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"Tweeting" and "Tweeted" redirect here. Twitter_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bird vocalization and Tweet. Twitter_sentence_1


Twitter, Inc.Twitter_table_caption_0
Type of businessTwitter_header_cell_0_0_0 PublicTwitter_cell_0_0_1
Type of siteTwitter_header_cell_0_1_0 News, social networking serviceTwitter_cell_0_1_1
Available inTwitter_header_cell_0_2_0 MultilingualTwitter_cell_0_2_1
Traded asTwitter_header_cell_0_3_0 Twitter_cell_0_3_1
FoundedTwitter_header_cell_0_4_0 March 21, 2006; 14 years ago (2006-03-21)Twitter_cell_0_4_1
HeadquartersTwitter_header_cell_0_5_0 San Francisco, California United StatesTwitter_cell_0_5_1
Area servedTwitter_header_cell_0_6_0 WorldwideTwitter_cell_0_6_1
Founder(s)Twitter_header_cell_0_7_0 Twitter_cell_0_7_1
Key peopleTwitter_header_cell_0_8_0 Twitter_cell_0_8_1
IndustryTwitter_header_cell_0_9_0 InternetTwitter_cell_0_9_1
RevenueTwitter_header_cell_0_10_0 US$3.46 billion (2019)Twitter_cell_0_10_1
Operating incomeTwitter_header_cell_0_11_0 US$453 million (2018)Twitter_cell_0_11_1
Net incomeTwitter_header_cell_0_12_0 US$1.47 billion (2019)Twitter_cell_0_12_1
Total assetsTwitter_header_cell_0_13_0 US$10.16 billion (2018)Twitter_cell_0_13_1
Total equityTwitter_header_cell_0_14_0 US$6.8 billion (2018)Twitter_cell_0_14_1
EmployeesTwitter_header_cell_0_15_0 4,600 (September 2019)Twitter_cell_0_15_1
SubsidiariesTwitter_header_cell_0_16_0 Twitter_cell_0_16_1
URLTwitter_header_cell_0_17_0 Q918#P856Twitter_cell_0_17_1
RegistrationTwitter_header_cell_0_18_0 RequiredTwitter_cell_0_18_1
UsersTwitter_header_cell_0_19_0 Twitter_cell_0_19_1
LaunchedTwitter_header_cell_0_20_0 July 15, 2006; 14 years ago (2006-07-15)Twitter_cell_0_20_1
Current statusTwitter_header_cell_0_21_0 ActiveTwitter_cell_0_21_1
Native client(s) onTwitter_header_cell_0_22_0 iOS, Android, Windows Phone, Microsoft Windows, MacOS, WebTwitter_cell_0_22_1
Written inTwitter_header_cell_0_23_0 Twitter_cell_0_23_1

Twitter is an American microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Twitter_sentence_2

Registered users can post, like and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Twitter_sentence_3

Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app"). Twitter_sentence_4

Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter_sentence_5

Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but was doubled to 280 for non-CJK languages in November 2017. Twitter_sentence_6

Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts. Twitter_sentence_7

Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. Twitter_sentence_8

By 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. Twitter_sentence_9

In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". Twitter_sentence_10

As of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users. Twitter_sentence_11

History Twitter_section_0

Further information: Timeline of Twitter Twitter_sentence_12

Creation and initial reaction Twitter_section_1

Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Twitter_sentence_13

Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group. Twitter_sentence_14

The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. Twitter_sentence_15

The decision was also partly due to the fact that the domain was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter. Twitter_sentence_16

The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Twitter_sentence_17

Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr". Twitter_sentence_18

Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title: Twitter_sentence_19

The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees. Twitter_sentence_20

The full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. Twitter_sentence_21

In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including and — from the investors and shareholders. Twitter_sentence_22

Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter_sentence_23

Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007. Twitter_sentence_24

Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: Twitter_sentence_25

The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. Twitter_sentence_26

During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. Twitter_sentence_27

"The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. Twitter_sentence_28

"Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Twitter_sentence_29

Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it." Twitter_sentence_30

Reaction at the conference was highly positive. Twitter_sentence_31

Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter was "absolutely ruling" SXSWi. Twitter_sentence_32

Social software researcher danah boyd said Twitter was "owning" the conference. Twitter_sentence_33

Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. Twitter_sentence_34

And we just did!" Twitter_sentence_35

The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. Twitter_sentence_36 J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. Twitter_sentence_37

By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. Twitter_sentence_38

NASA has also hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. Twitter_sentence_39

In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. Twitter_sentence_40

2007–2010 Twitter_section_2

The company experienced rapid initial growth. Twitter_sentence_41

It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. Twitter_sentence_42

This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. Twitter_sentence_43

In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. Twitter_sentence_44

By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications. Twitter_sentence_45

As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. Twitter_sentence_46

As of March 2011, that was about 140 million tweets posted daily. Twitter_sentence_47

As noted on, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second. Twitter_sentence_48

Twitter's usage spikes during prominent events. Twitter_sentence_49

For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14. Twitter_sentence_50

The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, and then again at the close of Japan's victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second. Twitter_sentence_51

The record was set again during the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published. Twitter_sentence_52

When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour. Twitter_sentence_53

The current record as of August 3, 2013 was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie Castle in the Sky (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie). Twitter_sentence_54

Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Twitter_sentence_55

Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. Twitter_sentence_56

The application, now called "Twitter" and distributed free of charge, is the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac. Twitter_sentence_57

From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out "New Twitter", an entirely revamped edition of Twitter_sentence_58

Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube and Flickr, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream, while 'Messages' and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of Twitter_sentence_59

As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users. Twitter_sentence_60

In 2019, Twitter was announced to be the 10th most downloaded mobile app of the decade, from 2010 to 2019. Twitter_sentence_61

2011–2014 Twitter_section_3

On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the "Old Twitter". Twitter_sentence_62

However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20. Twitter_sentence_63

On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the "Fly" design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. Twitter_sentence_64

In addition to the Home tab, the Connect and Discover tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. Twitter_sentence_65

The site's layout has been compared to that of Facebook. Twitter_sentence_66

On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and Yandex agreed to a partnership. Twitter_sentence_67

Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter's real time news feeds. Twitter_sentence_68

Twitter's director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go. Twitter_sentence_69

On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it had 140 million users and 340 million tweets per day. Twitter_sentence_70

The number of users was up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time. Twitter_sentence_71

In April 2012, Twitter announced that it was opening an office in Detroit, with the aim of working with automotive brands and advertising agencies. Twitter_sentence_72

Twitter also expanded its office in Dublin. Twitter_sentence_73

On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter. Twitter_sentence_74

On October 5, 2012, Twitter acquired a video clip company called Vine that launched in January 2013. Twitter_sentence_75

Twitter released Vine as a standalone app that allows users to create and share six-second looping video clips on January 24, 2013. Twitter_sentence_76

Vine videos shared on Twitter are visible directly in users' Twitter feeds. Twitter_sentence_77

Due to an influx of inappropriate content, it is now rated 17+ in Apple's app store. Twitter_sentence_78

On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. Twitter_sentence_79

Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011. Twitter_sentence_80

On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Crashlytics in order to build out its mobile developer products. Twitter_sentence_81

On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone. Twitter_sentence_82

On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr, followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013. Twitter_sentence_83

As of September 2013, the company's data showed that 200 million users sent over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices. Twitter_sentence_84

On June 4, 2014, Twitter announced that it would acquire Namo Media, a technology firm specializing in "native advertising" for mobile devices. Twitter_sentence_85

On June 19, 2014, Twitter announced that it had reached an undisclosed deal to buy SnappyTV, a service that helps edit and share video from television broadcasts. Twitter_sentence_86

The company was helping broadcasters and rights holders to share video content both organically across social and via Twitter's Amplify program. Twitter_sentence_87

In July 2014, Twitter announced that it intended to buy a young company called CardSpring for an undisclosed sum. Twitter_sentence_88

CardSpring enabled retailers to offer online shoppers coupons that they could automatically sync to their credit cards in order to receive discounts when they shopped in physical stores. Twitter_sentence_89

On July 31, 2014, Twitter announced that it had acquired a small password-security startup called Mitro. Twitter_sentence_90

On October 29, 2014, Twitter announced a new partnership with IBM. Twitter_sentence_91

The partnership was intended to help businesses use Twitter data to understand their customers, businesses and other trends. Twitter_sentence_92

2015–2016 Twitter_section_4

On February 11, 2015, Twitter announced that it had acquired Niche, an advertising network for social media stars, founded by Rob Fishman and Darren Lachtman. Twitter_sentence_93

The acquisition price was reportedly $50 million. Twitter_sentence_94

On March 13, 2015, Twitter announced its acquisition of Periscope, an app that allows live streaming of video. Twitter_sentence_95

In April 2015, the desktop homepage changed. Twitter_sentence_96

Twitter announced that it had acquired TellApart, a commerce ads tech firm, with $532 million stock. Twitter_sentence_97

Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune, Business Insider, Marketing Land and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016). Twitter_sentence_98

In June 2016, Twitter acquired an artificial intelligence startup called Magic Pony for $150 million. Twitter_sentence_99

2017–2019 Twitter_section_5

In 2019, Twitter redesigned its user interface yet again. Twitter_sentence_100

This newest "new Twitter" was deployed in "a gradual rollout". Twitter_sentence_101

2020 Twitter_section_6

Twitter saw somewhat dramatic growth in 2020, possibly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Twitter_sentence_102

During said pandemic, Twitter saw an increased use of the platform for misinformation related to the pandemic. Twitter_sentence_103

Twitter announced in March 2020 that it would start marking tweets which may contain misleading information, in some cases it will provide links to pages of fact-checking information. Twitter_sentence_104

A major hack of Twitter on July 15, 2020 affected 130 high-profile accounts, both verified and unverified ones such as Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Elon Musk; the hack allowed bitcoin scammers to send tweets via the compromised accounts that asked the followers to send bitcoin to a given public address, with the promise to double their money. Twitter_sentence_105

Within a few hours, Twitter disabled tweeting and reset passwords from all verified accounts. Twitter_sentence_106

Analysis of the event revealed that the scammers had used social engineering to obtain credentials from Twitter employees to access an administration tool used by Twitter to view and change these accounts' personal details as to gain access as part of a "smash and grab" attempt to make money quickly, with an estimated US$120,000 in bitcoin deposited in various accounts before Twitter intervened. Twitter_sentence_107

Several law enforcement entities including the FBI launched investigations into the attack to determine the perpetrators over concerns of broader implications of such a hack in the future. Twitter_sentence_108

Leadership Twitter_section_7

As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company. Twitter_sentence_109

On October 16, 2008, Williams took over the role of CEO, and Dorsey became chairman of the board. Twitter_sentence_110

On October 4, 2010, Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. Twitter_sentence_111

Dick Costolo, formerly Twitter's chief operating officer, became CEO. Twitter_sentence_112

On October 4, 2010, Williams made an announcement saying that he will stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy". Twitter_sentence_113

According to The New York Times, "Mr. Dorsey and Mr. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away. Twitter_sentence_114

According to PC Magazine, Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company". Twitter_sentence_115

He was focused on developing a new startup, and became a member of Twitter's board of directors, and promised to "help in any way [he could]". Twitter_sentence_116

In 2011, Stone was still with Twitter but was working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy". Twitter_sentence_117

In January 2014, Stone announced the release of Jelly, a 'social Q&A network for mobile'. Twitter_sentence_118

Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011, as executive chairman focusing on product development. Twitter_sentence_119

At that time, he split his schedule with Square (where he is CEO), whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco. Twitter_sentence_120

In September 2011, board members and investors Fred Wilson and Bijan Sabet resigned from Twitter's board of directors. Twitter_sentence_121

In October 2012, Twitter announced it had hired former Google executive Matt Derella to become their new director of business agency development. Twitter_sentence_122

Twitter named former Goldman Sachs executive Anthony Noto as the company's CFO in July 2014, with an "annual salary of $250,000 and one-time restricted stock options of 1.5 million shares ... valued at $61.5 million". Twitter_sentence_123

On June 10, 2015, Twitter announced its CEO Dick Costolo would resign on July 1, 2015. Twitter_sentence_124

Noto was said to be considered a potential replacement for outgoing CEO Costolo. Twitter_sentence_125

On October 14, 2015, former Google chief business officer Omid Kordestani became executive chairman, replacing Dorsey who remains CEO. Twitter_sentence_126

On January 26, 2016, Leslie Berland, former executive vice president of global advertising, marketing, and digital partnerships at American Express, was named chief marketing officer. Twitter_sentence_127

In November 2016, COO Adam Bain announced his resignation and CFO Anthony Noto took over Bain's role. Twitter_sentence_128

A month later, on December 20, 2016, CTO Adam Messinger announced that he too was leaving. Twitter_sentence_129

In February 2020, it was reported that Elliott Management Corporation had acquired a stake in Twitter, with activist shareholder and Republican Party supporter Paul Singer expected to seek the removal of Dorsey as CEO. Twitter_sentence_130

Twitter agreed to appoint a new independent director and two new board members, and to perform $2 billion in share buybacks. Twitter_sentence_131

Appearance and features Twitter_section_8

Logo and font Twitter_section_9

Twitter has become internationally identifiable by its signature bird logo, or the Twitter Bird. Twitter_sentence_132

The original logo, which was simply the word "Twitter", was in use from its launch in March 2006. Twitter_sentence_133

It was accompanied by an image of a bird which was later discovered to be a piece of clip art created by the British graphic designer Simon Oxley. Twitter_sentence_134

A new logo had to be redesigned by founder Biz Stone with help from designer Philip Pascuzzo, which resulted in a more cartoon-like bird in 2009. Twitter_sentence_135

This version had been dubbed "Larry the Bird" specifically named after Larry Bird of the NBA's Boston Celtics fame. Twitter_sentence_136

Within a year, the Larry the Bird logo underwent a redesign by Stone and Pascuzzo to eliminate the cartoon features, leaving a solid silhouette of Larry the Bird that was used from 2010 through 2012. Twitter_sentence_137

In 2012, Douglas Bowman created a further simplified version of Larry the Bird, keeping the solid silhouette but making it more similar to a mountain bluebird. Twitter_sentence_138

This new logo was called simply the "Twitter Bird," and has been used as the company's branding since. Twitter_sentence_139

On May 30, 2014, Twitter announced, "Starting today, we're rolling out a new font on, moving from Helvetica Neue to Gotham". Twitter_sentence_140

Tweets Twitter_section_10

Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to only their followers. Twitter_sentence_141

Users can mute users they do not wish to interact with and block accounts from viewing their tweets. Twitter_sentence_142

Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries. Twitter_sentence_143

Users may subscribe to other users' tweets—this is known as "following" and subscribers are known as "followers" or "tweeps", a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps. Twitter_sentence_144

Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a "retweet". Twitter_sentence_145

Users can also "like" (formerly "favorite") individual tweets. Twitter_sentence_146

Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets. Twitter_sentence_147

Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client. Twitter_sentence_148

In a 2009 Time magazine essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple": Twitter_sentence_149

According to research published in April 2014, around 44% of user accounts have never tweeted. Twitter_sentence_150

The first tweet was posted by Jack Dorsey (creator) at 12:50 PM PST on March 21, 2006 and read "just setting up my twttr". Twitter_sentence_151

In 2009, the first tweet was sent from space. Twitter_sentence_152

US astronauts Nicola Stott and Jeff Williams took part in a live 'tweetup' from the International Space Station with around 35 members of the public at NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Twitter_sentence_153

Content Twitter_section_11

San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories. Twitter_sentence_154

Pointless babble made up 40%, with 38% being conversational. Twitter_sentence_155

Pass-along value had 9%, self-promotion 6% with spam and news each making 4%. Twitter_sentence_156

Despite Jack Dorsey's own open contention that a message on Twitter is "a short burst of inconsequential information", social networking researcher danah boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labeled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" and/or "peripheral awareness" (which she justifies as persons "want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn't viable"). Twitter_sentence_157

Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers. Twitter_sentence_158

Format Twitter_section_12

Hashtags, usernames, retweets and replies Twitter_section_13

"Twitter hashtag" redirects here. Twitter_sentence_159

For more about hashtags, see Hashtag. Twitter_sentence_160

Further information: Mention (blogging) § @ (At sign) Twitter_sentence_161

Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a "#" sign. Twitter_sentence_162

Similarly, the "@" sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users. Twitter_sentence_163

To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet. Twitter_sentence_164

Users can reply other accounts' replies. Twitter_sentence_165

Since November 2019, users can hide replies to their messages. Twitter_sentence_166

Since May 2020, users can select who can reply each of their messages: anyone, accounts who follow the poster, specific accounts, and none. Twitter_sentence_167

Twitter Lists Twitter_section_14

In late 2009, the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors. Twitter_sentence_168

Using SMS Twitter_section_15

Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. Twitter_sentence_169

There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2 and Orange networks. Twitter_sentence_170

In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel, an alternative platform called smsTweet was set up by a user to work on all networks. Twitter_sentence_171

A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia. Twitter_sentence_172

The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. Twitter_sentence_173

The 140-character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as,,,, and other content-hosting services such as TwitPic, and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Twitter_sentence_174

Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own domain for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its site, making other link shorteners unnecessary for staying within Twitter's 140 character limit. Twitter_sentence_175

In August 2019, Jack Dorsey's account was hacked by using Twitter's SMS to tweet feature to send crude messages. Twitter_sentence_176

Days later, the ability to send a tweet via SMS was temporarily turned off. Twitter_sentence_177

In April 2020, Twitter discontinued the ability to receive SMS messages containing the text of new tweets in most countries. Twitter_sentence_178

Character limits Twitter_section_16

In 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the already constrictive 140 character limit. Twitter_sentence_179

A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters. Twitter_sentence_180

Attachments and links would also no longer be part of the character limit. Twitter_sentence_181

Since March 30, 2017, the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit. Twitter_sentence_182

Only new Twitter handles added to the conversation count towards the limit. Twitter_sentence_183

In 2017, Twitter doubled their historical 140-character-limitation to 280. Twitter_sentence_184

Under the new limit, glyphs are counted as a variable number of characters, depending upon the script they are from: most European letters and punctuation forms count as one character, while each CJK glyph counts as two so that only 140 such glyphs can be used in a tweet. Twitter_sentence_185

Image captions Twitter_section_17

On Tuesday, 2016-03-29, Twitter introduced a feature to improve accessibility for visually impaired people: A caption with the length of up to 420 characters can be added to each image optionally. Twitter_sentence_186

This caption can be accessed by screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck. Twitter_sentence_187

URL shortener Twitter_section_18 is a URL shortening service created by Twitter. Twitter_sentence_188

It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. Twitter_sentence_189

All links posted to Twitter use a wrapper. Twitter_sentence_190

Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites, and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets. Twitter_sentence_191

Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and, Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the domain, before it purchased the domain. Twitter_sentence_192

The service was tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI, @rsarver and @raffi. Twitter_sentence_193

On September 2, 2010, an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. Twitter_sentence_194

On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature. Twitter_sentence_195

Trending topics Twitter_section_19

Main article: Twitter trends Twitter_sentence_196

A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Twitter_sentence_197

Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic. Twitter_sentence_198

These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people's opinions are about it. Twitter_sentence_199

Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga (known as Little Monsters), Justin Bieber (Beliebers), Rihanna (Rih Navy) and One Direction (Directioners), and novel series Twilight (Twihards) and Harry Potter (Potterheads). Twitter_sentence_200

Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success. Twitter_sentence_201

The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content (see image). Twitter_sentence_202

Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter_sentence_203

Twitter censored the #Thatsafrican and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive. Twitter_sentence_204

There are allegations that Twitter removed #NaMOinHyd from the trending list and added an Indian National Congress-sponsored hashtag. Twitter_sentence_205

Moments Twitter_section_20

In October 2015, Twitter introduced "Moments"—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection. Twitter_sentence_206

Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter's apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content. Twitter_sentence_207

In September 2016, creation of moments became available to all Twitter users. Twitter_sentence_208

Adding and following content Twitter_section_21

There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter's own TweetDeck,, HootSuite, and Twitter_sentence_209

As of 2009, fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos). Twitter_sentence_210

Verified accounts Twitter_section_22

In June 2009, after being criticized by Kanye West and sued by Tony La Russa over unauthorized accounts run by impersonators, Twitter launched their 'Verified Accounts' program. Twitter_sentence_211

Twitter stated that an account with a "blue tick" verification badge indicates "we've been in contact with the person or entity the account is representing and verified that it is approved." Twitter_sentence_212

After the beta period, Twitter stated in their FAQ that the company "proactively verifies accounts on an ongoing basis to make it easier for users to find who they’re looking for" and that they "do not accept requests for verification from the general public." Twitter_sentence_213

In July 2016, Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account "if it is determined to be of public interest" and that verification "does not imply an endorsement." Twitter_sentence_214

As of November 2017, Twitter continued to deny verification of Julian Assange following his requests. Twitter_sentence_215

In November 2017, the company suspended the verification process and announced plans to refine it in response to backlash after white nationalist Jason Kessler had his account verified on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_216

Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts. Twitter_sentence_217

In a March 8, 2018 live-stream on Twitter's Periscope, Dorsey discussed the idea of allowing any user to get a verified account. Twitter_sentence_218

"The intention is to open verification to everyone, and to do it in a way that is scalable where [Twitter is] not in the way," Dorsey said. Twitter_sentence_219

"And people can verify more facts about themselves, and we don’t have to be the judge or imply any bias on our part." Twitter_sentence_220

In November 2019, Dalit activists of India alleged that higher caste people get Twitter verification easily and trended hashtags #CancelAllBlueTicksInIndia and #CasteistTwitter. Twitter_sentence_221

Critics have commented that Twitter's verification process is not transparent and causes digital marginalisation of already marginalised communities. Twitter_sentence_222

Twitter India rejected the allegations, calling them 'impartial' and working on a 'case-by-case' policy. Twitter_sentence_223

In November 2020, Twitter announced relaunching of its verification system in 2021, and that the verification system would rely in part upon Wikipedia. Twitter_sentence_224

According to the proposed new policy, Twitter will verify six different types of accounts, and for three of them (companies, brands, and influential individuals like activists), the presence of a Wikipedia page will be one criterion for showing that the account has "Off Twitter Notability". Twitter_sentence_225

Mobile Twitter_section_23

Twitter has mobile apps for iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows 10, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, and Nokia S40. Twitter_sentence_226

Users can also tweet by sending SMS. Twitter_sentence_227

In April 2017, Twitter introduced Twitter Lite, a progressive web app designed for regions with unreliable and slow Internet connections, with a size of less than one megabyte, designed for devices with limited storage capacity. Twitter_sentence_228

This has been released in countries with slow internet connection such as the Philippines. Twitter_sentence_229

Twitter Lite has evolved into the main Twitter web interface, see section "interface". Twitter_sentence_230

Third-party applications Twitter_section_24

For many years, Twitter has limited the use of third-party applications accessing the service by implementing a 100,000 user limit per application. Twitter_sentence_231

Since August 2010, third-party Twitter applications have been required to use OAuth, an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application. Twitter_sentence_232

This was done to increase security and improve the user experience. Twitter_sentence_233

Related headlines feature Twitter_section_25

This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page. Twitter_sentence_234

If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet. Twitter_sentence_235

This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about. Twitter_sentence_236

Polls Twitter_section_26

In 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Twitter_sentence_237

Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified. Twitter_sentence_238

Initially, polls could have only two options with a maximum of twenty characters per option. Twitter_sentence_239

Later, the ability to add four options with up to 25 characters per option, was added. Twitter_sentence_240

Integrated photo-sharing service Twitter_section_27

On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from Twitter_sentence_241

Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitter's search by adding hashtags to the tweet. Twitter_sentence_242

Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic. Twitter_sentence_243

Streaming video Twitter_section_28

In 2016, Twitter began to place a larger focus on live streaming video programming, hosting various events including streams of the Republican and Democratic conventions during the U.S. Twitter_sentence_244 presidential campaign as part of a partnership with CBS News, Dreamhack and ESL eSports events, and winning a bid for non-exclusive streaming rights to ten NFL Thursday Night Football games in the 2016 season. Twitter_sentence_245

During an event in New York in May 2017, Twitter announced that it planned to construct a 24-hour streaming video channel hosted within the service, featuring content from various partners. Twitter_sentence_246

CEO Jack Dorsey stated that the digital video strategy was part of a goal for Twitter to be "the first place that anyone hears of anything going on that matters to them"; as of the first quarter of 2017, Twitter had over 200 content partners, who streamed over 800 hours of video over 450 events. Twitter_sentence_247

Twitter announced a number of new and expanded partnerships for its streaming video services at the event, including Bloomberg, BuzzFeed, Cheddar (Opening Bell and Closing Bell shows; the latter was introduced in October 2016) IMG Fashion (coverage of fashion events), Live Nation Entertainment (streaming concert events), Major League Baseball (weekly online game stream, plus a weekly program with live look-ins and coverage of trending stories), MTV and BET (red carpet coverage for their MTV Video Music Awards, MTV Movie & TV Awards, and BET Awards), NFL Network (the Monday-Thursday news program NFL Blitz Live, and Sunday Fantasy Gameday), the PGA Tour (PGA Tour Live coverage of early tournament rounds preceding television coverage), The Players' Tribune, Ben Silverman and Howard T. Owens' Propagate (daily entertainment show #WhatsHappening), The Verge (weekly technology show Circuit Breaker: The Verge’s Gadget Show), Stadium (a new digital sports network being formed by Silver Chalice and Sinclair Broadcast Group) and the WNBA (weekly game). Twitter_sentence_248

Account archival Twitter_section_29

Twitter has offered two different methods of archiving one's own Twitter account data. Twitter_sentence_249

Those methods have their individual benefits and disadvantages. Twitter_sentence_250

Since August 2019, only the latter archival method is available. Twitter_sentence_251

Browsable legacy Twitter archive format Twitter_section_30

In December 2012, Twitter introduced a "Tweet archival" feature, which created a that contains an offline-browsable archive of all tweets. Twitter_sentence_252

Those exported tweets could be browsed and searched offline by using the bundled user-interface accessible through an Internet browser, which used client-side, JavaScript-powered pagination. Twitter_sentence_253

The user interface of the tweet archive browser had a design similar to Twitter's 2010–2014 desktop user interface, even until the feature's removal. Twitter_sentence_254

The tweet text contents, ID's, time data and source labels are located in the file called "tweets.csv". Twitter_sentence_255

The ability to export this type of tweet archive, which never existed on the new layout, has been removed entirely in August 2019, after co-existing with the new 2018 data archival method. Twitter_sentence_256

Even when accessing the legacy Twitter desktop website layout using the user-agent of an older browser version, the option has disappeared from the account settings. Twitter_sentence_257

It was possible to request at least 1 archive per day. Twitter_sentence_258

New machine-readable archive format Twitter_section_31

Due to the legal GDPR §20 obligation (effective since May 2018) to provide data portability, social media services had to introduce advanced data export capabilities and utilities. Twitter_sentence_259

The original browsable tweet archives did lack a lot of metadata, especially about the account itself, which the new machine-readable archival feature does contain: Twitter_sentence_260


  • Account ID and creation dateTwitter_item_0_0
  • Direct messagesTwitter_item_0_1
  • List of:Twitter_item_0_2
    • Following users + countTwitter_item_0_3
    • Followed users + countTwitter_item_0_4
    • Blocked user IDsTwitter_item_0_5
    • Muted user IDsTwitter_item_0_6
    • Liked tweetsTwitter_item_0_7
  • Twitter MomentsTwitter_item_0_8
  • Information about Periscope accountTwitter_item_0_9
  • Saved searchesTwitter_item_0_10
  • Screen name changesTwitter_item_0_11
  • Associated mobile phone numberTwitter_item_0_12
  • Various account settingsTwitter_item_0_13
  • Users in created Twitter ListsTwitter_item_0_14
  • Member of which Twitter ListsTwitter_item_0_15
  • Advanced tweet metadata (e.g. tweet source tag)Twitter_item_0_16
  • More…Twitter_item_0_17

The tweet contents are located in the file called "tweet.js". Twitter_sentence_261

However, this new archival format contains all uploaded multimedia in the highest resolution, which makes its usually multiple times as large. Twitter_sentence_262

Additionally, the integrated tweet browser from the legacy archival feature is not bundled. Twitter_sentence_263

Another disadvantage is that one can only generate one of these archives per 30 days. Twitter_sentence_264

After obtaining this archive, one has to wait 30 days until requesting the next archive is possible. Twitter_sentence_265

During that timespan, the previous archive remains downloadable from the account settings. Twitter_sentence_266

This feature co-existed with the original browsable tweet archival feature since early 2018, until the latter was removed in August 2019. Twitter_sentence_267

Fleets Twitter_section_32

In 2020, Twitter began to test an Instagram/Snapchat story-like feature in some parts of the world. Twitter_sentence_268

This new feature was called "Fleets". Twitter_sentence_269

They were first launched in Brazil in the month of March. Twitter_sentence_270

In June 2020, Fleets was launched in India. Twitter_sentence_271

A user can add a text, pictures and videos in a fleet, which will disappear after 24 hours. Twitter_sentence_272

The "Fleets" feature officially launched on November 17, 2020. Twitter_sentence_273

In December 2020, a new feature was launched allowing users to share tweets directly to Snap Inc’s photo messaging app Snapchat. Twitter_sentence_274

In addition, Twitter will test a similar feature for stories on Facebook Inc’s Instagram for a small group of iOS users. Twitter_sentence_275

Usage Twitter_section_33

Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. Twitter_sentence_276

A February 2009 blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits. Twitter_sentence_277

In 2009, Twitter had a monthly user retention rate of forty percent. Twitter_sentence_278

Twitter had annual growth of 1,382 percent, increasing from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. Twitter_sentence_279

Twitter's annual growth rate decreased from 7.8 percent in 2015 to 3.4 percent in 2017. Twitter_sentence_280

An April 2017 a blog entry ranked Twitter as the tenth most used social network based on their count of 319 million monthly visitors. Twitter_sentence_281

Its global user base in 2017 was 328 million. Twitter_sentence_282

As per August 2018, Twitter light (data saving app) is available in 45 countries. Twitter_sentence_283

Demographics Twitter_section_34

See also: Black Twitter Twitter_sentence_284

In 2009, Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. Twitter_sentence_285

"Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years," he said. Twitter_sentence_286

According to comScore only eleven percent of Twitter's users are aged twelve to seventeen. Twitter_sentence_287

comScore attributed this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. Twitter_sentence_288

However, comScore also stated in 2009 that Twitter had begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati". Twitter_sentence_289

According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—fifty-three percent over forty-seven percent. Twitter_sentence_290

It also stated that five percent of users accounted for seventy-five percent of all activity and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities. Twitter_sentence_291

According to Quancast, twenty-seven million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009. Twitter_sentence_292

Sixty-three percent of Twitter users are under thirty-five years old; sixty percent of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American/black (sixteen percent) and Hispanic (eleven percent); fifty-eight percent of Twitter users have a total household income of at least US$60,000. Twitter_sentence_293

The prevalence of African American Twitter usage and in many popular hashtags has been the subject of research studies. Twitter_sentence_294

On September 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it had 100 million active users logging in at least once a month and 50 million active users every day. Twitter_sentence_295

In an article published on January 6, 2012, Twitter was confirmed to be the biggest social media network in Japan, with Facebook following closely in second. Twitter_sentence_296

comScore confirmed this, stating that Japan was the only country in the world where Twitter leads Facebook. Twitter_sentence_297

On March 31, 2014, Twitter announced there were 255 million monthly active users (MAUs) and 198 million mobile MAUs. Twitter_sentence_298

In 2013, there were over 100 million users actively using Twitter daily and about 500 million Tweets every day, with about 29% of users checking Twitter multiple times a day. Twitter_sentence_299

In 2012, the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States. Twitter_sentence_300

A 2016 Pew research poll found that Twitter is used by 24% of all online US adults. Twitter_sentence_301

It was equally popular with men and women (24% and 25% of online Americans respectively), but more popular with younger (36% of 18-29 year olds) generations. Twitter_sentence_302

Decline and levels of use Twitter_section_35

Following a high of 24% in 2016, in 2019, Pew Research had found its overall usage had dropped to 22%. Twitter_sentence_303

Media outlets have pointed out not to rely on twitter as a representative of the population, saying "Twitter is not America", stating that only 10% of users tweet actively, and that 90% of twitter users have tweeted no more than twice. Twitter_sentence_304

Finances Twitter_section_36

For the fiscal year 2017, Twitter reported losses of US$108 million, with an annual revenue of $2.443 billion, a decrease of 3.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Twitter_sentence_305

Twitter's shares traded at over $17 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$25.6 billion in October 2018. Twitter_sentence_306


YearTwitter_header_cell_1_0_0 Revenue

in mil. US$Twitter_header_cell_1_0_1

Net income

in mil. US$Twitter_header_cell_1_0_2

Total assets

in mil. US$Twitter_header_cell_1_0_3

2010Twitter_cell_1_1_0 28Twitter_cell_1_1_1 −67Twitter_cell_1_1_2 0Twitter_cell_1_1_3 Twitter_cell_1_1_4
2011Twitter_cell_1_2_0 106Twitter_cell_1_2_1 −164Twitter_cell_1_2_2 721Twitter_cell_1_2_3 Twitter_cell_1_2_4
2012Twitter_cell_1_3_0 317Twitter_cell_1_3_1 −79Twitter_cell_1_3_2 832Twitter_cell_1_3_3 Twitter_cell_1_3_4
2013Twitter_cell_1_4_0 665Twitter_cell_1_4_1 −645Twitter_cell_1_4_2 3,366Twitter_cell_1_4_3 2,712Twitter_cell_1_4_4
2014Twitter_cell_1_5_0 1,403Twitter_cell_1_5_1 −578Twitter_cell_1_5_2 5,583Twitter_cell_1_5_3 3,638Twitter_cell_1_5_4
2015Twitter_cell_1_6_0 2,218Twitter_cell_1_6_1 −521Twitter_cell_1_6_2 6,442Twitter_cell_1_6_3 3,898Twitter_cell_1_6_4
2016Twitter_cell_1_7_0 2,530Twitter_cell_1_7_1 −457Twitter_cell_1_7_2 6,870Twitter_cell_1_7_3 3,583Twitter_cell_1_7_4
2017Twitter_cell_1_8_0 2,443Twitter_cell_1_8_1 −108Twitter_cell_1_8_2 7,412Twitter_cell_1_8_3 3,372Twitter_cell_1_8_4
2018Twitter_cell_1_9_0 3,042Twitter_cell_1_9_1 1,206Twitter_cell_1_9_2 10,163Twitter_cell_1_9_3 3,900Twitter_cell_1_9_4

Funding Twitter_section_37

Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding, although exact figures are not publicly disclosed. Twitter_sentence_307

Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between US$1 million and US$5 million. Twitter_sentence_308

Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for US$22 million and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for US$35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures, Spark Capital, and Insight Venture Partners. Twitter_sentence_309

Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures, Digital Garage, Spark Capital, and Bezos Expeditions. Twitter_sentence_310

In May 2008, The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue. Twitter_sentence_311

Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce, noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions. Twitter_sentence_312

By March 2009 communications consultant Bill Douglass predicted in an interview that Twitter would be worth $1 billion within six months, which came to pass when the company closed a financing round valuing it at $1 billion in September of that year. Twitter_sentence_313

The company raised US$200 million in new venture capital in December 2010, at a valuation of approximately US$3.7 billion. Twitter_sentence_314

In March 2011, 35,000 Twitter shares sold for US$34.50 each on Sharespost, an implied valuation of US$7.8 billion. Twitter_sentence_315

In August 2010 Twitter announced a "significant" investment led by Digital Sky Technologies that, at US$800 million, was reported to be the largest venture round in history. Twitter_sentence_316

In December 2011, the Saudi prince Alwaleed bin Talal invested US$300 million in Twitter. Twitter_sentence_317

The company was valued at US$8.4 billion at the time. Twitter_sentence_318

In 2016, Twitter was valued by Forbes at US$15.7 billion. Twitter_sentence_319

Revenue sources Twitter_section_38

In July 2009, some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll. Twitter_sentence_320

The documents projected 2009 revenues of US$400,000 in the third quarter and US$4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year. Twitter_sentence_321

The projections for the end of 2013 were US$1.54 billion in revenue, US$111 million in net earnings, and one billion users. Twitter_sentence_322

No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. Twitter_sentence_323

In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker. Twitter_sentence_324

On April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords' advertising model. Twitter_sentence_325

As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise, including Sony Pictures, Red Bull, Best Buy, and Starbucks. Twitter_sentence_326

The company generated US$45 million in annual revenue in 2010, after beginning sales midway through that year; the company operated at a loss through most of 2010. Twitter_sentence_327

Users' photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network (WENN) was announced in May 2011. Twitter_sentence_328

In June 2011, Twitter announced that it would offer small businesses a self-service advertising system. Twitter_sentence_329

Twitter generated US$139.5 million in advertising sales during 2011. Twitter_sentence_330

The self-service advertising platform was launched in March 2012 to American Express card members and merchants in the U.S. on an invite-only basis. Twitter_sentence_331

Twitter later reported that numerous small businesses and people who used the self-service tool provided feedback that indicated they were impressed by the feature. Twitter_sentence_332

To continue their advertising campaign, Twitter announced on March 20, 2012, that promoted tweets would be introduced to mobile devices. Twitter_sentence_333

In April 2013, Twitter announced that its Twitter Ads self-service platform, consisting of promoted tweets and promoted accounts, was available to all U.S. users without an invite. Twitter_sentence_334

Twitter's financial revenue statistics for the first quarter of 2014 was reported as US$250 million. Twitter_sentence_335

On August 3, 2016, Twitter launched Instant Unlock Card, a new feature that encourages people to tweet about a brand in order to earn rewards and utilize the social media network's conversational ads. Twitter_sentence_336

The format itself consists of images or videos with call-to-action buttons and a customizable hashtag. Twitter_sentence_337

Stock launch and tax issues Twitter_section_39

On September 12, 2013, Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.S. Twitter_sentence_338 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ahead of a planned stock market listing. Twitter_sentence_339

It revealed its prospectus in an 800-page filing. Twitter_sentence_340

Twitter planned to raise US$1 billion as the basis for its stock market debut. Twitter_sentence_341

The initial public offering (IPO) filing states that "200,000,000+ monthly active users" access Twitter and "500,000,000+ tweets per day" are posted. Twitter_sentence_342

In an October 15, 2013 amendment to their SEC S-1 filing, Twitter declared that they would list on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), quashing speculation that their stock would trade on the NASDAQ exchange. Twitter_sentence_343

This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook. Twitter_sentence_344

On November 6, 2013, 70 million shares were priced at US$26 and issued by lead underwriter Goldman Sachs. Twitter_sentence_345

On November 7, 2013, the first day of trading on the NYSE, Twitter shares opened at $26.00 and closed at US$44.90, giving the company a valuation of around US$31 billion. Twitter_sentence_346

Consequently executives and early investors marginally increased their capital, including co-founders Williams and Dorsey who received a sum of US$2.56 billion and US$1.05 billion respectively, while Costolo's payment was US$345 million. Twitter_sentence_347

On February 5, 2014, Twitter published its first results as a public company, showing a net loss of $511 million in the fourth quarter of 2013. Twitter_sentence_348

On January 5, 2016, CEO Jack Dorsey commented on a report that Twitter planned to expand its character limit to 10,000 (private messages already had the longer limit as of July), requiring users to click to see anything beyond 140 characters. Twitter_sentence_349

He said while Twitter would "never lose that feeling" of speed, users could do more with the text. Twitter_sentence_350

In September 2016, Twitter shares rose 20% after a report that it had received takeover approaches. Twitter_sentence_351

Potential buyers were Alphabet (the parent company of Google), Microsoft,, Verizon, and The Walt Disney Company. Twitter_sentence_352

Twitter's board of directors were open to a deal, which could have come by the end of 2016. Twitter_sentence_353

However, no deal was made, with reports in October stating that all the potential buyers dropped out partly due to concerns over abuse and harassment on the service. Twitter_sentence_354

In June 2017, Twitter revamped its dashboard to improve the new user experience. Twitter_sentence_355

In November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Twitter is among the corporations that avoided paying taxes by using offshore companies. Twitter_sentence_356

Later The New York Times reported that Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner had strong Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter. Twitter_sentence_357

Contributions Twitter_section_40

99.33 percent ($574,601) of donations of $200 or more from Twitter employees toward the category of “all federal candidates” have gone to Democrats, versus0.67 percent ($3,897) to Republicans. Twitter_sentence_358

Advertising bans Twitter_section_41

In October 2017, Twitter banned the Russian media outlets RT and Sputnik from advertising on their website following the conclusions of the U.S. national intelligence report the previous January that both Sputnik and RT had been used as vehicles for Russia's interference in the 2016 US presidential election. Twitter_sentence_359

Maria Zakharova for the Russian foreign ministry said the ban was a "gross violation" by the US of free speech. Twitter_sentence_360

In October 2019, Twitter announced it would stop running political ads on its ad platform effective November 22. Twitter_sentence_361

This resulted from several spurious claims made by political ads. Twitter_sentence_362

Company CEO Dorsey clarified that internet advertising had great power and was extremely effective for commercial advertisers, the power brings significant risks to politics where crucial decisions impact millions of lives. Twitter_sentence_363

Technology Twitter_section_42

Implementation Twitter_section_43

Twitter places great reliance on open-source software. Twitter_sentence_364

The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework, deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby. Twitter_sentence_365

In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded (large databases were split based on time of posting). Twitter_sentence_366

After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering. Twitter_sentence_367

From Spring 2007 to 2008, the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling. Twitter_sentence_368

Since 2009, implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala. Twitter_sentence_369

The switch from Ruby to Scala and the JVM has given Twitter a performance boost from 200–300 requests per second per host to around 10,000–20,000 requests per second per host. Twitter_sentence_370

This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter's engineers envisioned when starting the switch. Twitter_sentence_371

The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls. Twitter_sentence_372

As of April 6, 2011, Twitter engineers confirmed that they had switched away from their Ruby on Rails search stack to a Java server they call Blender. Twitter_sentence_373

Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs using software called snowflake, and geolocation data is added using 'Rockdove'. Twitter_sentence_374

The URL shortener then checks for a spam link and shortens the URL. Twitter_sentence_375

Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard, and the user receives an acknowledgement that the tweets were sent. Twitter_sentence_376

Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. Twitter_sentence_377

The process is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of 350 ms. Twitter_sentence_378

On August 16, 2013, Raffi Krikorian, Twitter's vice president of platform engineering, shared in a blog post that the company's infrastructure handled almost 143,000 tweets per second during that week, setting a new record. Twitter_sentence_379

Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies. Twitter_sentence_380

The service's application programming interface (API) allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter. Twitter_sentence_381

Interface Twitter_section_44

Twitter introduced the first major redesign of its user interface in September 2010, adopting a dual-pane layout with a navigation bar along the top of the screen, and an increased focus on the inline embedding of multimedia content. Twitter_sentence_382

Critics considered the redesign an attempt to emulate features and experiences found in mobile apps and third-party Twitter clients. Twitter_sentence_383

The new layout was revised in 2011 with a focus on continuity with the web and mobile versions, introducing "Connect" (interactions with other users such as replies) and "Discover" (further information regarding trending topics and news headlines) tabs, an updated profile design, and moving all content to the right pane (leaving the left pane dedicated to functions and the trending topics list). Twitter_sentence_384

In March 2012, Twitter became available in Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu, the first right-to-left language versions of the site. Twitter_sentence_385

About 13,000 volunteers helped with translating the menu options. Twitter_sentence_386

In August 2012, beta support for Basque, Czech and Greek was added, making the site available in 33 different languages. Twitter_sentence_387

In September 2012, a new layout for profiles was introduced, with larger "covers" that could be customized with a custom header image, and a display of the user's recent photos posted. Twitter_sentence_388

The "Discover" tab was discontinued in April 2015, and was succeeded on the mobile app by an "Explore" tab—which features trending topics and moments. Twitter_sentence_389

In September 2018, Twitter began to migrate selected web users to its progressive web app (based on its Twitter Lite experience for mobile web), reducing the interface to two columns. Twitter_sentence_390

Migrations to this iteration of Twitter increased in April 2019, with some users receiving it with a modified layout. Twitter_sentence_391

In July 2019, Twitter officially released this redesign, with no further option to opt-out while logged in. Twitter_sentence_392

It is designed to further-unify Twitter's user experience between the web and application versions, adopting a three-column layout with a sidebar containing links to common areas (including Explore), and features from the mobile version (such as multi-account support, and an opt-out for the "top tweets" mode on the timeline). Twitter_sentence_393

Outages Twitter_section_45

During an outage, Twitter users were at one time shown the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu, illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Twitter_sentence_394

Please wait a moment and try again." Twitter_sentence_395

Web designer and Twitter user Jen Simmons was the first to coin the term "fail whale" in a September 2007 tweet. Twitter_sentence_396

In a November 2013 WIRED interview Chris Fry, VP of Engineering at that time, noted that the company had taken the "fail whale" out of production as the platform was now more stable. Twitter_sentence_397

Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime). Twitter_sentence_398

The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address. Twitter_sentence_399

User accounts Twitter_section_46

Privacy, security and harassment Twitter_section_47

Twitter messages are public, but users can also send private "direct messages". Twitter_sentence_400

Information about who has chosen to follow an account and who a user has chosen to follow is also public, though accounts can be changed to "protected" which limits this information (and all tweets) to approved followers. Twitter_sentence_401

Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties as specified in its privacy policy. Twitter_sentence_402

The service also reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands. Twitter_sentence_403

While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in ads directed specifically to the user. Twitter_sentence_404

A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, 2007, by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Twitter_sentence_405

Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing. Twitter_sentence_406

The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. Twitter_sentence_407

Within a few weeks of this discovery, Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages. Twitter_sentence_408

On January 5, 2009, 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack. Twitter_sentence_409

Some of the compromised accounts sent falsified tweets, including drug-related messages. Twitter_sentence_410

Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, 2009, allowing people with public profiles to announce their account name. Twitter_sentence_411

The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status. Twitter_sentence_412

In May 2010, a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük that could allow a Twitter user to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge. Twitter_sentence_413

For example, comedian Conan O'Brien's account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions. Twitter_sentence_414

In response to Twitter's security breaches, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, 2010. Twitter_sentence_415

This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. Twitter_sentence_416

The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually. Twitter_sentence_417

On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks. Twitter_sentence_418

Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, "... it's our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so." Twitter_sentence_419

A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21, 2010, when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_420

When a user held the mouse cursor over blacked-out parts of a tweet, the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the reader's account. Twitter_sentence_421

The exploit was then re-used to post pop-up ads and links to pornographic sites. Twitter_sentence_422

The origin of the worm is unclear, but Pearce H. Delphin (known on Twitter as @zzap) and a Scandinavian developer, Magnus Holm, both claim to have modified a related exploit found by another user (possibly Masato Kinugawa) who was using it to create coloured Tweets. Twitter_sentence_423

Kinugawa, a Japanese developer, reported the XSS vulnerability to Twitter on August 14. Twitter_sentence_424

Later, when he found it was exploitable again, he created the account 'RainbowTwtr' and used it to post coloured messages. Twitter_sentence_425

Delphin says he exposed the security flaw by tweeting a JavaScript function for "onMouseOver", and Holm later created and posted the XSS Worm that automatically re-tweeted itself. Twitter_sentence_426

Security firm Sophos reported that the virus was spread by people doing it for "fun and games", but noted it could be exploited by cybercriminals. Twitter_sentence_427

Twitter issued a statement on their status blog at 13:50 UTC that "The exploit is fully patched." Twitter_sentence_428

Twitter representative Carolyn Penner said no charges would be pressed. Twitter_sentence_429

In May 2011, a claimant known as "CTB" in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc. took action against Twitter at the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, requesting that the company release details of account holders. Twitter_sentence_430

This followed gossip posted on Twitter about professional footballer Ryan Giggs's private life. Twitter_sentence_431

This led to the 2011 British privacy injunctions controversy and the "super-injunction". Twitter_sentence_432

Tony Wang, the head of Twitter in Europe, said that people who do "bad things" on the site would need to defend themselves under the laws of their own jurisdiction in the event of controversy and that the site would hand over information about users to the authorities when it was legally required to do so. Twitter_sentence_433

He also suggested that Twitter would accede to a UK court order to divulge names of users responsible for "illegal activity" on the site. Twitter_sentence_434

Twitter acquired Dasient, a startup that offers malware protection for businesses, in January 2012. Twitter_sentence_435

Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website. Twitter_sentence_436

Twitter also offered a feature which would allow tweets to be removed selectively by country, before deleted tweets used to be removed in all countries. Twitter_sentence_437

The first use of the policy was to block the account of German neo-Nazi group Besseres Hannover on October 18, 2012. Twitter_sentence_438

The policy was used again the following day to remove anti-Semitic French tweets with the hashtag #unbonjuif ("a good Jew"). Twitter_sentence_439

In February 2012, a third-party public-key encryption app (written in Python and partially funded by a grant from the Shuttleworth Foundation) for private messaging in Twitter, CrypTweet, was released. Twitter_sentence_440

A month later Twitter announced it would implement the "Do Not Track" privacy option, a cookie-blocking feature found in Mozilla's Firefox browser. Twitter_sentence_441

The "Do Not Track" feature works only on sites that have agreed to the service. Twitter_sentence_442

In August 2012, it was reported that there was a market in fake Twitter followers used to increase politicians' and celebrities' apparent popularity. Twitter_sentence_443

The black market for the fake followers, known as "bots", has been linked to "nearly every politically linked account from the White House to Congress to the 2016 campaign trail". Twitter_sentence_444

In June 2014, POLITICO analyzed Twitter handles with the highest rates of fake followers: U.S. President Barack Obama with 46.8 percent, Democratic National Committee Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz with 35.1 percent, and Senator John McCain with 23.6 percent. Twitter_sentence_445

The culprits working to generate the fake followers, or "bots", included campaign workers or friends of political candidates. Twitter_sentence_446

One site offered 1,000 fake followers for $20. Twitter_sentence_447

The people creating the "bots" were often from Eastern Europe and Asia. Twitter_sentence_448

In 2013, two Italian researchers calculated 10 percent of total accounts on Twitter were "bots" although other estimates have placed the figure even higher. Twitter_sentence_449

After a number of high-profile hacks of official accounts, including those of the Associated Press and The Guardian, in April 2013, Twitter announced a two-factor login verification as an added measure against hacking. Twitter_sentence_450

In August 2013, Twitter announced plans to introduce a "report abuse" button for all versions of the site following uproar, including a petition with 100,000 signatures, over Tweets that included rape and death threats to historian Mary Beard, feminist campaigner Caroline Criado-Perez and the member of parliament Stella Creasy. Twitter_sentence_451

Followed the sharing of images showing the killing of American journalist James Foley in 2014, Twitter said that in certain cases it would delete pictures of people who had died after requests from family members and "authorized individuals". Twitter_sentence_452

Twitter announced new reporting and blocking policies in December 2014, including a blocking mechanism devised by Randi Harper, a target of GamerGate. Twitter_sentence_453

In February 2015, CEO Dick Costolo said he was 'frankly ashamed' at how poorly Twitter handled trolling and abuse, and admitted Twitter had lost users as a result. Twitter_sentence_454

In 2015, following updated terms of service and privacy policy, Twitter users outside the United States were legally served by the Ireland-based Twitter International Company instead of Twitter, Inc. Twitter_sentence_455

The change made these users subject to Irish and European Union data protection laws Twitter_sentence_456

In 2016, Twitter announced the creation of the Twitter Trust & Safety Council to help "ensure that people feel safe expressing themselves on Twitter." Twitter_sentence_457

The council's inaugural members included 50 organizations and individuals. Twitter_sentence_458

On May 5, 2018, Twitter sent out an update/mail to every customer regarding a bug that stored passwords unmasked in an internal log. Twitter_sentence_459

According to them the investigation showed no indications of breach or misuse but recommended everyone to change their password anyway. Twitter_sentence_460

On May 13, 2019, Twitter disclosed that they had discovered a bug that accidentally shared location data from iOS devices to an advertiser. Twitter_sentence_461

They assured that the data was not retained and that the bug was fixed. Twitter_sentence_462

On December 20, 2019, Twitter fixed a security vulnerability in its Android app that could allow a hacker to take over a user's account and send tweets or direct messages as well as see private account info. Twitter_sentence_463

The 2020 Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders has faced criticism for the behavior of some of his supporters online but has deflected such criticism, suggesting that "Russians" were impersonating people claiming to be "Bernie Bro" supporters. Twitter_sentence_464

Twitter rejected Sanders' suggestion that Russia could be responsible for the bad reputation of his supporters. Twitter_sentence_465

A Twitter spokesperson told CNBC: "Using technology and human review in concert, we proactively monitor Twitter to identify attempts at platform manipulation and mitigate them. Twitter_sentence_466

As is standard, if we have reasonable evidence of state-backed information operations, we’ll disclose them following our thorough investigation to our public archive — the largest of its kind in the industry." Twitter_sentence_467

On April 8, 2020, Twitter announced that users outside of the European Economic Area or United Kingdom (thus subject to GDPR) will no longer be allowed to opt out of sharing "mobile app advertising measurements" to Twitter third-party partners. Twitter_sentence_468

On 9 October 2020, Twitter took additional steps to counter misleading campaigns ahead of the 2020 US Election. Twitter_sentence_469

Twitter’s new temporary update encouraged users to “add their own commentary” before retweeting a tweet, by making ‘quoting tweet’ a mandatory feature instead of optional. Twitter_sentence_470

The social network giant aimed at generating context and encouraging the circulation of more thoughtful content. Twitter_sentence_471

Suspect and contested accounts Twitter_section_48

See also: Deplatforming and Twitter suspensions Twitter_sentence_472

In January 2016, Twitter was sued by the widow of a U.S. man killed in the 2015 Amman shooting attack, claiming that allowing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to continually use the platform, including direct messages in particular, constituted the provision of material support to a terrorist organization, which is illegal under U.S. federal law. Twitter_sentence_473

Twitter disputed the claim, stating that "violent threats and the promotion of terrorism deserve no place on Twitter and, like other social networks, our rules make that clear." Twitter_sentence_474

The lawsuit was dismissed by the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, upholding the Section 230 safe harbor, which dictates that the operators of an interactive computer service are not liable for the content published by its users. Twitter_sentence_475

The lawsuit was revised in August 2016, providing comparisons to other telecommunications devices. Twitter_sentence_476

Twitter suspended multiple parody accounts that satirized Russian politics in May 2016, sparking protests and raising questions about where the company stands on freedom of speech. Twitter_sentence_477

Following public outcry, Twitter restored the accounts the next day without explaining why the accounts had been suspended. Twitter_sentence_478

The same day, Twitter, along with Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, jointly agreed to a European Union code of conduct obligating them to review "[the] majority of valid notifications for removal of illegal hate speech" posted on their services within 24 hours. Twitter_sentence_479

In August 2016, Twitter stated that it had banned 235,000 accounts over the past six months, bringing the overall number of suspended accounts to 360,000 accounts in the past year, for violating policies banning use of the platform to promote extremism. Twitter_sentence_480

On May 10, 2019, Twitter announced that they suspended 166,513 accounts for promoting terrorism in the July–December 2018 period, stating there was a steady decrease in terrorist groups trying to use the platform owing to its "zero-tolerance policy enforcement". Twitter_sentence_481

According to Vijaya Gadde, Legal, Policy and Trust and Safety Lead at Twitter, there was a reduction of 19% terror related tweets from the previous reporting period (January–June 2018). Twitter_sentence_482

Similarly, Twitter banned 7,000 accounts and limited 150,000 more that had ties to QAnon on July 21, 2020. Twitter_sentence_483

The bans and limits came after QAnon-related accounts began harassing other users through practices of swarming or brigading, coordinated attacks on these individuals through multiple accounts in the weeks prior. Twitter_sentence_484

Those accounts limited by Twitter will not appear in searches nor be promoted in other Twitter functions. Twitter_sentence_485

Twitter said they will continue to ban or limit accounts as necessary, with their support account stating "We will permanently suspend accounts Tweeting about these topics that we know are engaged in violations of our multi-account policy, coordinating abuse around individual victims, or are attempting to evade a previous suspension". Twitter_sentence_486

As of July 30, 2020, Twitter will block URLs in tweets that point to external websites that contain malicious content (such as malware and phishing content) as well or hate speech, speech encouraging violence, terrorism, child sexual exploitation, breaches of privacy, and other similar content that is already banned as part of the content of tweets on the site. Twitter_sentence_487

Users that frequently point to such sites may have their accounts suspended. Twitter_sentence_488

Twitter said this was to bring their policy in line to prevent users from bypassing their tweet content restrictions by simply linking to the banned content. Twitter_sentence_489

Malicious and fake accounts Twitter_section_49

Between January and late July 2017, Twitter had identified and shut down over 7,000 fake accounts created by Iranian influence operations. Twitter_sentence_490

In May 2018, in response to scrutiny over the misuse of Twitter by those seeking to maliciously influence elections, Twitter announced that it would partner with the nonprofit organization Ballotpedia to add special labels verifying the authenticity of political candidates running for election in the U.S. Twitter_sentence_491

In December 2019, Twitter removed 5,929 accounts for violating their manipulation policies. Twitter_sentence_492

The company investigated and attributed these accounts to a single state-run information operation, which originated in Saudi Arabia. Twitter_sentence_493

The accounts were reported to be a part of a larger group of 88,000 accounts engaged in spammy behavior. Twitter_sentence_494

However, Twitter did not disclose all of them as some could possibly be legitimate accounts taken over through hacking. Twitter_sentence_495

Twitter bots Twitter_section_50

Main article: Twitter bot Twitter_sentence_496

A Twitter bot is a computer program that automatically posts on Twitter, they are programmed to tweet, retweet, and follow other accounts. Twitter_sentence_497

According to a recent report, there were 20 million, fewer than 5%, of accounts on Twitter that were fraudulent in 2013. Twitter_sentence_498

These fake accounts are often used to build large follower populations quickly for advertisers, while others respond to tweets that include a certain word or phrase. Twitter_sentence_499

Twitter's wide-open application programming interface and cloud servers make it possible for twitterbots' existence within the social networking site. Twitter_sentence_500

Effects Twitter_section_51

Twitterbots are capable of influencing public opinion about culture, products, and political agendas by automatically generating mass amounts of tweets through imitating human communication. Twitter_sentence_501

The New York Times states, "They have sleep-wake cycles so their fakery is more convincing, making them less prone to repetitive patterns that flag them as mere programs." Twitter_sentence_502

The tweets generated vary anywhere from a simple automated response to content creation and information sharing, all of which depends on the intention of the person purchasing or creating the bot. Twitter_sentence_503

The social implications these Twitterbots potentially have on human perception are sizeable according to a study published by the ScienceDirect Journal. Twitter_sentence_504

Looking at the Computers as Social Actors (CASA) paradigm, the journal notes, "people exhibit remarkable social reactions to computers and other media, treating them as if they were real people or real places." Twitter_sentence_505

The study concluded that Twitterbots were viewed as credible and competent in communication and interaction making them suitable for transmitting information in the social media sphere. Twitter_sentence_506

While technological advances have enabled the ability of successful Human-Computer Interaction, the implications are questioned due to the appearance of both benign and malicious bots in the Twitter realm. Twitter_sentence_507

Benign Twitterbots may generate creative content and relevant product updates whereas malicious bots can make unpopular people seem popular, push irrelevant products on users and spread misinformation, spam and/or slander. Twitter_sentence_508

In addition to content-generating bots, users can purchase followers, favorites, retweets, and comments on various websites that cater to expanding a user's image through the accumulation of followers. Twitter_sentence_509

With more followers, users' profiles gain more attention, thus increasing their popularity. Twitter_sentence_510

Generating Web traffic is a valuable commodity for both individuals and businesses because it indicates notability. Twitter_sentence_511

With Twitterbots, users are able to create the illusion of "buzz" on their site by obtaining followers from services such as Swenzy and underground suppliers who operate bot farms or click farms. Twitter_sentence_512

The companies that facilitate this service create fake Twitter accounts that follow a number of people, some of these Twitter accounts may even post fake tweets to make it seem like they are real. Twitter_sentence_513

This practice of obtaining mass amounts of twitterbots as followers is not permitted on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_514

The emphasis on followers and likes as a measure of social capital has urged people to extend their circle to weak and latent ties to promote the idea of popularity for celebrities, politicians, musicians, public figures, and companies alike. Twitter_sentence_515

According to The New York Times, bots amass significant influence and have been noted to sway elections, influence the stock market, public appeal, and attack governments. Twitter_sentence_516

Developers Twitter_section_52

Twitter is recognized for having one of the most open and powerful developer APIs of any major technology company. Twitter_sentence_517

Developer interest in Twitter began immediately following its launch, prompting the company to release the first version of its public API in September 2006. Twitter_sentence_518

The API quickly became iconic as a reference implementation for public REST APIs and is widely cited in programming tutorials. Twitter_sentence_519

From 2006 until 2010, Twitter's developer platform experienced strong growth and a highly favorable reputation. Twitter_sentence_520

Developers built upon the public API to create the first Twitter mobile phone clients as well as the first URL shortener. Twitter_sentence_521

Between 2010 and 2012, however, Twitter made a number of decisions that were received unfavorably by the developer community. Twitter_sentence_522

In 2010, Twitter mandated that all developers adopt OAuth authentication with just 9 weeks of notice. Twitter_sentence_523

Later that year, Twitter launched its own URL shortener, in direct competition with some of its most well-known 3rd-party developers. Twitter_sentence_524

And in 2012, Twitter introduced strict usage limits for its API, "completely crippling" some developers. Twitter_sentence_525

While these moves successfully increased the stability and security of the service, they were broadly perceived as hostile to developers, causing them to lose trust in the platform. Twitter_sentence_526

In an effort to reset its relationship with developers, Twitter acquired Crashlytics on January 28, 2013 for over US$100 million, its largest acquisition to date. Twitter_sentence_527

Twitter committed to continue supporting and expanding the service. Twitter_sentence_528

In October 2014, Twitter announced Fabric, a suite of mobile developer tools built around Crashlytics. Twitter_sentence_529

Fabric brought together Crashlytics, Answers (mobile app analytics), Beta (mobile app distribution), Digits (mobile app identity and authentication services), MoPub, and TwitterKit (login with Twitter and Tweet display functionality) into a single, modular SDK, allowing developers to pick and choose which features they needed while guaranteeing ease of installation and compatibility. Twitter_sentence_530

By building Fabric on top of Crashlytics, Twitter was able to take advantage of Crashlytics' large adoption and device footprint to rapidly scale usage of MoPub and TwitterKit. Twitter_sentence_531

Fabric reached active distribution across 1 billion mobile devices just 8 months after its launch. Twitter_sentence_532

In early 2016, Twitter announced that Fabric was installed on more than 2 billion active devices and used by more than 225,000 developers. Twitter_sentence_533

Fabric is recognized as the #1 most popular crash reporting and also the #1 mobile analytics solution among the top 200 iOS apps, beating out Google Analytics, Flurry, and MixPanel. Twitter_sentence_534

Innovators patent agreement Twitter_section_53

On April 17, 2012, Twitter announced it would implement an "Innovators Patent Agreement" which would obligate Twitter to only use its patents for defensive purposes. Twitter_sentence_535

The agreement went into effect in 2012. Twitter_sentence_536

Open source Twitter_section_54

Twitter has a history of both using and releasing open source software while overcoming technical challenges of their service. Twitter_sentence_537

A page in their developer documentation thanks dozens of open source projects which they have used, from revision control software like Git to programming languages such as Ruby and Scala. Twitter_sentence_538

Software released as open source by the company includes the Gizzard Scala framework for creating distributed datastores, the distributed graph database FlockDB, the Finagle library for building asynchronous RPC servers and clients, the TwUI user interface framework for iOS, and the Bower client-side package manager. Twitter_sentence_539

The popular Twitter Bootstrap web design library was also started at Twitter and is the second most popular repository on GitHub. Twitter_sentence_540

Society Twitter_section_55

Main article: Twitter usage Twitter_sentence_541

Usage Twitter_section_56

Protesters Twitter_section_57

Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many industries and scenarios. Twitter_sentence_542

For example, it has been used to organize protests, sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions", which include the protests over the 2009 Moldovan election, the 2009 student protests in Austria, the 2009 Gaza–Israel conflict, the 2009 Iranian green revolution, the 2010 Toronto G20 protests, the 2010 Bolivarian Revolution, the 2010 Stuttgart21 protests in Germany, the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, 2011 England riots, the 2011 United States Occupy movement, the 2011 anti-austerity movement in Spain, the 2011 Aganaktismenoi movements in Greece, the 2011 demonstration in Rome, the 2011 Wisconsin labor protests, the 2012 Gaza–Israel conflict, the 2013 protests in Brazil, and the 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey. Twitter_sentence_543

A result of the Iranian election protests saw the government of Iran block Twitter in censorship. Twitter_sentence_544

The service is also used as a form of civil disobedience: In 2010, users expressed outrage over the Twitter Joke Trial by copying a controversial joke about bombing an airport and attaching the hashtag #IAmSpartacus, a reference to the film Spartacus (1960) and a sign of solidarity and support to a man controversially prosecuted after posting a tweet joking about bombing an airport if they canceled his flight. Twitter_sentence_545

  1. IAmSpartacus became the number one trending topic on Twitter worldwide. Twitter_sentence_546

Another case of civil disobedience happened in the 2011 British privacy injunction debate, where several celebrities who had taken out anonymized injunctions were identified by thousands of users in protest to traditional journalism being censored. Twitter_sentence_547

During the Arab Spring in early 2011, the number of hashtags mentioning the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt increased. Twitter_sentence_548

A study by the Dubai School of Government found that only 0.26% of the Egyptian population, 0.1% of the Tunisian population and 0.04% of the Syrian population are active on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_549

Governments Twitter_section_58

According to documents leaked by Edward Snowden and published in July 2014, the United Kingdom's GCHQ has a tool named BIRDSONG for "automated posting of Twitter updates", and a tool named BIRDSTRIKE for "Twitter monitoring and profile collection". Twitter_sentence_550

During the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, Twitter suspended a core group of 1,000 "fake" accounts and an associated network of 200,000 accounts for operating a disinformation campaign that was linked to the Chinese government. Twitter_sentence_551

In their announcement, Twitter released two data sets detailing the core group's account activity. Twitter_sentence_552

Geng Shuang, the spokesperson of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, did not comment on the suspensions but suggested that the activity could be attributed to overseas Chinese citizens. Twitter_sentence_553

On June 12, 2020, Twitter suspended over 7,000 accounts from Turkey because those accounts were fake profiles, designed to support the Turkish president and were managed by a central authority. Twitter_sentence_554

The Turkey's communication director said that the decision was illogical, biased and politically motivated. Twitter_sentence_555

Censorship and moderation Twitter_section_59

Main articles: Censorship of Twitter, Deplatforming, and Twitter suspensions Twitter_sentence_556

Twitter is banned completely in Iran, China and North Korea, and has been intermittently blocked in numerous countries including Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Venezuela and Turkmenistan on different bases. Twitter_sentence_557

In 2016, Twitter cooperated with the Israeli government to remove certain content originating outside Israel from tweets seen in Israel. Twitter_sentence_558

In the 11th biannual transparency report published on September 19, 2017, Twitter said that Turkey was the first among countries where about 90 percent of removal requests came from, followed by Russia, France and Germany. Twitter_sentence_559

Twitter stated that between July 1 and December 31, 2018, "We received legal demands relating to 27,283 accounts from 47 different countries, including Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, and Slovenia for the first time." Twitter_sentence_560

As part of evidence to a US Senate Enquiry, the company admitted that their systems "detected and hid" several hundred thousand tweets relating to the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak. Twitter_sentence_561

During the curfew in Jammu and Kashmir after revocation of its autonomous status on August 5, 2019, the Indian government approached Twitter to block accounts accused of spreading anti-India content; by October 25, nearly one million tweets had been removed as a result. Twitter_sentence_562

Hashtag suppression Twitter_section_60

After claims in the media that the hashtags #wikileaks and #occupywallstreet were being censored because they did not show up on the site's list of trending topics, Twitter responded by stating that it does not censor hashtags unless they contain obscenities. Twitter_sentence_563

Trust & Safety Council Twitter_section_61

The announcement of Twitter's "Trust & Safety Council" was met with objection from parts of its userbase. Twitter_sentence_564

Critics accused the member organizations of being heavily skewed towards "the restriction of hate speech" and a Reason article expressed concern that "there’s not a single uncompromising anti-censorship figure or group on the list". Twitter_sentence_565

Moderation of tweets Twitter_section_62

At the start of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, numerous tweets reported false medical information related to the pandemic. Twitter_sentence_566

Twitter announced a new policy in which they would label tweets containing misinformation going forward. Twitter_sentence_567

Shortly afterwards United States President Donald Trump had used his Twitter account on May 26, 2020 to issue a statement related to possible fraud associated with mail-in voting ahead of the upcoming 2020 primary elections. Twitter_sentence_568

Twitter moderators used the aforementioned tools to mark Trump's tweets as "potentially misleading" and added linked to a dedicated page with additional articles from other news sources on mail-in voting, the first time they had marked Trump's tweets as such. Twitter_sentence_569

Trump, who had previously alleged Twitter, and other technology companies, have an anti-conservative bias, announced his intention to enact regulations to take action against Twitter. Twitter_sentence_570

Two days later, on May 28, 2020, Trump signed "Executive Order on Preventing Online Censorship" aimed to impact the protections of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act which Twitter and other social media sites have to avoid liability for dealing with moderation of user content on their platforms. Twitter_sentence_571

Around this time, the killing of George Floyd, an African-American, in an incident involving four white Minneapolis Police Department officers on May 25, sparked racially-driven riots in the city that turned violent by the evening of May 28. Twitter_sentence_572

Trump tweeted his opinion on the violent protests, stating he had spoken to state governor Tim Walz about bringing National Guard forces to help calm the situation, but concluded the tweet by saying "Any difficulty and we will assume control but, when the looting starts, the shooting starts." Twitter_sentence_573

Twitter, after internal consultation with its review boards and management, opted to add a "public interest notice" to the tweet, warning users it "glorified violence" and while they normally would have removed such posts in the past, they "have kept the Tweet on Twitter because it is important that the public still be able to see the Tweet given its relevance to ongoing matters of public importance." Twitter_sentence_574

Twitter users were still able to view Trump's tweet if they chose to click on it, but could not like or retweet it without their own comment. Twitter_sentence_575

Main article: Biden–Ukraine conspiracy theory Twitter_sentence_576

Going into the late months of the 2020 United States presidential election, Twitter continued to mark several tweets from Trump, other conservative lawmakers, and various alt- and far-right users with similar "misinformaiton" labels, or taking other actions when these tweets violated their user policy. Twitter_sentence_577

On October 14, 2020 the New York Post published a story containing allegations about Hunter Biden, son of Joe Biden. Twitter_sentence_578

Twitter and Facebook both implemented measures on their platforms to prevent sharing of the New York Post article, with Twitter doing so according to their Hacked Materials Policy and Facebook per a policy that "in many countries, including in the U.S., if we have signals that a piece of content is false, we temporarily reduce its distribution pending review by a third-party fact-checker." Twitter_sentence_579

Commentators from varied political backgrounds criticized the actions taken by Facebook and Twitter, arguing that they could have amplified disinformation due to the Streisand effect. Twitter_sentence_580

After the election, in which Biden had been determined to be the winner, Trump and several of his allies continued to dispute the results through legal actions, while continuing to assert there was fraud and other inconsistencies on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_581

Twitter continued to apply their moderation as they had done before. Twitter_sentence_582

Trump continued to threaten revoking Section 230 due to actions by Twitter and other social media companies by demanding Congress include its revoking in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. Twitter_sentence_583

Separately, new social media companies such as Parler were created to cater specifically to conservative and right-leaning voices that felt that Twitter and other social media companies were suppressing their voice. Twitter_sentence_584

Impact Twitter_section_63

Instant, short, and frequent communication Twitter_section_64

In May 2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote that social networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. Twitter_sentence_585

Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. Twitter_sentence_586

But some users are starting to feel too connected, as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what they're having for dinner." Twitter_sentence_587

The following year, John C. Dvorak described Twitter as "the new CB radio". Twitter_sentence_588

Emergency use Twitter_section_65

A practical use for Twitter's real-time functionality is as an effective de facto emergency communication system for breaking news. Twitter_sentence_589

It was neither intended nor designed for high-performance communication, but the idea that it could be used for emergency communication was not lost on the creators, who knew that the service could have wide-reaching effects early on when the company used it to communicate during earthquakes. Twitter_sentence_590

Another practical use that is being studied is Twitter's ability to track epidemics and how they spread. Twitter_sentence_591

Additionally Twitter serves as sensor for natural disasters such as bush fires and earthquakes. Twitter_sentence_592

Education Twitter_section_66

Twitter has been adopted as a communication and learning tool in educational and research settings mostly in colleges and universities. Twitter_sentence_593

It has been used as a backchannel to promote student interactions, especially in large-lecture courses. Twitter_sentence_594

Research has found that using Twitter in college courses helps students communicate with each other and faculty, promotes informal learning, allows shy students a forum for increased participation, increases student engagement, and improves overall course grades. Twitter_sentence_595

Twitter has been an increasingly growing in the field of education, as an effective tool that can be used to encourage learning and idea, or knowledge sharing, in and outside the classroom. Twitter_sentence_596

By using or creating hashtags, students and educators are able to communicate under specific categories of their choice, to enhance and promote education. Twitter_sentence_597

A broad example of a hashtag used in education is "edchat", to communicate with other teachers, and people using that hashtag. Twitter_sentence_598

Once teachers find someone they want to talk to, they can either direct message the person, or narrow down the hashtag to make the topic of the conversation more specific using hashtags for scichat (science), engchat (English), sschat (social studies). Twitter_sentence_599

In a 2011 study, researchers found that young peoples use of Twitter helped to improve relationships with teachers, encourage interactive learning, and ultimately lead to high grades. Twitter_sentence_600

In the same study it was found that out of a group of 158 educators, 92% agreed that the reason they use Twitter is because of how user friendly it is, another 86% agreed that they started and continue using Twitter because of how easy it is to learn, and finally, 93% said they use Twitter because it is free. Twitter_sentence_601

People found that sifting through large amounts of data is challenging, however, with the simple nature of Twitter large amount of information became easily accessible. Twitter_sentence_602

Much of this simplicity comes from the use of the hashtag, and the intuitive nature of how Twitter as a microblogging site operates. Twitter_sentence_603

These features help to promote education outside the classroom in a global setting where students and educators are easily able to create, connect, and share knowledge. Twitter_sentence_604

This ultimately promotes growth and learning among students and educators, not just in the classroom, but virtually and around the world. Twitter_sentence_605

Public figures Twitter_section_67

Tech writer Bruce Sterling commented in 2007 that using Twitter for "literate communication" is "about as likely as firing up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite the Iliad". Twitter_sentence_606

In September 2008, the journalist Clive Thompson mused in a New York Times Magazine editorial that the service had expanded narcissism into "a new, supermetabolic extreme—the ultimate expression of a generation of celebrity-addled youths who believe their every utterance is fascinating and ought to be shared with the world". Twitter_sentence_607

One of the earliest documented forms of celebrity-related Twitter-like disclosures dates from 1980, when real estate mogul William Desmond Ryan made round-the-clock press releases about his relationship with comedian Phyllis Diller, even revealing what she was making him for dinner on a nightly basis. Twitter_sentence_608

Conversely, Vancouver Sun columnist Steve Dotto opined that part of Twitter's appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages in tight constraints, and Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School, said that "the qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so powerful." Twitter_sentence_609

In that same vein, and with Sigmund Freud in mind, political communications expert Matthew Auer observed that well-crafted tweets by public figures often deliberately mix trivial and serious information so as to appeal to all three parts of the reader’s personality: the id, ego, and superego. Twitter_sentence_610

The poets Mira Gonzalez and Tao Lin published a book titled Selected Tweets featuring selections of their tweets over some eight years. Twitter_sentence_611

The book was designed to look like a small bible. Twitter_sentence_612

The novelist Rick Moody wrote a short story for Electric Literature called "Some Contemporary Characters," composed entirely of tweets. Twitter_sentence_613

In 2009, Nielsen Online reported that Twitter had a user-retention rate of forty percent. Twitter_sentence_614

Many people stop using the service after a month; therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users. Twitter_sentence_615

In 2009, Twitter won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby Award. Twitter_sentence_616

During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition, the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. Twitter_sentence_617

In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories. Twitter_sentence_618

On November 29, 2009, Twitter was named the Word of the Year by the Global Language Monitor, declaring it "a new form of social interaction". Twitter_sentence_619

Time magazine acknowledged its growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100; to determine the influence of people, it used a formula based on famous social networking sites, Twitter and Facebook. Twitter_sentence_620

The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher. Twitter_sentence_621

The U.S. government, seeing social media's role in the 2010 Arab Spring revolts, covertly developed a Cuban alternative to Twitter called ZunZuneo as part of a long-term strategy to "stir unrest". Twitter_sentence_622

The service was active from 2010 to 2012. Twitter_sentence_623

During the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared at the London Olympic Stadium in person, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the founder of the World Wide Web, tweeted "This is for everyone", which was instantly spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Twitter_sentence_624

World leaders Twitter_section_68

World leaders and their diplomats have taken note of Twitter's rapid expansion and have been increasingly utilizing Twitter diplomacy, the use of Twitter to engage with foreign publics and their own citizens. Twitter_sentence_625

US Ambassador to Russia, Michael A. McFaul has been attributed as a pioneer of international Twitter diplomacy. Twitter_sentence_626

He used Twitter after becoming ambassador in 2011, posting in English and Russian. Twitter_sentence_627

On October 24, 2014, Queen Elizabeth II sent her first tweet to mark the opening of the London Science Museum's Information Age exhibition. Twitter_sentence_628

A 2013 study by website Twiplomacy found that 153 of the 193 countries represented at the United Nations had established government Twitter accounts. Twitter_sentence_629

The same study also found that those accounts amounted to 505 Twitter handles used by world leaders and their foreign ministers, with their tweets able to reach a combined audience of over 106 million followers. Twitter_sentence_630

According to an analysis of accounts, the heads of state of 125 countries and 139 other leading politicians have Twitter accounts that have between them sent more than 350,000 tweets and have almost 52 million followers. Twitter_sentence_631

However, only 30 of these do their own tweeting, more than 80 do not subscribe to other politicians and many do not follow any accounts. Twitter_sentence_632

Donald Trump has used Twitter as a method of providing ideas and information during his presidential campaign in 2016, the transitional period and as US President. Twitter_sentence_633

A study performed at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology showed his tweets from these different time periods and through analysis of his tweets, the professors found that President Trump uses a mode called "forensic mode" the most often in his tweets. Twitter_sentence_634

This is described as a quick reactive usage, as they found he often used Twitter to show his judgment of the events that occurred regarding both his allies and his enemies. Twitter_sentence_635

After his election to the presidency he tweeted this "forensic-style" tweet, "Just had a very open and successful election. Twitter_sentence_636

Now professional protesters, incited by the media, are protesting. Twitter_sentence_637

Very Unfair! Twitter_sentence_638

". Twitter_sentence_639

In a study done at New York University in 2015, an analysis and comparison of the Twitter accounts of Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Bernie Sanders, and Hillary Clinton, found observations showing the goals of each candidate's Twitter during their respective primary elections. Twitter_sentence_640

Some comparisons that were made were the use of Aristotle's theory of Rhetoric. Twitter_sentence_641

The research found that Donald Trump used pathos, the appeal to emotion, in his rhetoric; Bernie Sanders tended to use ethos and logos for his Twitter; Hillary Clinton tended to use logos and pathos to try to convey her values, and Jeb Bush shows that he uses a mix of all three on his account. Twitter_sentence_642

The study also looked at the media response to the tweets during the election. Twitter_sentence_643

The study found that the tweets became more persuasive for the candidates if the media put the tweets in front of more viewers, versus less powerful if they were only visible to those already on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_644

In that way, presidential candidates who had their tweets covered more in the news were able to get their message to more potential voters. Twitter_sentence_645

Religion Twitter_section_69

More than twenty Roman Catholic cardinals manage active Twitter accounts, nine of whom were cardinal electors for the 2013 Papal conclave. Twitter_sentence_646

Pope Benedict XVI's Twitter account was set up in 2012. Twitter_sentence_647

As of April 2016, his successor, Pope Francis, has 9.06 million followers of his Twitter account (@Pontifex). Twitter_sentence_648

In a 2015 European Foundation for Democracy-European Policy Centre policy dialogue panel in Brussels, Mark Wallace, CEO of the "CounterExtremism Project" and former U.S ambassador to the United Nations, said: "Twitter is currently the 'gateway drug' for those seeking to recruit fighters for Islamic terrorism and this must be stopped." Twitter_sentence_649

Fines, Penalties and Sanctions Twitter_section_70

Violation of campaign finance laws Twitter_section_71

In October 2020 Twitter was fined $100,000 by Washington State for violating that state's campaign finance disclosure rules. Twitter_sentence_650

A judgement filed on October 13, 2020 found "the social media platform failed to maintain public inspection records of nearly $200,000 paid to it for political ads in violation of state law" according to Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson. Twitter_sentence_651

Television Twitter_section_72

Twitter is increasingly used for TV to be more interactive. Twitter_sentence_652

This effect is sometimes referred to as the second screen, "virtual watercooler" or social television—the practice has been called "chatterboxing". Twitter_sentence_653

Twitter has been successfully used to encourage people to watch live TV events, such as the Oscars, the Super Bowl and the MTV Video Music Awards; however this strategy has proven less effective with regularly scheduled TV shows. Twitter_sentence_654

Such direct cross-promotions have been banned from French television due to regulations against secret advertising. Twitter_sentence_655

In December 2012, Twitter and Nielsen entered a multi-year agreement to produce social TV ratings, which are expected to be commercially available for the fall 2013 season as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating. Twitter_sentence_656

Advertising Age said Twitter had become the new TV Guide. Twitter_sentence_657

Then in February 2013, Twitter acquired Bluefin Labs for an estimated US$50 million to $100 million. Twitter_sentence_658

Founded in 2008 at the MIT Media Lab, Bluefin is a data miner whose analysis tells which brands (e.g., TV shows and companies) are chatted about the most in social media. Twitter_sentence_659

MIT Technology Review said that Bluefin gives Twitter part of the US$72 billion television advertising market. Twitter_sentence_660

In May 2013, it launched Twitter Amplify—an advertising product for media and consumer brands. Twitter_sentence_661

With Amplify, Twitter runs video highlights from major live broadcasts, with advertisers' names and messages playing before the clip. Twitter_sentence_662

In October 2013, Comcast announced that it had partnered with Twitter to implement its "See It" feature within the service, allowing posts promoting programs on selected NBCUniversal channels to contain direct links to TV Everywhere streaming to the program. Twitter_sentence_663

On launch, the concept was limited to NBCUniversal channels and Xfinity cable television subscribers. Twitter_sentence_664

In an attempt to compete with Twitter's leadership in TV, Facebook introduced a number of features in 2013 to drive conversation about TV including hashtags, verified profiles and embeddable posts. Twitter_sentence_665

It also opened up new data visualization APIs for TV news and other media outlets, enabling them to search for a word and see a firehose of public posts that mention it as well as show how many people mentioned a word in both public and private posts during a set time frame, with a demographic breakdown of the age, gender, and location of these people. Twitter_sentence_666

In January 2014, Facebook announced a partnership with UK-based social TV analytics company SecondSync which saw the social network make its social TV available outside the company for the first time. Twitter_sentence_667

Facebook struck the partnership to help marketers understand how people are using the social network to talk about topics such as TV. Twitter_sentence_668

However, Twitter responded by acquiring SecondSync and Parisian social TV firm Mesagraph three months later. Twitter_sentence_669

These acquisitions, as well as a partnership with research company Kantar (which it had been working with to develop a suite of analytics tools for the British TV industry since August 2013) strengthened Twitter's dominance of the "second screen" – TV viewers using tablets and smartphones to share their TV experience on social media. Twitter_sentence_670

With the additional analytic tools, Twitter was able to improve the firm's offering to advertisers, allowing them to, for instance, only promote a tweet onto the timelines of users who were watching a certain programme. Twitter_sentence_671

By February 2014, all four major U.S. TV networks had signed up to the Amplify program, bringing a variety of premium TV content onto the social platform in the form of in-tweet real-time video clips. Twitter_sentence_672

In March 2014, ITV became the first major broadcaster in the UK to sign up to Twitter Amplify and Twitter introduced one-tap video playback across its mobile apps to further enhance the consumer experience. Twitter_sentence_673

In June 2014, Twitter acquired its Amplify partner in the U.S., SnappyTV. Twitter_sentence_674

In Europe, Twitter's Amplify partner is London-based Grabyo, which has also struck numerous deals with broadcasters and rights holders to share video content across Facebook and Twitter. Twitter_sentence_675

In July 2017, Twitter announced that it would wind down SnappyTV as a separate company, and integrate its features into the Media Studio suite on Twitter. Twitter_sentence_676

Statistics Twitter_section_73

User accounts with large follower base Twitter_section_74

Main article: List of most-followed Twitter accounts Twitter_sentence_677

As of 1 August 2020, the ten Twitter accounts with the most followers were: Twitter_sentence_678


RankTwitter_header_cell_2_0_0 Change
Account nameTwitter_header_cell_2_0_2 OwnerTwitter_header_cell_2_0_3 Followers
ActivityTwitter_header_cell_2_0_5 CountryTwitter_header_cell_2_0_6
1Twitter_header_cell_2_1_0 Twitter_cell_2_1_1 @BarackObamaTwitter_cell_2_1_2 Barack ObamaTwitter_cell_2_1_3 121Twitter_cell_2_1_4 Former U.S. presidentTwitter_cell_2_1_5 USATwitter_cell_2_1_6
2Twitter_header_cell_2_2_0 Twitter_cell_2_2_1 @justinbieberTwitter_cell_2_2_2 Justin BieberTwitter_cell_2_2_3 112Twitter_cell_2_2_4 MusicianTwitter_cell_2_2_5 CANTwitter_cell_2_2_6
3Twitter_header_cell_2_3_0 Twitter_cell_2_3_1 @katyperryTwitter_cell_2_3_2 Katy PerryTwitter_cell_2_3_3 108Twitter_cell_2_3_4 MusicianTwitter_cell_2_3_5 USATwitter_cell_2_3_6
4Twitter_header_cell_2_4_0 Twitter_cell_2_4_1 @rihannaTwitter_cell_2_4_2 RihannaTwitter_cell_2_4_3 98Twitter_cell_2_4_4 Musician and businesswomanTwitter_cell_2_4_5 BARTwitter_cell_2_4_6
5Twitter_header_cell_2_5_0 Twitter_cell_2_5_1 @taylorswift13Twitter_cell_2_5_2 Taylor SwiftTwitter_cell_2_5_3 87Twitter_cell_2_5_4 MusicianTwitter_cell_2_5_5 USATwitter_cell_2_5_6
6Twitter_header_cell_2_6_0 Twitter_cell_2_6_1 @CristianoTwitter_cell_2_6_2 Cristiano RonaldoTwitter_cell_2_6_3 87Twitter_cell_2_6_4 FootballerTwitter_cell_2_6_5 PORTwitter_cell_2_6_6
7Twitter_header_cell_2_7_0 Twitter_cell_2_7_1 @realDonaldTrumpTwitter_cell_2_7_2 Donald TrumpTwitter_cell_2_7_3 85Twitter_cell_2_7_4 Current U.S. presidentTwitter_cell_2_7_5 USATwitter_cell_2_7_6
8Twitter_header_cell_2_8_0 Twitter_cell_2_8_1 @ladygagaTwitter_cell_2_8_2 Lady GagaTwitter_cell_2_8_3 82Twitter_cell_2_8_4 Musician and actressTwitter_cell_2_8_5 USATwitter_cell_2_8_6
9Twitter_header_cell_2_9_0 Twitter_cell_2_9_1 @TheEllenShowTwitter_cell_2_9_2 Ellen DeGeneresTwitter_cell_2_9_3 80Twitter_cell_2_9_4 Comedian and television hostessTwitter_cell_2_9_5 USATwitter_cell_2_9_6
10Twitter_header_cell_2_10_0 Twitter_cell_2_10_1 @ArianaGrandeTwitter_cell_2_10_2 Ariana GrandeTwitter_cell_2_10_3 76Twitter_cell_2_10_4 Musician and actressTwitter_cell_2_10_5 USATwitter_cell_2_10_6

Oldest accounts Twitter_section_75

The oldest Twitter accounts are 14 accounts that became active on March 21, 2006, all belonging to Twitter employees at the time and including @jack (Jack Dorsey), @biz (Biz Stone), and @noah (Noah Glass). Twitter_sentence_679

Record tweets Twitter_section_76

Main article: List of most-retweeted tweets Twitter_sentence_680

A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the March 2, 2014 broadcast was at the time the most retweeted image ever. Twitter_sentence_681

DeGeneres said she wanted to pay homage to Meryl Streep's record 17 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited other Oscar celebrities to join them. Twitter_sentence_682

The resulting photo of twelve celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour. Twitter_sentence_683

By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times; less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times. Twitter_sentence_684

As of 18 March 2014, it has been retweeted over 3.4 million times. Twitter_sentence_685

The group selfie effort was parodied by Lego, and Matt Groening with The Simpsons. Twitter_sentence_686

It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election. Twitter_sentence_687

On May 9, 2017, Ellen's record was broken by Carter Wilkerson (@carterjwm) by collecting nearly 3.5 million retweets in a little over a month. Twitter_sentence_688

According to Guinness World Records, the fastest pace to a million followers was set by actor Robert Downey Jr. in 23 hours and 22 minutes in April 2014. Twitter_sentence_689

This record was later broken by Caitlyn Jenner, who joined the site on June 1, 2015, and amassed a million followers in just 4 hours and 3 minutes. Twitter_sentence_690

The most tweeted moment in the history of Twitter occurred on August 2, 2013; during a Japanese television airing of the Studio Ghibli film Castle in the Sky, fans simultaneously tweeted the word balse (バルス)—the incantation for a destruction spell used during its climax, after it was uttered in the film. Twitter_sentence_691

There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second, beating the previous record of 33,388. Twitter_sentence_692

The most discussed event in Twitter history occurred on October 24, 2015; the hashtag ("#ALDubEBTamangPanahon") for Tamang Panahon, a live special episode of the Filipino variety show Eat Bulaga! Twitter_sentence_693

at the Philippine Arena, centering on its popular on-air couple AlDub, attracted 41 million tweets. Twitter_sentence_694

The most-discussed sporting event in Twitter history was the 2014 FIFA World Cup semi-final between Brazil and Germany on July 8, 2014. Twitter_sentence_695

On the day of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news, with over 40 million tweets sent that day. Twitter_sentence_696

See also Twitter_section_77


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: