Tunisia

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Tunisia_table_infobox_0

Republic of Tunisia

الجمهورية التونسية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah at-Tūnisīyah République tunisienne  (French)Tunisia_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityTunisia_header_cell_0_1_0

TunisTunisia_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesTunisia_header_cell_0_2_0 ArabicTunisia_cell_0_2_1
Spoken languagesTunisia_header_cell_0_3_0 Tunisia_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groupsTunisia_header_cell_0_4_0 Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%Tunisia_cell_0_4_1
Demonym(s)Tunisia_header_cell_0_5_0 TunisianTunisia_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentTunisia_header_cell_0_6_0 Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republicTunisia_cell_0_6_1
PresidentTunisia_header_cell_0_7_0 Kais SaiedTunisia_cell_0_7_1
Prime MinisterTunisia_header_cell_0_8_0 Hichem MechichiTunisia_cell_0_8_1
Assembly SpeakerTunisia_header_cell_0_9_0 Rached GhannouchiTunisia_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureTunisia_header_cell_0_10_0 Assembly of the Representatives of the PeopleTunisia_cell_0_10_1
FormationTunisia_header_cell_0_11_0
Husainid Dynasty inauguratedTunisia_header_cell_0_12_0 15 July 1705Tunisia_cell_0_12_1
Independence from FranceTunisia_header_cell_0_13_0 20 March 1956Tunisia_cell_0_13_1
Republic declaredTunisia_header_cell_0_14_0 25 July 1957Tunisia_cell_0_14_1
1987 Tunisian coup d'étatTunisia_header_cell_0_15_0 7 November 1987Tunisia_cell_0_15_1
Revolution DayTunisia_header_cell_0_16_0 14 January 2011Tunisia_cell_0_16_1
2nd republic declaredTunisia_header_cell_0_17_0 10 February 2014Tunisia_cell_0_17_1
Area Tunisia_header_cell_0_18_0
TotalTunisia_header_cell_0_19_0 163,610 km (63,170 sq mi) (91st)Tunisia_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Tunisia_header_cell_0_20_0 5.0Tunisia_cell_0_20_1
PopulationTunisia_header_cell_0_21_0
2019 estimateTunisia_header_cell_0_22_0 11,722,038 (78th)Tunisia_cell_0_22_1
DensityTunisia_header_cell_0_23_0 71/km (183.9/sq mi) (133rd)Tunisia_cell_0_23_1
GDP (PPP)Tunisia_header_cell_0_24_0 2020 estimateTunisia_cell_0_24_1
TotalTunisia_header_cell_0_25_0 $159.707 billionTunisia_cell_0_25_1
Per capitaTunisia_header_cell_0_26_0 $13,417Tunisia_cell_0_26_1
GDP (nominal)Tunisia_header_cell_0_27_0 2020 estimateTunisia_cell_0_27_1
TotalTunisia_header_cell_0_28_0 $44.192 billionTunisia_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaTunisia_header_cell_0_29_0 $3,713Tunisia_cell_0_29_1
Gini (2017)Tunisia_header_cell_0_30_0 35.8

mediumTunisia_cell_0_30_1

HDI (2018)Tunisia_header_cell_0_31_0 0.739

high · 91stTunisia_cell_0_31_1

CurrencyTunisia_header_cell_0_32_0 Tunisian dinar (TND)Tunisia_cell_0_32_1
Time zoneTunisia_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC+1 (CET)Tunisia_cell_0_33_1
Driving sideTunisia_header_cell_0_34_0 rightTunisia_cell_0_34_1
Calling codeTunisia_header_cell_0_35_0 +216Tunisia_cell_0_35_1
ISO 3166 codeTunisia_header_cell_0_36_0 TNTunisia_cell_0_36_1
Internet TLDTunisia_header_cell_0_37_0 Tunisia_cell_0_37_1

Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres (63,170 square miles). Tunisia_sentence_0

Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is also the northernmost point on the African continent. Tunisia_sentence_1

Tunisia is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia_sentence_2

Tunisia's population was 11.7 million in 2019. Tunisia_sentence_3

Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Tunisia_sentence_4

Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Tunisia_sentence_5

Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Tunisia_sentence_6

Its 1,300 kilometres (810 miles) of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin. Tunisia_sentence_7

Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Tunisia_sentence_8

It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel–Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. Tunisia_sentence_9

In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Tunisia_sentence_10

Close relations with Europe, particularly with France and with Italy, have been forged through economic cooperation, privatization, and industrial modernization. Tunisia_sentence_11

Today, the cultural identity of Tunisians is the product of a centuries-long historical trajectory, with the Tunisian nation today being a junction of the Amazigh, as well as Punic, Roman, Arab, Andalusian, Turkish, and French cultural and linguistic input. Tunisia_sentence_12

In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Tunisia_sentence_13

Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. Tunisia_sentence_14

A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. Tunisia_sentence_15

The Romans occupied Tunisia for most of the next 800 years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the amphitheatre of El Jem. Tunisia_sentence_16

After several attempts starting in 647, Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697 and introduced Islam and arabized the local population. Tunisia_sentence_17

After a series of campaigns beginning in 1534 to conquer and colonize the region, the Ottoman Empire established control in 1574 and held sway for over 300 years afterwards. Tunisia_sentence_18

The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia_sentence_19

Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. Tunisia_sentence_20

In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. Tunisia_sentence_21

The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for president on 23 November 2014. Tunisia_sentence_22

As a result, Tunisia is the only country in North Africa classified as "Free" by the Freedom House organization and is also considered by The Economist's Democracy Index as the only fully democratic state in the Arab World (Lebanon and Iraq being confessional democracies). Tunisia_sentence_23

It has a high human development index. Tunisia_sentence_24

Etymology Tunisia_section_0

See also: Etymology of Tunis Tunisia_sentence_25

The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; a central urban hub and the capital of modern-day Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_26

The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie, in turn generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". Tunisia_sentence_27

It is sometimes also associated with the Punic goddess Tanith (aka Tunit), ancient city of Tynes. Tunisia_sentence_28

The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Tunisia_sentence_29

Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с (Tunís) and Spanish Túnez. Tunisia_sentence_30

In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس‎, and only by context can one tell the difference. Tunisia_sentence_31

Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa. Tunisia_sentence_32

History Tunisia_section_1

Main article: History of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_33

Antiquity Tunisia_section_2

Main articles: Capsian culture and Ancient Carthage Tunisia_sentence_34

Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Tunisia_sentence_35

Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes. Tunisia_sentence_36

It was believed in ancient times that Africa was originally populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. Tunisia_sentence_37

According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Tunisia_sentence_38

Persians went to the West and intermarried with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians. Tunisia_sentence_39

The Medes settled and were known as Mauri, later Moors. Tunisia_sentence_40

The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers are descended. Tunisia_sentence_41

The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. Tunisia_sentence_42

At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Tunisia_sentence_43

Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC (Bizerte, Utica). Tunisia_sentence_44

The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Tunisia_sentence_45

Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. Tunisia_sentence_46

The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. Tunisia_sentence_47

After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean. Tunisia_sentence_48

The people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Baal and Tanit. Tunisia_sentence_49

Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. Tunisia_sentence_50

The founders of Carthage also established a Tophet, which was altered in Roman times. Tunisia_sentence_51

A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. Tunisia_sentence_52

From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. Tunisia_sentence_53

Following the Battle of Carthage which began in 149 BC during the Third Punic War, Carthage was conquered by Rome in 146 BC. Tunisia_sentence_54

Following its conquest, the Romans renamed Carthage to Africa, incorporating it as a province. Tunisia_sentence_55

During the Roman period, the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. Tunisia_sentence_56

The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the prosperity of the area depended on agriculture. Tunisia_sentence_57

Called the Granary of the Empire, the area of actual Tunisia and coastal Tripolitania, according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire. Tunisia_sentence_58

Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits. Tunisia_sentence_59

By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item. Tunisia_sentence_60

In addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool. Tunisia_sentence_61

There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of El Djem (where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire). Tunisia_sentence_62

Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. Tunisia_sentence_63

During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430 to 533 AD), the Germanic Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in Northwest Africa that included present-day Tripoli. Tunisia_sentence_64

The region was easily reconquered in 533–534 AD, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I, by the Eastern Romans led by General Belisarius. Tunisia_sentence_65

Middle Ages Tunisia_section_3

Main article: History of medieval Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_66

Sometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early part of the 8th century, Arab Muslim conquest occurred in the region. Tunisia_sentence_67

They founded the first Islamic city in Northwest Africa, Kairouan. Tunisia_sentence_68

It was there in 670 AD that the Mosque of Uqba, or the Great Mosque of Kairouan, was constructed. Tunisia_sentence_69

This mosque is the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the Muslim West with the oldest standing minaret in the world; it is also considered a masterpiece of Islamic art and architecture. Tunisia_sentence_70

Tunis was taken in 695, re-taken by the Byzantine Eastern Romans in 697, but lost finally in 698. Tunisia_sentence_71

The transition from a Latin-speaking Christian Berber society to a Muslim and mostly Arabic-speaking society took over 400 years (the equivalent process in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent took 600 years) and resulted in the final disappearance of Christianity and Latin in the 12th or 13th centuries. Tunisia_sentence_72

The majority of the population were not Muslim until quite late in the 9th century; a vast majority were during the 10th. Tunisia_sentence_73

Also, some Tunisian Christians emigrated; some richer members of society did so after the conquest in 698 and others were welcomed by Norman rulers to Sicily or Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries – the logical destination because of the 1200 year close connection between the two regions. Tunisia_sentence_74

The Arab governors of Tunis founded the Aghlabid dynasty, which ruled Tunisia, Tripolitania and eastern Algeria from 800 to 909. Tunisia_sentence_75

Tunisia flourished under Arab rule when extensive systems were constructed to supply towns with water for household use and irrigation that promoted agriculture (especially olive production). Tunisia_sentence_76

This prosperity permitted luxurious court life and was marked by the construction of new palace cities such as al-Abassiya (809) and Raqadda (877). Tunisia_sentence_77

After conquering Cairo, the Fatimids abandoned Tunisia and parts of Eastern Algeria to the local Zirids (972–1148). Tunisia_sentence_78

Zirid Tunisia flourished in many areas: agriculture, industry, trade, and religious and secular learning. Tunisia_sentence_79

Management by the later Zirid emirs was neglectful though, and political instability was connected to the decline of Tunisian trade and agriculture. Tunisia_sentence_80

The depredation of the Tunisian campaigns by the Banu Hilal, a warlike Arab Bedouin tribe encouraged by the Fatimids of Egypt to seize Northwest Africa, sent the region's rural and urban economic life into further decline. Tunisia_sentence_81

Consequently, the region underwent rapid urbanisation as famines depopulated the countryside and industry shifted from agriculture to manufactures. Tunisia_sentence_82

The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun wrote that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert. Tunisia_sentence_83

The main Tunisian cities were conquered by the Normans of Sicily under the Kingdom of Africa in the 12th century, but following the conquest of Tunisia in 1159–1160 by the Almohads the Normans were evacuated to Sicily. Tunisia_sentence_84

Communities of Tunisian Christians would still exist in Nefzaoua up to the 14th century. Tunisia_sentence_85

The Almohads initially ruled over Tunisia through a governor, usually a near relative of the Caliph. Tunisia_sentence_86

Despite the prestige of the new masters, the country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between the townsfolk and wandering Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Muslim Armenian adventurer Karakush. Tunisia_sentence_87

Also, Tunisia was occupied by Ayyubids between 1182 and 1183 and again between 1184 and 1187. Tunisia_sentence_88

The greatest threat to Almohad rule in Tunisia was the Banu Ghaniya, relatives of the Almoravids, who from their base in Mallorca tried to restore Almoravid rule over the Maghreb. Tunisia_sentence_89

Around 1200 they succeeded in extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia until they were crushed by Almohad troops in 1207. Tunisia_sentence_90

After this success, the Almohads installed Walid Abu Hafs as the governor of Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_91

Tunisia remained part of the Almohad state, until 1230 when the son of Abu Hafs declared himself independent. Tunisia_sentence_92

During the reign of the Hafsid dynasty, fruitful commercial relationships were established with several Christian Mediterranean states. Tunisia_sentence_93

In the late 16th century the coast became a pirate stronghold. Tunisia_sentence_94

Ottoman Tunisia Tunisia_section_4

Main article: Ottoman Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_95

In the last years of the Hafsid dynasty, Spain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire. Tunisia_sentence_96

The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Tunisia_sentence_97

However, it was not until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Ottomans permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the French conquest of Tunisia in 1881. Tunisia_sentence_98

Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces. Tunisia_sentence_99

Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. Tunisia_sentence_100

Under its Turkish governors, the Beys, Tunisia attained virtual independence. Tunisia_sentence_101

The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957. Tunisia_sentence_102

This evolution of status was from time to time challenged without success by Algiers. Tunisia_sentence_103

During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language. Tunisia_sentence_104

Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs, primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination. Tunisia_sentence_105

Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west (Constantine) and to the east (Tripoli). Tunisia_sentence_106

The plague epidemics ravaged Tunisia in 1784–1785, 1796–1797 and 1818–1820. Tunisia_sentence_107

In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital. Tunisia_sentence_108

The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy. Tunisia_sentence_109

Tunisian international debt grew unmanageable. Tunisia_sentence_110

This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a protectorate in 1881. Tunisia_sentence_111

French Tunisia (1881–1956) Tunisia_section_5

Main article: French protectorate of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_112

In 1869, Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy. Tunisia_sentence_113

In 1881, using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, the French invaded with an army of about 36,000 and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). Tunisia_sentence_114

With this treaty, Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate, over the objections of Italy. Tunisia_sentence_115

Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. Tunisia_sentence_116

In 1910 there were 105,000 Italians in Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_117

During World War II, French Tunisia was ruled by the collaborationist Vichy government located in Metropolitan France. Tunisia_sentence_118

The antisemitic Statute on Jews enacted by the Vichy was also implemented in Vichy Northwest Africa and overseas French territories. Tunisia_sentence_119

Thus, the persecution, and murder of the Jews from 1940 to 1943 was part of the Shoah in France. Tunisia_sentence_120

From November 1942 until May 1943, Vichy Tunisia was occupied by Nazi Germany. Tunisia_sentence_121

SS Commander Walter Rauff continued to implement the Final Solution there. Tunisia_sentence_122

From 1942–1943, Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia Campaign, a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces. Tunisia_sentence_123

The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis surrender on 13 May 1943. Tunisia_sentence_124

Post-independence (1956–2011) Tunisia_section_6

Main article: History of modern Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_125

Tunisia achieved independence from France on 20 March 1956 with Habib Bourguiba as Prime Minister. Tunisia_sentence_126

20 March is celebrated annually as Tunisian Independence Day. Tunisia_sentence_127

A year later, Tunisia was declared a republic, with Bourguiba as the first President. Tunisia_sentence_128

From independence in 1956 until the 2011 revolution, the government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly Neo Destour and the Socialist Destourian Party, were effectively one. Tunisia_sentence_129

Following a report by Amnesty International, The Guardian called Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive countries in the Arab world". Tunisia_sentence_130

In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed the presidency in accordance with Article 57 of the Tunisian constitution. Tunisia_sentence_131

The anniversary of Ben Ali's succession, 7 November, was celebrated as a national holiday. Tunisia_sentence_132

He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every five years (well over 80 percent of the vote), the last being 25 October 2009, until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January 2011. Tunisia_sentence_133

Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption and plundering the country's money. Tunisia_sentence_134

Economic liberalisation provided further opportunities for financial mismanagement, while corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsi, controlled much of the business sector in the country. Tunisia_sentence_135

The First Lady Leila Ben Ali was described as an "unabashed shopaholic" who used the state airplane to make frequent unofficial trips to Europe's fashion capitals. Tunisia_sentence_136

Tunisia refused a French request for the extradition of two of the President's nephews, from Leila's side, who were accused by the French State prosecutor of having stolen two mega-yachts from a French marina. Tunisia_sentence_137

Ben Ali's son-in-law Sakher El Materi was rumoured as being primed to eventually take over the country. Tunisia_sentence_138

Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International, Freedom House, and Protection International, documented that basic human and political rights were not respected. Tunisia_sentence_139

The regime obstructed in any way possible the work of local human rights organizations. Tunisia_sentence_140

In 2008, in terms of Press freedom, Tunisia was ranked 143rd out of 173. Tunisia_sentence_141

Post-revolution (since 2011) Tunisia_section_7

See also: Tunisian Revolution Tunisia_sentence_142

The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance that was precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms and poor living conditions. Tunisia_sentence_143

Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests. Tunisia_sentence_144

The protests inspired the Arab Spring, a wave of similar actions throughout the Arab world. Tunisia_sentence_145

The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire on 17 December 2010 in protest at the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida Hamdy. Tunisia_sentence_146

Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 January 2011, ultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on 14 January 2011, after 23 years in power. Tunisia_sentence_147

Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed Ghannouchi. Tunisia_sentence_148

Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. Tunisia_sentence_149

A Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its resources. Tunisia_sentence_150

A decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists. Tunisia_sentence_151

On 3 March 2011, the interim president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 24 July 2011. Tunisia_sentence_152

On 9 June 2011, the prime minister announced the election would be postponed until 23 October 2011. International and internal observers declared the vote free and fair. Tunisia_sentence_153

The Ennahda Movement, formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, came out of the election as the largest party, with 89 seats out of a total of 217. Tunisia_sentence_154

On 12 December 2011, former dissident and veteran human rights activist Moncef Marzouki was elected president. Tunisia_sentence_155

In March 2012, Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state. Tunisia_sentence_156

Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties. Tunisia_sentence_157

On 6 February 2013, Chokri Belaid, the leader of the leftist opposition and prominent critic of Ennahda, was assassinated. Tunisia_sentence_158

In 2014, President Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and Dignity Commission, as a key part of creating a national reconciliation. Tunisia_sentence_159

Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in 2015, first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum, and later killing 38 people at the Sousse beachfront. Tunisia_sentence_160

Tunisian president Beji Caid Essebsi renewed the state of emergency in October for three more months. Tunisia_sentence_161

The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet won the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize for its work in building a peaceful, pluralistic political order in Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_162

Geography Tunisia_section_8

Politics Tunisia_section_9

Main article: Politics of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_163

Tunisia_table_general_1

Tunisia_cell_1_0_0 Tunisia_cell_1_0_1
Kais Saied
President since 2019Tunisia_cell_1_1_0
Hichem Mechichi

Prime Minister since 2020Tunisia_cell_1_1_1

Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state, a prime minister as head of government, a unicameral parliament, and a civil law court system. Tunisia_sentence_164

The Constitution of Tunisia, adopted 26 January 2014, guarantees rights for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam". Tunisia_sentence_165

In October 2014 Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring. Tunisia_sentence_166

Tunisia (#69 worldwide) is the only democracy in North Africa. Tunisia_sentence_167

The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution. Tunisia_sentence_168

There are now over 100 legal parties, including several that existed under the former regime. Tunisia_sentence_169

During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent opposition parties: the PDP, FDTL, and Tajdid. Tunisia_sentence_170

While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the 100-plus parties extant as of February 2012 are small. Tunisia_sentence_171

Rare for the Arab world, women held more than 20% of seats in the country's pre-revolution bicameral parliament. Tunisia_sentence_172

In the 2011 constituent assembly, women held between 24% and 31% of all seats. Tunisia_sentence_173

Tunisia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Tunisia_sentence_174

On 23 November 2014 Tunisia held its first Presidential Election following the Arab Spring in 2011. Tunisia_sentence_175

The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by French civil law, while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law. Tunisia_sentence_176

Sharia courts were abolished in 1956. Tunisia_sentence_177

A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in 1956, which, among other things, gave women full legal status (allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority). Tunisia_sentence_178

The code outlawed the practices of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally divorce his wife. Tunisia_sentence_179

Further reforms in 1993 included a provision to allow Tunisian women to transmit citizenship even if they are married to a foreigner and living abroad. Tunisia_sentence_180

The Law of Personal Status is applied to all Tunisians regardless of their religion. Tunisia_sentence_181

The Code of Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in North Africa and the Muslim world. Tunisia_sentence_182

Human rights Tunisia_section_10

Main article: Human rights in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_183

After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam. Tunisia_sentence_184

Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged. Tunisia_sentence_185

For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League, the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now free to operate. Tunisia_sentence_186

Some independent organizations, such as the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, the Association of Tunisian Women for Research and Development, and the Bar Association also remain active. Tunisia_sentence_187

Homosexuality is illegal in Tunisia and can be punished by up to three years in prison. Tunisia_sentence_188

On 7 December 2016, two Tunisian men were arrested on suspicion of homosexual activity in Sousse. Tunisia_sentence_189

According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 94% of Tunisians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Tunisia_sentence_190

The Tunisian regime has been criticised for its policy on recreational drug use, for instance automatic 1-year prison sentences for consuming cannabis. Tunisia_sentence_191

Prisons are crowded and drug offenders represent nearly a third of the prison population. Tunisia_sentence_192

In 2017, Tunisia became the first Arab country to outlaw domestic violence against women, which was previously not a crime. Tunisia_sentence_193

Also, the law allowing rapists to escape punishment by marrying the victim was abolished. Tunisia_sentence_194

According to Human Rights Watch, 47% of Tunisian women have been subject to domestic violence. Tunisia_sentence_195

Military Tunisia_section_11

Main article: Tunisian Armed Forces Tunisia_sentence_196

As of 2008, Tunisia had an army of 27,000 personnel equipped with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks. Tunisia_sentence_197

The navy had 4,800 personnel operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. Tunisia_sentence_198

The Tunisian Air Force has 154 aircraft and 4 UAVs. Tunisia_sentence_199

Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,000-member national guard. Tunisia_sentence_200

Tunisia's military spending was 1.6% of GDP as of 2006. Tunisia_sentence_201

The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security. Tunisia_sentence_202

Tunisia has participated in peacekeeping efforts in the DROC and Ethiopia/Eritrea. Tunisia_sentence_203

United Nations peacekeeping deployments for the Tunisian armed forces have been in Cambodia (UNTAC), Namibia (UNTAG), Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Western Sahara (MINURSO) and the 1960s mission in the Congo, ONUC. Tunisia_sentence_204

The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role in defending the country from external threats. Tunisia_sentence_205

Since January 2011 and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response. Tunisia_sentence_206

Administrative divisions Tunisia_section_12

Main articles: Governorates of Tunisia and Delegations of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_207

Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates (Wilaya), which are further divided into 264 "delegations" or "districts" (mutamadiyat), and further subdivided into municipalities (baladiyats) and sectors (imadats). Tunisia_sentence_208

Economy Tunisia_section_13

Main article: Economy of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_209

Tunisia is an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically connected elites. Tunisia_sentence_210

Tunisia's Penal Code criminalises several forms of corruption, including active and passive bribery, abuse of office, extortion and conflicts of interest, but the anti-corruption framework is not effectively enforced. Tunisia_sentence_211

However, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index published annually by Transparency International, Tunisia was ranked the least corrupt North-African-country in 2016, with a score of 41. Tunisia_sentence_212

Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. Tunisia_sentence_213

In 2008 it had a GDP of US$41 billion (official exchange rates), or $82 billion (purchasing power parity). Tunisia_sentence_214

The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP, industry 25.7%, and services 62.8%. Tunisia_sentence_215

The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery. Tunisia_sentence_216

Although Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment especially among youth. Tunisia_sentence_217

Tunisia was in 2009 ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum. Tunisia_sentence_218

Tunisia has managed to attract many international companies such as Airbus and Hewlett-Packard. Tunisia_sentence_219

Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009. Tunisia_sentence_220

The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for 72.5% of Tunisian imports and 75% of Tunisian exports. Tunisia_sentence_221

Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner. Tunisia_sentence_222

Tunisia was the first Mediterranean country to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July 1995, although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade. Tunisia_sentence_223

Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in 2008 and therefore was the first non-EU Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU. Tunisia_sentence_224

Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_225

The city that will consist of apartment buildings as well as several sports facilities will be built by the Bukhatir Group at a cost of $5 Billion. Tunisia_sentence_226

The Tunis Financial harbour will deliver North Africa's first offshore financial centre at Tunis Bay in a project with an end development value of US$3 billion. Tunisia_sentence_227

The Tunis Telecom City is a US$3 billion project to create an IT hub in Tunis. Tunisia_sentence_228

Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near Tunis in Enfidha. Tunisia_sentence_229

The city will consist of residential, medical, financial, industrial, entertainment and touristic buildings as well as a port zone for a total cost of US$80 Billion. Tunisia_sentence_230

The project is financed by Tunisian and foreign enterprises. Tunisia_sentence_231

On 29 and 30 November 2016, Tunisia held an investment conference Tunisia2020 to attract $30 billion in investment projects. Tunisia_sentence_232

Days before Tunisia's 2019 parliamentary elections, the nation finds itself struggling with a sluggish economy. Tunisia_sentence_233

The Arab world's only democratic state fought hard against the dictatorial regime of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali during the Arab Spring. Tunisia_sentence_234

Nevertheless, Tunisia could not accomplish anything more than freedom and democracy. Tunisia_sentence_235

It still finds itself hanging between inflation and unemployment while looking up to the 6 October elections with hope of a reform. Tunisia_sentence_236

Tourism Tunisia_section_14

Main article: Tourism in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_237

Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir. Tunisia_sentence_238

According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries". Tunisia_sentence_239

Energy Tunisia_section_15

Main article: Energy sector in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_240

The majority of the electricity used in Tunisia is produced locally, by state-owned company STEG (Société Tunisienne de l'Electricité et du Gaz). Tunisia_sentence_241

In 2008, a total of 13,747 GWh was produced in the country. Tunisia_sentence_242

Oil production of Tunisia is about 97,600 barrels per day (15,520 m/d). Tunisia_sentence_243

The main field is El Bourma. Tunisia_sentence_244

Oil production began in 1966 in Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_245

Currently there are 12 oil fields. Tunisia_sentence_246

Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations, to be operational by 2020. Tunisia_sentence_247

Both facilities are projected to produce 900–1000 MW. Tunisia_sentence_248

France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology. Tunisia_sentence_249

As of 2015, Tunisia has abandoned these plans. Tunisia_sentence_250

Instead, Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy. Tunisia_sentence_251

According to the Tunisian Solar Plan (which is Tunisia's Renewable Energy Strategy not limited to solar, contrary to what its title may suggest, proposed by the ), Tunisia's objective is to reach a share of 30% of renewable energies in the electricity mix by 2030, most of which should be accounted for by wind power and photovoltaics. Tunisia_sentence_252

As of 2015, Tunisia had a total renewable capacity of 312 MW (245 MW wind, 62 MW hydropower, 15 MW photovoltaics.) Tunisia_sentence_253

Transport Tunisia_section_16

Main article: Transport in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_254

The country maintains 19,232 kilometres (11,950 mi) of roads, with three highways: the A1 from Tunis to Sfax (works ongoing for Sfax-Libya), A3 Tunis-Beja (works ongoing Beja – Boussalem, studies ongoing Boussalem – Algeria) and A4 Tunis – Bizerte. Tunisia_sentence_255

There are 29 airports in Tunisia, with Tunis Carthage International Airport and Djerba–Zarzis International Airport being the most important ones. Tunisia_sentence_256

A new airport, Enfidha – Hammamet International Airport opened in 2011. Tunisia_sentence_257

The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan. Tunisia_sentence_258

Five airlines are headquartered in Tunisia: Tunisair, Syphax airlines, Karthago Airlines, Nouvelair, and Tunisair Express. Tunisia_sentence_259

The railway network is operated by SNCFT and amounts to 2,135 kilometres (1,327 mi) in total. Tunisia_sentence_260

The Tunis area is served by a Light rail network named Metro Leger which is managed by Transtu. Tunisia_sentence_261

Water supply and sanitation Tunisia_section_17

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_262

Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa. Tunisia_sentence_263

As of 2011, access to safe drinking water became close to universal approaching 100% in urban areas and 90% in rural areas. Tunisia_sentence_264

Tunisia provides good quality drinking water throughout the year. Tunisia_sentence_265

Responsibility for the water supply systems in urban areas and large rural centres is assigned to the Sociéte Nationale d'Exploitation et de Distribution des Eaux (SONEDE), a national water supply authority that is an autonomous public entity under the Ministry of Agriculture. Tunisia_sentence_266

Planning, design and supervision of small and medium water supplies in the remaining rural areas are the responsibility of the Direction Générale du Génie Rurale (DGGR). Tunisia_sentence_267

In 1974, ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector. Tunisia_sentence_268

Since 1993, ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of water environment and combating pollution. Tunisia_sentence_269

The rate of non-revenue water is the lowest in the region at 21% in 2012. Tunisia_sentence_270

Demographics Tunisia_section_18

Main articles: Tunisian people and Demographics of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_271

According to the CIA, as of 2017, Tunisia has a population of 11,403,800 inhabitants. Tunisia_sentence_272

The government has supported a successful family planning program that has reduced the population growth rate to just over 1% per annum, contributing to Tunisia's economic and social stability. Tunisia_sentence_273

Ethnic groups Tunisia_section_19

According to CIA The World Factbook, ethnic groups in Tunisia are: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%. Tunisia_sentence_274

According to the 1956 Tunisian census, Tunisia had a population at the time of 3,783,000 residents, of which mainly Berbers and Arabs. Tunisia_sentence_275

The proportion of speakers of Berber dialects was at 2% of the population. Tunisia_sentence_276

According to another source the population of Arabs is estimated to be <40% to 98%, and that of Berbers at 1% to over 60%. Tunisia_sentence_277

Amazighs are concentrated in the Dahar mountains and on the island of Djerba in the south-east and in the Khroumire mountainous region in the north-west. Tunisia_sentence_278

That said, an important number of genetic and other historical studies point out to the predominance of the Amazighs in Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_279

An Ottoman influence has been particularly significant in forming the Turco-Tunisian community. Tunisia_sentence_280

Other peoples have also migrated to Tunisia during different periods of time, including West Africans, Greeks, Romans, Phoenicians (Punics), Jews, and French settlers. Tunisia_sentence_281

By 1870 the distinction between the Arabic-speaking mass and the Turkish elite had blurred. Tunisia_sentence_282

From the late 19th century to after World War II, Tunisia was home to large populations of French and Italians (255,000 Europeans in 1956), although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left after Tunisia became independent. Tunisia_sentence_283

The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2,000 years. Tunisia_sentence_284

In 1948 the Jewish population was an estimated 105,000, but by 2013 only about 900 remained. Tunisia_sentence_285

The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. Tunisia_sentence_286

Numerous civilizations and peoples have invaded, migrated to, or have been assimilated into the population over the millennia, with influences of population from Phoenicians/Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Spaniards, Ottoman Turks and Janissaries, and French. Tunisia_sentence_287

There was a continuing inflow of nomadic Arab tribes from Arabia. Tunisia_sentence_288

After the Reconquista and expulsion of non-Christians and Moriscos from Spain, many Spanish Muslims and Jews also arrived. Tunisia_sentence_289

According to Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia, most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley." Tunisia_sentence_290

Languages Tunisia_section_20

Main article: Languages of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_291

Arabic is the official language, and Tunisian Arabic, known as Tounsi, is the national, vernacular variety of Arabic and is used by the public. Tunisia_sentence_292

There is also a small minority of speakers of Berber languages known collectively as Jebbali or Shelha. Tunisia_sentence_293

French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no official status. Tunisia_sentence_294

It is widely used in education (e.g., as the language of instruction in the sciences in secondary school), the press, and business. Tunisia_sentence_295

In 2010, there were 6,639,000 French-speakers in Tunisia, or about 64% of the population. Tunisia_sentence_296

Italian is understood and spoken by a small part of the Tunisian population. Tunisia_sentence_297

Shop signs, menus and road signs in Tunisia are generally written in both Arabic and French. Tunisia_sentence_298

Major cities Tunisia_section_21

Religion Tunisia_section_22

Main article: Religion in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_299

The majority of Tunisia's population (around 98%) are Muslims while about 2% follow Christianity and Judaism or other religions. Tunisia_sentence_300

The bulk of Tunisians belong to the Maliki School of Sunni Islam and their mosques are easily recognizable by square minarets. Tunisia_sentence_301

However, the Turks brought with them the teaching of the Hanafi School during the Ottoman rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today, and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets. Tunisia_sentence_302

Sunnis form the majority with non-denominational Muslims being the second largest group of Muslims, followed by Ibadite Amazighs. Tunisia_sentence_303

Tunisia has a sizable Christian community of around over 35,000 adherents, mainly Catholics (22,000) and to a lesser degree Protestants. Tunisia_sentence_304

Berber Christians continued to live in some Nefzaoua villages up until the early 15th century and the community of Tunisian Christians existed in the town of Tozeur up to the 18th century. Tunisia_sentence_305

International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian Muslims have converted to Christianity. Tunisia_sentence_306

Judaism is the country's third largest religion with 1000 members. Tunisia_sentence_307

One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital. Tunisia_sentence_308

The remainder lives on the island of Djerba with 39 synagogues where the Jewish community dates back 2,600 years, in Sfax, and in Hammam-Lif. Tunisia_sentence_309

Djerba, an island in the Gulf of Gabès, is home to El Ghriba synagogue, which is one of the oldest synagogues in the world and the oldest uninterruptedly used. Tunisia_sentence_310

Many Jews consider it a pilgrimage site, with celebrations taking place there once every year due to its age and the legend that the synagogue was built using stones from Solomon's temple. Tunisia_sentence_311

In fact, Tunisia along with Morocco has been said to be the Arab countries most accepting of their Jewish populations. Tunisia_sentence_312

The constitution declares Islam as the official state religion and requires the President to be Muslim. Tunisia_sentence_313

Aside from the president, Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion. Tunisia_sentence_314

The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from not only political, but in public life. Tunisia_sentence_315

During the pre-revolution era there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves (hijab) in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings. Tunisia_sentence_316

The government believed the hijab is a "garment of foreign origin having a partisan connotation". Tunisia_sentence_317

There were reports that the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance (such as those with beards), detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave their beards off. Tunisia_sentence_318

In 2006, the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing". Tunisia_sentence_319

Mosques were restricted from holding communal prayers or classes. Tunisia_sentence_320

After the revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading to more freedom in the practice of religion. Tunisia_sentence_321

It has also made room for the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists, who call for a strict interpretation of Sharia law. Tunisia_sentence_322

The fall in favour of the moderate Islamist government of Ennahdha was partly due to that, modern Tunisian governments intelligence objectives are to suppress fundamentalist groups before they can act. Tunisia_sentence_323

Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs. Tunisia_sentence_324

Those who violate the rules of work and eating during the Islamic month of Ramadan may be arrested and jailed. Tunisia_sentence_325

In 2017 a handful of men were arrested for eating in public during Ramadan; they were convicted of committing "a provocative act of public indecency" and sentenced to month-long jail sentences. Tunisia_sentence_326

The state in Tunisia has a role as a "guardian of religion" which was used to justify the arrests. Tunisia_sentence_327

Education Tunisia_section_23

Main article: Education in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_328

The total adult literacy rate in 2008 was 78% and this rate goes up to 97.3% when considering only people from 15 to 24 years old. Tunisia_sentence_329

Education is given a high priority and accounts for 6% of GNP. Tunisia_sentence_330

A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since 1991. Tunisia_sentence_331

Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report 2008–9, released by The World Economic Forum. Tunisia_sentence_332

While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic. Tunisia_sentence_333

From the age of 8, they are taught French while English is introduced at the age of 12. Tunisia_sentence_334

The four years of secondary education are open to all holders of Diplôme de Fin d'Etudes de l'Enseignement de Base where the students focus on entering university level or join the workforce after completion. Tunisia_sentence_335

The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages: general academic and specialized. Tunisia_sentence_336

The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately 102,000 in 1995 to 365,000 in 2005. Tunisia_sentence_337

The gross enrollment rate at the tertiary level in 2007 was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER of 1.5. Tunisia_sentence_338

Health Tunisia_section_24

Main article: Health in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_339

In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.37% of the country's GDP. Tunisia_sentence_340

In 2009, there were 12.02 physicians and 33.12 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. Tunisia_sentence_341

The life expectancy at birth was 75.73 years in 2016, or 73.72 years for males and 77.78 years for females. Tunisia_sentence_342

Infant mortality in 2016 was 11.7 per 1,000. Tunisia_sentence_343

Culture Tunisia_section_25

Main article: Culture of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_344

The culture of Tunisia is mixed due to its long established history of outside influence from people ‒ such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards, and the French ‒ who all left their mark on the country. Tunisia_sentence_345

Painting Tunisia_section_26

The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from Tunisia united by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence of Orientalist colonial painting. Tunisia_sentence_346

It was founded in 1949 and brings together French and Tunisian Muslims, Christians and Jews. Tunisia_sentence_347

Pierre Boucherle was its main instigator, along with Yahia Turki, Abdelaziz Gorgi, Moses Levy, Ammar Farhat, and Jules Lellouche. Tunisia_sentence_348

Given its doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of aesthetic Arab-Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture, etc. Expressionist paintings by Amara Debbache, Jellal Ben Abdallah, and Ali Ben Salem are recognized while abstract art captures the imagination of painters like Edgar Naccache, Nello Levy, and Hedi Turki. Tunisia_sentence_349

After independence in 1956, the art movement in Tunisia was propelled by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state. Tunisia_sentence_350

A Ministry of Culture was established, under the leadership of ministers such as Habib Boularès who oversaw art and education and power. Tunisia_sentence_351

Artists gained international recognition such as Hatem El Mekki or Zoubeir Turki and influenced a generation of new young painters. Tunisia_sentence_352

Sadok Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor turns to fantasy. Tunisia_sentence_353

In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension. Tunisia_sentence_354

There are currently fifty art galleries housing exhibitions of Tunisian and international artists. Tunisia_sentence_355

These galleries include Gallery Yahia in Tunis and Carthage Essaadi gallery. Tunisia_sentence_356

A new exposition opened in an old monarchal palace in Bardo dubbed the "awakening of a nation". Tunisia_sentence_357

The exposition boasts documents and artifacts from the Tunisian reformist monarchal rule in mid 19th century. Tunisia_sentence_358

Literature Tunisia_section_27

Main article: Tunisian literature Tunisia_sentence_359

Tunisian literature exists in two forms: Arabic and French. Tunisia_sentence_360

Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilization in the region. Tunisia_sentence_361

It is more important in both volume and value than French literature, introduced during the French protectorate from 1881. Tunisia_sentence_362

Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi, who has produced more than 150 radio stories, over 500 poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays, Khraief Bashir, an Arabic novelist who published many notable books in the 1930s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect, and others such as Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad, or Mahmoud Messadi. Tunisia_sentence_363

As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi. Tunisia_sentence_364

As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical approach. Tunisia_sentence_365

Contrary to the pessimism of Albert Memmi, who predicted that Tunisian literature was sentenced to die young, a high number of Tunisian writers are abroad including Abdelwahab Meddeb, Bakri Tahar, Mustapha Tlili, Hele Beji, or Mellah Fawzi. Tunisia_sentence_366

The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing. Tunisia_sentence_367

The national bibliography lists 1249 non-school books published in 2002 in Tunisia, with 885 titles in Arabic. Tunisia_sentence_368

In 2006 this figure had increased to 1,500 and 1,700 in 2007. Tunisia_sentence_369

Nearly a third of the books are published for children. Tunisia_sentence_370

In 2014 Tunisian American creative nonfiction scribe and translator Med-Ali Mekki who wrote many books, not for publication but just for his own private reading translated the new Constitution of the Tunisian Republic from Arabic to English for the first time in Tunisian bibliographical history, the book was published worldwide the following year and it was the Internet's most viewed and downloaded Tunisian book. Tunisia_sentence_371

Music Tunisia_section_28

Main article: Music of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_372

At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins, essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language. Tunisia_sentence_373

In 1930 "The Rachidia" was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. Tunisia_sentence_374

The founding in 1934 of a musical school helped revive Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival led by the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of Tunisian national identity. Tunisia_sentence_375

The institution did not take long to assemble a group of musicians, poets, scholars. Tunisia_sentence_376

The creation of Radio Tunis in 1938 allowed musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works. Tunisia_sentence_377

Notable Tunisian musicians include Saber Rebaï, Dhafer Youssef, Belgacem Bouguenna, Sonia M'barek, Latifa, Salah El Mahdi, Anouar Brahem, Emel Mathlouthi and Lotfi Bouchnak. Tunisia_sentence_378

Media Tunisia_section_29

Main article: Media of Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_379

The TV media has long remained under the domination of the Establishment of the Broadcasting Authority Tunisia (ERTT) and its predecessor, the Tunisian Radio and Television, founded in 1957. Tunisia_sentence_380

On 7 November 2006, President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August 2007. Tunisia_sentence_381

Until then, ERTT managed all public television stations (Télévision Tunisienne 1 as well as Télévision Tunisienne 2 which had replaced the defunct RTT 2) and four national radio stations (Radio Tunis, Tunisia Radio Culture, Youth and Radio RTCI) and five regional Sfax, Monastir, Gafsa, Le Kef and Tataouine. Tunisia_sentence_382

Most programs are in Arabic but some are in French. Tunisia_sentence_383

Growth in private sector radio and television broadcasting has seen the creation of numerous operations including Radio Mosaique FM, Jawhara FM, Zaytuna FM, Hannibal TV, Ettounsiya TV, and Nessma TV. Tunisia_sentence_384

In 2007, some 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to only 91 in 1987) are 90% owned by private groups and independents. Tunisia_sentence_385

The Tunisian political parties have the right to publish their own newspapers, but those of the opposition parties have very limited editions (like Al Mawkif or Mouwatinoun). Tunisia_sentence_386

Before the recent democratic transition, although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by the constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the government line report. Tunisia_sentence_387

Critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (then in power) were suppressed. Tunisia_sentence_388

In essence, the media was dominated by state authorities through the Agence Tunis Afrique Presse. Tunisia_sentence_389

This has changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have been largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly decreased. Tunisia_sentence_390

Nonetheless, the current regulatory framework and social and political culture mean that the future of press and media freedom is still unclear. Tunisia_sentence_391

Sports Tunisia_section_30

Main article: Sport in Tunisia Tunisia_sentence_392

Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_393

The Tunisia national football team, also known as "The Eagles of Carthage," won the 2004 African Cup of Nations (ACN), which was held in Tunisia. Tunisia_sentence_394

They also represented Africa in the 2005 FIFA Cup of Confederations, which was held in Germany, but they could not go beyond the first round. Tunisia_sentence_395

The premier football league is the "Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1". Tunisia_sentence_396

The main clubs are Espérance Sportive de Tunis, Étoile Sportive du Sahel, Club Africain, Club Sportif Sfaxien, Union Sportive Monastirienne, and ES Metlaoui. Tunisia_sentence_397

The Tunisia national handball team has participated in several handball world championships. Tunisia_sentence_398

In 2005, Tunisia came fourth. Tunisia_sentence_399

The national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Tunisia_sentence_400

Sahel and Esperance S.Tunis dominating. Tunisia_sentence_401

The most famous Tunisian handball player is Wissem Hmam. Tunisia_sentence_402

In the 2005 Handball Championship in Tunis, Wissem Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament. Tunisia_sentence_403

The Tunisian national handball team won the African Cup ten times, being the team dominating this competition. Tunisia_sentence_404

The Tunisians won the 2018 African Cup in Gabon by defeating Egypt. Tunisia_sentence_405

Tunisia's national basketball team has emerged as a top side in Africa. Tunisia_sentence_406

The team won the 2011 Afrobasket and hosted Africa's top basketball event in 1965, 1987 and 2015. Tunisia_sentence_407

In boxing, Victor Perez ("Young") was world champion in the flyweight weight class in 1931 and 1932. Tunisia_sentence_408

In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Tunisian Oussama Mellouli won a gold medal in 1500 meter freestyle. Tunisia_sentence_409

In the 2012 Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the 1500 meter freestyle and a gold medal in the Men's marathon swim at a distance of 10 kilometers. Tunisia_sentence_410

In 2012, Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in the Summer Paralympic Games. Tunisia_sentence_411

She finished the competition with 19 medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes. Tunisia_sentence_412

Tunisia was classified 14th on the Paralympics medal table and 5th in Athletics. Tunisia_sentence_413

Tunisia was suspended from Davis Cup play for the year 2014, because the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri not to compete against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub. Tunisia_sentence_414

ITF president Francesco Ricci Bitti said: "There is no room for prejudice of any kind in sport or in society. Tunisia_sentence_415

The ITF Board decided to send a strong message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind of action will not be tolerated." Tunisia_sentence_416

See also Tunisia_section_31

Tunisia_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunisia.