Type species

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In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). Type species_sentence_0

A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups and called a type genus. Type species_sentence_1

In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. Type species_sentence_2

In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. Type species_sentence_3

The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Type species_sentence_4

Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. Type species_sentence_5

In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus. Type species_sentence_6

Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. Type species_sentence_7

In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type. Type species_sentence_8

Use in zoology Type species_section_0

See also: Types in zoology Type species_sentence_9

A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the classification and nomenclature (naming) of animals. Type species_sentence_10

The "type species" represents the reference species and thus "definition" for a particular genus name. Type species_sentence_11

Whenever a taxon containing multiple species must be divided into more than one genus, the type species automatically assigns the name of the original taxon to one of the resulting new taxa, the one that includes the type species. Type species_sentence_12

The term "type species" is regulated in zoological nomenclature by article 42.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which defines a type species as the name-bearing type of the name of a genus or subgenus (a "genus-group name"). Type species_sentence_13

In the Glossary, type species is defined as Type species_sentence_14

The type species permanently attaches a formal name (the generic name) to a genus by providing just one species within that genus to which the genus name is permanently linked (i.e. the genus must include that species if it is to bear the name). Type species_sentence_15

The species name in turn is fixed, in theory, to a type specimen. Type species_sentence_16

For example, the type species for the land snail genus Monacha is Helix cartusiana, the name under which the species was first described, known as Monacha cartusiana when placed in the genus Monacha. Type species_sentence_17

That genus is currently placed within the family Hygromiidae. Type species_sentence_18

The type genus for that family is the genus Hygromia. Type species_sentence_19

The concept of the type species in zoology was introduced by Pierre André Latreille. Type species_sentence_20

Citing Type species_section_1

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature states that the original name (binomen) of the type species should always be cited. Type species_sentence_21

It gives an example in Article 67.1. Type species_sentence_22

Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775 was later designated as the type species of the genus Homarus, thus giving it the name Homarus marinus (Fabricius, 1775). Type species_sentence_23

However, the type species of Homarus should always be cited using its original name, i.e. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Type species_sentence_24

Although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants does not contain the same explicit statement, examples make it clear that the original name is used, so that the "type species" of a genus name need not have a name within that genus. Type species_sentence_25

Thus in Article 10, Ex. Type species_sentence_26

3, the type of the genus name Elodes is quoted as the type of the species name Hypericum aegypticum, not as the type of the species name Elodes aegyptica. Type species_sentence_27

(Elodes is not now considered distinct from Hypericum.) Type species_sentence_28

See also Type species_section_2

Type species_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type species.