals are also outside of the downtown core. Toronto_sentence_301

These hospitals include the Baycrest Health Sciences geriatric hospital and the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities. Toronto_sentence_302

Toronto is also host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and Canadian residents. Toronto_sentence_303

Organizations include Crohn's and Colitis Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all located in the same office at Yonge–Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada, and many others. Toronto_sentence_304

These organizations work to help people within the GTA, Ontario or Canada who are affected by these illnesses. Toronto_sentence_305

Toronto is also home to the Geneva Centre for Autism. Toronto_sentence_306

As well, most engage in fundraising to promote research, services, and public awareness. Toronto_sentence_307

Transportation Toronto_section_24

Main article: Transportation in Toronto Toronto_sentence_308

Toronto is a central transportation hub for road, rail and air networks in Southern Ontario. Toronto_sentence_309

There are many forms of transport in the city of Toronto, including highways and public transit. Toronto_sentence_310

Toronto also has an extensive network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths. Toronto_sentence_311

Public transportation Toronto_section_25

Main article: Public transportation in Toronto Toronto_sentence_312

Toronto's main public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC). Toronto_sentence_313

The backbone of its public transport network is the Toronto subway system, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines spanning the city, including the U-shaped Line 1 and east–west Line 2. Toronto_sentence_314

Line 3 is a light metro line that exclusively serves the city's eastern district of Scarborough. Toronto_sentence_315

The TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars, with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse subway network. Toronto_sentence_316

TTC buses and streetcars use the same fare system as the subway, and many subway stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between rail and surface vehicles. Toronto_sentence_317

There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Toronto_sentence_318

Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the Spadina subway (line 1) extension north of Sheppard West station (formerly named Downsview) to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre in Vaughan, a suburb north of Toronto. Toronto_sentence_319

By November 2011, construction on Line 5 Eglinton began. Toronto_sentence_320

Line 5 is scheduled to finish construction by 2022. Toronto_sentence_321

In 2015, the Ontario government promised to fund Line 6 Finch West which is to be completed by 2023. Toronto_sentence_322

In 2019, the Government of Ontario released a transit plan for the Greater Toronto Area which includes a new 16-kilometres Ontario Line, Line 1 extension to Richmond Hill Centre and an extension for Line 5 Eglinton to Toronto Pearson Airport. Toronto_sentence_323

Toronto's century-old Union Station is also getting a major renovation and upgrade which would be able to accommodate more rail traffic from GO Transit, Via Rail, UP Express and Amtrak. Toronto_sentence_324

Construction on a new Union Station Bus Terminal is also in the works with an expected completion in 2020. Toronto_sentence_325

Toronto's public transit network also connects to other municipal networks such as York Region Transit, Viva, Durham Region Transit, and MiWay. Toronto_sentence_326

The Government of Ontario operates a commuter rail and bus transit system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. Toronto_sentence_327

GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday (2013) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station. Toronto_sentence_328

Metrolinx is currently implementing Regional Express Rail into its GO Transit network and plans to electrify many of its rail lines by 2030. Toronto_sentence_329

Airports Toronto_section_26

Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Toronto_sentence_330

The Union Pearson Express (UP Express) train service provides a direct link between Pearson International and Union Station. Toronto_sentence_331

It began carrying passengers in June 2015. Toronto_sentence_332

Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada and the USA is offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport (IATA: YTZ) on the Toronto Islands, southwest of downtown. Toronto_sentence_333

Buttonville Municipal Airport (IATA: YKZ) in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Toronto_sentence_334

Downsview Airport (IATA: YZD), near the city's north end, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aviation aircraft factory. Toronto_sentence_335

Within a few hours' drive, Hamilton's John C. Munro International Airport (IATA: YHM) and Buffalo's Buffalo Niagara International Airport (IATA: BUF) serve as alternate airports for the Toronto area in addition to serving their respective cities. Toronto_sentence_336

A secondary international airport, to be located north-east of Toronto in Pickering, has been planned by the Government of Canada. Toronto_sentence_337

Intercity transportation Toronto_section_27

Toronto Union Station serves as a hub for VIA Rail's intercity services in Central Canada and includes services to various parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal and national capital Ottawa, and long-distance services to Vancouver and New York City. Toronto_sentence_338

The Toronto Coach Terminal in downtown Toronto also serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive network of services in Ontario and neighbouring provinces and states. Toronto_sentence_339

GO Transit provides intercity bus services from the Union Station Bus Terminal and other bus terminals in the city to destinations within the greater Toronto area. Toronto_sentence_340

Road system Toronto_section_28

The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft (2.0 km) apart (with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they used a different survey). Toronto_sentence_341

Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north–south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline, though slightly angled north of Eglinton Avenue. Toronto_sentence_342

This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. Toronto_sentence_343

Toronto's grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north. Toronto_sentence_344

Many arterials, particularly north–south ones, due to the city originally being within the former York County, continue beyond the city into the 905 suburbs and further into the rural countryside. Toronto_sentence_345

There are a number of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. Toronto_sentence_346

In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. Toronto_sentence_347

It is the busiest road in North America, and one of the busiest highways in the world. Toronto_sentence_348

Other provincial highways include Highway 400 which connects the city with Northern Ontario and beyond and Highway 404, an extension of the Don Valley Parkway into the northern suburbs. Toronto_sentence_349

The Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), North America's first divided intercity highway, terminates at Toronto's western boundary and connects Toronto to Niagara Falls and Buffalo. Toronto_sentence_350

The main municipal expressways in Toronto include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. Toronto_sentence_351

Toronto's traffic congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the second highest in Canada after Vancouver. Toronto_sentence_352

Notable people Toronto_section_29

Main article: List of people from Toronto Toronto_sentence_353

Sister cities Toronto_section_30

Main article: Sister cities of Toronto Toronto_sentence_354

Partnership cities Toronto_section_31

Friendship cities Toronto_section_32

See also Toronto_section_33

Toronto_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toronto.