Tubercle

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For the lip feature, see Cupid's bow. Tubercle_sentence_0

In anatomy, a tubercle (literally 'small tuber', Latin for 'lump') is any round nodule, small , or warty outgrowth found on external or internal organs of a plant or an animal. Tubercle_sentence_1

In plants Tubercle_section_0

A tubercle is generally a wart-like projection, but it has slightly different meaning depending on which family of plants or animals it is used to refer to. Tubercle_sentence_2

In the case of certain orchids and cacti, it denotes a round nodule, small , or warty outgrowth found on the lip. Tubercle_sentence_3

They are also known as podaria (singular podarium). Tubercle_sentence_4

When referring to some members of the pea family, it is used to refer to the wart-like excrescences that are found on the roots. Tubercle_sentence_5

In fungi Tubercle_section_1

In mycology, a tubercle is used to refer to a mass of hyphae from which a mushroom is made. Tubercle_sentence_6

In animals Tubercle_section_2

When it is used in relation to certain dorid nudibranchs such as Peltodoris nobilis, it means the nodules on the dorsum of the animal. Tubercle_sentence_7

The tubercles in nudibranchs can present themselves in different ways: each tubercle in a single, rounded, conical or angular form, in a compound form of 2 or more levels, tubercles in amalgamated clusters or as tubercles forming, or joined by a ridge. Tubercle_sentence_8

Tubercles found on the leading edge of humpback whale's flippers were demonstrated to improve fluid flow over the flipper's surface, exhibiting the tubercle effect of fluid dynamics. Tubercle_sentence_9

In dinosaurs, a tubercle is a general term for the scales seen in skin impressions. Tubercle_sentence_10

In duck-billed dinosaurs, for example, three main types of tubercles are defined: small tubercles with no definite arrangement (ground tubercles); larger, polygonal tubercles (pavement tubercles) up to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter, which are grouped into clusters separated by ground tubercles; and limpet-shaped conical scutes. Tubercle_sentence_11

In humans Tubercle_section_3

Within the human body, there are numerous sites where tubercles develop. Tubercle_sentence_12

On bones, they are usually eminences used for muscle connections. Tubercle_sentence_13

Larger tubercles are also known as tuberosities. Tubercle_sentence_14

Mouth Tubercle_section_4

Tubercles are usually found behind the last molar in the upper jaw, covered by the gum. Tubercle_sentence_15

Surgery can be done to make tubercles less prominent. Tubercle_sentence_16

Bones Tubercle_section_5

Main article: Tubercle (human skeleton) Tubercle_sentence_17

In the human skeleton, a tubercle or tuberosity is a protrusion that serves as an attachment for skeletal muscles. Tubercle_sentence_18

The muscles attach by tendons, where the enthesis is the connective tissue between the tendon and bone. Tubercle_sentence_19

For example, the tibial tuberosity creates an attachment point for the ligamentum patellae, or patellar ligament. Tubercle_sentence_20

Lungs Tubercle_section_6

Main article: Tuberculosis Tubercle_sentence_21

Tubercles are nodules that contain caseous necrosis, which form in the lungs as a result of an infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the patients with tuberculosis. Tubercle_sentence_22

Granulomas form in the infected tissue and undergo necrosis in the centre. Tubercle_sentence_23

Tubercles are also known as tuberculous nodules, or tuberculomas. Tubercle_sentence_24

The affected parts develop lesions in the form of small nodules called tubercles, from which the disease gets its name. Tubercle_sentence_25

Ears Tubercle_section_7

Around the sixth week of gestation, six swellings of tissue called the hillocks of Hiss arise around the area that will form the ear canal. Tubercle_sentence_26

These eventually coalesce to form the outer ear. Tubercle_sentence_27

Darwin's tubercle is a minor malformation of the junction of the fourth and fifth hillocks of Hiss. Tubercle_sentence_28

It is found in a substantial minority of people and takes the form of a cartilaginous node or bump on the rim of their outer ear, which is thought to be the vestige of a joint that allowed the top part of the ancestral ear to swivel or flop down over the opening to the ear. Tubercle_sentence_29

Genitals Tubercle_section_8

The genital tubercle is a small bump that eventually develops into a penis or a clitoris on a human fetus. Tubercle_sentence_30

Brain Tubercle_section_9

The septotubercular tract can be found in the human, as well as in the sheep brain. Tubercle_sentence_31

It is found nearby the septohypothalamic tract. Tubercle_sentence_32

Its function to the brain is ambiguous at this point. Tubercle_sentence_33

Also, the tuberculum sellae is found at the base of the skull, which holds the hypophysis. Tubercle_sentence_34

See also Tubercle_section_10

Tubercle_unordered_list_0

  • Areolar glands, sebaceous glands surrounding the nippleTubercle_item_0_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubercle.