Tresillo (rhythm)

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Tresillo (rhythm)_table_infobox_0

Music of CubaTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_0_0
General topicsTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_1_0
GenresTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_2_0
Specific formsTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_3_0
Religious musicTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_4_0 Tresillo (rhythm)_cell_0_4_1
Traditional musicTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_5_0 Tresillo (rhythm)_cell_0_5_1
Media and performanceTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_6_0
Music awardsTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_7_0 Beny Moré AwardTresillo (rhythm)_cell_0_7_1
Nationalistic and patriotic songsTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_8_0
National anthemTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_9_0 La BayamesaTresillo (rhythm)_cell_0_9_1
Regional musicTresillo (rhythm)_header_cell_0_10_0

For other uses, see Tresillo (disambiguation). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_0

Tresillo (/trɛˈsiːjoʊ/ tres-EE-yoh; Spanish pronunciation: [tɾeˈsijo) is a rhythmic pattern (shown below) used in Latin American music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_1

It is a more basic form of the rhythmic figure known as the habanera. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_2

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_0

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_0_0

Tresillo is the most fundamental duple-pulse rhythmic cell in Cuban and other Latin American music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_3

It was introduced in the New World through the Atlantic slave trade during the Colonial period. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_4

The pattern is also the most fundamental and most prevalent duple-pulse rhythmic cell in Sub-Saharan African music traditions. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_5

The cinquillo pattern is another common embellishment of tresillo. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_6

Cinquillo is used frequently in the Cuban contradanza (the "habanera") and the danzón. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_7

Triplet (formal usage) Tresillo (rhythm)_section_0

Tresillo is a Spanish word meaning "triplet"—three equal notes within the same time span normally occupied by two notes. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_8

In its formal usage, tresillo refers to a subdivision of the beat that does not normally occur within the given structure. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_9

Therefore, it is indicated by the number 3 between the halves of a horizontal bracket over the notes, as shown below. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_10

The first measure divides each beat in three: one, and, ah, two, and, ah. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_11

The second divides the span of two main beats by three (hemiola): one, one-ah, two-and. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_12

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_1

Duple-pulse correlative of 3:2 Tresillo (rhythm)_section_1

Tresillo-over-two Tresillo (rhythm)_section_2

In sub-Saharan rhythm, the four main beats are typically divided into three or four pulses, creating a 12-pulse ( 8), or 16-pulse ( 4) cycle. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_13

Every triple-pulse pattern has its duple-pulse correlative; the two pulse structures are two sides of the same coin. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_14

Cross-beats are generated by grouping pulses contrary to their given structure, for example: groups of two or four in 8 or groups of three or six in 4. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_15

The duple-pulse correlative of the three cross-beats of the hemiola, is known in Afro-Cuban music as tresillo. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_16

The pulse names of tresillo and the three cross-beats of the hemiola (3:2) are identical: one, one-ah, two-and. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_17

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_2

Play tresillo:2 (help·) Play 3:2 (help·) Play the two alternating (help·) Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_18

Cross-beat generation Tresillo (rhythm)_section_3

The composite pattern of tresillo and the main beats is commonly known as the habanera, congo, tango-congo, or tango. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_19

The habanera rhythm is the duple-pulse correlative of the vertical hemiola (above). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_20

The three cross-beats of the hemiola are generated by grouping triple pulses in twos: 6 pulses ÷ 2 = 3 cross-beats. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_21

Tresillo is generated by grouping duple pulses in threes: 8 pulses ÷ 3 = 2 cross-beats (consisting of three pulses each), with a remainder of a partial cross-beat (spanning two pulses). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_22

In other words, 8 ÷ 3 = 2, r2. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_23

Tresillo is a cross-rhythmic fragment. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_24

It contains the first three cross-beats of 4:3. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_25

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_3

Basic rhythmic cell (common usage in Cuban popular music) Tresillo (rhythm)_section_4

Habanera (Cuban contradanza) Tresillo (rhythm)_section_5

The Cuban contradanza, known outside of Cuba as the habanera, was the first written music to be rhythmically based on an African motif (tresillo and its variants). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_26

Tresillo is used as an ostinato figure in the left hand. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_27

The habanera was the first dance music from Cuba to be exported all over the world. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_28

Because of the habanera's global popularity, tresillo and its variants are found in popular music in nearly every city on the planet. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_29

Later, Cuban musical exports, such as the son, son montuno, and the mambo continued to reinforce the use of tresillo bass lines and vamps. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_30

"La Paloma" (1863) is one of the most popular habaneras, having been produced and reinterpreted in diverse cultures, settings, arrangements, and recordings over the last 140 years. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_31

The song was composed and written by Spanish composer Sebastián Iradier (later Yradier) after he visited Cuba in 1861. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_32

In the excerpt below, the left hand plays the tresillo rhythm. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_33

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_4

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_4_1

The "three-side" of clave Tresillo (rhythm)_section_6

As used in Cuban popular music, tresillo refers to the "three-side" (first three strokes) of the son clave pattern. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_34

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_5

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_5_2

The most basic duple-pulse cell Tresillo (rhythm)_section_7

Although the triplet divides the main beats by three pulses (triple-pulse) and tresillo divides them by four pulses (duple-pulse), the two figures share the same pulse names: one, one-ah, two-and. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_35

The common figure known as the habanera consists of tresillo with the second main beat. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_36

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_6

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_6_3

The cinquillo pattern is another common embellishment of tresillo. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_37

Cinquillo is used frequently in the Cuban contradanza (the "habanera") and the danzón. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_38

The figure is also a common bell pattern found throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_39

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_7

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_7_4

Bass tumbao Tresillo (rhythm)_section_8

Tresillo is the rhythmic basis of many African and Afro-Cuban drum rhythms, as well as the ostinato bass tumbao in Cuban son-based musics, such as son montuno, mambo, salsa, and Latin jazz. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_40

The example below shows a tresillo-based tumbao from "Alza los pies Congo" by Septeto Habanero (1925). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_41

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_8

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_8_5

In art music Tresillo (rhythm)_section_9

Because of the popularity of the Cuban contradanza (habanera), the tresillo variant known as the habanera rhythm was adopted into European art music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_42

For example, Georges Bizet's opera Carmen (1874) has a famous aria, "L'amour est un oiseau rebelle" based on a habanera pattern. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_43

The first seven measures are shown below. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_44

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_9

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_9_6

In addition, Louis Moreau Gottschalk's first symphony, La nuit des tropiques (lit. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_45

"Night of the Tropics") (1860) was influenced by the composer's studies in Cuba. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_46

Gottschalk uses the tresillo variant cinquillo extensively. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_47

With Gottschalk, we see the beginning of serious treatment of Afro-Caribbean rhythmic elements in New World art music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_48

Tresillo and the habanera rhythm are heard in the left hand of Gottschalk's salon piano compositions such as Souvenir de la Havane ("Souvenirs From Havana") (1859). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_49

Cinquillo-Tresillo in the French Antilles Tresillo (rhythm)_section_10

Bélé (also called belair) was developed in rural Martinique and is played on a drum of the same name. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_50

The drum is played by two performers: one straddles the drum, playing on the drumhead with both hands and a foot (which is used to dampen and undampen the drumhead in order to produce different pitches); the other performer uses a pair of sticks (called tibwa) to beat out characteristic and intricate cross-rhythms on the side of the drum. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_51

In bélé, the cinquillo is beat out by the tibwa, but it translates very well to the chacha (a maracas) when the rhythms are applied for playing biguine music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_52

The biguine, a modern form of bélé, is accompanied by call-and-response singing and by dancing. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_53

The tibwa rhythm also provided inspiration for the chouval bwa and then for zouk (two Antillean popular music). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_54

In zouk, the rhythm is often simplified to an almost-constant 3+3+2 motif and played with rimshots on the snare while the chacha or hi-hats play the cinquillo-tresillo rhythm. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_55

In African-American music Tresillo (rhythm)_section_11

Ragtime and jazz Tresillo (rhythm)_section_12

African American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 1800s with the popularity of the Cuban contradanza (known outside of Cuba as the habanera). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_56

The habanera was the first written music to be rhythmically based on an African motif (1803). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_57

Musicians from Havana and New Orleans would take the twice-daily ferry between both cities to perform and not surprisingly, the habanera quickly took root in the musically fertile city of New Orleans. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_58

The habanera was the first of many Cuban music genres which enjoyed periods of popularity in the United States, and reinforced and inspired the use of tresillo-based rhythms in African American music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_59

From the perspective of African American music, the habanera rhythm can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_60

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_10

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_10_7

Tresillo in African American music is one of the clearest examples of African rhythmic retention in the United States. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_61

There are examples of tresillo-like rhythms in a few African American folk musics such as the foot stomping patterns in ring shout and the post-Civil War drum and fife music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_62

Tresillo is also heard prominently in New Orleans second line music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_63

Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans "clave", although technically, the pattern is only half a clave. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_64

John Storm Roberts states that "the habanera reached the United States 20 years before the first rag was published." Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_65

Scott Joplin's "Solace" (1909) is considered a habanera. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_66

For the more than quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the habanera was a consistent part of African American popular music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_67

Ned Sublette postulates that the habanera rhythm "found its way into ragtime and the cakewalk", while Roberts suggests that "the habanera influence may have been part of what freed black music from ragtime's European bass." Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_68

Early New Orleans jazz bands had habaneras in their repertoire and the tresillo/habanera was a rhythmic staple of jazz at the turn of the 20th century. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_69

For example, "St. Louis Blues" (1914) by W.C. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_70 Handy has a tresillo bass line. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_71

Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo/habanera (which he called the Spanish tinge) to be an essential ingredient of jazz. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_72

Morton stated, "Now in one of my earliest tunes, "New Orleans Blues", you can notice the Spanish tinge. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_73

In fact, if you can't manage to put tinges of Spanish in your tunes, you will never be able to get the right seasoning, I call it, for jazz." Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_74

An excerpt of "New Orleans Blues" is shown below. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_75

In the excerpt, the left hand plays the tresillo rhythm, while the right hand plays variations on cinquillo. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_76

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_11

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_11_8

James P. Johnson's influential "Charleston" rhythm is based on the first two strokes of tresillo. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_77

Johnson said he learned the rhythm from dockworkers in the South Carolina city of the same name. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_78

Although the exact origins of jazz syncopation may never be known, there is evidence that the habanera/tresillo was there at its conception. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_79

Buddy Bolden, the first known jazz musician, is credited with creating the big four, a tresillo/habanera-based pattern. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_80

The big four was the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_81

As the example below shows, the second half of the big four pattern is the habanera rhythm. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_82

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_12

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_12_9

In Early Jazz; Its Roots and Musical Development, Gunther Schuller states: Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_83

R&B Tresillo (rhythm)_section_13

In the late 1940s, R&B music borrowed tresillo directly from Cuban music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_84

In a 1988 interview with Robert Palmer, Bartholomew revealed how he initially superimposed tresillo over swing rhythm. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_85

Bartholomew referred to son by the misnomer rumba, a common practice of that time. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_86

On Bartholomew's 1949 tresillo-based "Oh Cubanas", we clearly hear an attempt to blend African American and Afro-Cuban music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_87

Fats Domino's "Blue Monday", produced by Bartholomew, is another example of this now classic use of tresillo in R&B. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_88

On Bartholomew's 1949 tresillo-based "Oh Cubanas" we clearly hear an attempt to blend African American and Afro-Cuban music. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_89

In his composition "Misery" (1957), New Orleans pianist Professor Longhair (Henry Roeland Byrd) plays a habanera-like figure in his left hand. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_90

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_13

  • Tresillo (rhythm)_item_13_10

The bass line on Elvis Presley's 1956 "Hound Dog" is perhaps the most well known rock 'n roll example of the tresillo rhythm pattern. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_91

Post-bop Tresillo (rhythm)_section_14

The first jazz standard composed by a non-Latin to play off of the correlation between tresillo and the hemiola, was Wayne Shorter's "Footprints" (1967). Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_92

On the version recorded on Miles Smiles by Miles Davis, the bass switches to tresillo at 2:20. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_93

This type of African-based rhythmic interplay between the two pulse (subdivision) structures, was explored in the 1940s by Machito's Afro-Cubans. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_94

Those structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter (bass) and Tony Williams (drums), via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_95

Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_96

In the example below, the main beats are indicated by slashed noteheads. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_97

They are shown here for reference and do not indicate bass notes. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_98

Tresillo (rhythm)_description_list_14

Mongo Santamaria used the tresillo bass pattern in his 1958 jazz standard “Afro Blue”. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_99

In Middle Eastern and Asian music Tresillo (rhythm)_section_15

Tresillo is found within a wide geographic belt stretching from Morocco to Indonesia. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_100

Tresillo is used in many different types of music across the entire continent of Africa. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_101

Use of the pattern in Moroccan music can be traced back to slaves brought north across the Sahara Desert from present-day Mali. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_102

This pattern may have migrated east from North Africa to Asia through the spread of Islam. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_103

In Egyptian music and music from the Levant, the Tresillo pattern is referred to as "Malfouf". Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_104

African-based music has a divisive rhythm structure. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_105

Tresillo is generated through cross-rhythm. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_106

In Middle Eastern and Asian music, the figure is generated through additive rhythm, 3+3+2: Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_107

In divisive form, the strokes of tresillo contradict the beats. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_108

In additive form, the strokes of tresillo are the beats. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_109

From a metrical perspective then, the two ways of perceiving tresillo constitute two different rhythms. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_110

On the other hand, from the perspective of simply the pattern of attack-points, tresillo is a shared element of traditional folk music from the northwest tip of Africa to southeast tip of Asia. Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_111

Today, through the global spread of hip-hop music, we hear the tresillo bass drum superimposed over traditional genres in dance clubs across the vast Africa–Asia "tresillo-belt". Tresillo (rhythm)_sentence_112

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: (rhythm).