Tres (instrument)

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For other uses, see Tres (disambiguation). Tres (instrument)_sentence_0

Tres (instrument)_table_infobox_0

Cuban tresTres (instrument)_table_caption_0
String instrumentTres (instrument)_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesTres (instrument)_header_cell_0_1_0 Tres, tres cubanoTres (instrument)_cell_0_1_1
ClassificationTres (instrument)_header_cell_0_2_0 String instrumentTres (instrument)_cell_0_2_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationTres (instrument)_header_cell_0_3_0 321.322

(Composite chordophone)Tres (instrument)_cell_0_3_1

DevelopedTres (instrument)_header_cell_0_4_0 19th century in eastern CubaTres (instrument)_cell_0_4_1
Related instrumentsTres (instrument)_header_cell_0_5_0

The tres (Spanish for three) is a three-course chordophone of Cuban origin. Tres (instrument)_sentence_1

The most widespread variety of the instrument is the original Cuban tres with six strings. Tres (instrument)_sentence_2

Its sound has become a defining characteristic of the Cuban son and it is commonly played in a variety of Afro-Cuban genres. Tres (instrument)_sentence_3

In the 1930s, the instrument was adapted into the Puerto Rican tres, which has nine strings and a body similar to that of the cuatro. Tres (instrument)_sentence_4

The tres developed in the second half of the 19th century in the eastern region of Guantánamo, where it was used to play changüí, a precursor of son cubano. Tres (instrument)_sentence_5

Its exact origins are not known, but it is assumed to have developed from the 19th century Spanish guitar, which it resembles in shape, as well as the laúd and bandola, two instruments used in punto cubano since at least the 18th century. Tres (instrument)_sentence_6

Tres playing revolves around the guajeo, an ostinato pattern found in many Afro-Cuban music styles. Tres (instrument)_sentence_7

Tres players are commonly known as treseros (in Cuba) or tresistas (in Puerto Rico). Tres (instrument)_sentence_8

Cuba Tres (instrument)_section_0

History Tres (instrument)_section_1

By most accounts, the tres was first used in several related Afro-Cuban musical genres originating in eastern Cuba: the nengón, kiribá, changüí and son, all of which developed during the 19th century. Tres (instrument)_sentence_9

Benjamin Lapidus states: "The tres holds a position of great importance not only in changüí, but in the musical culture of Cuba as a whole." Tres (instrument)_sentence_10

One theory holds that initially, a guitar, tiple or bandola, was used in the son. Tres (instrument)_sentence_11

They were eventually replaced by a new native-born instrument, a fusion of all three, called the tres. Tres (instrument)_sentence_12

Helio Orovio writes that, in 1892, Nené Manfugás brought the tres from Baracoa, its place of origin, to Santiago de Cuba. Tres (instrument)_sentence_13

According to Sindo Garay, the tres itself originated in Baracoa. Tres (instrument)_sentence_14

In 1927, Eduardo Sánchez de Fuentes mentioned Nené Manfugás as the first tres player from Santiago de Cuba. Tres (instrument)_sentence_15

However, he described the tres as having originated in "time immemorial" among Afro-Cubans, while bearing a strong resemblance to the Spanish guitar and the bandurria. Tres (instrument)_sentence_16

According to writer Alejo Carpentier, the tres descended from the bandola (itself a derivative of the Spanish bandurria), which lost two courses over time. Tres (instrument)_sentence_17

According to journalist Lino Dou, the tres was virtually unknown in western Cuba until 1895, when it was bought from Oriente by the mambises. Tres (instrument)_sentence_18

Similarly, Fernando Ortiz stated that the wars between Spain and Cuba (Ten Years' War and Cuban War of Independence) gave rise to the differentiation between the Spanish guitar and the Cuban tres, the latter becoming a symbol of the creole nation. Tres (instrument)_sentence_19

Ortiz asserted that the tres most likely originated during pre-colonial Cuba, before gaining widespread popularity in the late 19th century. Tres (instrument)_sentence_20

The origins of the tres and other Cuban instruments are discussed in depth by Ortiz in his seminal work Los instrumentos de la música afrocubana, published between 1952 and 1955. Tres (instrument)_sentence_21

As the son cubano grew in popularity in the 1920s, so did the tres. Tres (instrument)_sentence_22

By the 1930s, there were several rising stars of the tres, including Eliseo Silveira, Carlos Godínez, Arsenio Rodríguez and Niño Rivera. Tres (instrument)_sentence_23

In the 1950s, Arsenio left Cuba and his sound was continued by Ramón Cisneros "Liviano" and Arturo Harvey "Alambre Dulce" in the Conjunto Chappottín. Tres (instrument)_sentence_24

Other important treseros of the 1950s such as Senén Suárez and Juanito Márquez began making recordings with electric treses. Tres (instrument)_sentence_25

In the United States, the tres was sometimes featured in salsa ensembles, especially in the 1970s, when players such as Nelson González, Charlie Rodríguez and Harry Viggiano made numerous recordings for Fania Records. Tres (instrument)_sentence_26

Traditional tres playing has been promoted in Cuba since the first recordings by Grupo Changüí de Guantánamo in the 1980s, featuring Chito Latamblé, as well as the albums by Isaac Oviedo and his son Papi Oviedo. Tres (instrument)_sentence_27

In 2010, tresero Pancho Amat won the highest accolade awarded to musicians in Cuba, the Premio Nacional de Música. Tres (instrument)_sentence_28

Description and variants Tres (instrument)_section_2

The Cuban tres is significantly smaller than the Spanish guitar, with a scale length between 48 centimetres (19 in) and 65 centimetres (26 in). Tres (instrument)_sentence_29

It has three courses (groups) of two strings each for a total of six strings. Tres (instrument)_sentence_30

From the low pitch to the highest, the principal tuning is in one of two variants in C Major, either: G4 G3, C4 C4, E4 E4 (top course in unisons), or more traditionally: G4 G3, C4 C4, E3 E4 (top course in octaves). Tres (instrument)_sentence_31

Note that when the octave tuning is used, the order of the octaves in the first course is the reverse of the order in the third course (low-high versus high-low). Tres (instrument)_sentence_32

Today many treseros tune the whole instrument a step higher (in D major): A4 A3, D4 D4, F#4 F#4 or A4 A3, D4 D4, F#3 F#4. Tres (instrument)_sentence_33

A musician who plays the Cuban tres is called a tresero, although the term tresista has also been used in Cuba in the past. Tres (instrument)_sentence_34

There are variants of the instrument in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Tres (instrument)_sentence_35

Cuban trova singer, songwriter and guitarist Compay Segundo invented a variant of the tres and the Spanish guitar known as armónico. Tres (instrument)_sentence_36

Eliades Ochoa plays another variant he calls the guitarra tres, which is a Spanish guitar with two extra strings tuned like a tres. Tres (instrument)_sentence_37

Guajeos Tres (instrument)_section_3

The typical tres ostinato is the guajeo. Tres (instrument)_sentence_38

It emerged in Cuba in the 19th century in the musical genres nengón, kiribá, changüí, and son. Tres (instrument)_sentence_39

The tres playing technique of changüí, and to a lesser extent nengón, has influenced contemporary son musicians, most notably pianist Lilí Martínez and tresero Pancho Amat, both of whom learned the style from Chito Latamblé. Tres (instrument)_sentence_40

Both nengón and kiribá are included in the repertoire of changüí ensembles. Tres (instrument)_sentence_41

For example, the debut album of Grupo Changüí de Guantánamo opens with "Nengón". Tres (instrument)_sentence_42

Nengón Tres (instrument)_section_4

Benjamin Lapidus presents evidence of the "linear view of the son's development from nengón to kiribá and other regional styles, to changüí, and ultimately to son." Tres (instrument)_sentence_43

The nengón has a limited harmonic range, where the tonic and dominant are accentuated, and the tres is usually placed in the traditional octave tuning (G4 G3, C4 C4, E3 E4). Tres (instrument)_sentence_44

As a genre, nengón consists of variations of a single song, "Para ti nengón". Tres (instrument)_sentence_45

The following nengón guajeo is an embellishment of the rhythmic figure known as tresillo. Tres (instrument)_sentence_46

Kiribá Tres (instrument)_section_5

Closely related to nengón, the kiribá style emerged in the Baracoa region of eastern Cuba. Tres (instrument)_sentence_47

Like nengón, kiribá is genre that is based on the song or refrain "Kiribá, kiribá". Tres (instrument)_sentence_48

Because of this, Cuban musicologists such as Olavo Alén Rodríguez prefer to categorise kiribá as a style within changüí. Tres (instrument)_sentence_49

Nonetheless, kiribá has a distinct guajeo and might predate changüí. Tres (instrument)_sentence_50

Changüí Tres (instrument)_section_6

When playing changüí, the tres is again usually given the traditional octave tuning. Tres (instrument)_sentence_51

The following changüí tres guajeo consists of all offbeats. Tres (instrument)_sentence_52

Son Tres (instrument)_section_7

According to Kevin Moore "there are two types of pure son tres guajeos: generic and song-specific. Tres (instrument)_sentence_53

Song-specific guajeos are usually based on the song's melody, while the generic type involves simply arpeggiating triads." Tres (instrument)_sentence_54

The rhythmic pattern of the following "generic" guajeo is used in many songs. Tres (instrument)_sentence_55

Note that the first measure consists of all offbeats. Tres (instrument)_sentence_56

The figure can begin in the first measure, or the second measure, depending upon the structure of the song. Tres (instrument)_sentence_57

Solos Tres (instrument)_section_8

Tres solos were first constructed by grouping guajeo variations together, a melodic/rhythmic approach relying on subtle variation and repetition, that maintains a "groove" for dancers. Tres (instrument)_sentence_58

According to Lapidus, tres solos in changüí typically sound "melodic/rhythmic ideas twice before moving on. Tres (instrument)_sentence_59

This technique allows the soloist to set up a series of expectations for the listener, which are alternately satisfied, circumvented, frustrated, or inverted. Tres (instrument)_sentence_60

The practice has its analogue in what Paul Berliner labels 'a community of ideas,' as motives from these sequences are frequently returned to throughout the course of any given solo." Tres (instrument)_sentence_61

By the mid twentieth century, tres solos began incorporating the rhythmic "vocabulary" of quinto, the lead drum of rumba. Tres (instrument)_sentence_62

The counter-metric emphasis of quinto-based phrases break free from the confines of the guajeo, which is normally "locked" to the clave cycle. Tres (instrument)_sentence_63

Thus, quinto-based solos are capable of creating long cycles of tension—release spanning many measures. Tres (instrument)_sentence_64

Puerto Rico Tres (instrument)_section_9

The Puerto Rican tres is an adaptation of Cuban tres with nine strings instead of six. Tres (instrument)_sentence_65

Although nine-string treses are documented in Cuba since at least 1913, investigators agree that the creation of the instrument was probably caused by the 1929 visit of Isaac Oviedo to Puerto Rico during a tour by the Septeto Matancero. Tres (instrument)_sentence_66

Inspired by Oviedo, guitarist Guillero "Piliche" Ayala ordered the construction of a similar instrument for which the body of a cuatro was used. Tres (instrument)_sentence_67

As a result, the Puerto Rican tres is shaped like a Puerto Rican cuatro, with cut-outs, unlike the Cuban variety, which has a guitar-like shape. Tres (instrument)_sentence_68

By 1934, the Puerto Rican cuatro had reached New York and nowadays most Puerto Rican tres players specialize in their national adaptation of the instrument, a notable exception being Nelson González. Tres (instrument)_sentence_69

The Puerto Rican tres has nine strings in three courses and is tuned G4 G3 G4, C4 C4 C4, E4 E3 E4. Tres (instrument)_sentence_70

Players of the Puerto Rican tres are called tresistas. Tres (instrument)_sentence_71

Notable players Tres (instrument)_section_10

The following are some of the most influential performers of the Cuban tres. Tres (instrument)_sentence_72

Tres (instrument)_unordered_list_0

Notable performers of the Puerto Rican tres include: Tres (instrument)_sentence_73

Tres (instrument)_unordered_list_1

See also Tres (instrument)_section_11

Tres (instrument)_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tres (instrument).