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This article is about the predominant sect of Ithnā‘ashari Shia Islam. Twelver_sentence_0

For other denominations which believe in The Twelve Imams, see Alevism and Alawites. Twelver_sentence_1

Twelver (Arabic: ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة‎; ʾIthnā ʿAšarīyah Persian: شیعه دوازده‌امامی‎, Šī'eh-ye Davâzdah-Emâmī), also known as Imamiyyah (Arabic: إِمَامِيَّة‎), is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with about 85% of all Shias. Twelver_sentence_2

The term Twelver refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, and their belief that the last Imam, Imam al-Mahdi, lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised Mahdi. Twelver_sentence_3

According to Shia tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus, who is to assist the Mahdi against the Dajjal. Twelver_sentence_4

Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_5

According to the theology of Twelvers, the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are also able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of the Quran. Twelver_sentence_6

The words and deeds (Sunnah) of Muhammad and the Imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, Muhammad and the Imams must be free from error and sin, a doctrine known as Ismah or infallibility, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_7

There are approximately 150 million to 200 million Twelvers in the world today, making the majority of the total populations of Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Lebanon, and Bahrain. Twelver_sentence_8

They also make significant minorities in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Nigeria, Chad, and Tanzania. Twelver_sentence_9

Iran is the only country where Twelverism is the state religion. Twelver_sentence_10

Twelvers share many tenets with other Shia sects, such as the belief in Imams, but the Ismaili Shias believe in a different number of Imams and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate. Twelver_sentence_11

They also differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelver_sentence_12

Twelvers are also distinguished from Ismailis by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin), in rejecting the possibility of of Sharia laws, and in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Twelver_sentence_13

Alevis in Turkey and Albania, and Alawites in Syria and Lebanon, share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are markedly different. Twelver_sentence_14

Terminology Twelver_section_0

The term Twelver is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with Ali ibn Abi-Talib and ending with Muhammad al-Mahdi, are Imams who have religious and political authority. Twelver_sentence_15

The Twelvers are also known by other names: Twelver_sentence_16


  • The Shi'ah (or Shi'a) is commonly (though erroneously) used as a synonym for "Twelvers" since this branch comprises the majority group in Shia Islam. Shi'a refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment. Tabatabai states that the word referred to the partisans of Ali at the time of Muhammad himself.Twelver_item_0_0
  • Ja'fari refers exclusively to the Juridical school which is followed by Twelvers and Nizaris. The term is derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq who is considered by the Twelvers and Nizaris to be their sixth Imam who presented "a legal treatise". Ja'far al-Sadiq is also respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence.Twelver_item_0_1
  • Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver belief in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs also share the concept of Imamate, this term is mostly used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and eleven subsequent successors that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles.Twelver_item_0_2

History Twelver_section_1

See also: History of Shia Islam and Origin of Shia Islam Twelver_sentence_17

Imamate Era Twelver_section_2

Twelver Imams amongst Shia Twelver_section_3

Emergence Twelver_section_4

In 610, when Muhammad received the first revelation, Ali was 10 years old. Twelver_sentence_18

At the time of Muhammad, some of the supporters of Ali, particularly Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman the Persian, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, and Ammar ibn Yasir were called the Shiites of Ali. Twelver_sentence_19

The division of Islam into Shia and Sunni traces back to the crisis of the succession to Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_20

The followers of Ali fight with some of the Quraysh and some of the companions of Muhammad like Talhah and Zubayr. Twelver_sentence_21

As most of his supporters were in Iraq, Ali moved the capital of Islam to Kufa and there began to fight against Mu'awiyah, who rejected giving allegiance to Ali. Twelver_sentence_22

The death of Husayn played an important role in the spread of Shi'ism in the regions of Iraq, Yemen and Persia. Twelver_sentence_23

At the end of the first century, the influential leaders in the government established the city of Qom for the settlement of the Shia. Twelver_sentence_24

Formulation Twelver_section_5

Al-Baqir was teacher of law for 20 years and a reporter of hadith. Twelver_sentence_25

He also introduced the principle of Taqiyya. Twelver_sentence_26

Al-Baqir narrated many ahadith about Jurisprudence and other religious sciences which based the foundations for the Shia instructions. Twelver_sentence_27

With change in political situations and a suitable conditions for the development of religious activities and the time of elaborating the religious sciences, Ja'far al-Sadiq had an important role in forming the Shia Jurisprudence. Twelver_sentence_28

Ja'far al-Sadiq and al-Baqir are the founders of the Imami Shiite school of religious law. Twelver_sentence_29

Al-Sadiq acquired a noteworthy group of scholars around himself, comprising some of the most eminent jurists, traditionists, and theologians of the time. Twelver_sentence_30

During his time, Shia developed in the theological and legal issues. Twelver_sentence_31

Both Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq improved the position of the Shia and elaborated the intellectual basis of the interpretation and practice of Shiite Islam. Twelver_sentence_32

Their teachings were the basis for the development of Shiite spirituality and religious rituals. Twelver_sentence_33

Organizing Twelver_section_6

At the beginning of the third/ninth century once again Shia flourished and it was due to the translation of scientific and philosophical books from other languages to Arabic, Al-Ma'mun giving freedom to the propagation of different religious views and his interest in intellectual debates. Twelver_sentence_34

Under the rule of al-Ma'mun, Shia was free from the political pressures and was somehow at liberty. Twelver_sentence_35

In the fourth/tenth century, the weaknesses in the Abbasid government and coming up the Buyid rulers caused the spread, strength and open propagation of the Shi'ism. Twelver_sentence_36

From the fifth/eleventh to the ninth century many Shia kings appeared in the Islamic world who propagated the Shi'ism. Twelver_sentence_37

Crisis and Consolidation Twelver_section_7

Baghdad school Twelver_section_8

During tenth century and Buyid era, Baghdad was the center of Mu'tazila theologians. Twelver_sentence_38

Their ideas about attribute and justice of God and human free will affected Shia theologians. Twelver_sentence_39

Bani Nawbakht, particularly Abu Sahl Al-Nawbakhti (d. 923–924), fuzed Mu'tazili theology with Imami system of thought. Twelver_sentence_40

On the other hand, Imami traditionists of Qom, particularly Ibn Babawayh(d. 991), react to their theological ideas based on Twelve Imams' Hadiths. Twelver_sentence_41

He tried to defend Imami ideas against Mu'tazili criticism regarding Anthropomorphism(Tashbih). Twelver_sentence_42

The three prominent figures of Baghdad school were Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid (d. 1022 CE), Sharif al-Murtaza (d. 1044) and Shaykh al-Tusi (d. 1067). Twelver_sentence_43

Al-Mufid was a Twelver theologian, Muhaddith and Fiqih who used Bani Nawbakht as well as Baghdadi Mu'tazila ideas to form his theology while trying to adapt theological ideas with Twelve Imams' Hadith. Twelver_sentence_44

While the Mu'tazila was dominant in Baghdad, he tries to distinguish Shia and Mu'tazila ideas and assert reason needs revelation. Twelver_sentence_45

Shaykh Tusi, founder of Shia Ijtihad, was the first to establish the bases of reasoning in Shia Jurisprudence. Twelver_sentence_46

His book al-Mabsut is the first book of Ijtihad which derives the subordinates from the principles. Twelver_sentence_47

Tusi bought the Shia religious law to a new period. Twelver_sentence_48

The main point is that he recognized the needs of the community and preserved the principles. Twelver_sentence_49

By his debates and books, Al-Mufid, Sayyid-al Murtada and Shaykh al-Tusi in Iraq were the first to introduce the Usul of the Jurisprudence under the influence of the Shafe'i and Mu'tazili doctrines. Twelver_sentence_50

Al- Kulayni and al-Sadduq, in Qom and Ray, were concerned with traditionalist approach. Twelver_sentence_51

Twelver Imams amongst other Shia imam with their early Imams are shown in the chart below. Twelver_sentence_52

This also indicate twelvers amongst various other sects in the present world. Twelver_sentence_53

Jurisprudencial and Theological Development Twelver_section_9

School of Hillah Twelver_section_10

The beginner of this school, Ibn Idris al-Hilli (d. 1202), with his rationalistic tendency, detailed Shi'ite jurisprudence in his al-Sara'ir. Twelver_sentence_54

Ibn Idris, with rejecting the validity of the isolate hadith, states rational faculty ('aql) as the fourth source of law in deducing legal norms before Quran and hadith. Twelver_sentence_55

But the real Usuli doctrinal movement began by al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli (d. 1277) who brought up ijtihad and qiyas (analogy) to jurisprudence. Twelver_sentence_56

Ijtihad brought dynamism into Shia law. Twelver_sentence_57

Muhaqqiq Hilli and al-Hilli gave a definite shape to Shia jurisprudence and they separated the weak hadith from the sound. Twelver_sentence_58

According to John Cooper, after al-Hilli, Imami theology and legal methodology became thoroughly infused with the terminology and style of philosophy. Twelver_sentence_59

In 1256 the Abbasid dynasty collapsed with the invasion of Mongols to Baghdad. Twelver_sentence_60

Under the ruling of Mongols, Shi'a were more free to develop and al-Hilla became the new learning center for Shia. Twelver_sentence_61

Continuing the rationalistic tradition of the Baghdad School, defining reason as an important principle of Jurisprudence, al-Hillah school laid the theoretical foundation upon which the authority of Jurisprudents is based today. Twelver_sentence_62

The second wave of the Usulies was shaped in the Mongol period when al-Hilli used the term Mujtahid, the one who deduces the ordinance on the basis of the authentic arguments of the religion. Twelver_sentence_63

By Ijtihad, al-Hilli meant the disciplined reasoning on the basis of the shari'ah. Twelver_sentence_64

By developing the principles of the Usul, he introduced more legal and logical norms which extended the meaning of the Usul beyond the four principle sources of Shari'ah. Twelver_sentence_65

School of Jabal 'Amil Twelver_section_11

Amili was the first who fully formulated the principles of the Ijtihad. Twelver_sentence_66

Rising to Power Twelver_section_12

School of Isfahan Twelver_section_13

In 1501 Isma'il I took the power in Iran and set up the Safavid dynasty. Twelver_sentence_67

While most of the larger cities of Iran were Sunni, he declared Twelverism as the official religion of his empire. Twelver_sentence_68

Many Shia scholars were brought to set up the Shia seminaries in Iran. Twelver_sentence_69

One of those was Karaki who stated that, for the interest of Umma, it is necessary for a Shia scholar to be a legitimate leader to carry out the tasks of the Imam who is hidden. Twelver_sentence_70

Under Safavids, religious authorities (Shaykh al-Islam) were appointed for all major cities. Twelver_sentence_71

Karaki established a great seminary (Hawza) in Qazvin and Isfahan, consequently, Iran once again became center of Imami jurisprudence. Twelver_sentence_72

Suhrawardi tried to harmonize rational philosophy and intellectual intuition, but Mir Damad is the founder of it. Twelver_sentence_73

Mir Damad combined the teachings of Ibn Arabi, Suhrawardi, Ibn Sina and Nair al-Din and founded a new intellectual dimension in the texture of Shi'ism. Twelver_sentence_74

The scholars of the School of Isfahan integrated the philosophical, theological, and mystical traditions of Shi'ism into a metaphysical synthesis known as Divine Wisdom or theosophy(Persian:hikmat-i ilahi). Twelver_sentence_75

The most important representative of the School of Isfahan was Mulla Sadra. Twelver_sentence_76

Mulla Sadra produced his own synthesis of Muslim thought, including theology, peripatetic philosophy, philosophical mysticism, and Sufi studies, particularly the Sufism of Ibn al-'Arabi. Twelver_sentence_77

Mulla Sadra trained eminent students, such as Mulla Muhsin Kashani and 'Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji who passed down the traditions of the School of Isfahan in later centuries in both Iran and India. Twelver_sentence_78

Akhbari-Usuli Controversies Twelver_section_14

By the end of the Safavid era (1736), the Usuli School of thought was attacked by the Akhbari (traditionalist) trend whose founder was Mulla Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi. Twelver_sentence_79

Astarabadi attacked the idea of Ijtihad and called the Usulies as the enemies of religion. Twelver_sentence_80

He recognized the hadith as the only source for the Islamic law and the understanding of the Quran. Twelver_sentence_81

Muhammad Baqir Behbahani, as the founder of a new stage in Shia Jurisprudence, took a new practical method. Twelver_sentence_82

He attacked the Ikhbaries and their method was abandoned by Shia. Twelver_sentence_83

The dominance of the Usuli over the Akhbari came in last half of the 18th century when Behbahani led Usulis to dominance and "completely routed the Akhbaris at Karbala and Najaf," so that "only a handful of Shi'i ulama have remained Akhbari to the present day." Twelver_sentence_84

The reestablishment of the Usuli School led to the enhancement of the authority of the legal scholars in the Qajar dynasty. Twelver_sentence_85

Qom school, Islamic Revolution and Islamic Republic Twelver_section_15

Further information: Qom, Iranian Revolution, and Islamic Republic Twelver_sentence_86

During the 1960s, Khomeini called for the abolition of the monarchy in Iran. Twelver_sentence_87

He was sent into exile in Iraq, where he continued his opposition to the Iranian regime. Twelver_sentence_88

He further ordered the opposition to the Shah/King and led the 1979 revolution of Iran. Twelver_sentence_89

Theological doctrine Twelver_section_16

Main article: Theology of Twelvers Twelver_sentence_90

Twelver theology, which mainly consists of five principles, has formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of Quran, and hadiths from Muhammad and the Twelve Imams (especially Jafar al-Sadiq), and in response to the intellectual movements in the Muslim world and major events of the Twelver history, such as the Battle of Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. Twelver_sentence_91

Mystics, philosophers, and traditional scholars all have diverse opinions about the unity of God, free will, and judgment day, as stated by Jafaar Seedaan. Twelver_sentence_92

Care has been taken to mention the tradition view first then mention other views objectively. Twelver_sentence_93

Unity of God Twelver_section_17

Main article: Tawhid Twelver_sentence_94

According to Hossein Nasr, Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shia Imam is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God's unity (Tawhid). Twelver_sentence_95

Ali is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like, he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality or imagination. Twelver_sentence_96

On another occasion, he is quoted saying: Twelver_sentence_97

Traditional Twelvers strictly believe that God is different from his creation, and that both are separate entities. Twelver_sentence_98

However, Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent Shia mystic and philosopher defines God as alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies. Twelver_sentence_99

The totality of being, therefore, is he, through him, comes from him, and returns to him. Twelver_sentence_100

God is not a being next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the absolute act of being (wujud mutlaq). Twelver_sentence_101

The divine unitude does not have the meaning of an arithmetical unity, among, next to, or above other unities. Twelver_sentence_102

For, if there were being other than he (i.e., creatural being), God would no longer be the Unique, i.e., the only one to be. Twelver_sentence_103

As this Divine Essence is infinite, his qualities are the same as his essence. Twelver_sentence_104

Essentially, there is one Reality, which is one and indivisible. Twelver_sentence_105

According to Twelver theology, Tawhid consists of several aspects, including Tawhid of the Essence, the attributes, the creatorship, the lordship and oneness in worship. Twelver_sentence_106

Tawhid of the Essence Twelver_section_18

Tawhid of the essence of God means his essence is one and peerless. Twelver_sentence_107

Regarding this, Quran states: Say, "He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. Twelver_sentence_108

He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent. " Twelver_sentence_109

Tawhid of the attributes Twelver_section_19

Tawhid of the attributes means God's attributes have no other reality than His essence. Twelver_sentence_110

Ali argues that "Every attributes testifies to its being other than the object to which it is attributed, and every such object in turn testifies to its being other than the attribute. " Twelver_sentence_111

Tawhid of the attributes means to deny the existence of any sort of multiplicity and combination in the Essence itself. Twelver_sentence_112

A differentiation between the essence and the attributes or between the attributes implies a limitation in being. Twelver_sentence_113

Traditional Twelvers believe that God's names are created by Him and are not His attributes. Twelver_sentence_114

A name is a combination of created letters while attributes are what is implied by that name. Twelver_sentence_115

It is stated in Al-Kafi that whoever worships God's names has committed disbelief in God, as they are not Him. Twelver_sentence_116

Tawhid of Creatorship Twelver_section_20

Al-Hur Al-Amilly states that God created everything except humans' actions. Twelver_sentence_117

According to some Twelvers, Tawhid of Creatorship means that there is no creator but God, that is the causes and effects of the universe are not independent from God, just as the beings which are not independent in essence. Twelver_sentence_118

There is no power except God, according to Motahari. Twelver_sentence_119

Tawhid of Lordship Twelver_section_21

Tawhid of Lordship means the governance of the world and that human beings only belong to God. Twelver_sentence_120

This oneness of lordship has two aspects: creative governance (tadbir takwini), and religious governance (tadbir tashrii). Twelver_sentence_121

At last oneness in worship, i.e., God alone is deserved to be worshipped. Twelver_sentence_122

According to Morteza Motahhari, oneness in worship means rejecting all kinds of counterfeit worship (such as worship of carnal desires, money or prestige), and as Quran says, every act of obedience to an order is worship. Twelver_sentence_123

Shirk Twelver_section_22

Contrary to Tawhid is Shirk. Twelver_sentence_124

It is a belief that the world has more than one principle or pole. Twelver_sentence_125

According to the mystic and philosopher Morteza Motahhari, the distinction of theoretical Tawhid from Shirk is recognition of the idea that every reality and being in its essence, attributes and action are from him (from Him-ness (Arabic: انّالله‎)). Twelver_sentence_126

Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God's permission as Quran points to it. Twelver_sentence_127

Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end in itself, independent from God, but to assume it as a path to God (to Him-ness (Arabic: انّاالیه‎)) is Tawhid. Twelver_sentence_128

Justice of God Twelver_section_23

Ali insists that God is Just and he is the Justice Itself and the virtue of Justice flows from him to the souls of men. Twelver_sentence_129

Since he is Justice, every thing he does is Just. Twelver_sentence_130

Shiism considers Justice as innate to Divine nature, i.e. God can not act unjustly, because it is his nature to be just. Twelver_sentence_131

Justice in Creation Twelver_section_24

Twelvers believe that God grants every existent what is appropriate for it as the verse states: Our Lord is He Who gave unto everything its nature, then guided it aright. Twelver_sentence_132

Justice in Religious Dispensation Twelver_section_25

God guides each human through sending messengers and He does not impose upon them obligations that are beyond their capacity. Twelver_sentence_133

In the Message of The Quran by Mohammad Asad, the interpretation of v 20:50 is as follows; He(Moses) replied (to Pharaoh); Our Sustainer is He who gives unto every thing [ that exists ] its true nature and form, and thereupon guides it [towards its fulfillment]. Twelver_sentence_134

Justice in Recompense Twelver_section_26

Tabataba'i states that the Justice of God necessitates that the virtuous and evil people become separated; the virtuous have a good life and the evil have a wretched life. Twelver_sentence_135

He will judge the beliefs and the deeds of all the people according to the truth and he will give every one his right due. Twelver_sentence_136

Then the reality of every thing as it is will be revealed for the man. Twelver_sentence_137

Through his faith and good deeds, he can get to friendship with God. Twelver_sentence_138

The form of man's deeds are joined to his soul and accompany him which are the capital of his future life. Twelver_sentence_139

The verse refers to getting back to God. Twelver_sentence_140

Predestination and Free Will Twelver_section_27

According to Twelvers' narrations, God does not create Humans' actions and instead they are fully created by humans. Twelver_sentence_141

According to a narration by Musa Al-Khadhim, if God created humans' actions then He should not punish humans for it. Twelver_sentence_142

Jaafar Al-Subhani argues that the justice of God requires that humans' actions cannot be created by God, otherwise God would be a doer of evil actions. Twelver_sentence_143

Predestination is rejected in Shiaism. Twelver_sentence_144

However, Some philosophers believe that all the existence is His creation including a human being and his actions. Twelver_sentence_145

But actions have two dimensions. Twelver_sentence_146

The first is committing the action by free will, the second is the creation of that action by God's will with which he gave the people the power to commit the action. Twelver_sentence_147

Sadr al-Din Shirazi states that "God, may He be exalted, is far removed from doing any evil deeds and goes about His Kingdom at will. " Twelver_sentence_148

The view that God creates humans' actions is rejected by traditional Twelvers. Twelver_sentence_149

The Prophethood Twelver_section_28

Ja'far al-Sadiq narrates from his fathers that Muhammad, in one of his sermons expressed that "[God] sent to people messengers so they might be His conclusive argument against His creatures and so His messengers to them might be witnesses against them. Twelver_sentence_150

He sent among them prophets bearing good tidings and warning. " Twelver_sentence_151

Tabataba'i states that God has perfected the guidance of people through sending the prophets; When the doctrines and practices of the revealed law gets to its perfection, the prophecy comes to an end, too. Twelver_sentence_152

That is why the Quran points out that Islam is the last and the most perfect religion and Muhammad is the "seal of the prophets", he adds. Twelver_sentence_153

Al-Hilli states that "the Prophets are greater in merit than the angels, because the prophets have conflicts with rational power and they compel it to submit to reason. " Twelver_sentence_154

Angel Twelver_section_29

Belief in the existence of the angels is one of the articles of Iman. Twelver_sentence_155

Unseen beings of a luminous and spiritual substance, angels act as intermediaries between God and the visible world. Twelver_sentence_156

Also superior in substance, angels are inferior to mankind, because man can reflect the image of God. Twelver_sentence_157

The verse implies the superiority of the mankind. Twelver_sentence_158

God revealed the Quran to Muhammd by Gabriel who was also his guide on Mi'raj. Twelver_sentence_159

The angels record the deeds of men. Twelver_sentence_160

They follow the commands of God and do not precede him . Twelver_sentence_161

Izz al-Din Kashani discusses that the angels are different in degree and station. Twelver_sentence_162

Some of them cling to the Threshold of Perfection, others manage the affairs of the creation. Twelver_sentence_163

Al-Qazwini, on the base of Quran and hadith, names them as the Bearers of the Throne, the Spirit, he governs all the affairs of the earth and heaven according to the principle of creation; Israfil, he places the spirits in the bodies and will blow the trumpet on the Last Day. Twelver_sentence_164

Gabriel, who took the revelation to Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_165

Michael, Azrael, the angel of death. Twelver_sentence_166

The cherubim (al-karrūbiyyūn) who just praise God. Twelver_sentence_167

The angels of seven heavens and the Guardian angels, two of them are concerned with men. Twelver_sentence_168

The Attendant angels, they bring blessings upon human. Twelver_sentence_169

Munkar and Nakir who question the dead in the grave. Twelver_sentence_170

The journeyers, Harut and Marut are also among them. Twelver_sentence_171

Revelation Twelver_section_30

Tabataba'i expresses that according to the thesis of general guidance, as the human reason cannot perceive the perfect law of happiness (Sa'adah) and he could not get it through the process of creation, there should be a general awareness of this law and it could be within the reach of every one. Twelver_sentence_172

He adds there must be people who apprehend the real duties of life and bring them within the reach of human being. Twelver_sentence_173

Tabataba'i refers to this power of perception, which is other than the reason and the sense, as the prophetic consciousness or the consciousness of revelation as the verse points to this perception namely revelation. Twelver_sentence_174

Tabataba'i describes that the reception of revelation, its preservation and its propagation are three principles of ontological guidance. Twelver_sentence_175

What the prophets got through the revelation was religion which consists of doctrine and practice or method. Twelver_sentence_176

He further adds that with passing of the time and gradual development of the society, the gradual development in the revealed law is apparent. Twelver_sentence_177

By three ways the speech of God reaches to man, by revelation or divine inspiration; behind a veil, man can hear God's speech but can not hear him; or by a messenger, an angel conveys the inspiration to the man. Twelver_sentence_178

By the verses two types of guardians protect the integrity of the revelation: an angel who protects the prophet against any kind of error, God who protects the angels and the prophets. Twelver_sentence_179

Miracle Twelver_section_31

Tabataba'i defines the miracle as a supernatural event which is shown by the prophet and the friends of God as a challenge to prove the claim of the prophethood and it is by God's permission. Twelver_sentence_180

He states that the miracle should be according to the demands of the people of his own time. Twelver_sentence_181

He adds that miracle has an inseparable connection with the claim of the prophethood and it is beyond the intellect and thinking. Twelver_sentence_182

By miracle, al-Hilli means "the bringing into existence of something which is abnormal or the removal of something which normally exists, in a way which breaks through normality and which conforms to the claim (of prophethood which is made). " Twelver_sentence_183

Sobhani regards some differences between miracles and extraordinary acts. Twelver_sentence_184

He notes that miracles are not teachable and they are done without any prior training. Twelver_sentence_185

As they are derived from the infinite power of God, the miracles are indisputable. Twelver_sentence_186

The miracles are of unlimited types. Twelver_sentence_187

The miracles are often concerned with spiritual matters rather worldly matters. Twelver_sentence_188

Imamah and Walayah Twelver_section_32

Main articles: Imamah (Shi'a Twelver doctrine) and Walayah (Twelver doctrine) Twelver_sentence_189

Shia believe in the trilateral structure of authority; authority of God which is absolute and universal as the verse implies, authority of Muhammad which is legitimized by the grace of God as the verse points to it and the authority of the Imams who are blessed for the leadership of the community through Muhammad as the verses and verifies according to Shia fundamental belief. Twelver_sentence_190

According to Shia, Imamah is the continuation of the prophetic mission. Twelver_sentence_191

Shia believe in the Twelve Imams who are divinely inspired descendants of Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_192

They must meet these attributes: nass (designation by the previous Imam), Ismah (infallibility), ilm (divine knowledge), Walayah (spiritual guidance). Twelver_sentence_193

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, based on Twelver's belief. Twelver_sentence_194

It is believed in Shi'a Islam that 'Aql, a divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge, called Hikmah, and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Twelver_sentence_195

Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, but has close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the people. Twelver_sentence_196

The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide is a fundamental belief in Shi'i Islam and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance. Twelver_sentence_197

According to Twelvers, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Twelver_sentence_198

Ali was the first Imam of this line, and in the Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad (also known as Hasnain) through his daughter Fatimah. Twelver_sentence_199

Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn Ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan Ibn Ali. Twelver_sentence_200

The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive, and in hiding. Twelver_sentence_201

The Shi'a Imams are seen as infallible. Twelver_sentence_202

It is an important aspect of Shia theology that they are not prophets (nabi) nor messengers (rasul), but instead carry out Muhammad's message. Twelver_sentence_203

The Succession to Muhammad Twelver_section_33

Main article: Succession to Muhammad Twelver_sentence_204

Shia believe that with the death of Muhammad, his religious and political authority were inherited to the Imams. Twelver_sentence_205

Shia consider the Successor as the esoteric interpreter of the revelation and the Divine Law. Twelver_sentence_206

With the exception of Zaydis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election. Twelver_sentence_207

They claim that before his death, Muhammad had given many indications, in the Event of Ghadir Khumm in particular, that he considered Ali, his cousin and son-in-law, as his successor. Twelver_sentence_208

For the Twelvers, Ali and his eleven descendants, the twelve Imams, are believed to have been considered, even before their birth, as the only valid Islamic rulers appointed and decreed by God. Twelver_sentence_209

Shia Muslims believe that with the exception of Ali and Hasan, all the caliphs following Muhammad's death were illegitimate and that Muslims had no obligation to follow them. Twelver_sentence_210

They hold that the only guidance that was left behind, as stated in the hadith of the two weighty things, was the Quran and Muhammad's family and offspring. Twelver_sentence_211

The latter, due to their infallibility, are considered to be able to lead the Muslim community with justice and equity. Twelver_sentence_212

Ziyarat and Tawassul Twelver_section_34

Main articles: Ziyarat and Tawassul Twelver_sentence_213

Ziyarah (literally: visit) is a religious practice that means to attend before religious leaders or their graves in order to express and indicate reverence/love and acquire spiritual blessings. Twelver_sentence_214

The visitation of the imams is recommended even by Imams themselves and Shia scholars and jurists from an early period of Shia history. Twelver_sentence_215

The most popular destinations for Shi'a pilgrims include Najaf and Karbala in Iraq, Qum and Mashhad in Iran, and Sayyida Zaynab in Syria. Twelver_sentence_216

According to Shi'is, the imams are revered because they had received inspiration and a degree of revelation from Allah. Twelver_sentence_217

Tawassul is an Arabic word originated from wa-sa-la- wasilat (Arabic: وسيلة-وسل). Twelver_sentence_218

The wasilah is a means by which a person, goal or objective is approached, attained or achieved. Twelver_sentence_219

For Shi'is: to take advantage of factors to attain the goals is natural but these factors should not be taken as independent from God and should have been established in the Quran and hadith. Twelver_sentence_220

This means can be anything which causes drawing proximity to God such as prayer, almsgiving. Twelver_sentence_221

Ismah Twelver_section_35

Main article: Ismah Twelver_sentence_222

In Shia theology Ismah means "impeccability", "immunity to sin" and "infallibility. " Twelver_sentence_223

When Ismah is attributed to human beings, the concept means "the ability of avoiding acts of disobedience, in spite of having the power to commit them, " As in Prophets and Imams, Ismah is a Divine grace realized by God's preservation of the infallible, first by endowing them with pure constitution then, following in order, by blessing them with great excellences, giving them firm will against opponents, sending tranquility down upon them (as-Sakinah), and preserving their hearts and minds from sin. Twelver_sentence_224

According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the Sharia and its esoteric meaning. Twelver_sentence_225

The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; therefore, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_226

According to Twelvers the Islamic prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima Zahra; and the Twelve Imams are considered to be infallible under the theological concept of Ismah. Twelver_sentence_227

Accordingly, they have the power to commit sin but are able to avoid doing so by their nature The Infallibles are believed to follow only God's desire in their actions, because of their supreme righteousness, consciousness, and love for God. Twelver_sentence_228

They are also regarded as being immune to error: in practical matters, in calling people to religion, and in the perception of divine knowledge. Twelver_sentence_229

Shias believe that the Fourteen Infallibles are superior to the rest of creation, as well as to the other major prophets. Twelver_sentence_230

From historical viewpoint, Wilferd Madelung claims that the purification of Ahl al-Bayt—the family of Muhammad—is guaranteed by the Verse of Purification in the Qur'an. Twelver_sentence_231

Donaldson in his argument believed that the development of the Shi'ite theology in the period between the death of Muhammad and the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam originates the concept of Ismah which adds to its importance. Twelver_sentence_232

Ann Lambton claims that neither the term nor the concept of Ismah is in the Qur'an or in canonical Sunni hadith. Twelver_sentence_233

It was apparently first used by the Imamiyyah, perhaps during the beginning of the second century of the Islamic calendar in which they maintained that the Imam must be immune from sin (ma'sum). Twelver_sentence_234

According to Hamid Algar, the concept Ismah is encountered as early as the first half of the second century of the Islamic calendar. Twelver_sentence_235

The Shia scholars of the fourth and the fifth centuries of the Islamic calendar defined the infallibility of Muḥammad and the Twelve Imams in an increasingly stringent form until the doctrine came to exclude their commission of any sin or inadvertent error, either before or after they assumed office. Twelver_sentence_236

The Occultation Twelver_section_36

Main article: The Occultation Twelver_sentence_237

According to Twelvers, the conditions under the Abbasids caused Hasan al-Askari to hide the birth of his son, al-Mahdi. Twelver_sentence_238

The Day of Resurrection Twelver_section_37

By Shia theological doctrine, since the people have come from God, they will go back to God, and it is related to people's reaction to the prophecy. Twelver_sentence_239

They argue that according to the Quran, , God, whose actions are the absolute truth, does not create a man without any purpose. Twelver_sentence_240

While the quality of this world makes the recompense impossible, the Justice of God necessitates that every one be recompensed according to his own actions. Twelver_sentence_241

Tabataba'i describes the death as a transfer from one stage of life to another eternal stage. Twelver_sentence_242

The verse points to the precision of the scales of justice by which the deeds and intentions of people are weighed. Twelver_sentence_243

The Return (Raj'a) Twelver_section_38

Twelvers believe in the Return, the term refers to the revival of a group of Muslims back to this world after the appearance of Mahdi. Twelver_sentence_244

The base of this belief derives from the revival of the dead in the past communities as mentioned in the Quran and the revival at the Day of Resurrection. Twelver_sentence_245

Sobhani describes that Resurrection is both of body and spirit. Twelver_sentence_246

Quran , in response to those that ask "Who will restore us", answers: "He who brought you forth the first time. " Twelver_sentence_247

In another place, verse , it is like the revival of the earth in the season of the spring after the winter. Twelver_sentence_248

He adds the verse implies that the person who is raised up at the Resurrection is the one who was alive on the earth. Twelver_sentence_249

The purpose of the Resurrection of the body and rejoining the soul is that it experience the rewards and punishments which are sensible and they can not be experienced with the lack of the body.The purpose of spiritual resurrection is to observe those rewards and punishments which are especial to the spirit. Twelver_sentence_250

The Day of Judgement Twelver_section_39

God will resurrect all human beings and they will stand before God to be questioned about their lives on the world. Twelver_sentence_251

On this day people are two groups, people who receive their book by their right hand who are the people of Paradise and their face is bright and the people who receive their book by their left hand who are the people of Hell and their face is dark. Twelver_sentence_252

As the verse points out, on the Day of Judgement, the ears, eyes and skin of disbelievers will testify against them saying "Allah has caused us to speak – He causes all things to speak." Twelver_sentence_253

Intercession Twelver_section_40

Belief to the Intercession derives from the Quran, , , and Sunna. Twelver_sentence_254

Muhammad, the angels , Imams and martyrs are among the intercessors by God's will. Twelver_sentence_255

Muhammad has expressed that one of God's gifts to him is the right of intercession of those who have committed major sins. Twelver_sentence_256

As Quran represents the sons of Jacob asked their father to intercede for them and their father promised to them that he will do it at the promised time. Twelver_sentence_257

Shari'ah (Furu al-Din) Twelver_section_41

Main articles: Shari'ah and Ancillaries of the Faith Twelver_sentence_258

According to Nasr, the root of the Shari'ah is Shr' which means road that all the men and women should follow. Twelver_sentence_259

The Shari'ah or Divine Law of Islam is ritual, legal, ethical, and social aspects of Islam which is the concrete embodiment of the will of God. Twelver_sentence_260

It governs the life of a Muslim from the cradle to the grave in order to get happiness in the Hereafter. Twelver_sentence_261

He adds to get into Haqiqah, a Muslim should follow the Shari'ah which resides within the formal law. Twelver_sentence_262

This interior part of the Shariah is Tariqah. Twelver_sentence_263

The Shari'ah consists of Ibadat (worship) which is all the conjunctions that apply to the Islamic rites and muamalat which includes every kind of social, political and economic transactions. Twelver_sentence_264

The Shari'ah divides all acts into five categories: obligatory(wajib), recommended(mandub), reprehensible or abominable(makruh), forbidden(haram) and acts toward which the Divine Law is indifferent(mubah). Twelver_sentence_265

The evaluation of the act is on the base of the Shari'ah. Twelver_sentence_266

God is the ultimate legislator (the Shari') and the roots of the Shari'ah is in the Quran. Twelver_sentence_267

The Hadith and Sunnah are the second sources of the Shari'ah and the complements of the Quran. Twelver_sentence_268

The Shari'ah has immutable principles but is applicable to new situations. Twelver_sentence_269


  • Salat (Prayer) – meaning "connection", establish the five daily prayers, called namāz in Persian and Urdu.Twelver_item_1_3
  • Sawm (Fasting) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan, called rūzeh in Persian.Twelver_item_1_4
  • Zakat (Poor-rate) – charity. Zakat means "to purify".Twelver_item_1_5
  • Khums ("Fifth" of one's savings) – tax.Twelver_item_1_6
  • Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.Twelver_item_1_7
  • Jihād (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater, internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life, called jihād akbār. The lesser, or external, jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life, called jihād asghār. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihād bil qalam "struggle of the pen") and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of jihād.Twelver_item_1_8
  • Commanding what is just.Twelver_item_1_9
  • Forbidding what is evil.Twelver_item_1_10
  • Tawalla – loving the Ahl al-Bayt and their followers.Twelver_item_1_11
  • Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlu l-Bayt.Twelver_item_1_12

Shahada (Declaration of faith) Twelver_section_42

Main articles: Shahada and Declaration of faith Twelver_sentence_270

While sharing the Unity of God and the divine guidance through his messenger Muhammad, Shia maintain that for the spiritual and moral guidance of the community, God instructed Muhammad to designate Ali as the leader of the community which was made public at Ghadir Khumm. Twelver_sentence_271

Twelvers, along with Sunnis, agree that a single honest recitation of the shahādah in Arabic is all that is required for a person to become a Muslim according to most traditional schools. Twelver_sentence_272

A vast majority of Twelvers often add ʻAlīyun waliyu l-Lāh (علي ولي الله "Ali is the vicegerent of God") at the end of the Shahādah. Twelver_sentence_273

This testifies that ʻAlī is also the Leader of the Believers along with God and Muhammad, proof of which Shi'a theologians find in the Qur'an. Twelver_sentence_274

Prayer Twelver_section_43

Main articles: Salah, Ghusl, and Wudu Twelver_sentence_275

The canonical prayers are the most central rite of Islam which is incumbent on all Muslims, both male and female, from the age of adolescence until death. Twelver_sentence_276

The prayers must be performed in the direction of the Ka'bah in Mecca five times a day: in the early morning, between dawn and sunrise; at noon; in the afternoon; at sunset; and at night before midnight. Twelver_sentence_277

The call to prayer (adhan) and ritual ablution (wudu) are preceded before the prayer and it can be performed on any ritually clean ground whether outdoors or indoors as long as one has the permission of the owner. Twelver_sentence_278

The units (rak'ah) of prayer are two in the morning, four at noon, four in the afternoon, three in the evening, and four at night. Twelver_sentence_279

Shia perform prayers on especial occasions like fear, joy, thanksgiving and at the pilgrimages and at the end of Ramadan. Twelver_sentence_280

There are minor differences between Sunnis and Twelvers in how the prayer ritual is performed. Twelver_sentence_281

During the purification ritual in preparation for prayer (which consists of washing the face, arms, feet, etc. and saying of some prayers), the Shīʻa view wiping the feet with wet hands as sufficient. Twelver_sentence_282

Also, Shīʻa do not use their fingers to clean inside the ears during the ablution ritual. Twelver_sentence_283

A prerequisite for purification is that one has to be clean before performing the purification ritual. Twelver_sentence_284

During prayer, it is the Jaʻfarī view that it is preferable to prostrate on earth, leaves that are not edible or wood, as these three things are considered purest by Muhammad in hadith specifically mentioning Tayammum. Twelver_sentence_285

Hence many Shīʻa use a turbah, a small tablet of soil, often taken from the ground of a holy site, or wood during their daily prayers upon which they prostrate. Twelver_sentence_286

In the Jaʻfarī view, the hands are to be left hanging straight down the side during the standing position of the prayer. Twelver_sentence_287

The Jaʻfarī consider the five daily prayers to be compulsory, though the Jaʻfarī consider it acceptable to pray the second and third prayer, and the fourth and fifth prayer, one after the other during the parts of the day where they believe the timings for these prayers to overlap. Twelver_sentence_288

Fasting Twelver_section_44

Main article: Sawm Twelver_sentence_289

Nasr describes that Fasting is abstaining oneself from food, drink and sexual intercourse from the dawn to the sunset during the month of Ramadan. Twelver_sentence_290

The Fast also requires the abstaining one's mind and tongue away from evil thoughts and words. Twelver_sentence_291

It is obligatory from the age of adolescence until the time one possesses the physical strength to undertake it. Twelver_sentence_292

The fast is not obligatory for the sick, those travelling and breast-feeding mothers, but they must make up the lost days when possible. Twelver_sentence_293

According to Tabataba'ei, Arabic: الصوم‎ (Fasting) means to abstain oneself from something, which later in the development of the religion was applied to abstaining from some particular things, from break of dawn up to sunset, with intention (niyyah,النّيّة). Twelver_sentence_294

Fasting results in piety i.e., to abstain oneself from gratifying worldly matters, results in the perfection of the spirit. Twelver_sentence_295

He adds, one should care about matters which take him away from his Lord: this is called piety. Twelver_sentence_296

This abstinence from common lawful things causes him to abstain from unlawful things and to come nearer to God. Twelver_sentence_297

The end of Ramadan comes with the prayer of the Eid after which a sum of money equal to the cost of all the meals not eaten by oneself and one's family during this month is usually given to the poor. Twelver_sentence_298

Khums and Zakah Twelver_section_45

Main articles: Khums and Zakat Twelver_sentence_299

The term Zakah is related to the purity in Arabic. Twelver_sentence_300

It is the annual taxation of one's excess wealth at certain rates for different valuables. Twelver_sentence_301

It is a form of social welfare program, by which wealth is redistributed and the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small elite prevented. Twelver_sentence_302

It is also seen as a ritual purification of one's wealth. Twelver_sentence_303

Khums (خمس), meaning one fifth, is an annual tax of one-fifth which is levied on net income (after paying all expenses). Twelver_sentence_304

This tax is to be spent on Muhammad, his family, orphans, the needy and the travelers. Twelver_sentence_305

Half of the Khums is the share of the Imam which is his inheritance from Muhammad and at the absence of Imam, it is paid to Marja' as the representative of Imam. Twelver_sentence_306

The items which are eligible for khums are seven: Twelver_sentence_307


  1. the profit or the surplus of the income.Twelver_item_2_13
  2. the legitimate wealth which is mixed with some illegitimate wealth.Twelver_item_2_14
  3. mines and minerals.Twelver_item_2_15
  4. the precious stones obtained from sea by diving.Twelver_item_2_16
  5. treasures.Twelver_item_2_17
  6. the land which a dhimmi kafir buys from a Muslim.Twelver_item_2_18
  7. the spoils of war.Twelver_item_2_19

Khums is mandatory on seven assets: earned profits, net income (after paying all expenses), Zakat or alms is levied on crops, livestock, gold, silver and cash Twelver_sentence_308

In Islamic legal terminology, it means "one-fifth of certain items which a person acquires as wealth, and which must be paid as an Islamic tax". Twelver_sentence_309

According to Shi'a, the items eligible for khums are referred to as Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة) in the Quran. Twelver_sentence_310

The Arabic word Ghanima has two meanings Twelver_sentence_311


  • "spoils of war" or "war booty"Twelver_item_3_20
  • gain or profitTwelver_item_3_21

The Sunni translate this word exclusively as "war booty" or "spoils of war". Twelver_sentence_312

The Twelvers hold the view that the word Ghanima has two meanings as mentioned above, the second meaning is illustrated by the common use of the Islamic banking term al-ghunm bil-ghurm meaning "gains accompany liability for loss or risk". Twelver_sentence_313

Also, in a famous supplication, the supplication after the noon prayer, the person asks God to bestow on him His favors, one of those favors which the person asks is the benefit or gain from every act of righteousness, the word used here is al-ghanima (وَالْغَنيمَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ بِر ) this is in accordance with the second meaning of the word. Twelver_sentence_314

Hajj Twelver_section_46

Main article: Hajj Twelver_sentence_315

Hajj is the supreme pilgrimage of the Muslim to the Ka'bah in Mecca. Twelver_sentence_316

This rite involves circumambulation around the Ka'bah, certain movements, prayers, and the sacrifice of an animal in Mecca and adjoining holy areas according to Sunnah. Twelver_sentence_317

Muslims believe that if the Hajj was performed by sincerity, their sins will be forgiven by God. Twelver_sentence_318

It is performed in the month of Dhu'l-hijjah and is obligatory for all the Muslims who possess physical and financial ability.There is also lesser Hajj or hajj al-'umrah which is performed on the remaining of the year. Twelver_sentence_319

Jihad Twelver_section_47

Main article: Jihad Twelver_sentence_320

According to Nasr, Jihad literally means effort but in the path of God in the whole of life. Twelver_sentence_321

Shia associates the doctrine of Jihad directly to the Walayah or allegiance to the Imamah, i.e., it is Imam who can distinguish the situation which necessitates the Jihad and just this kind of Jihad may cause the entry to the paradise. Twelver_sentence_322

Nasr states that as equilibrium, both outward and inward, is the prerequisite for the spiritual flight, all Muslims should carry out Jihad against any outward and inward forces to maintain equilibrium. Twelver_sentence_323

The outward Jihad is related to the defense of the Muslim world against non-Islamic forces. Twelver_sentence_324

It also includes the defense of one's honor, family and rights and establishing justice in the whole environment. Twelver_sentence_325

But this lesser jihad should be completed by a greater Jihad which is war against all forces that are against the nobility of the human. Twelver_sentence_326

He adds that from the spiritual point of view all the pillars of Islam like Shahadah, prayer ... are the weapons for the practice of this inner Jihad. Twelver_sentence_327

So inner Jihad is the path for the realization of the One who is the ultimate message of the Islam. Twelver_sentence_328

This inner Jihad continues until every breath of man echoes that reality who is the origin of every thing and all things return to him. Twelver_sentence_329

Nasr adds that every religious deed is Jihad because it is a striving between one's passionate soul(nafs) and the demands of the immortal spirit. Twelver_sentence_330

Islam sees Jihad as a care against every thing which distracts one from God. Twelver_sentence_331

Shia believe that Jihad as defense is legitimate not as aggression. Twelver_sentence_332

The Jihad can not be done against the innocent and the enemy should be treated with Justice and kindness and Jihad should be carried out on the basis of truth not on the basis of anger. Twelver_sentence_333

The killing of women, children, even animals and the destruction is forbidden in Jihad. Twelver_sentence_334

Tawalla and Tabarra Twelver_section_48

Main articles: Tawalla and Tabarra Twelver_sentence_335

Love of Muhammad is incumbent upon all Muslims and is the key for the love of God. Twelver_sentence_336

To love God needs that God love the one and God does not love the one who does not love his messengers. Twelver_sentence_337

Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil Twelver_section_49

Main articles: Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil Twelver_sentence_338

In addition to leading a virtuous life, a Muslim should enjoin all other Muslims to do the same and to avoid all vices prohibited. Twelver_sentence_339

Differences Twelver_section_50

Dissimulation (Taqiyya) Twelver_section_51

Main article: Taqiya Twelver_sentence_340

By Shia, acting according to religion is incumbent on every one, but if the expression of a belief endanger one's life, honor and property, he can conceal his belief as the verse implies. Twelver_sentence_341

It is as a weapon for the weak before the tyrants. Twelver_sentence_342

If Dissimulation cause the disappearance of the religion or the fundamentals of the religion, it is forbidden and Muslims are to give up their lives but if there is no advantage in their being killed, it is to dissimulate. Twelver_sentence_343

There is no place for Dissimulation regarding the teaching of the doctrines of the religion. Twelver_sentence_344

As Shia has been a minority under the rule of regimes who were in hostility to their beliefs, they choose to be cautious to prevent their extinction. Twelver_sentence_345

Henry Corbin, states that "the practice was instituted by the Imams themselves, not only for reasons of personal safety, but as an attitude called for by the absolute respect for high doctrines: nobody has strictly the right to listen to them except those who are capable of listening to, and comprehending, the truth. " Twelver_sentence_346

Mut'ah: Temporary marriage Twelver_section_52

Main article: Nikah mut'ah Twelver_sentence_347

Nikāḥ al-Mut'ah, Nikah el Mut'a (Arabic: نكاح المتعة‎, also Nikah Mut'ah literally, "marriage of pleasure"), or sighah, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari'a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the marriage is automatically dissolved. Twelver_sentence_348

It has many conditions that can be considered as pre-requisite, similar to that of permanent marriage. Twelver_sentence_349

However, it is regarded as haram (prohibited) by Sunnis. Twelver_sentence_350

This is a highly controversial fiqh topic; Sunnis and Shi'a hold diametrically opposed views on its permissibility. Twelver_sentence_351

However, some Sunni Muslims recognize Nikah Misyar. Twelver_sentence_352

Mutah is claimed to have existed during the time of Muhammad, and during a portion of his time, it was not prohibited. Twelver_sentence_353

On this basis, Shias believe that anything that was allowed during the time of Muhammad should remain allowed after. Twelver_sentence_354

Mut'ah was allegedly practiced from the time of revelation to Muhammad until the time of Umar as the verse points to it. Twelver_sentence_355

Jurisprudence (Fiqh) Twelver_section_53

Main articles: Ja'fari jurisprudence and Sources of sharia Twelver_sentence_356

According to Shia, the Quran, the Sunna, intellect and consensus are the bases of the jurisprudence. Twelver_sentence_357

As Islam is considered by Shia to be the last and the most perfect religion, by ijtihad, it deduces the responses through Islamic sources. Twelver_sentence_358

Thus ijtihad brings flexibility to Islamic system. Twelver_sentence_359

According to Ja'fari jurisprudence, Sharia is derived from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Twelver_sentence_360

The difference between Sunni and Shīʻa Sharia results from a Shīʻa belief that Muhammad assigned ʻAlī to be the first ruler and the leader after him (the Khalifa or steward). Twelver_sentence_361

This difference resulted in the Shīʻa: Twelver_sentence_362


  1. Following hadith from Muħammad and his descendants the 12 Imāms.Twelver_item_4_22
  2. Some of them are not accepting the "examples", verdicts, and ahādīth of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman ibn Affan (who are considered by Sunnīs to be the first three Caliphs).Twelver_item_4_23
  3. Attributing the concept of the masūm "infallibility" to the Twelve Imāms or The Fourteen Infallibles (including Muhammad and his daughter Fatimah) and accepting the examples and verdicts of this special group.Twelver_item_4_24

Akhbari and Usuli schools Twelver_section_54

Rejecting the function of the Mujtahid, comparing to the authority of Imam, Mullah Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi (d. 1626-27) knew the Mujtahid unnecessary as the people themselves following the instructions of the Imam which is sufficient for the guidance of the Shia. Twelver_sentence_363

Akhbaries only rely on the hadith of the prophet and the Imams. Twelver_sentence_364

Knowing them as non-systematic and purely doctrinal without tolerating the rational judgement, Usulies depicted themselves as "a living continuous leadership of the believers" with "flexibility regarding legal and especially political questions". Twelver_sentence_365

Usuli implies the doctrine of Usul which means the principle of the Jurisprudence, and Ilm al-Usul concerns with establishing the legal standards on the basis of Quran, hadith, Ijma' and Aql. Twelver_sentence_366

Ijma' is the unanimous consensus. Twelver_sentence_367

Aql, in Shia Jurisprudence, is applied to four practical principles namely bara'at (immunity), ihtiyat (precaution), takhyir (selection), and istishab (continuity in the previous state) which are applied when other religious proofs are not applicable. Twelver_sentence_368

Guardianship of the jurisprudent Twelver_section_55

Main article: Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Twelver_sentence_369

By Shia political thought, at the absence of an infallible Imam, a capable jurist (faqih) takes the responsibility of leadership of the community. Twelver_sentence_370

By Shia jurisprudence, the basis of the juristic authority is derived from the Imamate as the expansion of the prophecy and knowledge (ilm) which is also the basis for the religious and political authority of the Imam. Twelver_sentence_371

As Islam is the foundation of Muslim's culture, it needs government in order to be implemented. Twelver_sentence_372

and establishing an Islamic society is the aim of the Islamic government. Twelver_sentence_373

The Islamic authority responds to social needs by Islamic norms. Twelver_sentence_374

God's absolute authority is the foundation of Twelvers political thought, though every one who wishes to have authority must be assigned by Him. Twelver_sentence_375

In referring to the Hakim (Wali) Ja'far as-Sadiq states that: "I have appointed him a hakim over you. Twelver_sentence_376

If such a person orders (judges) according to our ruling and the person concerned does not accept it, then he has shown contempt for the ruling of God and rejects us; and he who rejects us, actually rejects Allah and such a person is close to association [Shirk] with Allah. " Twelver_sentence_377

Regarding the priority of the guardianship over all other religious law, Khomeini states that: "The government, or the absolute guardianship (alwilayat al-mutlaqa) that is delegated to the noblest messenger of Allah, is the most important divine law and has priority over all other ordinances of the law. Twelver_sentence_378

If the powers of the government be restricted to the framework of ordinances of the law then the delegation of the authority to Muhammad would be a senseless phenomenon. " Twelver_sentence_379

Shaykh al-Saduq and Shaykh al-Tusi transmit the hadith that Muhammad al-Mahdi, in response to Ishaq ibn Yaqub, through Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Umari expresses that: "As for the events that may occur (al-hawadith al-waqi'a) [when you may need guidance] refer to the transmitters (ruwat) of our teachings who are my hujjah (proof) to you and I am the Proof of God (Hujjatullah) to you all. " Twelver_sentence_380

Ja'afar al-Sadiq, pointing to verse , forbids referring to tyrannical government for all the times. " Twelver_sentence_381

In fact, the idea of jurist authority is based on the belief that establishing an ideal society without any aid from God's revelation, is not possible. Twelver_sentence_382

According to Twelvers, Juristic authority emphasizes on the role of Shari'a in society. Twelver_sentence_383

According to Al-Murtaza, on certain conditions holding office on behalf of the true Leaders is obligatory: to enable the office to order what is right and forbid what is wrong, to protect the Shi'ites, the Shi'ites are threatened to death, otherwise. Twelver_sentence_384

Traditionally Twelvers consider 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and the subsequent further eleven Imams not only religious guides but political leaders, based on a crucial hadith where Muhammad passes on his power to command Muslims to Ali. Twelver_sentence_385

Since the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, went into "occultation" in 939 and is not expected back until end times, this left Shi'a without religiously sanctioned governance. Twelver_sentence_386

The first Shi'a regime, the Safavid dynasty in Iran, propagated the Twelver faith, made Twelver's law the law of the land, and patronized Twelver scholarship. Twelver_sentence_387

For this, Twelver ulema "crafted a new theory of government" which held that while "not truly legitimate", the Safavid monarchy would be "blessed as the most desirable form of government during the period of awaiting" for Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam. Twelver_sentence_388

In general, the Shi'a adhere to one of three approaches towards the state: either full participation in government, i.e., attempting to influence policies by becoming active in politics, or passive cooperation with it, i.e. minimal participation, or else most commonly, mere toleration of it, i.e. remaining aloof from it. Twelver_sentence_389

This changed with Iranian Revolution where the Twelver Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters established a new theory of governance for the Islamic Republic of Iran. Twelver_sentence_390

It is based on Khomeini's theory of guardianship of the Islamic jurist as rule of the Islamic jurist, and jurists as "legatees" of Muhammad. Twelver_sentence_391

While not all Twelvers accept this theory, it is uniquely Twelver and the basis of the constitution of Iran, the largest Shi'a Muslim country, where the Supreme Leader must be an Islamic jurist. Twelver_sentence_392

Ijtihad and Taqlid (Accepting a scholar's verdict) Twelver_section_56

See also: Marja' (Islamic law) and Usuli Twelver_sentence_393

The use of Ijtihad and Taqlid associates with a religious and judicial problem that its answer is not in the Quran and hadith. Twelver_sentence_394

Regarding Ijtihad, Halm explains that while the religious material is limited, what procedure should be taken if a problem arises. Twelver_sentence_395

Here human reason comes in; God gave reason to human to discover His Will. Twelver_sentence_396

If no answer was given by tradition (naql) the intellect (aql) should come in. Twelver_sentence_397

This rational effort to find the solutions for the temporary issues is called Ijtihad (making of an effort). Twelver_sentence_398

It is derived form the word jihad which means the struggle for the attainment of God's Will on earth. Twelver_sentence_399

The participle of ijtihad is mujtahid (the person who makes effort). Twelver_sentence_400

They should master the Arabic language and be familiar with the foundations of Quran and hadith. Twelver_sentence_401

They also should know the principles of Jurisprudence and logic. Twelver_sentence_402

The remaining other believers, who are not expert, exercise taqlid which means authorization; that is common believers authorize the experts to make decisions for them. Twelver_sentence_403

If the mujtahid make a mistake, the believer is not responsible for his error. Twelver_sentence_404

Though ijtihad makes the Shia theology flexible. Twelver_sentence_405

The traces of Ijtihad refers back to the time of Imams when they trained scholars to answer to the judicial problems of the people. Twelver_sentence_406

As al-Baqir said to Aban ibn Taghlib: "Sit down at the door of the mosque and pronounce fatwa (judgement) to the people ..." According to Nasr, the mujtahids acted as the guard against tyrannical government and they had religious and social functions. Twelver_sentence_407

Al-Karaki narrates a hadith from his teachers that the scholar is the guardian of the religion, successor of the Imam and he should draw conclusions from the sources by the reasoning. Twelver_sentence_408

Calendar Twelver_section_57

Notable scholars Twelver_section_58

See also: List of marjas and List of Shi'a Muslim scholars of Islam Twelver_sentence_409

Marja' are the supreme legal authority for Twelvers. Twelver_sentence_410

Some of the historical and notable scholars include Mulla Sadra, Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Shaykh Tusi, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Al-Hilli. Twelver_sentence_411

See also Twelver_section_59

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