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For the African philosophy, see Ubuntu philosophy. Ubuntu_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ubuntu (disambiguation). Ubuntu_sentence_1


DeveloperUbuntu_header_cell_0_0_0 Canonical Ltd.Ubuntu_cell_0_0_1
OS familyUbuntu_header_cell_0_1_0 LinuxUbuntu_cell_0_1_1
Working stateUbuntu_header_cell_0_2_0 CurrentUbuntu_cell_0_2_1
Source modelUbuntu_header_cell_0_3_0 Open-sourceUbuntu_cell_0_3_1
Initial releaseUbuntu_header_cell_0_4_0 20 October 2004 (16 years ago) (2004-10-20)Ubuntu_cell_0_4_1
Latest releaseUbuntu_header_cell_0_5_0 Ubuntu 20.10 / 22 October 2020 (53 days ago) (2020-10-22)Ubuntu_cell_0_5_1
Latest previewUbuntu_header_cell_0_6_0 Ubuntu 21.04 (Hirsute Hippo) Daily BuildUbuntu_cell_0_6_1
RepositoryUbuntu_header_cell_0_7_0 Q381#P1324Ubuntu_cell_0_7_1
Marketing targetUbuntu_header_cell_0_8_0 Cloud computing, personal computers, servers, supercomputers, IoTUbuntu_cell_0_8_1
Available inUbuntu_header_cell_0_9_0 More than 55 languages by LoCosUbuntu_cell_0_9_1
Update methodUbuntu_header_cell_0_10_0 Software UpdaterUbuntu_cell_0_10_1
Package managerUbuntu_header_cell_0_11_0 GNOME Software, APT, dpkg, Snappy, flatpakUbuntu_cell_0_11_1
PlatformsUbuntu_header_cell_0_12_0 Ubuntu_cell_0_12_1
Kernel typeUbuntu_header_cell_0_13_0 Linux kernelUbuntu_cell_0_13_1
UserlandUbuntu_header_cell_0_14_0 GNUUbuntu_cell_0_14_1
Default user interfaceUbuntu_header_cell_0_15_0 GNOMEUbuntu_cell_0_15_1
LicenseUbuntu_header_cell_0_16_0 Free software + some proprietary device driversUbuntu_cell_0_16_1
Official websiteUbuntu_header_cell_0_17_0 Q381#P856Ubuntu_cell_0_17_1

Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊntuː/ (listen) uu-BUUN-too) is a Linux distribution based on Debian and mostly composed of free and open-source software. Ubuntu_sentence_2

Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: Desktop, Server, and Core for Internet of things devices and robots. Ubuntu_sentence_3

All the editions can run on the computer alone, or in a virtual machine. Ubuntu_sentence_4

Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack. Ubuntu_sentence_5

Ubuntu's default desktop has been GNOME, since version 17.10. Ubuntu_sentence_6

Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years. Ubuntu_sentence_7

As of 22 October 2020, the most recent long-term support release is 20.04 ("Focal Fossa"), which is supported until 2025 under public support and until 2030 as a paid option. Ubuntu_sentence_8

The latest standard release is 20.10 ("Groovy Gorilla"), which is supported for nine months. Ubuntu_sentence_9

Ubuntu is developed by Canonical, and a community of other developers, under a meritocratic governance model. Ubuntu_sentence_10

Canonical provides security updates and support for each Ubuntu release, starting from the release date and until the release reaches its designated end-of-life (EOL) date. Ubuntu_sentence_11

Canonical generates revenue through the sale of premium services related to Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_12

Ubuntu is named after the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which Canonical indicates means "humanity to others" with a connotation of "I am what I am because of who we all are". Ubuntu_sentence_13

Background Ubuntu_section_0

See also: Ubuntu version history Ubuntu_sentence_14

Ubuntu is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure, and comprises Linux server, desktop and discontinued phone and tablet operating system versions. Ubuntu_sentence_15

Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months, and each release receives free support for nine months (eighteen months prior to 13.04) with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative, substantially beneficial low-risk bug fixes. Ubuntu_sentence_16

The first release was in October 2004. Ubuntu_sentence_17

Current long-term support (LTS) releases are supported for five years, and are released every two years. Ubuntu_sentence_18

Since the release of Ubuntu 6.06, every fourth release receives long-term support (LTS). Ubuntu_sentence_19

Long-term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' (cloud computing infrastructure). Ubuntu_sentence_20

The first LTS releases were supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well. Ubuntu_sentence_21

LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date. Ubuntu_sentence_22

Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch, which are synchronised every six months. Ubuntu_sentence_23

Both distributions use Debian's package format and package management tools (e.g. APT and Ubuntu Software). Ubuntu_sentence_24

Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other, however, so packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_25

Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian. Ubuntu_sentence_26

Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian, although there has been criticism that this does not happen often enough. Ubuntu_sentence_27

Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, had expressed concern about Ubuntu packages potentially diverging too far from Debian to remain compatible. Ubuntu_sentence_28

Before release, packages are imported from Debian unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications. Ubuntu_sentence_29

One month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together. Ubuntu_sentence_30

Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd. On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided initial funding of US$10 million. Ubuntu_sentence_31

The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_32

Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation goal as to ensure the continuity of the Ubuntu project. Ubuntu_sentence_33

On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for third-party cloud management platforms, such as those used at Amazon EC2. Ubuntu_sentence_34

GNOME 3 has been the default GUI for Ubuntu Desktop, while Unity is still the default in old versions, up to 18.04 LTS. Ubuntu_sentence_35

Shuttleworth wrote on 8 April 2017, "We will invest in Ubuntu GNOME with the intent of delivering a fantastic all-GNOME desktop. Ubuntu_sentence_36

We're helping the Ubuntu GNOME team, not creating something different or competitive with that effort. Ubuntu_sentence_37

While I am passionate about the design ideas in Unity, and hope GNOME may be more open to them now, I think we should respect the GNOME design leadership by delivering GNOME the way GNOME wants it delivered. Ubuntu_sentence_38

Our role in that, as usual, will be to make sure that upgrades, integration, security, performance and the full experience are fantastic." Ubuntu_sentence_39

Shuttleworth also mentioned that Canonical will cease development for Ubuntu Phone, Tablet, and convergence. Ubuntu_sentence_40

32-bit i386 processors have been supported up to Ubuntu 18.04, but users "will not be allowed to upgrade to Ubuntu 18.10 as dropping support for that architecture is being evaluated". Ubuntu_sentence_41

It was decided to support "legacy software", i.e. select 32-bit i386 packages for Ubuntu 19.10 and 20.04 LTS. Ubuntu_sentence_42

Features Ubuntu_section_1

A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess. Ubuntu_sentence_43

Many additional software packages are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software (previously Ubuntu Software Center) as well as any other APT-based package management tools. Ubuntu_sentence_44

Many additional software packages that are no longer installed by default, such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic, are still accessible in the repositories and installable by the main tool or by any other APT-based package management tool. Ubuntu_sentence_45

Cross-distribution snap packages and flatpaks are also available, that both allow installing software, such as some of Microsoft's software, in most of the major Linux operating systems (such as any currently supported Ubuntu version and in Fedora). Ubuntu_sentence_46

The default file manager is , formerly called Nautilus. Ubuntu_sentence_47

All of the application software installed by default is free software. Ubuntu_sentence_48

In addition, Ubuntu redistributes some hardware drivers that are available only in binary format, but such packages are clearly marked in the restricted component. Ubuntu_sentence_49

Security Ubuntu_section_2

Ubuntu aims to be secure by default. Ubuntu_sentence_50

User programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system or other users' files. Ubuntu_sentence_51

For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes. Ubuntu_sentence_52

Polkit is also being widely implemented into the desktop. Ubuntu_sentence_53

Most network ports are closed by default to prevent hacking. Ubuntu_sentence_54

A built-in firewall allows end-users who install network servers to control access. Ubuntu_sentence_55

A GUI (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) is available to configure it. Ubuntu_sentence_56

Ubuntu compiles its packages using GCC features such as PIE and buffer overflow protection to harden its software. Ubuntu_sentence_57

These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32-bit and 0.01% in 64-bit. Ubuntu_sentence_58

Ubuntu also supports full disk encryption as well as encryption of the home and Private directories. Ubuntu_sentence_59

Installation Ubuntu_section_3

The system requirements vary among Ubuntu products. Ubuntu_sentence_60

For the Ubuntu desktop release 20.04 LTS, a PC with at least 2 GHz dual-core processor, 4 GB of RAM and 25 GB of free disk space is recommended. Ubuntu_sentence_61

For less powerful computers, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and Xubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_62

Ubuntu supports the ARM architecture. Ubuntu_sentence_63

It is also available on Power ISA, while older PowerPC architecture was at one point unofficially supported, and now newer Power ISA CPUs (POWER8) are supported. Ubuntu_sentence_64

x86 64 a.k.a. Ubuntu_sentence_65

AMD64 architecture is also officially supported. Ubuntu_sentence_66

Live images are the typical way for users to assess and subsequently install Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_67

These can be downloaded as a disk image (.iso) and subsequently burnt to a DVD and booted. Ubuntu_sentence_68

Other methods include running the live version via UNetbootin, or Startup Disk Creator (a preinstalled tool on Ubuntu, available on machines already running the OS) directly from a USB drive (making, respectively, a live DVD or live USB medium). Ubuntu_sentence_69

Running Ubuntu in this way is slower than running it from a hard drive, but does not alter the computer unless specifically instructed by the user. Ubuntu_sentence_70

If the user chooses to boot the live image rather than execute an installer at boot time, there is still the option to then use an installer called Ubiquity to install Ubuntu once booted into the live environment. Ubuntu_sentence_71

Disk images of all current and past versions are available for download at the Ubuntu web site. Ubuntu_sentence_72

Various third-party programs such as Reconstructor are available to create customized copies of the Ubuntu Live DVDs (or CDs). Ubuntu_sentence_73

"Minimal CDs" are available (for server use) that fit on a CD. Ubuntu_sentence_74

Additionally, USB flash drive installations can be used to boot Ubuntu and Kubuntu in a way that allows permanent saving of user settings and portability of the USB-installed system between physical machines (however, the computers' BIOS must support booting from USB). Ubuntu_sentence_75

In newer versions of Ubuntu, the Ubuntu Live USB creator can be used to install Ubuntu on a USB drive (with or without a live CD or DVD). Ubuntu_sentence_76

Creating a bootable USB drive with persistence is as simple as dragging a slider to determine how much space to reserve for persistence; for this, Ubuntu employs casper. Ubuntu_sentence_77

The desktop edition can also be installed using the Netboot image (a.k.a. netboot tarball) which uses the debian-installer and allows certain specialist installations of Ubuntu: setting up automated deployments, upgrading from older installations without network access, LVM or RAID partitioning, installs on systems with less than about 256 MB of RAM (although low-memory systems may not be able to run a full desktop environment reasonably). Ubuntu_sentence_78

Package classification and support Ubuntu_section_4

Ubuntu divides most software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available. Ubuntu_sentence_79

Some unsupported applications receive updates from community members, but not from Canonical Ltd. Ubuntu_sentence_80


Ubuntu_header_cell_1_0_0 Free softwareUbuntu_header_cell_1_0_1 Non-free softwareUbuntu_header_cell_1_0_2
Canonical supported software domainsUbuntu_header_cell_1_1_0 MainUbuntu_cell_1_1_1 RestrictedUbuntu_cell_1_1_2
UnsupportedUbuntu_header_cell_1_2_0 UniverseUbuntu_cell_1_2_1 MultiverseUbuntu_cell_1_2_2

Free software includes software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. Ubuntu_sentence_81

Exceptions, however, include firmware, in the Main category, because although some firmware is not allowed to be modified, its distribution is still permitted. Ubuntu_sentence_82

Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are made for important non-free software. Ubuntu_sentence_83

Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics card drivers. Ubuntu_sentence_84

The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code. Ubuntu_sentence_85

It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a complete desktop environment. Ubuntu_sentence_86

Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialized applications are placed in the Universe and Multiverse categories. Ubuntu_sentence_87

In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized repository for backporting newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_88

The repository is not comprehensive; it consists primarily of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines. Ubuntu_sentence_89

Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained. Ubuntu_sentence_90

The -updates repository provides stable release updates (SRU) of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager. Ubuntu_sentence_91

Each release is given its own -updates repository (e.g. intrepid-updates). Ubuntu_sentence_92

The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd. for packages in main and restricted, and by the community for packages in universe and multiverse. Ubuntu_sentence_93

All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public. Ubuntu_sentence_94

Updates are scheduled to be available until the end of life for the release. Ubuntu_sentence_95

In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads that must be confirmed before being copied into -updates. Ubuntu_sentence_96

All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression. Ubuntu_sentence_97

Updates in -proposed are confirmed by either Canonical or members of the community. Ubuntu_sentence_98

Canonical's partner repository lets vendors of proprietary software deliver their products to Ubuntu users at no cost through the same familiar tools for installing and upgrading software. Ubuntu_sentence_99

The software in the partner repository is officially supported with security and other important updates by its respective vendors. Ubuntu_sentence_100

Canonical supports the packaging of the software for Ubuntu and provides guidance to vendors. Ubuntu_sentence_101

The partner repository is disabled by default and can be enabled by the user. Ubuntu_sentence_102

Some popular products distributed via the partner repository as of 28 April 2013 are Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Skype. Ubuntu_sentence_103

The free software Wine compatibility layer can be installed to allow users to run Windows software. Ubuntu_sentence_104

Package Archives Ubuntu_section_5

A Personal Package Archive (PPA) is a software repository for uploading source packages to be built and published as an Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) repository by Launchpad. Ubuntu_sentence_105

While the term is used exclusively within Ubuntu, Launchpad's host, Canonical, envisions adoption beyond the Ubuntu community. Ubuntu_sentence_106

Third-party software Ubuntu_section_6

Some third-party software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component. Ubuntu_sentence_107

The package ubuntu-restricted-extras additionally contains software that may be legally restricted, including support for MP3 and DVD playback, Microsoft TrueType core fonts, Sun's Java runtime environment, Adobe's Flash Player plugin, many common audio/video codecs, and unrar, an unarchiver for files compressed in the . Ubuntu_sentence_108

Additionally, third-party application suites are available for purchase through Ubuntu Software, including many games such as Braid and Oil Rush, software for DVD playback and media codecs. Ubuntu_sentence_109

Releases Ubuntu_section_7

For further information on all Ubuntu releases including older ones not covered here, see Ubuntu version history. Ubuntu_sentence_110


Currently supported releasesUbuntu_table_caption_2
VersionUbuntu_header_cell_2_0_0 Code nameUbuntu_header_cell_2_0_1 Release dateUbuntu_header_cell_2_0_2 General support untilUbuntu_header_cell_2_0_3 Security support (ESM) untilUbuntu_header_cell_2_0_4
14.04 LTSUbuntu_header_cell_2_1_0 Trusty TahrUbuntu_cell_2_1_1 2014-04-17Ubuntu_cell_2_1_2 Old version, no longer maintained: 2019-04Ubuntu_cell_2_1_3 Older version, yet still maintained: 2022-04Ubuntu_cell_2_1_4
16.04 LTSUbuntu_header_cell_2_2_0 Xenial XerusUbuntu_cell_2_2_1 2016-04-21Ubuntu_cell_2_2_2 Older version, yet still maintained: 2021-04Ubuntu_cell_2_2_3 Older version, yet still maintained: 2024-04Ubuntu_cell_2_2_4
18.04 LTSUbuntu_header_cell_2_3_0 Bionic BeaverUbuntu_cell_2_3_1 2018-04-26Ubuntu_cell_2_3_2 Older version, yet still maintained: 2023-04Ubuntu_cell_2_3_3 Older version, yet still maintained: 2028-04Ubuntu_cell_2_3_4
20.04 LTSUbuntu_header_cell_2_4_0 Focal FossaUbuntu_cell_2_4_1 2020-04-23Ubuntu_cell_2_4_2 Older version, yet still maintained: 2025-04Ubuntu_cell_2_4_3 Current stable version: 2030-04Ubuntu_cell_2_4_4
20.10Ubuntu_header_cell_2_5_0 Groovy GorillaUbuntu_cell_2_5_1 2020-10-22Ubuntu_cell_2_5_2 Current stable version: 2021-07Ubuntu_cell_2_5_3 n/aUbuntu_cell_2_5_4
21.04Ubuntu_header_cell_2_6_0 Hirsute HippoUbuntu_cell_2_6_1 2021-04-22Ubuntu_cell_2_6_2 Future release: 2022-01Ubuntu_cell_2_6_3 n/aUbuntu_cell_2_6_4
Legend:Old versionOlder version, still maintainedLatest versionLatest preview versionFuture releaseUbuntu_cell_2_7_0

Each Ubuntu release has a version number that consists of the year and month number of the release. Ubuntu_sentence_111

For example, the first release was Ubuntu 4.10 as it was released on 20 October 2004. Ubuntu_sentence_112

Ubuntu releases are also given alliterative code names, using an adjective and an animal (e.g. "Xenial Xerus"). Ubuntu_sentence_113

With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer, at least until restarting the cycle with the release of Artful Aardvark in October 2017. Ubuntu_sentence_114

Commonly, Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name; for example, the 18.04 LTS release is commonly known as "Bionic". Ubuntu_sentence_115

Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases. Ubuntu_sentence_116

Upgrades from one LTS release to the next LTS release (e.g. Ubuntu 16.04 LTS to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS and then to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS) are supported, while upgrades from non-LTS have only supported upgrade to the next release, regardless of its LTS status (e.g. Ubuntu 15.10 to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS). Ubuntu_sentence_117

However, it is possible to skip an LTS upgrade, going straight from 16.04 LTS to 18.04.5 LTS, by waiting for a point release that supports such updating. Ubuntu_sentence_118

LTS releases have optional extended security maintenance (ESM) support available, including 14.04 "Trusty" that is otherwise out of public support, adding support for that version up to 2022. Ubuntu_sentence_119

Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat), was released on 10 October 2010 (10–10–10). Ubuntu_sentence_120

This departed from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October in order to get "the perfect 10", and makes a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy books, since, in binary, 101010 equals decimal 42, the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series. Ubuntu_sentence_121

Ubuntu (16.04.5 and later) requires a 2 GB or larger installation medium. Ubuntu_sentence_122

However, there is an option to install it with a Minimal CD. Ubuntu_sentence_123

Variants Ubuntu_section_8

See also: List of Ubuntu-based third-party distributions Ubuntu_sentence_124

Ubuntu Desktop (formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu) is the variant officially recommended for most users. Ubuntu_sentence_125

It is designed for desktop and laptop PCs and officially supported by Canonical. Ubuntu_sentence_126

From Ubuntu 17.10, GNOME Shell is the default desktop environment. Ubuntu_sentence_127

From Ubuntu 11.04 to Ubuntu 17.04, the Unity desktop interface was the default. Ubuntu_sentence_128

A number of other variants are distinguished simply by each featuring a different desktop environment. Ubuntu_sentence_129

LXQt and Xfce are often recommended for use with older PCs that may have less memory and processing power available. Ubuntu_sentence_130

Official distributions Ubuntu_section_9

These Ubuntu variants simply install an initial set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them. Ubuntu_sentence_131


DistributionUbuntu_header_cell_3_0_0 DescriptionUbuntu_header_cell_3_0_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_1_0 KubuntuUbuntu_cell_3_1_1 An official derivative of Ubuntu Linux using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.Ubuntu_cell_3_1_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_2_0 LubuntuUbuntu_cell_3_2_1 Lubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", using the LXQt desktop environment (used LXDE before 18.10).Ubuntu_cell_3_2_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_3_0 Ubuntu BudgieUbuntu_cell_3_3_1 An official derivative of Ubuntu using Budgie.Ubuntu_cell_3_3_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_4_0 Ubuntu KylinUbuntu_cell_3_4_1 An official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.Ubuntu_cell_3_4_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_5_0 Ubuntu MATEUbuntu_cell_3_5_1 An official derivative of Ubuntu using MATE, a desktop environment forked from the now-defunct GNOME 2 code base, with an emphasis on the desktop metaphor.Ubuntu_cell_3_5_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_6_0 Ubuntu ServerUbuntu_cell_3_6_1 Ubuntu has a server edition that uses the same APT repositories as the Ubuntu Desktop Edition. The differences between them are the absence of an X Window environment in a default installation of the server edition (although one can easily be installed, including Unity, GNOME, KDE or Xfce), and some alterations to the installation process. The server edition uses a screen-mode, character-based interface for the installation, instead of a graphical installation process. This enables installation on machines with a serial or "dumb terminal" interface without graphics support.

The server edition (like the desktop version) supports hardware virtualization and can be run in a virtual machine, either inside a host operating system or in a hypervisor, such as VMware ESXi, Oracle, Citrix XenServer, Microsoft Hyper-V, QEMU, a Kernel-based Virtual Machine, or any other IBM PC compatible emulator or virtualizer. AppArmor security module for the Linux kernel is used by default on key software packages, and the firewall is extended to common services used by the operating system.

It has versions of key server software pre-installed, including: Tomcat, PostgreSQL (v12.2), Docker, Puppet, Python (v3.8), PHP (v7.4), NGINX (v1.17), and MySQL (v8.0).Ubuntu_cell_3_6_2

Ubuntu_cell_3_7_0 Ubuntu StudioUbuntu_cell_3_7_1 Based on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.Ubuntu_cell_3_7_2
Ubuntu_cell_3_8_0 XubuntuUbuntu_cell_3_8_1 An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.Ubuntu_cell_3_8_2

Ubuntu had some official distributions that have been discontinued, such as Edubuntu; including some previously supported by Canonical, like Ubuntu Touch, that is now maintained by volunteers (UBports Community). Ubuntu_sentence_132

Cloud computing Ubuntu_section_10

Ubuntu offers Ubuntu Cloud Images which are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on cloud-platforms such as Amazon EC2, OpenStack, Microsoft Azure and LXC. Ubuntu_sentence_133

Ubuntu is also prevalent on VPS platforms such as DigitalOcean. Ubuntu_sentence_134

Ubuntu has support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools added by Canonical. Ubuntu_sentence_135

Ubuntu 11.10 added focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu's preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also supported. Ubuntu_sentence_136

Another major focus is Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server. Ubuntu_sentence_137

Adoption and reception Ubuntu_section_11

Installed base Ubuntu_section_12

As Ubuntu is distributed freely and historically there was no registration process (still optional), Ubuntu usage can only be roughly estimated. Ubuntu_sentence_138

In 2015, Canonical's Ubuntu Insights page stated "Ubuntu now has over 40 million desktop users and counting". Ubuntu_sentence_139

W3Techs Web Technology Surveys estimated in November 2020 that: Ubuntu_sentence_140


  • Ubuntu is by far the most popular Linux distribution for running web servers; of the websites they analyze it's "used by 47.3% of all the websites who use Linux", and Ubuntu alone powers more websites than Microsoft Windows, which powers 28.2% of all websites, or 39% of the share Unix has (which includes Linux and thus Ubuntu). All Linux/Unix distributions in total power well over twice the number of hosts as Windows for websites based on W3Techs numbers. Ubuntu and Debian only (which Ubuntu is based on, with the same package manager and thus administered the same way) make up 65% of all Linux distributions for web serving use; the usage of Ubuntu surpassed Debian (for such server use) in May 2016.Ubuntu_item_0_0
  • Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution among the top 1000 sites and gains around 500 of the top 10 million websites per day.Ubuntu_item_0_1

W3Techs analyzes the top 10 million websites only. Ubuntu_sentence_141

Wikimedia Foundation data (based on user agent) for September 2013 shows that Ubuntu generated the most page requests to Wikimedia sites, including Wikipedia, among recognizable Linux distributions. Ubuntu_sentence_142

As of June 2020, Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS is used in a supercomputer on the TOP500 list, the 5th fastest one in the world in November, after an upgraded from 7th place, where it entered the list in June. Ubuntu_sentence_143

Another Nvidia supercomputer tops the Green500 list (and it and the next one are also Ubuntu-based), a list which is a reordering of former list, ordered by power-efficiency. Ubuntu_sentence_144

On the TOP500 list, that supercomputer is ranked 172nd. Ubuntu_sentence_145

Large-scale deployments Ubuntu_section_13

The public sector has also adopted Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_146

As of January 2009, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Macedonia deployed more than 180,000 Ubuntu-based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the country to use Ubuntu-powered computer workstations; the Spanish school system has 195,000 Ubuntu desktops. Ubuntu_sentence_147

The French police, having already started using open-source software in 2005 by replacing Microsoft Office with OpenOffice.org, decided to transition to Ubuntu from Windows XP after the release of Windows Vista in 2006. Ubuntu_sentence_148

By March 2009, the Gendarmerie Nationale had already switched 5000 workstations to Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_149

Based on the success of that transition, it planned to switch 15,000 more over by the end of 2009 and to have switched all 90,000 workstations over by 2015 (GendBuntu project). Ubuntu_sentence_150

Lt. Ubuntu_sentence_151

Colonel Guimard announced that the move was very easy and allowed for a 70% saving on the IT budget without having to reduce its capabilities. Ubuntu_sentence_152

In 2011, Ubuntu 10.04 was adopted by the Indian justice system. Ubuntu_sentence_153

The Government of Kerala adopted Ubuntu for the legislators in Kerala and the government schools of Kerala began to use customized IT@School Project Ubuntu 10.04 which contains specially created software for students. Ubuntu_sentence_154

Previously, Windows was used in the schools. Ubuntu_sentence_155

Textbooks were also remade with an Ubuntu syllabus and was used in schools as of 2011. Ubuntu_sentence_156

The city of Munich, Germany, forked Kubuntu 10.04 LTS and created LiMux for use on the city's computers. Ubuntu_sentence_157

After originally planning to migrate 12,000 desktop computers to LiMux, it was announced in December 2013 that the project had completed successfully with the migration of 14,800 out of 15,500 desktop computers, but still keeping about 5000 Windows clients for unported applications. Ubuntu_sentence_158

In February 2017 the majority coalition decided, against heavy protest from the opposition, to evaluate the migration back to Windows, after Microsoft had decided to move its company headquarters to Munich. Ubuntu_sentence_159

Governing Mayor Dieter Reiter cited lack of compatibility with systems outside of the administrative sector, such as requiring a governmental mail server to send e-mails to his personal smartphone, as reasons for the return, but has been criticised for evaluating administrative IT based on private and business standards. Ubuntu_sentence_160

In March 2012, the government of Iceland launched a project to get all public institutions using free and open-source software. Ubuntu_sentence_161

Already, several government agencies and schools have adopted Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_162

The government cited cost savings as a big factor for the decision, and also stated that open-source software avoids vendor lock-in. Ubuntu_sentence_163

A 12-month project was launched to migrate the biggest public institutions in Iceland to using open-source software, and help ease the migration for others. Ubuntu_sentence_164

US president Barack Obama's successful campaign for re-election in 2012 used Ubuntu in its IT department. Ubuntu_sentence_165

In August 2014, the city of Turin, Italy, announced its migration from Windows XP to Ubuntu for the 8,300 desktop computers used by the municipality, becoming the first city in Italy to adopt Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_166

Reception Ubuntu_section_14

Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London, received favorable reviews in online and print publications, and has won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS. Ubuntu_sentence_167

In early 2008, PC World named Ubuntu the "best all-around Linux distribution available today", though it criticized the lack of an integrated desktop effects manager. Ubuntu_sentence_168

Chris DiBona, the program manager for open-source software at Google, said "I think Ubuntu has captured people's imaginations around the Linux desktop," and "If there is a hope for the Linux desktop, it would be them". Ubuntu_sentence_169

As of January 2009, almost half of Google's 20,000 employees used Goobuntu, a slightly modified version of Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_170

In 2012, ZDNet reported that Ubuntu was still Google's desktop of choice. Ubuntu_sentence_171

In March 2016, Matt Hartley picked a list of best Linux distributions for Datamation; he chose Ubuntu as number one. Ubuntu_sentence_172

In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series MythBusters, advocated Linux (giving the example of Ubuntu) as a solution to software bloat. Ubuntu_sentence_173

Other celebrity users of Ubuntu include science fiction writer Cory Doctorow and actor Stephen Fry. Ubuntu_sentence_174

In January 2014, the UK's authority for computer security, CESG, reported that Ubuntu 12.04 LTS was "the only operating system that passes as many as 9 out of 12 requirements without any significant risks", though it was unclear if any other Linux distributions were tested. Ubuntu_sentence_175

32-bit "deprecation" controversy Ubuntu_section_15

In June 2019, Canonical announced that they would be deprecating support for 32-bit applications and libraries in Ubuntu 19.10. Ubuntu_sentence_176

Because Steam's Linux client depends on these 32-bit libraries, Valve announced that they would no longer be supporting Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_177

After uproar from the Linux gaming community, Canonical backtracked on this decision and decided to support select 32-bit libraries. Ubuntu_sentence_178

As a result, Valve will support Ubuntu 19.10 again. Ubuntu_sentence_179

Wine needs most of the same 32-bit library packages that the Steam package depends on, and more, to enable its version of WoW64 to run 32-bit Windows applications. Ubuntu_sentence_180

The parts of Wine that would continue to function without 32-bit libraries would be limited to the subset of Windows applications that have a 64-bit version, removing decades of Windows compatibility. Ubuntu_sentence_181

In Canonical's statement on bringing back the libraries, they mentioned using "container technology" in the future to make sure that Wine continues to function. Ubuntu_sentence_182

Conformity with European data privacy law Ubuntu_section_16

Soon after being introduced, doubts emerged on the conformance of the shopping lens with the European Data Protection Directive. Ubuntu_sentence_183

A petition was later signed by over 50 Ubuntu users and delivered to Canonical demanding various modifications to the feature in order to clearly frame it within European law. Ubuntu_sentence_184

Canonical did not reply. Ubuntu_sentence_185

In 2013, a formal complaint on the shopping lens was filed with the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO), the UK data privacy office. Ubuntu_sentence_186

Almost one year later the ICO ruled in favour of Canonical, considering the various improvements introduced to the feature in the meantime to render it conformable with the Data Protection Directive. Ubuntu_sentence_187

According to European rules, this ruling is automatically effective in the entirety of the European Union. Ubuntu_sentence_188

However, the ruling also made clear that at the time of introduction the feature was not legal, among other things, since it was missing a privacy policy statement. Ubuntu_sentence_189

Local communities (LoCos) Ubuntu_section_17

Not to be confused with Linux User Group. Ubuntu_sentence_190

In an effort to reach out to users who are less technical, and to foster a sense of community around the distribution, Local Communities, better known as "LoCos", have been established throughout the world. Ubuntu_sentence_191

Originally, each country had one LoCo Team. Ubuntu_sentence_192

However, in some areas, most notably the United States and Canada, each state or province may establish a team. Ubuntu_sentence_193

A LoCo Council approves teams based upon their efforts to aid in either the development or the promotion of Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_194

Hardware vendor support Ubuntu_section_18

Ubuntu works closely with OEMs to jointly make Ubuntu available on a wide range of devices. Ubuntu_sentence_195

A number of vendors offer computers with Ubuntu pre-installed, including Dell, Hasee, Sharp Corporation, and Cirrus7. Ubuntu_sentence_196

Specifically, Dell offers the XPS 13 laptop, Developer Edition with Ubuntu pre-installed. Ubuntu_sentence_197

Together, Dell, Lenovo, HP, and Acer offer over 200 desktop and over 400 laptop PCs preloaded with Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_198

System76 PCs are also sold with Ubuntu. Ubuntu_sentence_199

Dell and System76 customers are able to choose between 30-day, three-month, and yearly Ubuntu support plans through Canonical. Ubuntu_sentence_200

Dell computers (running Ubuntu 10.04) include extra support for ATI/AMD Video Graphics, Dell Wireless, Fingerprint Readers, HDMI, Bluetooth, DVD playback (using LinDVD), and MP3/WMA/WMV. Ubuntu_sentence_201

Asus is also selling some Eee PCs with Ubuntu pre-installed and announced "many more" models running Ubuntu for 2011. Ubuntu_sentence_202

Vodafone has made available a notebook for the South-African market called "Webbook". Ubuntu_sentence_203

Dell sells computers (initially Inspiron 14R and 15R laptops) pre-loaded with Ubuntu in India and China, with 850 and 350 retail outlets respectively. Ubuntu_sentence_204

Starting in 2013, Alienware began offering its X51 model gaming desktop pre-installed with Ubuntu at a lower price than if it were pre-installed with Windows. Ubuntu_sentence_205

While Linux already works on IBM's mainframe system (Linux on IBM Z), IBM in collaboration with Canonical (and SUSE; "Linux Foundation will form a new Open Mainframe Project") announced Ubuntu support for their z/Architecture for the first time (IBM claimed their system, IBM zEnterprise System, version z13, the most powerful computer in the world in 2015; it was then the largest computer by transistor count; again claimed fastest in 2017 with IBM z14), at the time of their "biggest code drop" ("LinuxOne") in Linux history. Ubuntu_sentence_206

In early 2015, Intel launched the Intel Compute Stick small form factor computer available preloaded with Ubuntu or Windows operating systems. Ubuntu_sentence_207

Windows subsystem Ubuntu_section_19

In March 2016, Microsoft announced that it would support the Ubuntu userland on top of the Windows 10 kernel by implementing the Linux system calls as a subsystem (and in 2019 Microsoft announced the new WSL 2 subsystem that includes a Linux kernel, that Canonical announced will have "full support for Ubuntu"). Ubuntu_sentence_208

It focuses on command-line tools like Bash and is therefore aimed at programmers. Ubuntu_sentence_209

As of the Fall Creators Update (1709), this feature is fully available to the public. Ubuntu_sentence_210

As of 2019, other Linux variants are also supported. Ubuntu_sentence_211

See also Ubuntu_section_20


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu.