Tropical rainforest

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Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_0

True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator (see map); they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28-degree latitudes (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). Tropical rainforest_sentence_1

Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest (or tropical wet forest) that also includes the more extensive seasonal tropical forests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_2

Overview Tropical rainforest_section_0

Tropical rainforests can be characterized in two words: hot and wet. Tropical rainforest_sentence_3

Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C (64 °F) during all months of the year. Tropical rainforest_sentence_4

Average annual rainfall is no less than 1,680 mm (66 in) and can exceed 10 m (390 in) although it typically lies between 1,750 mm (69 in) and 3,000 mm (120 in). Tropical rainforest_sentence_5

This high level of precipitation often results in poor soils due to leaching of soluble nutrients in the ground. Tropical rainforest_sentence_6

Tropical rainforests exhibit high levels of biodiversity. Tropical rainforest_sentence_7

Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_8

Rainforests are home to half of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. Tropical rainforest_sentence_9

Two-thirds of all flowering plants can be found in rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_10

A single hectare of rainforest may contain 42,000 different species of insect, up to 807 trees of 313 species and 1,500 species of higher plants. Tropical rainforest_sentence_11

Tropical rainforests have been called the "world's largest pharmacy", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered within them. Tropical rainforest_sentence_12

It is likely that there may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_13

Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems globally due to large-scale fragmentation as a result of human activity. Tropical rainforest_sentence_14

Habitat fragmentation caused by geological processes such as volcanism and climate change occurred in the past, and have been identified as important drivers of speciation. Tropical rainforest_sentence_15

However, fast human driven habitat destruction is suspected to be one of the major causes of species extinction. Tropical rainforest_sentence_16

Tropical rain forests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance throughout the 20th century, and the area covered by rainforests around the world is rapidly shrinking. Tropical rainforest_sentence_17

History Tropical rainforest_section_1

Tropical rainforests have existed on earth for hundreds of millions of years. Tropical rainforest_sentence_18

Most tropical rainforests today are on fragments of the Mesozoic era supercontinent of Gondwana. Tropical rainforest_sentence_19

The separation of the landmass resulted in a great loss of amphibian diversity while at the same time the drier climate spurred the diversification of reptiles. Tropical rainforest_sentence_20

The division left tropical rainforests located in five major regions of the world: tropical America, Africa, Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and New Guinea, with smaller outliers in Australia. Tropical rainforest_sentence_21

However, the specifics of the origin of rainforests remain uncertain due to an incomplete fossil record. Tropical rainforest_sentence_22

Other types of tropical forest Tropical rainforest_section_2

Main article: Tropical forest Tropical rainforest_sentence_23

Several biomes may appear similar-to, or merge via ecotones with, tropical rainforest: Tropical rainforest_sentence_24

Tropical rainforest_description_list_0

Moist seasonal tropical forests receive high overall rainfall with a warm summer wet season and a cooler winter dry season. Tropical rainforest_sentence_25

Some trees in these forests drop some or all of their leaves during the winter dry season, thus they are sometimes called "tropical mixed forest". Tropical rainforest_sentence_26

They are found in parts of South America, in Central America and around the Caribbean, in coastal West Africa, parts of the Indian subcontinent, and across much of Indochina. Tropical rainforest_sentence_27

Tropical rainforest_description_list_1

These are found in cooler-climate mountainous areas, becoming known as cloud forests at higher elevations. Tropical rainforest_sentence_28

Depending on latitude, the lower limit of montane rainforests on large mountains is generally between 1500 and 2500 m while the upper limit is usually from 2400 to 3300 m. Tropical rainforest_sentence_29

Tropical rainforest_description_list_2

Tropical freshwater swamp forests, or "flooded forests", are found in Amazon basin (the Várzea) and elsewhere. Tropical rainforest_sentence_30

Forest structure Tropical rainforest_section_3

Rainforests are divided into different strata, or layers, with vegetation organized into a vertical pattern from the top of the soil to the canopy. Tropical rainforest_sentence_31

Each layer is a unique biotic community containing different plants and animals adapted for life in that particular strata. Tropical rainforest_sentence_32

Only the emergent layer is unique to tropical rainforests, while the others are also found in temperate rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_33

Forest floor Tropical rainforest_section_4

The forest floor, the bottom-most layer, receives only 2% of the sunlight. Tropical rainforest_sentence_34

Only plants adapted to low light can grow in this region. Tropical rainforest_sentence_35

Away from riverbanks, swamps and clearings, where dense undergrowth is found, the forest floor is relatively clear of vegetation because of the low sunlight penetration. Tropical rainforest_sentence_36

This more open quality permits the easy movement of larger animals such as: ungulates like the okapi (Okapia johnstoni), tapir (Tapirus sp.), Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and apes like the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), as well as many species of reptiles, amphibians, and insects. Tropical rainforest_sentence_37

The forest floor also contains decaying plant and animal matter, which disappears quickly, because the warm, humid conditions promote rapid decay. Tropical rainforest_sentence_38

Many forms of fungi growing here help decay the animal and plant waste. Tropical rainforest_sentence_39

Understory layer Tropical rainforest_section_5

Main article: Understory Tropical rainforest_sentence_40

The understory layer lies between the canopy and the forest floor. Tropical rainforest_sentence_41

The understory is home to a number of birds, small mammals, insects, reptiles, and predators. Tropical rainforest_sentence_42

Examples include leopard (Panthera pardus), poison dart frogs (Dendrobates sp.), ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua), boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), and many species of Coleoptera. Tropical rainforest_sentence_43

The vegetation at this layer generally consists of shade-tolerant shrubs, herbs, small trees, and large woody vines which climb into the trees to capture sunlight. Tropical rainforest_sentence_44

Only about 5% of sunlight breaches the canopy to arrive at the understory causing true understory plants to seldom grow to 3 m (10 feet). Tropical rainforest_sentence_45

As an adaptation to these low light levels, understory plants have often evolved much larger leaves. Tropical rainforest_sentence_46

Many seedlings that will grow to the canopy level are in the understory. Tropical rainforest_sentence_47

Canopy layer Tropical rainforest_section_6

Main article: Canopy (ecology) Tropical rainforest_sentence_48

The canopy is the primary layer of the forest forming a roof over the two remaining layers. Tropical rainforest_sentence_49

It contains the majority of the largest trees, typically 30–45 m in height. Tropical rainforest_sentence_50

Tall, broad-leaved evergreen trees are the dominant plants. Tropical rainforest_sentence_51

The densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, as it often supports a rich flora of epiphytes, including orchids, bromeliads, mosses and lichens. Tropical rainforest_sentence_52

These epiphytic plants attach to trunks and branches and obtain water and minerals from rain and debris that collects on the supporting plants. Tropical rainforest_sentence_53

The fauna is similar to that found in the emergent layer, but more diverse. Tropical rainforest_sentence_54

It is suggested that the total arthropod species richness of the tropical canopy might be as high as 20 million. Tropical rainforest_sentence_55

Other species habituating this layer include many avian species such as the yellow-casqued wattled hornbill (Ceratogymna elata), collared sunbird (Anthreptes collaris), grey parrot (Psitacus erithacus), keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), scarlet macaw (Ara macao) as well as other animals like the spider monkey (Ateles sp.), African giant swallowtail (Papilio antimachus), three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), kinkajou (Potos flavus), and tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla). Tropical rainforest_sentence_56

Emergent layer Tropical rainforest_section_7

The emergent layer contains a small number of very large trees, called emergents, which grow above the general canopy, reaching heights of 45–55 m, although on occasion a few species will grow to 70–80 m tall. Tropical rainforest_sentence_57

Some examples of emergents include: Balizia elegans, Dipteryx panamensis, Hieronyma alchorneoides, Hymenolobium mesoamericanum, Lecythis ampla and Terminalia oblonga. Tropical rainforest_sentence_58

These trees need to be able to withstand the hot temperatures and strong winds that occur above the canopy in some areas. Tropical rainforest_sentence_59

Several unique faunal species inhabit this layer such as the crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus), the king colobus (Colobus polykomos), and the large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus). Tropical rainforest_sentence_60

However, stratification is not always clear. Tropical rainforest_sentence_61

Rainforests are dynamic and many changes affect the structure of the forest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_62

Emergent or canopy trees collapse, for example, causing gaps to form. Tropical rainforest_sentence_63

Openings in the forest canopy are widely recognized as important for the establishment and growth of rainforest trees. Tropical rainforest_sentence_64

It is estimated that perhaps 75% of the tree species at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica are dependent on canopy opening for seed germination or for growth beyond sapling size, for example. Tropical rainforest_sentence_65

Ecology Tropical rainforest_section_8

Climates Tropical rainforest_section_9

Tropical rainforests are located around and near the equator, therefore having what is called an equatorial climate characterized by three major climatic parameters: temperature, rainfall, and dry season intensity. Tropical rainforest_sentence_66

Other parameters that affect tropical rainforests are carbon dioxide concentrations, solar radiation, and nitrogen availability. Tropical rainforest_sentence_67

In general, climatic patterns consist of warm temperatures and high annual rainfall. Tropical rainforest_sentence_68

However, the abundance of rainfall changes throughout the year creating distinct moist and dry seasons. Tropical rainforest_sentence_69

Tropical forests are classified by the amount of rainfall received each year, which has allowed ecologists to define differences in these forests that look so similar in structure. Tropical rainforest_sentence_70

According to Holdridge's classification of tropical ecosystems, true tropical rainforests have an annual rainfall greater than 2 m and annual temperature greater than 24 degrees Celsius, with a potential evapotranspiration ratio (PET) value of <0.25. Tropical rainforest_sentence_71

However, most lowland tropical forests can be classified as tropical moist or wet forests, which differ in regards to rainfall. Tropical rainforest_sentence_72

Tropical forest ecology- dynamics, composition, and function- are sensitive to changes in climate especially changes in rainfall. Tropical rainforest_sentence_73

Soils Tropical rainforest_section_10

Soil types Tropical rainforest_section_11

Soil types are highly variable in the tropics and are the result of a combination of several variables such as climate, vegetation, topographic position, parent material, and soil age. Tropical rainforest_sentence_74

Most tropical soils are characterized by significant leaching and poor nutrients, however there are some areas that contain fertile soils. Tropical rainforest_sentence_75

Soils throughout the tropical rainforests fall into two classifications which include the ultisols and oxisols. Tropical rainforest_sentence_76

Ultisols are known as well weathered, acidic red clay soils, deficient in major nutrients such as calcium and potassium. Tropical rainforest_sentence_77

Similarly, oxisols are acidic, old, typically reddish, highly weathered and leached, however are well drained compared to ultisols. Tropical rainforest_sentence_78

The clay content of ultisols is high, making it difficult for water to penetrate and flow through. Tropical rainforest_sentence_79

The reddish color of both soils is the result of heavy heat and moisture forming oxides of iron and aluminium, which are insoluble in water and not taken up readily by plants. Tropical rainforest_sentence_80

Soil chemical and physical characteristics are strongly related to above ground productivity and forest structure and dynamics. Tropical rainforest_sentence_81

The physical properties of soil control the tree turnover rates whereas chemical properties such as available nitrogen and phosphorus control forest growth rates. Tropical rainforest_sentence_82

The soils of the eastern and central Amazon as well as the Southeast Asian Rainforest are old and mineral poor whereas the soils of the western Amazon (Ecuador and Peru) and volcanic areas of Costa Rica are young and mineral rich. Tropical rainforest_sentence_83

Primary productivity or wood production is highest in western Amazon and lowest in eastern Amazon which contains heavily weathered soils classified as oxisols. Tropical rainforest_sentence_84

Additionally, Amazonian soils are greatly weathered, making them devoid of minerals like phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, which come from rock sources. Tropical rainforest_sentence_85

However, not all tropical rainforests occur on nutrient poor soils, but on nutrient rich floodplains and volcanic soils located in the Andean foothills, and volcanic areas of Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central America. Tropical rainforest_sentence_86

Oxisols, infertile, deeply weathered and severely leached, have developed on the ancient Gondwanan shields. Tropical rainforest_sentence_87

Rapid bacterial decay prevents the accumulation of humus. Tropical rainforest_sentence_88

The concentration of iron and aluminium oxides by the laterization process gives the oxisols a bright red color and sometimes produces minable deposits (e.g., bauxite). Tropical rainforest_sentence_89

On younger substrates, especially of volcanic origin, tropical soils may be quite fertile. Tropical rainforest_sentence_90

Nutrient recycling Tropical rainforest_section_12

This high rate of decomposition is the result of phosphorus levels in the soils, precipitation, high temperatures and the extensive microorganism communities. Tropical rainforest_sentence_91

In addition to the bacteria and other microorganisms, there are an abundance of other decomposers such as fungi and termites that aid in the process as well. Tropical rainforest_sentence_92

Nutrient recycling is important because below ground resource availability controls the above ground biomass and community structure of tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_93

These soils are typically phosphorus limited, which inhibits net primary productivity or the uptake of carbon. Tropical rainforest_sentence_94

The soil contains microbial organisms such as bacteria, which break down leaf litter and other organic matter into inorganic forms of carbon usable by plants through a process called decomposition. Tropical rainforest_sentence_95

During the decomposition process the microbial community is respiring, taking up oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. Tropical rainforest_sentence_96

The decomposition rate can be evaluated by measuring the uptake of oxygen. Tropical rainforest_sentence_97

High temperatures and precipitation increase decomposition rate, which allows plant litter to rapidly decay in tropical regions, releasing nutrients that are immediately taken up by plants through surface or ground waters. Tropical rainforest_sentence_98

The seasonal patterns in respiration are controlled by leaf litter fall and precipitation, the driving force moving the decomposable carbon from the litter to the soil. Tropical rainforest_sentence_99

Respiration rates are highest early in the wet season because the recent dry season results in a large percentage of leaf litter and thus a higher percentage of organic matter being leached into the soil. Tropical rainforest_sentence_100

Buttress roots Tropical rainforest_section_13

A common feature of many tropical rainforests is the distinct buttress roots of trees. Tropical rainforest_sentence_101

Instead of penetrating to deeper soil layers, buttress roots create a widespread root network at the surface for more efficient uptake of nutrients in a very nutrient poor and competitive environment. Tropical rainforest_sentence_102

Most of the nutrients within the soil of a tropical rainforest occur near the surface because of the rapid turnover time and decomposition of organisms and leaves. Tropical rainforest_sentence_103

Because of this, the buttress roots occur at the surface so the trees can maximize uptake and actively compete with the rapid uptake of other trees. Tropical rainforest_sentence_104

These roots also aid in water uptake and storage, increase surface area for gas exchange, and collect leaf litter for added nutrition. Tropical rainforest_sentence_105

Additionally, these roots reduce soil erosion and maximize nutrient acquisition during heavy rains by diverting nutrient rich water flowing down the trunk into several smaller flows while also acting as a barrier to ground flow. Tropical rainforest_sentence_106

Also, the large surface areas these roots create provide support and stability to rainforests trees, which commonly grow to significant heights. Tropical rainforest_sentence_107

This added stability allows these trees to withstand the impacts of severe storms, thus reducing the occurrence of fallen trees. Tropical rainforest_sentence_108

Forest succession Tropical rainforest_section_14

Succession is an ecological process that changes the biotic community structure over time towards a more stable, diverse community structure after an initial disturbance to the community. Tropical rainforest_sentence_109

The initial disturbance is often a natural phenomenon or human caused event. Tropical rainforest_sentence_110

Natural disturbances include hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, river movements or an event as small as a fallen tree that creates gaps in the forest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_111

In tropical rainforests, these same natural disturbances have been well documented in the fossil record, and are credited with encouraging speciation and endemism. Tropical rainforest_sentence_112

Human land use practices have led to large-scale deforestation. Tropical rainforest_sentence_113

In many tropical countries such as Costa Rica these deforested lands have been abandoned and forests have been allowed to regenerate through ecological succession. Tropical rainforest_sentence_114

These regenerating young successional forests are called secondary forests or second-growth forests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_115

Biodiversity and speciation Tropical rainforest_section_15

Human dimensions Tropical rainforest_section_16

Habitation Tropical rainforest_section_17

Tropical rainforests have harboured human life for many millennia, with many Indian tribes in South- and Central America, who belong to the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Congo Pygmies in Central Africa, and several tribes in South-East Asia, like the Dayak people and the Penan people in Borneo. Tropical rainforest_sentence_116

Food resources within the forest are extremely dispersed due to the high biological diversity and what food does exist is largely restricted to the canopy and requires considerable energy to obtain. Tropical rainforest_sentence_117

Some groups of hunter-gatherers have exploited rainforest on a seasonal basis but dwelt primarily in adjacent savanna and open forest environments where food is much more abundant. Tropical rainforest_sentence_118

Other people described as rainforest dwellers are hunter-gatherers who subsist in large part by trading high value forest products such as hides, feathers, and honey with agricultural people living outside the forest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_119

Indigenous peoples Tropical rainforest_section_18

Main article: Indigenous peoples Tropical rainforest_sentence_120

A variety of indigenous people live within the rainforest as hunter-gatherers, or subsist as part-time small scale farmers supplemented in large part by trading high-value forest products such as hides, feathers, and honey with agricultural people living outside the forest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_121

Peoples have inhabited the rainforests for tens of thousands of years and have remained so elusive that only recently have some tribes been discovered. Tropical rainforest_sentence_122

These indigenous peoples are greatly threatened by loggers in search for old-growth tropical hardwoods like Ipe, Cumaru and Wenge, and by farmers who are looking to expand their land, for cattle(meat), and soybeans, which are used to feed cattle in Europe and China. Tropical rainforest_sentence_123

On 18 January 2007, FUNAI reported also that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. Tropical rainforest_sentence_124

With this addition, Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes. Tropical rainforest_sentence_125

The province of Irian Jaya or West Papua in the island of New Guinea is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups. Tropical rainforest_sentence_126

The pygmy peoples are hunter-gatherer groups living in equatorial rainforests characterized by their short height (below one and a half meters, or 59 inches, on average). Tropical rainforest_sentence_127

Amongst this group are the Efe, Aka, Twa, Baka, and Mbuti people of Central Africa. Tropical rainforest_sentence_128

However, the term pygmy is considered pejorative so many tribes prefer not to be labeled as such. Tropical rainforest_sentence_129

Some notable indigenous peoples of the Americas, or Amerindians, include the Huaorani, Ya̧nomamö, and Kayapo people of the Amazon. Tropical rainforest_sentence_130

The traditional agricultural system practiced by tribes in the Amazon is based on swidden cultivation (also known as slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation) and is considered a relatively benign disturbance. Tropical rainforest_sentence_131

In fact, when looking at the level of individual swidden plots a number of traditional farming practices are considered beneficial. Tropical rainforest_sentence_132

For example, the use of shade trees and fallowing all help preserve soil organic matter, which is a critical factor in the maintenance of soil fertility in the deeply weathered and leached soils common in the Amazon. Tropical rainforest_sentence_133

There is a diversity of forest people in Asia, including the Lumad peoples of the Philippines and the Penan and Dayak people of Borneo. Tropical rainforest_sentence_134

The Dayaks are a particularly interesting group as they are noted for their traditional headhunting culture. Tropical rainforest_sentence_135

Fresh human heads were required to perform certain rituals such as the Iban "kenyalang" and the Kenyah "mamat". Tropical rainforest_sentence_136

Pygmies who live in Southeast Asia are, amongst others, referred to as "Negrito". Tropical rainforest_sentence_137

Resources Tropical rainforest_section_19

Cultivated foods and spices Tropical rainforest_section_20

Yam, coffee, chocolate, banana, mango, papaya, macadamia, avocado, and sugarcane all originally came from tropical rainforest and are still mostly grown on plantations in regions that were formerly primary forest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_138

In the mid-1980s and 1990s, 40 million tons of bananas were consumed worldwide each year, along with 13 million tons of mango. Tropical rainforest_sentence_139

Central American coffee exports were worth US$3 billion in 1970. Tropical rainforest_sentence_140

Much of the genetic variation used in evading the damage caused by new pests is still derived from resistant wild stock. Tropical rainforest_sentence_141

Tropical forests have supplied 250 cultivated kinds of fruit, compared to only 20 for temperate forests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_142

Forests in New Guinea alone contain 251 tree species with edible fruits, of which only 43 had been established as cultivated crops by 1985. Tropical rainforest_sentence_143

Ecosystem services Tropical rainforest_section_21

Main article: ecosystem services Tropical rainforest_sentence_144

In addition to extractive human uses, rain forests also have non-extractive uses that are frequently summarized as ecosystem services. Tropical rainforest_sentence_145

Rain forests play an important role in maintaining biological diversity, sequestering and storing carbon, global climate regulation, disease control, and pollination. Tropical rainforest_sentence_146

Half of the rainfall in the Amazon area is produced by the forests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_147

The moisture from the forests is important to the rainfall in Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Deforestation in the Amazon rainforest region was one of the main reason that cause the severe Drought of 2014-2015 in Brazil For the last three decades, the amount of carbon absorbed by the world’s intact tropical forests has fallen, according to a study published in 2020 in the journal Nature. Tropical rainforest_sentence_148

In 2019 they took up a third less carbon than they did in the 1990s, due to higher temperatures, droughts and deforestation. Tropical rainforest_sentence_149

The typical tropical forest may become a carbon source by the 2060s. Tropical rainforest_sentence_150

Tourism Tropical rainforest_section_22

Despite the negative effects of tourism in the tropical rainforests, there are also several important positive effects. Tropical rainforest_sentence_151

Tropical rainforest_unordered_list_3

  • In recent years ecotourism in the tropics has increased. While rainforests are becoming increasingly rare, people are travelling to nations that still have this diverse habitat. Locals are benefiting from the additional income brought in by visitors, as well areas deemed interesting for visitors are often conserved. Ecotourism can be an incentive for conservation, especially when it triggers positive economic change. Ecotourism can include a variety of activities including animal viewing, scenic jungle tours and even viewing cultural sights and native villages. If these practices are performed appropriately this can be beneficial for both locals and the present flora and fauna.Tropical rainforest_item_3_0
  • An increase in tourism has increased economic support, allowing more revenue to go into the protection of the habitat. Tourism can contribute directly to the conservation of sensitive areas and habitat. Revenue from park-entrance fees and similar sources can be utilised specifically to pay for the protection and management of environmentally sensitive areas. Revenue from taxation and tourism provides an additional incentive for governments to contribute revenue to the protection of the forest.Tropical rainforest_item_3_1
  • Tourism also has the potential to increase public appreciation of the environment and to spread awareness of environmental problems when it brings people into closer contact with the environment. Such increased awareness can induce more environmentally conscious behavior. Tourism has had a positive effect on wildlife preservation and protection efforts, notably in Africa but also in South America, Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific.Tropical rainforest_item_3_2

Conservation Tropical rainforest_section_23

Threats Tropical rainforest_section_24

Deforestation Tropical rainforest_section_25

Further information: Rainforest § Deforestation Tropical rainforest_sentence_152

Mining and drilling Tropical rainforest_section_26

Deposits of precious metals (gold, silver, coltan) and fossil fuels (oil and natural gas) occur underneath rainforests globally. Tropical rainforest_sentence_153

These resources are important to developing nations and their extraction is often given priority to encourage economic growth. Tropical rainforest_sentence_154

Mining and drilling can require large amounts of land development, directly causing deforestation. Tropical rainforest_sentence_155

In Ghana, a West African nation, deforestation from decades of mining activity left about 12% of the country's original rainforest intact. Tropical rainforest_sentence_156

Conversion to agricultural land Tropical rainforest_section_27

With the invention of agriculture, humans were able to clear sections of rainforest to produce crops, converting it to open farmland. Tropical rainforest_sentence_157

Such people, however, obtain their food primarily from farm plots cleared from the forest and hunt and forage within the forest to supplement this. Tropical rainforest_sentence_158

The issue arising is between the independent farmer providing for his family and the needs and wants of the globe as a whole. Tropical rainforest_sentence_159

This issue has seen little improvement because no plan has been established for all parties to be aided. Tropical rainforest_sentence_160

Agriculture on formerly forested land is not without difficulties. Tropical rainforest_sentence_161

Rainforest soils are often thin and leached of many minerals, and the heavy rainfall can quickly leach nutrients from area cleared for cultivation. Tropical rainforest_sentence_162

People such as the Yanomamo of the Amazon, utilize slash-and-burn agriculture to overcome these limitations and enable them to push deep into what were previously rainforest environments. Tropical rainforest_sentence_163

However, these are not rainforest dwellers, rather they are dwellers in cleared farmland that make forays into the rainforest. Tropical rainforest_sentence_164

Up to 90% of the typical Yanamomo diet comes from farmed plants. Tropical rainforest_sentence_165

Some action has been taken by suggesting fallow periods of the land allowing secondary forest to grow and replenish the soil. Tropical rainforest_sentence_166

Beneficial practices like soil restoration and conservation can benefit the small farmer and allow better production on smaller parcels of land. Tropical rainforest_sentence_167

Climate change Tropical rainforest_section_28

Main article: Climate change Tropical rainforest_sentence_168

The tropics take a major role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tropical rainforest_sentence_169

The tropics (most notably the Amazon rainforest) are called carbon sinks. Tropical rainforest_sentence_170

As major carbon reducers and carbon and soil methane storages, their destruction contributes to increasing global energy trapping, atmospheric gases. Tropical rainforest_sentence_171

Climate change has been significantly contributed to by the destruction of the rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_172

A simulation was performed in which all rainforest in Africa were removed. Tropical rainforest_sentence_173

The simulation showed an increase in atmospheric temperature by 2.5 to 5 degrees Celsius. Tropical rainforest_sentence_174

Protection Tropical rainforest_section_29

Efforts to protect and conserve tropical rainforest habitats are diverse and widespread. Tropical rainforest_sentence_175

Tropical rainforest conservation ranges from strict preservation of habitat to finding sustainable management techniques for people living in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforest_sentence_176

International policy has also introduced a market incentive program called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) for companies and governments to outset their carbon emissions through financial investments into rainforest conservation. Tropical rainforest_sentence_177

See also Tropical rainforest_section_30

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: rainforest.