From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from the sex that they were assigned at birth. Transgender_sentence_0

Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another identify as transsexual. Transgender_sentence_1

Transgender, often shortened as trans, is also an umbrella term; in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (people who are non-binary or genderqueer, including bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender). Transgender_sentence_2

Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender. Transgender_sentence_3

The term transgender may be defined very broadly to include cross-dressers. Transgender_sentence_4

Being transgender is distinct from sexual orientation. Transgender_sentence_5

Transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual, or may decline to label their sexual orientation. Transgender_sentence_6

The term transgender is also distinguished from intersex, a term that describes people born with physical sex characteristics "that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". Transgender_sentence_7

The opposite of transgender is cisgender, which describes persons whose gender identity or expression matches their assigned sex. Transgender_sentence_8

The degree to which individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable within their external appearance and accept their genuine identity has been called transgender congruence. Transgender_sentence_9

Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria, and some seek medical treatments such as hormone replacement therapy, sex reassignment surgery, or psychotherapy. Transgender_sentence_10

Not all transgender people desire these treatments, and some cannot undergo them for financial or medical reasons. Transgender_sentence_11

Many transgender people face discrimination in the workplace and in accessing public accommodations and healthcare. Transgender_sentence_12

In many places, they are not legally protected from discrimination. Transgender_sentence_13

Terminology Transgender_section_0

Psychiatrist John F. Oliven of Columbia University coined the term transgender in his 1965 reference work Sexual Hygiene and Pathology, writing that the term which had previously been used, transsexualism, "is misleading; actually, 'transgenderism' is meant, because sexuality is not a major factor in primary transvestism." Transgender_sentence_14

The term transgender was then popularized with varying definitions by various transgender, transsexual, and transvestite people, including Virginia Prince, who used it in the December 1969 issue of Transvestia, a national magazine for cross dressers she founded. Transgender_sentence_15

By the mid-1970s both trans-gender and trans people were in use as umbrella terms, and transgenderist was used to refer to people who wanted to live cross-gender without sex reassignment surgery (SRS). Transgender_sentence_16

By 1976, transgenderist was abbreviated as TG in educational materials. Transgender_sentence_17

By 1984, the concept of a "transgender community" had developed, in which transgender was used as an umbrella term. Transgender_sentence_18

In 1985, Richard Elkins established the "Trans-Gender Archive" at the University of Ulster. Transgender_sentence_19

By 1992, the International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy defined transgender as an expansive umbrella term including "transsexuals, transgenderists, cross dressers", and anyone transitioning. Transgender_sentence_20

Leslie Feinberg's pamphlet, "Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time has Come", circulated in 1992, identified transgender as a term to unify all forms of gender nonconformity; in this way transgender has become synonymous with queer. Transgender_sentence_21

In 1994, gender theorist Susan Stryker defined transgender as encompassing "all identities or practices that cross over, cut across, move between, or otherwise queer socially constructed sex/gender boundaries", including, but not limited to, "transsexuality, heterosexual transvestism, gay drag, butch lesbianism, and such non-European identities as the Native American berdache or the Indian Hijra". Transgender_sentence_22

Between the mid-1990s and the early 2000s, the primary terms used under the transgender umbrella were "female to male" (FtM) for men who transitioned from female to male, and "male to female" (MtF) for women who transitioned from male to female. Transgender_sentence_23

These terms have now been superseded by "trans man" and "trans woman", respectively, and the terms "trans-masculine" or "trans-feminine" are increasingly in use. Transgender_sentence_24

This shift in preference from terms highlighting biological sex ("transsexual", "FtM") to terms highlighting gender identity and expression ("transgender", "trans woman") reflects a broader shift in the understanding of transgender people's sense of self and the increasing recognition of those who decline medical reassignment as part of the transgender community. Transgender_sentence_25

Transgendered is a common term in older literature; many within the transgender community now deprecate it on the basis that transgender is an adjective, not a verb. Transgender_sentence_26

Organizations such as GLAAD and The Guardian also state that transgender should never be used as a noun (e.g., "Max is transgender" or "Max is a transgender man", not "Max is a transgender"). Transgender_sentence_27

However, transgender is also used as a noun equivalent to the broader topic of transgenderism, i.e. transgender identity and experience. Transgender_sentence_28

Health-practitioner manuals, professional journalistic style guides, and LGBT advocacy groups advise the adoption by others of the name and pronouns identified by the person in question, including present references to the transgender person's past. Transgender_sentence_29

In contrast, people whose sense of personal identity corresponds to the sex and gender assigned to them at birth – that is, those who are neither transgender nor non-binary or genderqueer – are called cisgender. Transgender_sentence_30

Transsexual Transgender_section_1

See also: Transsexual, especially Transsexual § Terminology Transgender_sentence_31

The term transsexual was introduced to English in 1949 by David Oliver Cauldwell and popularized by Harry Benjamin in 1966, around the same time transgender was coined and began to be popularized. Transgender_sentence_32

Since the 1990s, transsexual has generally been used to refer to the subset of transgender people who desire to transition permanently to the gender with which they identify and who seek medical assistance (for example, sex reassignment surgery) with this. Transgender_sentence_33

Distinctions between the terms transgender and transsexual are commonly based on distinctions between gender (psychological, social) and sex (physical). Transgender_sentence_34

Hence transsexuality may be said to deal more with physical aspects of one's sex, while transgender considerations deal more with one's psychological gender disposition or predisposition, as well as the related social expectations that may accompany a given gender role. Transgender_sentence_35

Many transgender people reject the term transsexual. Transgender_sentence_36

Christine Jorgensen publicly rejected transsexual in 1979 and instead identified herself in newsprint as trans-gender, saying, "gender doesn't have to do with bed partners, it has to do with identity." Transgender_sentence_37

Some have objected to the term transsexual on the basis that it describes a condition related to gender identity rather than sexuality. Transgender_sentence_38

Some transsexual people object to being included in the transgender umbrella. Transgender_sentence_39

In his 2007 book Transgender, an Ethnography of a Category, anthropologist David Valentine asserts that transgender was coined and used by activists to include many people who do not necessarily identify with the term and states that people who do not identify with the term transgender should not be included in the transgender spectrum. Transgender_sentence_40

Leslie Feinberg likewise asserts that transgender is not a self-identifier (for some people) but a category imposed by observers to understand other people. Transgender_sentence_41

According to the Transgender Health Program (THP) at Fenway Health in Boston, there are no universally-accepted definitions, and confusion is common because terms that were popular at the turn of the 21st century may now be deemed offensive. Transgender_sentence_42

The THP recommends that clinicians ask clients what terminology they prefer, and avoid the term transsexual unless they are sure that a client is comfortable with it. Transgender_sentence_43

Harry Benjamin invented a classification system for transsexuals and transvestites, called the Sex Orientation Scale (SOS), in which he assigned transsexuals and transvestites to one of six categories based on their reasons for cross-dressing and the relative urgency of their need (if any) for sex reassignment surgery. Transgender_sentence_44

Contemporary views on gender identity and classification differ markedly from Harry Benjamin's original opinions. Transgender_sentence_45

Sexual orientation is no longer regarded a criterion for diagnosis, or for distinction between transsexuality, transvestism and other forms of gender variant behavior and expression. Transgender_sentence_46

Benjamin's scale was designed for use with trans women, and trans men's identities do not align with its categories. Transgender_sentence_47

Related identities and practices Transgender_section_2

Non-binary and androgyny Transgender_section_3

Main articles: Non-binary gender and Androgyny Transgender_sentence_48

Non-binary (or genderqueer) identities are not specifically male or female. Transgender_sentence_49

They can be agender, androgynous, bigender, pangender, or genderfluid, and exist outside of cisnormativity. Transgender_sentence_50

Bigender and androgynous are overlapping categories; bigender individuals may identify as moving between male and female roles (genderfluid) or as being both masculine and feminine simultaneously (androgynous), and androgynes may similarly identify as beyond gender or genderless (postgender, agender), between genders (intergender), moving across genders (genderfluid), or simultaneously exhibiting multiple genders (pangender). Transgender_sentence_51

Androgyne is also sometimes used as a medical synonym for an intersex person. Transgender_sentence_52

Non-binary gender identities are independent of sexual orientation. Transgender_sentence_53

Transvestism and cross-dressing Transgender_section_4

Main article: Transvestism Transgender_sentence_54

A transvestite is a person who cross-dresses, or dresses in clothes typically associated with the gender opposite the one they were assigned at birth. Transgender_sentence_55

The term transvestite is used as a synonym for the term cross-dresser, although cross-dresser is generally considered the preferred term. Transgender_sentence_56

The term cross-dresser is not exactly defined in the relevant literature. Transgender_sentence_57

Michael A. Gilbert, professor at the Department of Philosophy, York University, Toronto, offers this definition: "[A cross-dresser] is a person who has an apparent gender identification with one sex, and who has and certainly has been birth-designated as belonging to [that] sex, but who wears the clothing of the opposite sex because it is that of the opposite sex." Transgender_sentence_58

This definition excludes people "who wear opposite sex clothing for other reasons," such as "those female impersonators who look upon dressing as solely connected to their livelihood, actors undertaking roles, individual males and females enjoying a masquerade, and so on. Transgender_sentence_59

These individuals are cross dressing but are not cross dressers." Transgender_sentence_60

Cross-dressers may not identify with, want to be, or adopt the behaviors or practices of the opposite gender and generally do not want to change their bodies medically or surgically. Transgender_sentence_61

The majority of cross-dressers identify as heterosexual. Transgender_sentence_62

The term transvestite and the associated outdated term transvestism are conceptually different from the term transvestic fetishism, as transvestic fetishist refers to those who intermittently use clothing of the opposite gender for fetishistic purposes. Transgender_sentence_63

In medical terms, transvestic fetishism is differentiated from cross-dressing by use of the separate codes 302.3 in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and F65.1 in the ICD. Transgender_sentence_64

Drag Transgender_section_5

See also: Drag king, Drag queen, and Faux queen Transgender_sentence_65

Sexual orientation of transgender people Transgender_section_6

In 2015, the American National Center for Transgender Equality conducted a National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Transgender_sentence_66

Of the 27,715 transgender and non-binary people who took the survey, 21% said the term queer best described their sexual orientation, 18% said "pansexual", 16% said gay, lesbian, or same-gender-loving, 15% said straight, 14% said bisexual, and 10% said asexual. Transgender_sentence_67

And a 2019 survey of trans and non-binary people in Canada called Trans PULSE Canada showed that out of 2,873 respondents, when it came to sexual orientation, 13% identified as asexual, 28% identified as bisexual, 13% identified as gay, 15% identified as lesbian, 31% identified as pansexual, 8% identified as straight or heterosexual, 4% identified as two-spirit, and 9% identified as unsure or questioning. Transgender_sentence_68

Healthcare Transgender_section_7

Main article: Transgender health care Transgender_sentence_69

Further information: Transitioning (transgender) Transgender_sentence_70

Mental healthcare Transgender_section_8

Most mental health professionals recommend therapy for internal conflicts about gender identity or discomfort in an assigned gender role, especially if one desires to transition. Transgender_sentence_71

People who experience discord between their gender and the expectations of others or whose gender identity conflicts with their body may benefit by talking through their feelings in depth; however, research on gender identity with regard to psychology, and scientific understanding of the phenomenon and its related issues, is relatively new. Transgender_sentence_72

The terms transsexualism, dual-role transvestism, gender identity disorder in adolescents or adults, and gender identity disorder not otherwise specified are listed as such in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) by the WHO or the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) under codes F64.0, F64.1, 302.85, and 302.6 respectively. Transgender_sentence_73

The validity of the diagnosis and its presence in the forthcoming ICD-11 is debated. Transgender_sentence_74

France removed gender identity disorder as a diagnosis by decree in 2010, but according to French trans rights organizations, beyond the impact of the announcement itself, nothing changed. Transgender_sentence_75

In 2017, the Danish parliament abolished the F64 Gender identity disorders. Transgender_sentence_76

The DSM-5 refers to the topic as gender dysphoria (GD) while reinforcing the idea that being transgender is not considered a mental illness. Transgender_sentence_77

Transgender people may meet the criteria for a diagnosis of gender dysphoria "only if [being transgender] causes distress or disability." Transgender_sentence_78

This distress may manifest as depression or inability to work and form healthy relationships with others. Transgender_sentence_79

This diagnosis is often misinterpreted as implying that all transgender people suffer from GD, which has confused transgender people and those who seek to either criticize or affirm them. Transgender_sentence_80

Transgender people who are comfortable with their gender and whose gender is not directly causing inner frustration or impairing their functioning do not suffer from GD. Transgender_sentence_81

Moreover, GD is not necessarily permanent and is often resolved through therapy or transitioning. Transgender_sentence_82

Feeling oppressed by the negative attitudes and behaviors of such others as legal entities does not indicate GD. Transgender_sentence_83

GD does not imply an opinion of immorality; the psychological establishment holds that people with any kind of mental or emotional problem should not receive stigma. Transgender_sentence_84

The solution for GD is whatever will alleviate suffering and restore functionality; this solution often, but not always, consists of undergoing a gender transition. Transgender_sentence_85

Clinical training lacks relevant information needed in order to adequately help transgender clients, which results in a large number of practitioners who are not prepared to sufficiently work with this population of individuals. Transgender_sentence_86

Many mental healthcare providers know little about transgender issues. Transgender_sentence_87

Those who seek help from these professionals often educate the professional without receiving help. Transgender_sentence_88

This solution usually is good for transsexual people but is not the solution for other transgender people, particularly non-binary people who lack an exclusively male or female identity. Transgender_sentence_89

Instead, therapists can support their clients in whatever steps they choose to take to transition or can support their decision not to transition while also addressing their clients' sense of congruence between gender identity and appearance. Transgender_sentence_90

Acknowledgment of the lack of clinical training has increased; however, research on the specific problems faced by the transgender community in mental health has focused on diagnosis and clinicians' experiences instead of transgender clients' experiences. Transgender_sentence_91

Therapy was not always sought by transgender people due to mental health needs. Transgender_sentence_92

Prior to the seventh version of the Standards of Care (SOC), an individual had to be diagnosed with gender identity disorder in order to proceed with hormone treatments or sexual reassignment surgery. Transgender_sentence_93

The new version decreased the focus on diagnosis and instead emphasized the importance of flexibility in order to meet the diverse health care needs of transsexual, transgender, and all gender-nonconforming people. Transgender_sentence_94

The reasons for seeking mental health services vary according to the individual. Transgender_sentence_95

A transgender person seeking treatment does not necessarily mean their gender identity is problematic. Transgender_sentence_96

The emotional strain of dealing with stigma and experiencing transphobia pushes many transgender people to seek treatment to improve their quality of life, as one trans woman reflected: "Transgendered individuals are going to come to a therapist and most of their issues have nothing to do, specifically, with being transgendered. Transgender_sentence_97

It has to do because they've had to hide, they've had to lie, and they've felt all of this guilt and shame, unfortunately usually for years!" Transgender_sentence_98

Many transgender people also seek mental health treatment for depression and anxiety caused by the stigma attached to being transgender, and some transgender people have stressed the importance of acknowledging their gender identity with a therapist in order to discuss other quality-of-life issues. Transgender_sentence_99

Others regret having undergone the procedure and wish to detransition. Transgender_sentence_100

Problems still remain surrounding misinformation about transgender issues that hurt transgender people's mental health experiences. Transgender_sentence_101

One trans man who was enrolled as a student in a psychology graduate program highlighted the main concerns with modern clinical training: "Most people probably are familiar with the term transgender, but maybe that's it. Transgender_sentence_102

I don’t think I've had any formal training just going through [clinical] programs . Transgender_sentence_103

. Transgender_sentence_104

. Transgender_sentence_105

I don’t think most [therapists] know. Transgender_sentence_106

Most therapists – Master's degree, PhD level – they've had . Transgender_sentence_107

. Transgender_sentence_108

. Transgender_sentence_109

one diversity class on GLBT issues. Transgender_sentence_110

One class out of the huge diversity training. Transgender_sentence_111

One class. Transgender_sentence_112

And it was probably mostly about gay lifestyle." Transgender_sentence_113

Many health insurance policies do not cover treatment associated with gender transition, and numerous people are under- or uninsured, which raises concerns about the insufficient training most therapists receive prior to working with transgender clients, potentially increasing financial strain on clients without providing the treatment they need. Transgender_sentence_114

Many clinicians who work with transgender clients only receive mediocre training on gender identity, but introductory training on interacting with transgender people has recently been made available to health care professionals to help remove barriers and increase the level of service for the transgender population. Transgender_sentence_115

The issues around psychological classifications and associated stigma (whether based in paraphilia or not) of cross-dressers, transsexual men and women (and lesbian and gay children, who may resemble trans children early in life) have become more complex since CAMH (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health) colleagues Kenneth Zucker and Ray Blanchard were announced to be serving on the DSM-V's Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Work Group. Transgender_sentence_116

CAMH aims to "cure" transgender people of their "disorder", especially in children. Transgender_sentence_117

Within the trans community, this intention has mostly produced shock and outrage with attempts to organize other responses. Transgender_sentence_118

In February 2010, France became the first country in the world to remove transgender identity from the list of mental diseases. Transgender_sentence_119

A 2014 study carried out by the Williams Institute (a UCLA think tank) found that 41% of transgender people had attempted suicide, with the rate being higher among people who experienced discrimination in access to housing or healthcare, harassment, physical or sexual assault, or rejection by family. Transgender_sentence_120

A 2019 follow-up study found that transgender people who wanted and received gender-affirming medical care had substantially lower rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts. Transgender_sentence_121

Autism is more common in people who are gender dysphoric. Transgender_sentence_122

It is not known whether there is a biological basis. Transgender_sentence_123

This may be due to the fact that people on the autism spectrum are less concerned with societal disapproval, and feel less fear or inhibition about coming out as trans than others. Transgender_sentence_124

Physical healthcare Transgender_section_9

Medical and surgical procedures exist for transsexual and some transgender people, though most categories of transgender people as described above are not known for seeking the following treatments. Transgender_sentence_125

Hormone replacement therapy for trans men induces beard growth and masculinizes skin, hair, voice, and fat distribution. Transgender_sentence_126

Hormone replacement therapy for trans women feminizes fat distribution and breasts. Transgender_sentence_127

Laser hair removal or electrolysis removes excess hair for trans women. Transgender_sentence_128

Surgical procedures for trans women feminize the voice, skin, face, Adam's apple, breasts, waist, buttocks, and genitals. Transgender_sentence_129

Surgical procedures for trans men masculinize the chest and genitals and remove the womb, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Transgender_sentence_130

The acronyms "GRS" and "SRS" refer to genital surgery. Transgender_sentence_131

The term "sex reassignment therapy" (SRT) is used as an umbrella term for physical procedures required for transition. Transgender_sentence_132

Use of the term "sex change" has been criticized for its emphasis on surgery, and the term "transition" is preferred. Transgender_sentence_133

Availability of these procedures depends on degree of gender dysphoria, presence or absence of gender identity disorder, and standards of care in the relevant jurisdiction. Transgender_sentence_134

Trans men who have not had a hysterectomy and who take testosterone are at increased risk for endometrial cancer because androstenedione, which is made from testosterone in the body, can be converted into estrogen, and external estrogen is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. Transgender_sentence_135

Law Transgender_section_10

Main article: Transgender rights Transgender_sentence_136

Further information: Legal recognition of non-binary gender Transgender_sentence_137

Legal procedures exist in some jurisdictions which allow individuals to change their legal gender or name to reflect their gender identity. Transgender_sentence_138

Requirements for these procedures vary from an explicit formal diagnosis of transsexualism, to a diagnosis of gender identity disorder, to a letter from a physician that attests the individual's gender transition or having established a different gender role. Transgender_sentence_139

In 1994, the DSM IV entry was changed from "Transsexual" to "Gender Identity Disorder". Transgender_sentence_140

In many places, transgender people are not legally protected from discrimination in the workplace or in public accommodations. Transgender_sentence_141

A report released in February 2011 found that 90% of transgender people faced discrimination at work and were unemployed at double the rate of the general population, and over half had been harassed or turned away when attempting to access public services. Transgender_sentence_142

Members of the transgender community also encounter high levels of discrimination in health care. Transgender_sentence_143

Europe Transgender_section_11

36 countries in Europe require a mental health diagnosis for legal gender recognition and 20 countries still require sterilisation. Transgender_sentence_144

In April 2017, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that requiring sterilisation for legal gender recognition violates human rights. Transgender_sentence_145

Denmark Transgender_section_12

Since 2014 it has been possible for adults without the requirement of a psychiatric evaluation, medical or surgical treatment, divorce or castration, to after a six-month ‘reflection period’ have their social security number changed and legally change gender. Transgender_sentence_146

Germany Transgender_section_13

Main article: Transgender rights in Germany Transgender_sentence_147

In November 2017, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the civil status law must allow a third gender option. Transgender_sentence_148

Thus officially recognising "third sex" meaning that birth certificates will not have blank gender entries for intersex people. Transgender_sentence_149

The ruling came after an intersex person, who is neither a man nor woman according to chromosomal analysis, brought a legal challenge after attempting to change their registered sex to "inter" or . Transgender_sentence_150

Canada Transgender_section_14

Main article: Transgender rights in Canada Transgender_sentence_151

Jurisdiction over legal classification of sex in Canada is assigned to the provinces and territories. Transgender_sentence_152

This includes legal change of gender classification. Transgender_sentence_153

On June 19, 2017 Bill C-16, after having passed the legislative process in the House of Commons of Canada and the Senate of Canada, became law upon receiving Royal Assent which put it into immediate force. Transgender_sentence_154

The law updated the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code to include "gender identity and gender expression" as protected grounds from discrimination, hate publications and advocating genocide. Transgender_sentence_155

The bill also added "gender identity and expression" to the list of aggravating factors in sentencing, where the accused commits a criminal offence against an individual because of those personal characteristics. Transgender_sentence_156

Similar transgender laws also exist in all the provinces and territories. Transgender_sentence_157

United States Transgender_section_15

Main article: Transgender rights in the United States Transgender_sentence_158

In the United States, transgender people are protected from employment discrimination by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Transgender_sentence_159

Exceptions apply to certain types of employers, for example, employers with fewer than 15 employees and religious organizations. Transgender_sentence_160

In 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that Title VII prohibits discrimination against transgender people in the case R.G. Transgender_sentence_161 & G.R. Transgender_sentence_162 Harris Funeral Homes Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Transgender_sentence_163

Nicole Maines, a trans girl, took a case to Maine's Supreme Court in June, 2013. Transgender_sentence_164

She argued that being denied access to her high school's women's restroom was a violation of Maine's Human Rights Act; one state judge has disagreed with her, but Maines won her lawsuit against the Orono school district in January 2014 before the Maine Supreme Judicial Court. Transgender_sentence_165

On May 14, 2016, the United States Department of Education and Department of Justice issued guidance directing public schools to allow transgender students to use bathrooms that match their gender identities. Transgender_sentence_166

On June 30, 2016, the United States Department of Defense removed the ban that prohibited transgender people from openly serving in the US military. Transgender_sentence_167

On July 27, 2017, President Donald Trump tweeted that transgender Americans will not be allowed to serve "in any capacity" in the United States Armed Forces. Transgender_sentence_168

Later that day, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Joseph Dunford announced, "there will be no modifications to the current policy until the president’s direction has been received by the Secretary of Defense and the secretary has issued implementation guidance." Transgender_sentence_169

In California, the School Success and Opportunity Act authored by Assemblyman Tom Ammiano, which became state law on January 1, 2014, says "A pupil shall be permitted to participate in sex-segregated school programs and activities, including athletic teams and competitions, and use facilities consistent with his or her gender identity, irrespective of the gender listed on the pupil's records." Transgender_sentence_170

India Transgender_section_16

Main article: LGBT rights in India § Transgender rights Transgender_sentence_171

In April 2014, the Supreme Court of India declared transgender to be a 'third gender' in Indian law. Transgender_sentence_172

The transgender community in India (made up of Hijras and others) has a long history in India and in Hindu mythology. Transgender_sentence_173

Justice KS Radhakrishnan noted in his decision that, "Seldom, our society realizes or cares to realize the trauma, agony and pain which the members of Transgender community undergo, nor appreciates the innate feelings of the members of the Transgender community, especially of those whose mind and body disown their biological sex", adding: Transgender_sentence_174

Hijras face structural discrimination including not being able to obtain driving licenses, and being prohibited from accessing various social benefits. Transgender_sentence_175

It is also common for them to be banished from communities. Transgender_sentence_176

Religion Transgender_section_17

Main article: Transgender people and religion Transgender_sentence_177

The Roman Catholic Church has been involved in the outreach to LGBT community for several years and continues doing so through Franciscan urban outreach centers, for example, the Open Hearts outreach in Hartford, Connecticut. Transgender_sentence_178

Feminism Transgender_section_18

Main articles: Feminist views on transgender and transsexual people and Transfeminism Transgender_sentence_179

Some feminists and feminist groups are supportive of transgender people, but others are not. Transgender_sentence_180

Though second-wave feminism argued for the sex and gender distinction, some feminists believed there was a conflict between transgender identity and the feminist cause; e.g., they believed that male-to-female transition abandoned or devalued female identity and that transgender people embraced traditional gender roles and stereotypes. Transgender_sentence_181

Many transgender feminists, however, view themselves as contributing to feminism by questioning and subverting gender norms. Transgender_sentence_182

Third-wave and contemporary feminism are generally more supportive of transgender people. Transgender_sentence_183

Scientific studies of transsexuality Transgender_section_19

See also: Androphilia and gynephilia Transgender_sentence_184

A study of Swedes estimated a ratio of 1.4:1 trans women to trans men for those requesting sex reassignment surgery and a ratio of 1:1 for those who proceeded. Transgender_sentence_185

Population figures Transgender_section_20

See also: Transsexual § Prevalence Transgender_sentence_186

Little is known about the prevalence of transgender people in the general population and reported prevalence estimates are greatly affected by variable definitions of transgender. Transgender_sentence_187

According to a recent systematic review, an estimated 9.2 out of every 100,000 people have received or requested gender affirmation surgery or transgender hormone therapy; 6.8 out of every 100,000 people have received a transgender-specific diagnoses; and 355 out of every 100,000 people self-identify as transgender. Transgender_sentence_188

These findings underscore the value of using consistent terminology related to studying the experience of transgender, as studies that explore surgical or hormonal gender affirmation therapy may or may not be connected with others that follow a diagnosis of “transsexualism,” “gender identity disorder,” or “gender dysphoria,” none of which may relate with those that assess self-reported identity. Transgender_sentence_189

Common terminology across studies does not yet exist, so population numbers may be inconsistent, depending on how they are being counted. Transgender_sentence_190

European Union Transgender_section_21

According to Amnesty International, 1.5 million transgender people live in the European Union, making up 0.3% of the population. Transgender_sentence_191

UK Transgender_section_22

A 2011 survey conducted by the Equality and Human Rights Commission in the UK found that of 10,026 respondents, 1.4% would be classified into a gender minority group. Transgender_sentence_192

The survey also showed that 1% had gone through any part of a gender reassignment process (including thoughts or actions). Transgender_sentence_193

North America Transgender_section_23

Canada Transgender_section_24

The Trans PULSE survey conducted in 2009 and 2010 suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned) in the Canadian province of Ontario. Transgender_sentence_194

The 2017 survey of Canadian LGBT+ people called LGBT+ Realities Survey found that of the 1,897 respondents 11% identified as transgender (7% binary transgender, 4% non-binary transgender) and 1% identified as non-binary outside of the transgender umbrella. Transgender_sentence_195

The 2019 survey of the Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ population in the Canadian city of Hamilton, Ontario called Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton showed that 27.6% of the 906 respondents identified as transgender. Transgender_sentence_196

United States Transgender_section_25

The Social Security Administration, since 1936, has tracked the sex of citizens. Transgender_sentence_197

Using this information, along with the Census data, Benjamin Cerf Harris tracked the prevalence of citizens changing to names associated with the opposite sex or changing sex marker. Transgender_sentence_198

Harris found that such changes had occurred as early as 1936. Transgender_sentence_199

He estimated that 89,667 individuals included in the 2010 Census had changed to an opposite-gendered name, 21,833 of whom had also changed sex marker. Transgender_sentence_200

Prevalence in the States varied, from 1.4 to 10.6 per 100,000. Transgender_sentence_201

While most people legally changed both name and sex, about a quarter of people changed name, and then five years later changed sex. Transgender_sentence_202

An earlier estimate in 1968, by Ira B. Pauly, estimated that about 2,500 transsexual people were living in the United States, with four times as many trans women as trans men. Transgender_sentence_203

One effort to quantify the population in 2011 gave a "rough estimate" that 0.3% of adults in the US are transgender. Transgender_sentence_204

More recent studies released in 2016 estimate the proportion of Americans who identify as transgender at 0.5 to 0.6%. Transgender_sentence_205

This would put the total number of transgender Americans at approximately 1.4 million adults (as of 2016). Transgender_sentence_206

A survey by the Pew Research Center in 2017 found that American society is divided on "whether it's possible for someone to be a gender different from the sex they were assigned at birth." Transgender_sentence_207

It states, "Overall, roughly half of Americans (54%) say that whether someone is a man or a woman is determined by the sex they were assigned at birth, while 44% say someone can be a man or a woman even if that is different from the sex they were assigned at birth." Transgender_sentence_208

Latin America Transgender_section_26

In Latin American cultures, a travesti is a person who has been assigned male at birth and who has a feminine, transfeminine, or "femme" gender identity. Transgender_sentence_209

Travestis generally undergo hormonal treatment, use female gender expression including new names and pronouns from the masculine ones they were given when assigned a sex, and might use breast implants, but they are not offered or do not desire sex-reassignment surgery. Transgender_sentence_210

Travesti might be regarded as a gender in itself (a "third gender"), a mix between man and woman ("intergender/androgynes"), or the presence of both masculine and feminine identities in a single person ("bigender"). Transgender_sentence_211

They are framed as something entirely separate from transgender women, who possess the same gender identity of people assigned female at birth. Transgender_sentence_212

Other transgender identities are becoming more widely known, as a result of contact with other cultures of the Western world. Transgender_sentence_213

These newer identities, sometimes known under the umbrella use of the term "genderqueer", along with the older travesti term, are known as non-binary and go along with binary transgender identities (those traditionally diagnosed under the now obsolete label of "transsexualism") under the single umbrella of transgender, but are distinguished from cross-dressers and drag queens and kings, that are held as nonconforming gender expressions rather than transgender gender identities when a distinction is made. Transgender_sentence_214

Deviating from the societal standards for sexual behavior, sexual orientation/identity, gender identity, and gender expression have a single umbrella term that is known as sexodiverso or sexodiversa in both Spanish and Portuguese, with its most approximate translation to English being "queer". Transgender_sentence_215

Non-western cultures Transgender_section_27

Asia Transgender_section_28

In Thailand and Laos, the term kathoey is used to refer to male-to-female transgender people and effeminate gay men. Transgender_sentence_216

Transgender people have also been documented in Iran, Japan, Nepal, Indonesia, Vietnam, South Korea, Jordan, Singapore, and the greater Chinese region, including Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the People's Republic of China. Transgender_sentence_217

The cultures of the Indian subcontinent include a third gender, referred to as hijra in Hindi. Transgender_sentence_218

In India, the Supreme Court on April 15, 2014, recognized a third gender that is neither male nor female, stating "Recognition of transgenders as a third gender is not a social or medical issue but a human rights issue." Transgender_sentence_219

In 1998, Shabnam Mausi became the first transgender person to be elected in India, in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Transgender_sentence_220

North America Transgender_section_29

In what is now the United States and Canada, some Native American and First Nations cultures traditionally recognize the existence of more than two genders, such as the Zuni male-bodied lhamana, the Lakota male-bodied winkte, and the Mohave male-bodied alyhaa and female-bodied hwamee. Transgender_sentence_221

These traditional people, along with those from other North American Indigenous cultures, are sometimes part of the contemporary, pan-Indian Two-Spirit community. Transgender_sentence_222

Historically, in most cultures who have alternate gender roles, if the spouse of a third gender person is not otherwise gender variant, they have not generally been regarded as other-gendered themselves, simply for being in a same-sex relationship. Transgender_sentence_223

In Mexico, the Zapotec culture includes a third gender in the form of the Muxe. Transgender_sentence_224

Other Transgender_section_30

Among the ancient Middle Eastern Akkadian people, a salzikrum was a person who appeared biologically female but had distinct male traits. Transgender_sentence_225

Salzikrum is a compound word meaning male daughter. Transgender_sentence_226

According to the Code of Hammurabi, salzikrūm had inheritance rights like that of priestesses; they inherited from their fathers, unlike regular daughters. Transgender_sentence_227

A salzikrum's father could also stipulate that she inherit a certain amount. Transgender_sentence_228

In Ancient Rome, the Gallae were castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and can be regarded as transgender in today's terms. Transgender_sentence_229

In early Medina, gender-variant male-to-female Islamic people were acknowledged in the form of the Mukhannathun. Transgender_sentence_230

Mahu is a traditional third gender in Hawai'i and Tahiti. Transgender_sentence_231

Mahu are valued as teachers, caretakers of culture, and healers, such as Kapaemahu. Transgender_sentence_232

Also, in Fa'asamoa traditions, the Samoan culture allows a specific role for male to female transgender individuals as Fa'afafine. Transgender_sentence_233

Coming out Transgender_section_31

Main article: Coming out Transgender_sentence_234

See also: National Coming Out Day Transgender_sentence_235

Transgender people vary greatly in choosing when, whether, and how to disclose their transgender status to family, close friends, and others. Transgender_sentence_236

The prevalence of discrimination and violence (transgender people are 28% more likely to be victims of violence) against transgender persons can make coming out a risky decision. Transgender_sentence_237

Fear of retaliatory behavior, such as being removed from the parental home while underage, is a cause for transgender people to not come out to their families until they have reached adulthood. Transgender_sentence_238

Parental confusion and lack of acceptance of a transgender child may result in parents treating a newly revealed gender identity as a "phase" or making efforts to change their children back to "normal" by utilizing mental health services to alter the child's gender identity. Transgender_sentence_239

The internet can play a significant role in the coming out process for transgender people. Transgender_sentence_240

Some come out in an online identity first, providing an opportunity to go through experiences virtually and safely before risking social sanctions in the real world. Transgender_sentence_241

Media representation Transgender_section_32

As more transgender people are represented and included within the realm of mass culture, the stigma that is associated with being transgender can influence the decisions, ideas, and thoughts based upon it. Transgender_sentence_242

Media representation, culture industry, and social marginalization all hint at popular culture standards and the applicability and significance to mass culture as well. Transgender_sentence_243

These terms play an important role in the formation of notions for those who have little recognition or knowledge of transgender people. Transgender_sentence_244

Media depictions represent only a minuscule spectrum of the transgender group, which essentially conveys that those that are shown are the only interpretations and ideas society has of them. Transgender_sentence_245

However, in 2014, the United States reached a "transgender tipping point", according to Time. Transgender_sentence_246

At this time, the media visibility of transgender people reached a level higher than seen before. Transgender_sentence_247

Since then, the number of transgender portrayals across TV platforms has stayed elevated. Transgender_sentence_248

Research has found that viewing multiple transgender TV characters and stories improves viewers' attitudes toward transgender people and related policies. Transgender_sentence_249

Events Transgender_section_33

International Transgender Day of Visibility Transgender_section_34

Main article: International Transgender Day of Visibility Transgender_sentence_250

International Transgender Day of Visibility is an annual holiday occurring on March 31 dedicated to celebrating transgender people and raising awareness of discrimination faced by transgender people worldwide. Transgender_sentence_251

The holiday was founded by Michigan-based transgender activist Rachel Crandall in 2009. Transgender_sentence_252

Transgender Awareness Week Transgender_section_35

Main article: Transgender Awareness Week Transgender_sentence_253

Transgender Awareness Week is a one-week celebration leading up to Transgender Day of Remembrance. Transgender_sentence_254

The purpose of Transgender Awareness Week is to educate about transgender and gender non-conforming people and the issues associated with their transition or identity. Transgender_sentence_255

Transgender Day of Remembrance Transgender_section_36

Main article: Transgender Day of Remembrance Transgender_sentence_256

Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDOR) is held every year on November 20 in honor of Rita Hester, who was killed on November 28, 1998, in an anti-transgender hate crime. Transgender_sentence_257

TDOR serves a number of purposes: Transgender_sentence_258


  • it memorializes all of those who have been victims of hate crimes and prejudice,Transgender_item_0_0
  • it raises awareness about hate crimes towards the transgender community,Transgender_item_0_1
  • and it honors the dead and their relativesTransgender_item_0_2

Trans March Transgender_section_37

Main article: Trans March Transgender_sentence_259

Annual marches, protests or gatherings take place around the world for transgender issues, often taking place during the time of local Pride parades for LGBT people. Transgender_sentence_260

These events are frequently organised by trans communities to build community, address human rights struggles, and create visibility. Transgender_sentence_261

Pride symbols Transgender_section_38

Main article: LGBT symbols § Transgender Transgender_sentence_262

See also: Transgender flags and List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers Transgender_sentence_263

A common symbol for the transgender community is the Transgender Pride Flag, which was designed by the American transgender woman Monica Helms in 1999, and was first shown at a pride parade in Phoenix, Arizona in 2000. Transgender_sentence_264

The flag consists of five horizontal stripes: light blue, pink, white, pink, and light blue. Transgender_sentence_265

Helms describes the meaning of the flag as follows: Transgender_sentence_266

Other transgender symbols include the butterfly (symbolizing transformation or metamorphosis), and a pink/light blue yin and yang symbol. Transgender_sentence_267

Several gender symbols have been used to represent transgender people, including and . Transgender_sentence_268

See also Transgender_section_39


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: