Tymbal

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the structure in insects. Tymbal_sentence_0

For the musical instrument, see Timbal. Tymbal_sentence_1

The tymbal (or timbal) is the corrugated exoskeletal structure used to produce sounds in insects. Tymbal_sentence_2

In male cicadas, the tymbals are membranes in the abdomen, responsible for the characteristic sound produced by the insect. Tymbal_sentence_3

In tiger moths, the tymbals are modified regions of the thorax, and produce high-frequency clicks. Tymbal_sentence_4

In lesser wax moths the left and right tymbals emit high frequency pulses that are used as mating calls. Tymbal_sentence_5

The paired tymbals of a cicada are located on the sides of the abdominal base. Tymbal_sentence_6

The "singing" of a cicada is not stridulation as in many other familiar sound-producing insects like crickets (where one structure is rubbed against another): the tymbals are regions of the exoskeleton that are modified to form a complex membrane with thin, membranous portions and thickened "ribs". Tymbal_sentence_7

These membranes vibrate rapidly, and enlarged chambers derived from the tracheae enable the cicada's body to be a resonance chamber, greatly amplifying the sound. Tymbal_sentence_8

Some cicadas produce sounds louder than 106 dB (SPL), among the loudest of all insect-produced sounds. Tymbal_sentence_9

They modulate their noise by positioning their abdomens toward or away from the substrate. Tymbal_sentence_10

The tymbals of a tiger moth are specialized regions on the metathoracic episterna, normally corrugated such that sound is produced when the entire tymbal surface is buckled by muscular contraction and then released, producing a series of extremely rapid "clicks" as the corrugations flex back into place. Tymbal_sentence_11

These sounds are only occasionally audible to humans, and are used in both acoustic aposematism (the moths are advertising to bats that they are toxic), and as mating signals. Tymbal_sentence_12

A recent study demonstrates that these sounds are used by some moths to "jam" the sonar of moth-eating bats. Tymbal_sentence_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymbal.