Typeface

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"Font family" redirects here. Typeface_sentence_0

For the CSS property, see Font family (HTML). Typeface_sentence_1

For the Marvel Comics antihero, see Typeface (comics). Typeface_sentence_2

For the documentary film, see Typeface (film). Typeface_sentence_3

A typeface is the design of lettering that can include variations, such as extra bold, bold, regular, light, italic, condensed, extended, etc. Each of these variations of the typeface is a font. Typeface_sentence_4

There are thousands of different typefaces in existence, with new ones being developed constantly. Typeface_sentence_5

The art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Typeface_sentence_6

Designers of typefaces are called type designers and are often employed by type foundries. Typeface_sentence_7

In digital typography, type designers are sometimes also called font developers or font designers. Typeface_sentence_8

Every typeface is a collection of glyphs, each of which represents an individual letter, number, punctuation mark, or other symbol. Typeface_sentence_9

The same glyph may be used for characters from different scripts, e.g. Roman uppercase A looks the same as Cyrillic uppercase А and Greek uppercase alpha. Typeface_sentence_10

There are typefaces tailored for special applications, such as map-making or astrology and mathematics. Typeface_sentence_11

The term typeface is frequently confused with the term font. Typeface_sentence_12

Before the advent of digital typography and desktop publishing, the two terms had more clearly understood meanings. Typeface_sentence_13

Terminology Typeface_section_0

In professional typography, the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font (originally "fount" in British English, and pronounced "font"), because the term font has historically been defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. Typeface_sentence_14

For example, 8-point Caslon Italic was one font, and 10-point Caslon Italic was another. Typeface_sentence_15

Historically, fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, and in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided. Typeface_sentence_16

The design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. Typeface_sentence_17

As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight (blackness or lightness) and stylistic variants (most commonly regular or roman as distinct to italic, as well as condensed) have led to font families, collections of closely related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles. Typeface_sentence_18

A font family is typically a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, orientation, width, etc., but not design. Typeface_sentence_19

For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Typeface_sentence_20

Font families typically include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts. Typeface_sentence_21

The distinction between font and typeface is that a font is the vessel (e.g. the software) which can be a "family" or related set of fonts files whereas the typeface is a set of characters. Typeface_sentence_22

For example, a given font such as Arial may include roman, bold, and italic typefaces.. Typeface_sentence_23

In the metal type era, a font also meant a specific point size, but with digital scalable outline fonts this distinction is no longer valid, as a single font may be scaled to any size. Typeface_sentence_24

The first "extended" font families, which included a wide range of widths and weights in the same general style emerged in the early 1900s, starting with ATF's Cheltenham (1902–1913), with an initial design by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, and many additional faces designed by Morris Fuller Benton. Typeface_sentence_25

Later examples include Futura, Lucida, ITC Officina. Typeface_sentence_26

Some became superfamilies as a result of revival, such as Linotype Syntax, Linotype Univers; while others have alternate styling designed as compatible replacements of each other, such as Compatil, Generis. Typeface_sentence_27

Font superfamilies began to emerge when foundries began to include typefaces with significant structural differences, but some design relationship, under the same general family name. Typeface_sentence_28

Arguably the first superfamily was created when Morris Fuller Benton created Clearface Gothic for ATF in 1910, a sans serif companion to the existing (serifed) Clearface. Typeface_sentence_29

The superfamily label does not include quite different designs given the same family name for what would seem to be purely marketing, rather than design, considerations: Caslon Antique, Futura Black and Futura Display are structurally unrelated to the Caslon and Futura families, respectively, and are generally not considered part of those families by typographers, despite their names. Typeface_sentence_30

Additional or supplemental glyphs intended to match a main typeface have been in use for centuries. Typeface_sentence_31

In some formats they have been marketed as separate fonts. Typeface_sentence_32

In the early 1990s, the Adobe Systems type group introduced the idea of expert set fonts, which had a standardized set of additional glyphs, including small caps, old style figures, and additional superior letters, fractions and ligatures not found in the main fonts for the typeface. Typeface_sentence_33

Supplemental fonts have also included alternate letters such as swashes, dingbats, and alternate character sets, complementing the regular fonts under the same family. Typeface_sentence_34

However, with introduction of font formats such as OpenType, those supplemental glyphs were merged into the main fonts, relying on specific software capabilities to access the alternate glyphs. Typeface_sentence_35

Since Apple's and Microsoft's operating systems supported different character sets in the platform related fonts, some foundries used expert fonts in a different way. Typeface_sentence_36

These fonts included the characters which were missing on either Macintosh or Windows computers, e.g. fractions, ligatures or some accented glyphs. Typeface_sentence_37

The goal was to deliver the whole character set to the customer regardless of which operating system was used. Typeface_sentence_38

The size of typefaces and fonts is traditionally measured in points; point has been defined differently at different times, but now the most popular is the Desktop Publishing point of ​⁄72 in (0.0139 in or 0.35 mm). Typeface_sentence_39

When specified in typographic sizes (points, kyus), the height of an em-square, an invisible box which is typically a bit larger than the distance from the tallest ascender to the lowest descender, is scaled to equal the specified size. Typeface_sentence_40

For example, when setting Helvetica at 12 point, the em square defined in the Helvetica font is scaled to 12 points or ⁄6 in or 4.2 mm. Typeface_sentence_41

Yet no particular element of 12-point Helvetica need measure exactly 12 points. Typeface_sentence_42

Frequently measurement in non-typographic units (feet, inches, meters) will be of the cap-height, the height of the capital letters. Typeface_sentence_43

Font size is also commonly measured in millimeters (mm) and qs (a quarter of a millimeter, kyu in romanized Japanese) and inches. Typeface_sentence_44

History Typeface_section_1

Main article: History of Western typography Typeface_sentence_45

Type foundries have cast fonts in lead alloys from the 1450s until the present, although wood served as the material for some large fonts called wood type during the 19th century, particularly in the United States. Typeface_sentence_46

In the 1890s the mechanization of typesetting allowed automated casting of fonts on the fly as lines of type in the size and length needed. Typeface_sentence_47

This was known as continuous casting, and remained profitable and widespread until its demise in the 1970s. Typeface_sentence_48

The first machine of this type was the Linotype machine, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. Typeface_sentence_49

During a brief transitional period (c. 1950s–1990s), photographic technology, known as phototypesetting, utilized tiny high-resolution images of individual glyphs on a film strip (in the form of a film negative, with the letters as clear areas on an opaque black background). Typeface_sentence_50

A high-intensity light source behind the film strip projected the image of each glyph through an optical system, which focused the desired letter onto the light-sensitive phototypesetting paper at a specific size and position. Typeface_sentence_51

This photographic typesetting process permitted optical scaling, allowing designers to produce multiple sizes from a single font, although physical constraints on the reproduction system used still required design changes at different sizes; for example, ink traps and spikes to allow for spread of ink encountered in the printing stage. Typeface_sentence_52

Manually operated photocomposition systems using fonts on filmstrips allowed fine kerning between letters without the physical effort of manual typesetting, and spawned an enlarged type design industry in the 1960s and 1970s. Typeface_sentence_53

By the mid-1970s, all of the major typeface technologies and all their fonts were in use: letterpress; continuous casting machines; phototypositors; computer-controlled phototypesetters; and the earliest digital typesetters – bulky machines with primitive processors and CRT outputs. Typeface_sentence_54

From the mid-1980s, as digital typography has grown, users have almost universally adopted the American spelling font, which has come to primarily refer to a containing scalable outline letterforms (digital font), in one of several common formats. Typeface_sentence_55

Some typefaces, such as Verdana, are designed primarily for use on computer screens. Typeface_sentence_56

Digital type Typeface_section_2

Main article: Computer font Typeface_sentence_57

Digital type became the dominant form of type in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Typeface_sentence_58

Digital fonts store the image of each character either as a bitmap in a bitmap font, or by mathematical description of lines and curves in an outline font, also called a vector font. Typeface_sentence_59

Bitmap fonts were more commonly used in the earlier stages of digital type, and are rarely used today. Typeface_sentence_60

These bitmapped typefaces were first produced by Casady & Greene, Inc. and were also known as Fluent Fonts. Typeface_sentence_61

Fluent Fonts became mostly obsolete with the creation of downloadable PostScript fonts, and these new fonts are called Fluent Laser Fonts (FLF). Typeface_sentence_62

When an outline font is used, a rasterizing routine (in the application software, operating system or printer) renders the character outlines, interpreting the vector instructions to decide which pixels should be black and which ones white. Typeface_sentence_63

Rasterization is straightforward at high resolutions such as those used by laser printers and in high-end publishing systems. Typeface_sentence_64

For computer screens, where each individual pixel can mean the difference between legible and illegible characters, some digital fonts use hinting algorithms to make readable bitmaps at small sizes. Typeface_sentence_65

Digital fonts may also contain data representing the metrics used for composition, including kerning pairs, component creation data for accented characters, glyph substitution rules for Arabic typography and for connecting script faces, and for simple everyday ligatures like fl. Typeface_sentence_66

Common font formats include TrueType, OpenType and PostScript Type 1, while Metafont is still used by TeX and its variants. Typeface_sentence_67

Applications using these font formats, including the rasterizers, appear in Microsoft and Apple Computer operating systems, Adobe Systems products and those of several other companies. Typeface_sentence_68

Digital fonts are created with font editors such as FontForge, RoboFont, Glyphs, Fontlab's TypeTool, FontLab Studio, Fontographer, or AsiaFont Studio. Typeface_sentence_69

Typeface anatomy Typeface_section_3

Main article: Typeface anatomy Typeface_sentence_70

Typographers have developed a comprehensive vocabulary for describing the many aspects of typefaces and typography. Typeface_sentence_71

Some vocabulary applies only to a subset of all scripts. Typeface_sentence_72

Serifs, for example, are a purely decorative characteristic of typefaces used for European scripts, whereas the glyphs used in Arabic or East Asian scripts have characteristics (such as stroke width) that may be similar in some respects but cannot reasonably be called serifs and may not be purely decorative. Typeface_sentence_73

Serifs Typeface_section_4

Typefaces can be divided into two main categories: serif and sans serif. Typeface_sentence_74

Serifs comprise the small features at the end of strokes within letters. Typeface_sentence_75

The printing industry refers to typeface without serifs as sans serif (from French sans, meaning without), or as grotesque (or, in German, grotesk). Typeface_sentence_76

Great variety exists among both serif and sans serif typefaces. Typeface_sentence_77

Both groups contain faces designed for setting large amounts of body text, and others intended primarily as decorative. Typeface_sentence_78

The presence or absence of serifs represents only one of many factors to consider when choosing a typeface. Typeface_sentence_79

Typefaces with serifs are often considered easier to read in long passages than those without. Typeface_sentence_80

Studies on the matter are ambiguous, suggesting that most of this effect is due to the greater familiarity of serif typefaces. Typeface_sentence_81

As a general rule, printed works such as newspapers and books almost always use serif typefaces, at least for the text body. Typeface_sentence_82

Web sites do not have to specify a font and can simply respect the browser settings of the user. Typeface_sentence_83

But of those web sites that do specify a font, most use modern sans serif fonts, because it is commonly believed that, in contrast to the case for printed material, sans serif fonts are easier than serif fonts to read on the low-resolution computer screen. Typeface_sentence_84

Proportion Typeface_section_5

A proportional typeface contains glyphs of varying widths, while a monospaced (non-proportional or fixed-width) typeface uses a single standard width for all glyphs in the font. Typeface_sentence_85

Duospaced fonts are similar to monospaced fonts, but characters can also be two character widths instead of a single character width. Typeface_sentence_86

Many people generally find proportional typefaces nicer-looking and easier to read, and thus they appear more commonly in professionally published printed material. Typeface_sentence_87

For the same reason, GUI computer applications (such as word processors and web browsers) typically use proportional fonts. Typeface_sentence_88

However, many proportional fonts contain fixed-width (tabular) figures so that columns of numbers stay aligned. Typeface_sentence_89

Monospaced typefaces function better for some purposes because their glyphs line up in neat, regular columns. Typeface_sentence_90

No glyph is given any more weight than another. Typeface_sentence_91

Most manually operated typewriters use monospaced fonts. Typeface_sentence_92

So do text-only computer displays and third- and fourth-generation game console graphics processors, which treat the screen as a uniform grid of character cells. Typeface_sentence_93

Most computer programs which have a text-based interface (terminal emulators, for example) use only monospaced fonts (or add additional spacing to proportional fonts to fit them in monospaced cells) in their configuration. Typeface_sentence_94

Monospaced fonts are commonly used by computer programmers for displaying and editing source code so that certain characters (for example parentheses used to group arithmetic expressions) are easy to see. Typeface_sentence_95

Monospaced fonts may also make it easier to perform optical character recognition. Typeface_sentence_96

ASCII art usually requires a monospaced font for proper viewing, with the exception of Shift JIS art which takes advantage of the proportional characters in the MS PGothic font. Typeface_sentence_97

In a web page, the , or

 

HTML tags most commonly specify monospaced fonts. Typeface_sentence_98

In LaTeX, the verbatim environment or the Teletype font family (e.g., \texttt{...} or {\ttfamily ...}) uses monospaced fonts (in TeX, use {\tt ...}). Typeface_sentence_99

Any two lines of text with the same number of characters in each line in a monospaced typeface should display as equal in width, while the same two lines in a proportional typeface may have radically different widths. Typeface_sentence_100

This occurs because in a proportional font, glyph widths vary, such that wider glyphs (typically those for characters such as W, Q, Z, M, D, O, H, and U) use more space, and narrower glyphs (such as those for the characters i, t, l, and 1) use less space than the average. Typeface_sentence_101

In the publishing industry, it was once the case that editors read manuscripts in monospaced fonts (typically Courier) for ease of editing and word count estimates, and it was considered discourteous to submit a manuscript in a proportional font. Typeface_sentence_102

This has become less universal in recent years, such that authors need to check with editors as to their preference, though monospaced fonts are still the norm. Typeface_sentence_103

Font metrics Typeface_section_6

See also: Typographic unit and Metric typographic units Typeface_sentence_104

Most scripts share the notion of a baseline: an imaginary horizontal line on which characters rest. Typeface_sentence_105

In some scripts, parts of glyphs lie below the baseline. Typeface_sentence_106

The descent spans the distance between the baseline and the lowest descending glyph in a typeface, and the part of a glyph that descends below the baseline has the name descender. Typeface_sentence_107

Conversely, the ascent spans the distance between the baseline and the top of the glyph that reaches farthest from the baseline. Typeface_sentence_108

The ascent and descent may or may not include distance added by accents or diacritical marks. Typeface_sentence_109

In the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic (sometimes collectively referred to as LGC) scripts, one can refer to the distance from the baseline to the top of regular lowercase glyphs (mean line) as the x-height, and the part of a glyph rising above the x-height as the ascender. Typeface_sentence_110

The distance from the baseline to the top of the ascent or a regular uppercase glyphs (cap line) is also known as the cap height. Typeface_sentence_111

The height of the ascender can have a dramatic effect on the readability and appearance of a font. Typeface_sentence_112

The ratio between the x-height and the ascent or cap height often serves to characterize typefaces. Typeface_sentence_113

Typefaces that can be substituted for one another in a document without changing the document's text flow are said to be "metrically identical" (or "metrically compatible"). Typeface_sentence_114

Several typefaces have been created to be metrically compatible with widely used proprietary typefaces to allow the editing of documents set in such typefaces in digital typesetting environments where these typefaces are not available. Typeface_sentence_115

For instance, the free and open-source Liberation fonts and Croscore fonts have been designed as metrically compatible substitutes for widely used Microsoft fonts. Typeface_sentence_116

Optical sizing Typeface_section_7

Main article: Font § Optical size Typeface_sentence_117

During the metal type era, all type was cut in metal and could only be printed at a specific size. Typeface_sentence_118

It was a natural process to vary a design at different sizes, making it chunkier and clearer to read at smaller sizes. Typeface_sentence_119

Many digital typefaces are offered with a range of fonts (or a variable font axis) for different sizes, especially designs sold for professional design use. Typeface_sentence_120

The art of designing fonts for a specific size is known as optical sizing. Typeface_sentence_121

Others will be offered in only one style, but optimised for a specific size. Typeface_sentence_122

Optical sizes are particularly common for serif fonts, since the fine detail of serif fonts can need to be bulked up for smaller sizes. Typeface_sentence_123

Typefaces may also be designed differently considering the type of paper on which they will be printed. Typeface_sentence_124

Designs to be printed on absorbent newsprint paper will be more slender as the ink will naturally spread out as it absorbs into the paper, and may feature ink traps: areas left blank into which the ink will soak as it dries. Typeface_sentence_125

These corrections will not be needed for printing on high-gloss cardboard or display on-screen. Typeface_sentence_126

Fonts designed for low-resolution displays, meanwhile, may avoid pure circles, fine lines and details a screen cannot render. Typeface_sentence_127

Typesetting numbers Typeface_section_8

Most typefaces, especially modern designs, include a complementary set of numeric digits. Typeface_sentence_128

Numbers can be typeset in two main independent sets of ways: lining and non-lining figures, and proportional and tabular styles. Typeface_sentence_129

Most modern typefaces set numeric digits by default as lining figures, which are the height of upper-case letters. Typeface_sentence_130

Non-lining figures, styled to match lower-case letters, are often common in fonts intended for body text, as they are thought to be less disruptive to the style of running text. Typeface_sentence_131

They are also called lower-case numbers or text figures for the same reason. Typeface_sentence_132

The horizontal spacing of digits can also be proportional, with a character width tightly matching the width of the figure itself, or tabular, where all digits have the same width. Typeface_sentence_133

Proportional spacing places the digits closely together, reducing empty space in a document, and is thought to allow the numbers to blend into the text more effectively. Typeface_sentence_134

As tabular spacing makes all numbers with the same number of digits the same width, it is used for typesetting documents such as price lists, stock listings and sums in mathematics textbooks, all of which require columns of numeric figures to line up on top of each other for easier comparison. Typeface_sentence_135

Tabular spacing is also a common feature of simple printing devices such as cash registers and date-stamps. Typeface_sentence_136

Characters of uniform width are a standard feature of so-called monospaced fonts, used in programming and on typewriters. Typeface_sentence_137

However, many fonts that are not monospaced use tabular figures. Typeface_sentence_138

More complex font designs may include two or more combinations with one as the default and others as alternate characters. Typeface_sentence_139

Of the four possibilities, non-lining tabular figures are particularly rare since there is no common use for them. Typeface_sentence_140

Fonts intended for professional use in documents such as business reports may also make the bold-style tabular figures take up the same width as the regular (non-bold) numbers, so a bold-style total would appear just as wide as the same sum in regular style. Typeface_sentence_141

Style of typefaces Typeface_section_9

See also: List of typefaces and Vox-ATypI classification Typeface_sentence_142

Because an abundance of typefaces has been created over the centuries, they are commonly categorized according to their appearance. Typeface_sentence_143

At the highest level (in the context of Latin-script fonts), one can differentiate Roman, Blackletter, and Gaelic types. Typeface_sentence_144

Roman types are in the most widespread use today, and are sub-classified as serif, sans serif, ornamental, and script types. Typeface_sentence_145

Historically, the first European fonts were blackletter, followed by Roman serif, then sans serif and then the other types. Typeface_sentence_146

The use of Gaelic faces was restricted to the Irish language, though these form a unique if minority class. Typeface_sentence_147

Typefaces may be monospaced regardless of whether they are Roman, Blackletter, or Gaelic. Typeface_sentence_148

Symbol typefaces are non-alphabetic. Typeface_sentence_149

The Cyrillic script comes in two varieties, Roman type (called гражданский шрифт graždanskij šrift) and traditional Slavonic type (called славянский шрифт slavjanskij šrift). Typeface_sentence_150

Roman typefaces Typeface_section_10

Serif typefaces Typeface_section_11

Main article: Serif Typeface_sentence_151

Serif, or Roman, typefaces are named for the features at the ends of their strokes. Typeface_sentence_152

Times New Roman and Garamond are common examples of serif typefaces. Typeface_sentence_153

Serif fonts are probably the most used class in printed materials, including most books, newspapers and magazines. Typeface_sentence_154

Serif fonts are often classified into three subcategories: Old Style, Transitional, and Didone (or Modern), representative examples of which are Garamond, Baskerville, and Bodoni respectively. Typeface_sentence_155

Old Style typefaces are influenced by early Italian lettering design. Typeface_sentence_156

Modern fonts often exhibit a bracketed serif and a substantial difference in weight within the strokes. Typeface_sentence_157

Though some argument exists as to whether Transitional fonts exist as a discrete category among serif fonts, Transitional fonts lie somewhere between Old Style and Modern style typefaces. Typeface_sentence_158

Transitional fonts exhibit a marked increase in the variation of stroke weight and a more horizontal serif compared to Old Style. Typeface_sentence_159

Slab serif designs have particularly large serifs, and date to the early nineteenth century. Typeface_sentence_160

The earliest slab serif font, Antique, later renamed Egyptian, was first shown in 1815 by the English typefounder Vincent Figgins. Typeface_sentence_161

Roman, italic, and oblique are also terms used to differentiate between upright and two possible slanted forms of a typeface. Typeface_sentence_162

Italic and oblique fonts are similar (indeed, oblique fonts are often simply called italics) but there is strictly a difference: italic applies to fonts where the letter forms are redesigned, not just slanted. Typeface_sentence_163

Almost all serif faces have italic forms; some sans-serif faces have oblique designs. Typeface_sentence_164

(Most faces do not offer both as this is an artistic choice by the font designer about how the slanted form should look.) Typeface_sentence_165

Sans-serif typefaces Typeface_section_12

Main article: Sans-serif Typeface_sentence_166

Sans serif (lit. Typeface_sentence_167

without serif) designs appeared relatively recently in the history of type design. Typeface_sentence_168

The first, similar to slab serif designs, was shown in 1816 by William Caslon IV. Typeface_sentence_169

Many have minimal variation in stroke width, creating the impression of a minimal, simplified design. Typeface_sentence_170

A well-known and popular sans serif font is Max Miedinger's Helvetica, popularized for desktop publishing by inclusion with Apple Computer's LaserWriter laserprinter and having been one of the first readily available digital typefaces. Typeface_sentence_171

Arial, popularized by Microsoft, is a common Helvetica substitute. Typeface_sentence_172

Other fonts such as Futura, Gill Sans, Univers and Frutiger have also remained popular over many decades. Typeface_sentence_173

Blackletter typefaces Typeface_section_13

Main article: Blackletter Typeface_sentence_174

Blackletter fonts, the earliest typefaces used with the invention of the printing press in Europe, resemble the blackletter calligraphy of that time and place. Typeface_sentence_175

Many people refer to them as gothic script. Typeface_sentence_176

Various forms exist including textualis, rotunda, schwabacher, and fraktur. Typeface_sentence_177

Gaelic typefaces Typeface_section_14

Main article: Gaelic type Typeface_sentence_178

Gaelic fonts were first used for the Irish language in 1571, and were used regularly for Irish until the early 1960s, though they continue to be used in display type and type for signage. Typeface_sentence_179

Their use was effectively confined to Ireland, though Gaelic typefaces were designed and produced in France, Belgium, and Italy. Typeface_sentence_180

Gaelic typefaces make use of insular letterforms, and early fonts made use of a variety of abbreviations deriving from the manuscript tradition. Typeface_sentence_181

Early fonts used for the Anglo-Saxon language, also using insular letterforms, can be classified as Gaelic typefaces, distinct from Roman or Antiqua typefaces. Typeface_sentence_182

Various forms exist, including manuscript, traditional, and modern styles, chiefly distinguished as having angular or uncial features. Typeface_sentence_183

Monospaced typefaces Typeface_section_15

Main article: Monospaced font Typeface_sentence_184

Monospaced fonts are typefaces in which every glyph is the same width (as opposed to variable-width fonts, where the w and m are wider than most letters, and the i is narrower). Typeface_sentence_185

The first monospaced typefaces were designed for typewriters, which could only move the same distance forward with each letter typed. Typeface_sentence_186

Their use continued with early computers, which could only display a single font. Typeface_sentence_187

Although modern computers can display any desired typeface, monospaced fonts are still important for computer programming, terminal emulation, and for laying out tabulated data in plain text documents; they may also be particularly legible at small sizes due to all characters being quite wide. Typeface_sentence_188

Examples of monospaced typefaces are Courier, Prestige Elite, Fixedsys, and Monaco. Typeface_sentence_189

Most monospaced fonts are sans-serif or slab-serif as these designs are easiest to read printed small or display on low-resolution screens, though many exceptions exist. Typeface_sentence_190

CJK typefaces Typeface_section_16

Main article: CJK characters Typeface_sentence_191

CJK, or Chinese, Japanese and Korean typefaces consist of large sets of glyphs. Typeface_sentence_192

These typefaces originate in the glyphs found in brush calligraphy during the Tang Dynasty. Typeface_sentence_193

These later evolved into the Song style (宋体字) which used thick vertical strokes and thin horizontal strokes in wood block printing. Typeface_sentence_194

The glyphs found in CJK fonts are designed to fit within a square. Typeface_sentence_195

This allows for regular vertical, horizontal, right-to-left and left-to-right orientations. Typeface_sentence_196

CJK fonts can also include an extended set of monospaced Latin characters. Typeface_sentence_197

This commonly results in complex, sometimes contradictory rules and conventions for mixing languages in type. Typeface_sentence_198

Mincho Typeface_section_17

Main article: Ming (typefaces) Typeface_sentence_199

With CJK typefaces, Mincho style tends to be something like Serifs for the end of stems, and in fact includes Serifed glyphs for Extended Latin and Cyrillic sets within a typeface. Typeface_sentence_200

Gothic Typeface_section_18

With CJK typefaces, Goth style tends to be something like Sans Serifs with squarish, cut off end-caps for the end of stems, and in fact includes Sans Serif glyphs for Extended Latin and Cyrillic sets within a typeface. Typeface_sentence_201

Maru Typeface_section_19

With CJK typefaces, Maru style tends to be something like Sans Serifs with rounded end-caps for the end of stems, and in fact includes Rounded Sans Serif glyphs for Extended Latin and Cyrillic sets within a typeface. Typeface_sentence_202

Display type Typeface_section_20

Main article: Display typeface Typeface_sentence_203

Display type refers to the use of type at large sizes, perhaps 30 points or larger. Typeface_sentence_204

Some typefaces are considered useful solely at display sizes, and are known as display faces. Typeface_sentence_205

Most effect typefaces are display types. Typeface_sentence_206

Common features of display type include tighter default letter spacing, finer details and serifs, slightly more condensed letter shapes and larger differences between thick and thin strokes; many of these are most visible in serif designs. Typeface_sentence_207

Many display typefaces in the past such as those intended for posters and newspaper headlines were also only cut in capitals, since it was assumed lower-case would not be needed, or at least with no italics. Typeface_sentence_208

This was true of many early sans-serif fonts. Typeface_sentence_209

In the days of metal type, when each size was cut individually, display types were often cut that were adjusted for display use. Typeface_sentence_210

These modifications continued to be made even after fonts started to be made by scaling using a pantograph, but began to fade away with the advent of phototypesetting and then digital fonts, which can both be printed at any size. Typeface_sentence_211

Premium digital fonts used for magazines, books and newspapers do often include display variants, but they are often not included with typefaces bundled with operating systems and desktop publishing software. Typeface_sentence_212

Decades into the desktop publishing revolution, few typographers with metal foundry type experience are still working, and few digital typefaces are optimized specifically for different sizes, so the misuse of the term display typeface as a synonym for ornamental type has become widespread; properly speaking, ornamental typefaces are a subcategory of display typefaces. Typeface_sentence_213

At the same time, with new printing techniques, typefaces have largely replaced hand-lettering for very large signs and notices that would once have been painted or carved by hand. Typeface_sentence_214

Script typefaces Typeface_section_21

Main article: Script typeface Typeface_sentence_215

Script typefaces imitate handwriting or calligraphy. Typeface_sentence_216

They do not lend themselves to quantities of body text, as people find them harder to read than many serif and sans-serif typefaces; they are typically used for logos or invitations. Typeface_sentence_217

Historically, most lettering on logos, displays, shop frontages did not use fonts but was rather custom-designed by signpainters and engravers, so many emulate the styles of hand-drawn signs from different historical periods. Typeface_sentence_218

The genre has developed rapidly in recent years due to modern font formats allowing more complex simulations of handwriting. Typeface_sentence_219

Examples include Coronet (a quite simple design from 1937) and Zapfino (a much more complicated digital design). Typeface_sentence_220

Ethnic typefaces Typeface_section_22

See also: Foreign branding Typeface_sentence_221

Ethnic typefaces are decorative typefaces that have been designed to represent characters of the Roman alphabet but at the same time evoke another writing system. Typeface_sentence_222

This group includes typefaces designed to appear as Arabic, Chinese characters (Wonton fonts), Cyrillic (Faux Cyrillic), Indic scripts, Greek (an example being Lithos), Hebrew, Kana, or Thai. Typeface_sentence_223

These are used largely for the purpose of novelty to make something appear foreign, or to make businesses offering foreign products, such as restaurants, clearly stand out. Typeface_sentence_224

This typographic mimicry is also known as a faux font (named faux x, where x is usually a language script), pseudoscript, mimicry typeface, simulation typeface or a "foreign look" font. Typeface_sentence_225

Reverse-contrast typefaces Typeface_section_23

Main article: Reverse-contrast typefaces Typeface_sentence_226

A reverse-contrast type is a typeface in which the stress is reversed from the norm: instead of the vertical lines being the same width or thicker than horizontals, which is normal in Latin-alphabet printing, the horizontal lines are the thickest. Typeface_sentence_227

Reverse-contrast types are rarely used for body text, and are particularly common in display applications such as headings and posters, in which their unusual structure may be particularly eye-catching. Typeface_sentence_228

First seen in London in 1821, they were particularly common in the mid- to late nineteenth century in American and British printing and have been revived occasionally since then. Typeface_sentence_229

They effectively become slab serif designs because of the serifs becoming thick, and are often characterised as part of that genre. Typeface_sentence_230

In recent times, the reverse-contrast effect has been extended to other kinds of typeface, such as sans-serif designs. Typeface_sentence_231

Effect typefaces Typeface_section_24

Some typefaces have a structure that suggests a three-dimensional letter, such as letters carved into stone. Typeface_sentence_232

An example of this is the genre known as 'inline', 'block' 'outline' or 'shadowed' typefaces. Typeface_sentence_233

This renders the interior of glyphs in the background color, with a thin line around the edges of the glyphs. Typeface_sentence_234

In some cases, the outline shows the glyph filled in with the foreground color, surrounded a thin outline mirroring the edges separated by a small gap. Typeface_sentence_235

(This latter style is often used with "college" typefaces.) Typeface_sentence_236

Colorized block lettering is often seen in carefully rendered graffiti. Typeface_sentence_237

A "shadow" effect can also be either designed into a typeface or added to an existing typeface. Typeface_sentence_238

Designed-in shadows can be stylized or connected to the foreground. Typeface_sentence_239

An after-market shadow effect can be created by making two copies of each glyph, slightly offset in a diagonal direction and possibly in different colors. Typeface_sentence_240

Drop shadows can also be dynamically created by rendering software. Typeface_sentence_241

The shadow effect is often combined with the outline effect, where the top layer is shown in white with black outline and the bottom layer in black, for greater contrast. Typeface_sentence_242

An example typeface with an 'inline' effect is Imprint Shadowed, where the shadowed version is more widely distributed than the regular design. Typeface_sentence_243

Small print typefaces Typeface_section_25

Some typefaces are specifically designed to be printed at small sizes, for example in telephone directories or on newsprint paper. Typeface_sentence_244

Bell Gothic and Bell Centennial, commissioned for telephone directories, are notable examples of this. Typeface_sentence_245

Small-print designs often feature a large x-height, and a chunky design. Typeface_sentence_246

Some fonts used at such sizes may be members of a larger typeface family joining members for normal sizes. Typeface_sentence_247

For example, the Times New Roman family contains some designs intended for small print use, as do many families with optical sizes such as Minion. Typeface_sentence_248

In the metal type era, typefaces intended to be printed small contained ink traps, small indentations at the junctions of strokes that would be filled up with ink spreading out, maintaining the intended appearance of the type design. Typeface_sentence_249

Without ink traps, the excess ink would blob and ruin the crisp edge. Typeface_sentence_250

At larger sizes, these ink traps were not necessary, so display faces did not have them. Typeface_sentence_251

They have also been removed from most digital fonts, as these will normally be viewed on screen or printed through inkjet printing, laser printing, offset lithography, electrophotographic printing or other processes that do not show the ink spread of letterpress. Typeface_sentence_252

Ink traps have remained common on designs intended to be printed on low-quality, absorbent paper, especially newsprint and telephone directories. Typeface_sentence_253

Texts used to demonstrate typefaces Typeface_section_26

A sentence that uses all of the alphabet (a pangram), such as "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog", is often used as a design aesthetic tool to demonstrate the personality of a typeface's characters in a setting (because it displays all the letters of the alphabet). Typeface_sentence_254

For extended settings of typefaces graphic designers often use nonsense text (commonly referred to as greeking), such as lorem ipsum or Latin text such as the beginning of Cicero's In Catilinam. Typeface_sentence_255

Greeking is used in typography to determine a typeface's colour, or weight and style, and to demonstrate an overall typographic aesthetic prior to actual type setting. Typeface_sentence_256

Non-character typefaces Typeface_section_27

The process of printing typefaces has historically been far simpler than commissioning and engraving custom illustrations, especially as many non-text features of printed works like symbols and borders were likely to be reused by a printer in future. Typeface_sentence_257

Non-character typefaces have therefore been created for elements of documents that are not letters but are likely to be reused regularly. Typeface_sentence_258

These include: Typeface_sentence_259

Ornamental typefaces Typeface_section_28

Ornamental (also known as novelty or sometimes display) typefaces are used to decorate a page. Typeface_sentence_260

Historically complex interlocking patterns known as arabesques were common in fine printing, as were floral borders known as fleurons evoking hand-drawn manuscripts. Typeface_sentence_261

In the metal type era, type-founding companies often would offer pre-formed illustrations as fonts showing objects and designs likely to be useful for printing and advertisements, the equivalent of modern clip art and stock photographs. Typeface_sentence_262

As examples, the American Type Founders specimen of 1897 offered designs including baseball players, animals, Christmas wreaths, designs for cheques, and emblems such as state seals for government printing. Typeface_sentence_263

The practice has declined as printing custom illustrations and colour printing using processes such as lithography has become cheaper, although illustration typefaces are still sold by some companies. Typeface_sentence_264

See above for the historical definition of display typeface. Typeface_sentence_265

Symbol typefaces Typeface_section_29

Main article: Dingbat Typeface_sentence_266

Symbol, or dingbat, typefaces consist of symbols (such as decorative bullets, clock faces, railroad timetable symbols, CD-index, or TV-channel enclosed numbers) rather than normal text characters. Typeface_sentence_267

Common, widely used symbol typeface releases include Zapf Dingbats and Wingdings, though many may be created internally by a publication for its own use and some typefaces may have a symbol range included. Typeface_sentence_268

Marlett is an example of a font used by Windows to draw elements of windows and icons. Typeface_sentence_269

Emoji Typeface_section_30

Main article: Emoji Typeface_sentence_270

Emoji are pictograms that can be used and displayed inline with text. Typeface_sentence_271

They are similar to previous symbol typefaces, but with a much larger range of characters, such as symbols for common objects, animals, food types, weather and emotions. Typeface_sentence_272

Originally developed in Japan, they are now commonly installed on many computer and smartphone operating systems. Typeface_sentence_273

Following standardisation and inclusion in the Unicode standard, allowing them to be used internationally, the number of Emoji characters has rapidly increased to meet the demands of an expanded range of cultures using them; unlike many previous symbol typefaces, they are interchangeable with the ability to display the pictures of the same meaning in a range of fonts on different operating systems. Typeface_sentence_274

The popularity of emoji has meant that characters have sometimes gained culture-specific meanings not inherent to the design. Typeface_sentence_275

Both colour and monochrome emoji typefaces exist, as well as at least one animated design. Typeface_sentence_276

Music typefaces Typeface_section_31

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typeface.