Ubuntu version history

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ubuntu releases are made semiannually by Canonical Ltd, the developers of the Ubuntu operating system, using the year and month of the release as a version number. Ubuntu version history_sentence_0

The first Ubuntu release, for example, was Ubuntu 4.10 and was released on 20 October 2004. Ubuntu version history_sentence_1

Consequently, version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed until a different month (or even year) to that planned, the version number will change accordingly. Ubuntu version history_sentence_2

Canonical schedules Ubuntu releases to occur approximately one month after GNOME releases, which in turn come about one month after releases of X.Org, resulting in each Ubuntu release including a newer version of GNOME and X. Ubuntu version history_sentence_3

Every fourth release, occurring in the second quarter of even-numbered years, has been designated as a long-term support (LTS) release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_4

The desktop version of LTS releases for 10.04 and earlier were supported for three years, with server version support for five years. Ubuntu version history_sentence_5

LTS releases 12.04 and newer are freely supported for five years. Ubuntu version history_sentence_6

Through the ESM paid option, support can be extended even longer, up to a total of ten years for 18.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_7

The support period for non-LTS releases is 9 months. Ubuntu version history_sentence_8

Prior to 13.04, it had been 18 months. Ubuntu version history_sentence_9

Naming convention Ubuntu version history_section_0

Ubuntu releases are also given code names, using an adjective and an animal with the same first letter – an alliteration, e.g., "Dapper Drake". Ubuntu version history_sentence_10

With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, and except for the first three releases, the first letters are sequential, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. Ubuntu version history_sentence_11

As of Ubuntu 17.10, however, the initial letter "rolled over" and returned to "A". Ubuntu version history_sentence_12

Names are occasionally chosen so that animal appearance or habits reflects some new feature, e.g., "Koala's favourite leaf is Eucalyptus"; see below. Ubuntu version history_sentence_13

Ubuntu releases are often referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name, e.g., "Feisty". Ubuntu version history_sentence_14

Release history Ubuntu version history_section_1

Ubuntu 4.10 (Warty Warthog) Ubuntu version history_section_2

Ubuntu 4.10 (Warty Warthog), released on 20 October 2004, was Canonical's first release of Ubuntu, building upon Debian, with plans for a new release every six months and eighteen months of support thereafter. Ubuntu version history_sentence_15

Ubuntu 4.10's support ended on 30 April 2006. Ubuntu version history_sentence_16

Ubuntu 4.10 was offered as a free download and, through Canonical's ShipIt service, was also mailed to users free of charge in CD format. Ubuntu version history_sentence_17

Ubuntu 5.04 (Hoary Hedgehog) Ubuntu version history_section_3

Ubuntu 5.04 (Hoary Hedgehog), released on 8 April 2005, was Canonical's second release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_18

Ubuntu 5.04's support ended on 31 October 2006. Ubuntu version history_sentence_19

Ubuntu 5.04 added many new features including an Update Manager, upgrade notifier, readahead and grepmap, suspend, hibernate and standby support, dynamic frequency scaling for processors, Ubuntu hardware database, Kickstart installation, and APT authentication. Ubuntu version history_sentence_20

Ubuntu 5.04 was the first version that allowed installation from USB devices. Ubuntu version history_sentence_21

Beginning with Ubuntu 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding. Ubuntu version history_sentence_22

Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger) Ubuntu version history_section_4

Ubuntu 5.10 (Breezy Badger), released on 12 October 2005, was Canonical's third release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_23

Ubuntu 5.10's support ended on 13 April 2007. Ubuntu version history_sentence_24

Ubuntu 5.10 added several new features including a graphical bootloader (Usplash), an Add/Remove Applications tool, a menu editor (Alacarte), an easy language selector, logical volume management support, full Hewlett-Packard printer support, OEM installer support, a new Ubuntu logo in the top-left, and Launchpad integration for bug reporting and software development. Ubuntu version history_sentence_25

Ubuntu 6.06 LTS (Dapper Drake) Ubuntu version history_section_5

Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake), released on 1 June 2006, was Canonical's fourth release, and the first long-term support (LTS) release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_26

Ubuntu 6.06 was released behind schedule, having been intended as 6.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_27

It is sometimes jokingly described as their first "Late To Ship" (LTS) release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_28

Development was not complete in April 2006 and Mark Shuttleworth approved slipping the release date to June, making it 6.06 instead. Ubuntu version history_sentence_29

Ubuntu 6.06's support ended on 14 July 2009 for desktops and ended in June 2011 for servers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_30

Ubuntu 6.06 included several new features, including having the Live CD and Install CD merged onto one disc, a graphical installer on Live CD (Ubiquity), Usplash on shutdown as well as startup, a network manager for easy switching of multiple wired and wireless connections, Humanlooks theme implemented using Tango guidelines, based on Clearlooks and featuring orange colors instead of brown, and GDebi graphical installer for . Ubuntu version history_sentence_31

Ubuntu 6.06 did not include a means to install from a USB device, but did for the first time allow installation directly onto removable USB devices. Ubuntu version history_sentence_32

Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft) Ubuntu version history_section_6

Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft), released on 26 October 2006, was Canonical's fifth release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_33

Ubuntu 6.10's support ended on 25 April 2008. Ubuntu version history_sentence_34

Ubuntu 6.10 added several new features including a heavily modified Human theme, Upstart init daemon, automated crash reports (Apport), Tomboy note taking application, and F-Spot photo manager. Ubuntu version history_sentence_35

EasyUbuntu, a third party program designed to make Ubuntu easier to use, was included in Ubuntu 6.10 as a meta-package. Ubuntu version history_sentence_36

Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn) Ubuntu version history_section_7

Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn), released on 19 April 2007, was Canonical's sixth release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_37

Ubuntu 7.04's support ended on 19 October 2008. Ubuntu version history_sentence_38

Ubuntu 7.04 included several new features, among them a migration assistant to help former Microsoft Windows users transition to Ubuntu, support for Kernel-based Virtual Machine, assisted codec and restricted drivers installation including Adobe Flash, Java, MP3 support, easier installation of Nvidia and ATI drivers, Compiz desktop effects, support for Wi-Fi Protected Access, the addition of Sudoku and chess, a disk usage analyzer (baobab), GNOME Control Center, and zeroconf support for many devices. Ubuntu version history_sentence_39

Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) Ubuntu version history_section_8

Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon), released on 18 October 2007, was Canonical's seventh release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_40

Ubuntu 7.10's support ended on 18 April 2009. Ubuntu version history_sentence_41

Ubuntu 7.10 included several new features, among them AppArmor security framework, fast desktop search, a Firefox plug-in manager (Ubufox), a graphical configuration tool for X.Org, full NTFS support (read/write) via NTFS-3G, and a revamped printing system with PDF printing by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_42

Compiz Fusion was enabled as default in Ubuntu 7.10 and Fast user switching was added. Ubuntu version history_sentence_43

Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron) Ubuntu version history_section_9

Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron), released on 24 April 2008, was Canonical's eighth release of Ubuntu and the second long-term support release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_44

Ubuntu 8.04's support ended on 12 May 2011 for desktops and ended on 9 May 2013 for servers as well. Ubuntu version history_sentence_45

Ubuntu 8.04 included several new features, among them Tracker desktop search integration, Brasero disk burner, Transmission BitTorrent client, Vinagre VNC client, system sound through PulseAudio, and Active Directory authentication and login using Likewise Open. Ubuntu version history_sentence_46

In addition Ubuntu 8.04 included updates for better Tango compliance, various Compiz usability improvements, automatic grabbing and releasing of the mouse cursor when running on a VMware virtual machine, and an easier method to remove Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_47

Ubuntu 8.04 was the first version of Ubuntu to include the Wubi installer on the Live CD that allows Ubuntu to be installed as a single file on a Windows hard drive without the need to repartition the disk. Ubuntu version history_sentence_48

The first version of the Ubuntu Netbook Remix was also introduced. Ubuntu version history_sentence_49

Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex) Ubuntu version history_section_10

Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex), released on 30 October 2008, was Canonical's ninth release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_50

Support ended on 30 April 2010. Ubuntu version history_sentence_51

Ubuntu 8.10 introduced several new features including improvements to mobile computing and desktop scalability, increased flexibility for Internet connectivity, an Ubuntu Live USB creator and a guest account, which allowed others to use a computer allowing very limited user rights (e.g. accessing the Internet, using software and checking e-mail). Ubuntu version history_sentence_52

The guest account had its own home folder and nothing done on it was stored permanently on the computer's hard disk. Ubuntu version history_sentence_53

Intrepid Ibex also included an encrypted private directory for users, the inclusion of Dynamic Kernel Module Support, a tool that allows kernel drivers to be automatically rebuilt when new kernels are released, and support for creating USB flash drive images. Ubuntu version history_sentence_54

Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope) Ubuntu version history_section_11

Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope), released on 23 April 2009, was Canonical's tenth release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_55

Support ended on 23 October 2010. Ubuntu version history_sentence_56

New features included faster boot time and integration of web services and applications into the desktop interface. Ubuntu version history_sentence_57

Because of that, they named it after the mythical jackalope. Ubuntu version history_sentence_58

It was the first release named after a mythical animal, the second being Utopic Unicorn. Ubuntu version history_sentence_59

It had a new usplash screen, a new login screen and also support for both Wacom (hotplugging) and netbooks. Ubuntu version history_sentence_60

It also included a new notification system, Notify OSD, and themes. Ubuntu version history_sentence_61

It marked the first time that all of Ubuntu's core development moved to the GNU Bazaar distributed version control system. Ubuntu version history_sentence_62

Ubuntu 9.04 was the first version to support the ARM architecture with native support for ARMv5EL and ARMv6EL-VFP. Ubuntu version history_sentence_63

Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala) Ubuntu version history_section_12

Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala), released on 29 October 2009, was Canonical's 11th release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_64

It was supported until April 2011. Ubuntu version history_sentence_65

In an announcement to the community on 20 February 2009, Mark Shuttleworth explained that 9.10 would focus on improvements in cloud computing on the server using Eucalyptus, saying "... a Koala's favourite leaf is Eucalyptus", as well as further improvements in boot speed and development of the Netbook Remix. Ubuntu version history_sentence_66

The initial announcement of version 9.10 indicated that this release might include a new theme, but the project was delayed to version 10.04, and only minor revisions were made to the default theme. Ubuntu version history_sentence_67

Other graphical improvements included a new set of boot up and shutdown splash screens, a new login screen that transitions seamlessly into the desktop and greatly improved performance on Intel graphics chip-sets. Ubuntu version history_sentence_68

In June 2009, Canonical created the One Hundred Paper Cuts project, focusing developers to fix minor usability issues. Ubuntu version history_sentence_69

A "paper cut" was defined as, "a trivially fixable usability bug that the average user would encounter on his/her first day of using a brand new installation of the latest version of Ubuntu Desktop Edition." Ubuntu version history_sentence_70

The desktop installation of Ubuntu 9.10 replaced Pidgin with Empathy Instant Messenger as its default instant messaging client. Ubuntu version history_sentence_71

The default filesystem is ext4, and the Ubuntu One client, which interfaces with Canonical's new online storage system, is installed by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_72

It introduced Grub 2 beta as default bootloader. Ubuntu version history_sentence_73

It also debuted a new application called the Ubuntu Software Center that unifies package management. Ubuntu version history_sentence_74

Canonical stated their intention for this application to replace Add/Remove Programs (gnome-app-install) in 9.10 and possibly Synaptic, Software Sources, Gdebi and Update Manager in Ubuntu 10.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_75

Karmic Koala also includes a slideshow during the installation process (through ubiquity-slideshow) that highlights applications and features in Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_76

Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx) Ubuntu version history_section_13

Shuttleworth first announced Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid Lynx) on 19 September 2009 at the Atlanta Linux Fest; Canonical released it on 29 April 2010. Ubuntu version history_sentence_77

It was Canonical's 12th release of Ubuntu and the third long-term support (LTS) release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_78

The new release included, among other things, improved support for Nvidia proprietary graphics drivers, while switching to the open source Nvidia graphics driver, Nouveau, by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_79

Plymouth was also introduced, allowing boot animations. Ubuntu version history_sentence_80

It also included a video editor for the first time, Pitivi. Ubuntu version history_sentence_81

GIMP was removed from the Lucid installation CD due to its professional-grade complexity and its file size. Ubuntu version history_sentence_82

F-Spot provided normal user-level graphics-editing capabilities and GIMP remained available for download in the repositories. Ubuntu version history_sentence_83

The distribution emphasized the increasing importance of Web services and of social networking services with integrated interfaces for posting to sites like Facebook and Twitter, complementing the IM and email integration already in Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_84

On 4 March 2010 it was announced that Lucid Lynx would feature a new theme, including new logos, taking Ubuntu's new visual style into account: Ubuntu version history_sentence_85

The new theme met with mixed critical responses. Ubuntu version history_sentence_86

Ars Technica's Ryan Paul said: "The new themes and updated color palette are nice improvement for Ubuntu ... After testing the new theme for several hours, I feel like it's a step forward, but it still falls a bit short of my expectations." Ubuntu version history_sentence_87

Paul also noted that the most controversial aspect of the new design amongst users was the placement of the window-control buttons on the left instead of on the right side of the windows. Ubuntu version history_sentence_88

TechSource's Jun Auza expressed concern that the new theme was too close to that used by Apple's Mac OS X: "I think Ubuntu is having an identity crisis right now and should seriously consider changing several things in terms of look and feel to avoid being branded as a Mac OS X rip-off, or worse, get sued by Apple." Ubuntu version history_sentence_89

Auza also summarized Ubuntu user feedback: "I believe the fans are divided right now. Ubuntu version history_sentence_90

Some have learned to love the brown color scheme since it uniquely represents Ubuntu, while others wanted change." Ubuntu version history_sentence_91

The first point release, 10.04.1, was made available on 17 August 2010, and the second update, 10.04.2, was released on 17 February 2011. Ubuntu version history_sentence_92

The third update, 10.04.3, was released on 21 July 2011, and the fourth and final update, 10.04.4, was released on 16 February 2012. Ubuntu version history_sentence_93

Canonical provided support for the desktop version of Ubuntu 10.04 until 9 May 2013 and for the server version until 30 April 2015. Ubuntu version history_sentence_94

Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat) Ubuntu version history_section_14

The naming of Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat) was announced by Mark Shuttleworth on 2 April 2010, along with the release's goals of improving the netbook experience and a server focus on hybrid cloud computing. Ubuntu version history_sentence_95

Ubuntu 10.10 was released on 10 October 2010 (10.10.10) at around 10:10 UTC. Ubuntu version history_sentence_96

This is a departure from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October to get "the perfect 10", and a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, since, in binary, 101010 is equal to the number 42, the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series. Ubuntu version history_sentence_97

It was Canonical's 13th release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_98

New features included the new Unity interface for the Netbook Edition, a new default photo manager, Shotwell, replacing F-Spot, the ability to purchase applications in the Software Center, and an official Ubuntu font used by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_99

Support for Ubuntu Maverick Meerkat 10.10 was officially ended on 10 April 2012. Ubuntu version history_sentence_100

Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) Ubuntu version history_section_15

The naming of Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) was announced on 17 August 2010 by Mark Shuttleworth. Ubuntu version history_sentence_101

Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal was released on 28 April 2011. Ubuntu version history_sentence_102

It is Canonical's 14th release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_103

Ubuntu 11.04 used the Unity user interface instead of GNOME Shell as default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_104

The move to Unity was controversial as some GNOME developers feared it would fracture the community and marginalize GNOME Shell. Ubuntu version history_sentence_105

The GNOME desktop environment is still available in Ubuntu 11.04 under the title Ubuntu Classic as a fallback to Unity. Ubuntu version history_sentence_106

Ubuntu 11.04 employed Banshee as the default music player, replacing Rhythmbox. Ubuntu version history_sentence_107

Other new applications included Mozilla Firefox 4 and LibreOffice, which replaced OpenOffice.org. Ubuntu version history_sentence_108

The OpenStack cloud computing platform was added in this release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_109

Starting with Ubuntu 11.04, the Ubuntu Netbook Edition was merged into the desktop edition. Ubuntu version history_sentence_110

In reviewing Ubuntu 11.04 upon its stable release, Ryan Paul of Ars Technica said "There is a lot to like in Ubuntu 11.04, but also a lot of room for improvement." Ubuntu version history_sentence_111

Jesse Smith of DistroWatch said "I'm of the opinion there are good features in this release, but 11.04 definitely suffered from being rushed out the door while it was still beta quality. Ubuntu version history_sentence_112

Ubuntu aims to be novice-friendly, but this release is buggy and I think they missed the mark this time around. Ubuntu version history_sentence_113

I'm limiting my recommendation of 11.04 to people who want to play with an early release of Unity." Ubuntu version history_sentence_114

Support for Ubuntu 11.04 officially ended on 28 October 2012. Ubuntu version history_sentence_115

Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot) Ubuntu version history_section_16

The naming of Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot) was announced on 7 March 2011 by Mark Shuttleworth. Ubuntu version history_sentence_116

He explained that Oneiric means "dreamy". Ubuntu version history_sentence_117

Ubuntu 11.10 was released on schedule on 13 October 2011 and is Canonical's 15th release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_118

In April 2011, Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 11.10 would not include the classic GNOME desktop as a fall back to Unity, unlike Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal. Ubuntu version history_sentence_119

Instead, 11.10 included a 2D version of Unity as a fallback for computers that lacked the hardware resources for the Compiz-based 3D version. Ubuntu version history_sentence_120

However, the classic GNOME desktop remained available in Ubuntu 11.10 through a package in the Ubuntu repositories. Ubuntu version history_sentence_121

Shuttleworth also confirmed that Unity in Ubuntu 11.10 would run as a shell for GNOME 3 on top of GNOME 3 libraries, unlike in Ubuntu 11.04 where it ran as a shell for GNOME 2. Ubuntu version history_sentence_122

Moreover, users were able to install the entire GNOME 3 stack along with GNOME Shell directly from the Ubuntu repositories; to be presented with a "GNOME 3 desktop" choice at login. Ubuntu version history_sentence_123

During the development cycle there were many changes to Unity, including the placement of the Ubuntu button on the Launcher instead of on the Panel, the autohiding of the window controls (and the global menu) of maximized windows, the introduction of more transparency into the Dash (and the Panel when the Dash was opened) and the introduction of window controls for the Dash. Ubuntu version history_sentence_124

In May 2011, it was announced that Pitivi would be no longer part of the Ubuntu ISO, starting with Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot. Ubuntu version history_sentence_125

The reasons given for removing it included poor user reception, lack of fit with the default user-case for Ubuntu, lack of polish and the application's lack of development maturity. Ubuntu version history_sentence_126

PiTiVi will not be replaced on the ISO with another video editor. Ubuntu version history_sentence_127

Other changes include removing Computer Janitor, as it caused broken systems for users, and the removal of the Synaptic package manager, which can optionally be installed via the Ubuntu Software Center. Ubuntu version history_sentence_128

Déjà Dup has been added as Ubuntu's backup program. Ubuntu version history_sentence_129

Mozilla Thunderbird has replaced the GNOME Evolution email client. Ubuntu version history_sentence_130

All removed applications will remain available to users for installation from the Ubuntu Software Center and repositories. Ubuntu version history_sentence_131

Support for Ubuntu Oneiric Ocelot was officially ended on 9 May 2013. Ubuntu version history_sentence_132

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin) Ubuntu version history_section_17

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin) is Canonical's sixteenth release of Ubuntu and its fourth long-term support (LTS) release, made available on schedule on 26 April 2012. Ubuntu version history_sentence_133

It is named after the pangolin anteater. Ubuntu version history_sentence_134

Previous LTS releases have been supported for three years for the desktop version and five years for the server version; this release was supported for five years for both versions, with support ending on 28 April 2017. Ubuntu version history_sentence_135

Canonical continues to offer extended security maintenance to Advantage customers for an additional two years. Ubuntu version history_sentence_136

Changes in this release include a much faster startup time for the Ubuntu Software Center and refinements to Unity. Ubuntu version history_sentence_137

This release also switched the default media player from Banshee back to Rhythmbox and dropped the Tomboy note-taking application and the supporting Mono framework as well. Ubuntu version history_sentence_138

Also, the window dodge feature has been removed from the Unity launcher starting with Ubuntu 12.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_139

Ubuntu 12.04 incorporated a new head-up display (HUD) feature that allows hot key searching for application menu items from the keyboard, without needing the mouse. Ubuntu version history_sentence_140

Shuttleworth said that the HUD "will ultimately replace menus in Unity applications" but for Ubuntu 12.04 at least the menus will remain. Ubuntu version history_sentence_141

Ubuntu 12.04 is the first Ubuntu release shipped with IPv6 privacy extensions turned on by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_142

Ubuntu 11.10 already supported IPv6 on the desktop and in the installer (stateless address autoconfiguration SLAAC, stateless DHCPv6 and stateful DHCPv6). Ubuntu version history_sentence_143

Like previous LTS releases, 12.04 included point releases that bundled updates to shorten downloads for users installing the release later in its life-cycle. Ubuntu version history_sentence_144

The point releases and dates were: 12.04.1 (23 August 2012), 12.04.2 (14 February 2013), 12.04.3 (scheduled for release on 22 August 2013, but actually released on 23 August 2013), 12.04.4 (6 February 2014) and 12.04.5 (7 August 2014). Ubuntu version history_sentence_145

Jesse Smith of DistroWatch said that many people, like he, had questioned Ubuntu's direction, including Unity, but with Ubuntu 12.04 he felt that the puzzle pieces, which individually may have been underwhelming, had come together to form a whole, clear picture. Ubuntu version history_sentence_146

He said "Unity, though a step away from the traditional desktop, has several features which make it attractive, such as reducing mouse travel. Ubuntu version history_sentence_147

The HUD means that newcomers can find application functionality with a quick search and more advanced users can use the HUD to quickly run menu commands from the keyboard." Ubuntu version history_sentence_148

He wrote that Unity had grown to maturity, while indicating that he was bothered by its lack of flexibility. Ubuntu version history_sentence_149

He did notice issues, however, especially that the HUD did not work in LibreOffice and performance in a virtual machine was unsatisfactory. Ubuntu version history_sentence_150

He concluded that Ubuntu's overall experience was "head and shoulders above anything else in the Linux ecosystem." Ubuntu version history_sentence_151

Jim Lynch wrote "Ubuntu 12.04 is definitely worth an upgrade if you're running an earlier version. Ubuntu version history_sentence_152

Unity is finally coming into its own in this release, plus there are other enhancements that make upgrading worthwhile. Ubuntu version history_sentence_153

Ubuntu is getting better and better with each release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_154

I was one of the Unity skeptics initially, but I've come to accept it as part of Ubuntu." Ubuntu version history_sentence_155

Jack Wallen of TechRepublic, who had strongly criticized early versions of Unity, said "Since Ubuntu 12.04 was released, and I migrated over from Linux Mint, I'm working much more efficiently. Ubuntu version history_sentence_156

This isn't really so much a surprise to me, but to many of the detractors who assume Unity a very unproductive desktop ... well, I can officially say they are wrong. Ubuntu version history_sentence_157

[...] I realize that many people out there have spurned Unity (I was one of them for a long time), but the more I use it, the more I realize that Canonical really did their homework on how to help end users more efficiently interact with their computers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_158

Change is hard – period. Ubuntu version history_sentence_159

For many, the idea of change is such a painful notion they wind up missing out on some incredible advancements. Ubuntu version history_sentence_160

Unity is one such advancement." Ubuntu version history_sentence_161

Ubuntu 12.10 (Quantal Quetzal) Ubuntu version history_section_18

On 23 April 2012 Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 12.10 would be named Quantal Quetzal. Ubuntu version history_sentence_162

As this will be the first of a series of three releases before the next LTS release, Shuttleworth indicated that it will include a refreshed look, with work to be done on typography and iconography. Ubuntu version history_sentence_163

The release takes its name from the quetzal, a species of Central American birds. Ubuntu version history_sentence_164

Ubuntu 12.10 was released on schedule on 18 October 2012 and is Canonical's seventeenth release of the operating system. Ubuntu version history_sentence_165

Ryan Paul, writing for Ars Technica, said in April 2012 when the name was announced "A Quetzal is a colorful bird that is common to Central America. Ubuntu version history_sentence_166

The most well-known variety, the resplendent quetzal, is known for its beauty. Ubuntu version history_sentence_167

The name is a good fit for Ubuntu, which aims to soar in the cloud, offer visual appeal without compromising function, and avoid smacking into closed windows." Ubuntu version history_sentence_168

The Ubuntu Developer Summit held in May 2012 set the priorities for this release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_169

They are forecast to include an improved boot up sequence and log-in screen, dropping Unity 2D in favor of lower hardware requirements for Unity 3D, wrap around dialogs and toolbars for the head-up display and a "vanilla" version of Gnome-Shell as an option. Ubuntu version history_sentence_170

The release would likely include GNOME 3.6, Python 3 and the 3.5 Linux kernel. Ubuntu version history_sentence_171

It would ship with Python 3 in the image, but with Python 2 available in the repositories, via the "Python" package. Ubuntu version history_sentence_172

The kernel will have the PAE switched on by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_173

In July 2012, development versions of Ubuntu 12.10 received a new combined user, session and system menu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_174

This release also included Ubuntu Web Apps, a means of running Web applications directly from the desktop, without having to open a browser. Ubuntu version history_sentence_175

It would use 3.4 as its file manager, in place of the 3.5 and newer versions, to retain features deleted from later versions. Ubuntu version history_sentence_176

In September 2012, Canonical's Kate Stewart announced that the Ubuntu 12.10 image would not fit on a compact disc, saying "There is no longer a traditional CD sized image, DVD or alternate image, but rather a single 800MB Ubuntu image that can be used from USB or DVD." Ubuntu version history_sentence_177

However, a third-party project has created a version of Ubuntu 12.10 that fits on a CD. Ubuntu version history_sentence_178

It uses LZMA2 compression instead of the DEFLATE compression used on the official Ubuntu DVD image. Ubuntu version history_sentence_179

Also in late September 2012, it was announced that the version of Unity to be shipped with Ubuntu 12.10 would by default include searches of Amazon.com for searched terms. Ubuntu version history_sentence_180

This move caused immediate controversy among Ubuntu users, particularly with regard to privacy issues, and caused Mark Shuttleworth to issue a statement indicating that this feature is not adware and labelled many of the objections "FUD" (Fear, uncertainty, and doubt). Ubuntu version history_sentence_181

Shuttleworth stated "What we have in 12.10 isn't the full experience, so those who leap to judgement are at maximum risk of having to eat their words later. Ubuntu version history_sentence_182

Chill out. Ubuntu version history_sentence_183

If the first cut doesn't work for you, remove it, or just search the specific scope you want (there are hotkeys for all the local scopes)." Ubuntu version history_sentence_184

Regardless, users filed a Launchpad bug report on the feature requesting that it be made a separate lens and not included with general desktop searches for files, directories and applications. Ubuntu version history_sentence_185

The degree of community push-back on the issue resulted in plans by the developers to make the dash and where it searches user-configurable via a GUI-setting dialogue. Ubuntu version history_sentence_186

Despite concerns that the setting dialogue would not make the final version of Ubuntu 12.10, it was completed and is present in the final version of 12.10. Ubuntu version history_sentence_187

In the week prior to the stable release of Ubuntu 12.10 data-privacy advocate Luís de Sousa indicated that the inclusion of the shopping lens, installed without explicit permission of the user, violates European Directive 95/46/EC on data privacy. Ubuntu version history_sentence_188

That directive requires that the "data subject has unambiguously given his consent" in situations where personal identifying information is sent. Ubuntu version history_sentence_189

In reviewing Ubuntu 12.10 at the end of October 2012 for DistroWatch, Jesse Smith raised concerns about the Amazon shopping lens, saying, "it has raised a number of privacy concerns in the community and, looking over Ubuntu's legal notice about privacy does not provide any reassurance. Ubuntu version history_sentence_190

The notice informs us Canonical reserves the right to share our keystrokes, search terms and IP address with a number of third parties, including Facebook, Twitter, Amazon and the BBC. Ubuntu version history_sentence_191

This feature is enabled by default, but can be turned off through the distribution's settings panel." Ubuntu version history_sentence_192

He also found that the dash provided very slow performance and that the release was "practically unusable in the VirtualBox environment". Ubuntu version history_sentence_193

He summed up his experiences, "After a day and a half of using Ubuntu 12.10 it was an internal struggle not to wipe my hard drive and just find another distribution to review. Ubuntu version history_sentence_194

During the first twenty-four hours Ubuntu spied on me, provided performance which was distinctly sub par, the interface regularly popped up errors (sometimes so frequently the first pop-up wouldn't have faded out of view before the next one appeared), the update notification didn't work and it wasn't possible to turn off accessibility features through the graphical interface. Ubuntu version history_sentence_195

Adding insult to injury, the Unity dash kept locking up or losing focus while I was trying to use it and the operating system crashed more times than not while trying to shutdown or logout. Ubuntu version history_sentence_196

Switching away from Unity to GNOME Fallback helped the performance issues I had experienced with the Dash, but it didn't remove the annoying pop-up errors and performance (while usable) still wasn't as good as I would expect. Ubuntu version history_sentence_197

And what really makes me scratch my head is Ubuntu 12.04 worked really well on this same hardware." Ubuntu version history_sentence_198

In early November, the Electronic Frontier Foundation made a statement on the shopping lens issue, "Technically, when you search for something in Dash, your computer makes a secure HTTPS connection to productsearch.ubuntu.com, sending along your search query and your IP address. Ubuntu version history_sentence_199

If it returns Amazon products to display, your computer then insecurely loads the product images from Amazon's server over HTTP. Ubuntu version history_sentence_200

This means that a passive eavesdropper, such as someone sharing a wireless network with you, will be able to get a good idea of what you're searching for on your own computer based on Amazon product images. Ubuntu version history_sentence_201

It's a major privacy problem if you can't find things on your own computer without broadcasting what you're looking for to the world." Ubuntu version history_sentence_202

Writing about Ubuntu 12.10 in a December 2012 review, Jim Lynch addressed the Amazon controversy: Ubuntu version history_sentence_203

He concluded by saying, "Overall, Ubuntu 12.10 is a decent upgrade for current Ubuntu users. Ubuntu version history_sentence_204

However, the inclusion of the Amazon icon on the launcher, and the discontinuation of Unity 2D might irritate some people." Ubuntu version history_sentence_205

Support for Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal officially ended on 16 May 2014. Ubuntu version history_sentence_206

Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring Ringtail) Ubuntu version history_section_19

On 17 October 2012, Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 13.04 would be named Raring Ringtail and said about this release "[In the next six months] we want to have the phone, tablet and TV all lined up. Ubuntu version history_sentence_207

So I think it's time to look at the core of Ubuntu and review it through a mobile lens: let's measure our core platform by mobile metrics, things like battery life, number of running processes, memory footprint, and polish the rough edges that we find when we do that." Ubuntu version history_sentence_208

The Wubi installer was dropped as of 13.04, due to its incompatibility with Windows 8 and general lack of support and development. Ubuntu version history_sentence_209

Previously, on 29 October 2012 at the Ubuntu Developer Summit registration, there had been a discussion of redesigning Wubi for Ubuntu 13.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_210

Ubuntu 13.04 was released on schedule on 25 April 2013. Ubuntu version history_sentence_211

In reviewing Ubuntu 13.04 Jim Lynch from Desktop Linux Reviews said, "I found Ubuntu 13.04 to be a slightly disappointing upgrade. Ubuntu version history_sentence_212

While there are definitely some enhancements in this release, there's also nothing very special about it ... Alas, there's nothing in Ubuntu 13.04 that makes me want to consider it for use as my daily distro. Ubuntu version history_sentence_213

Don't misunderstand me, there's nothing overtly wrong with Ubuntu 13.04 either. Ubuntu version history_sentence_214

It installed and performed very well for me. Ubuntu version history_sentence_215

Unity 7 also has some helpful and attractive updates that Ubuntu users will enjoy, and there are other things in this release that help improve the overall Ubuntu experience ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_216

I suspect it is simply because Ubuntu has settled into a comfortable middle age, it works and it works very well for what it does." Ubuntu version history_sentence_217

Support for Ubuntu 13.04 officially ended on 27 January 2014. Ubuntu version history_sentence_218

Ubuntu 13.10 (Saucy Salamander) Ubuntu version history_section_20

Ubuntu 13.10 is named Saucy Salamander. Ubuntu version history_sentence_219

It was released on schedule on 17 October 2013. Ubuntu version history_sentence_220

Consideration was given to changing the default browser from Mozilla Firefox to Chromium, but problems with timely updates to Ubuntu's Chromium package caused developers to retain Firefox for this release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_221

Ubuntu 13.10 was intended to be the first Ubuntu release to replace the aging X Window System (X11) with the Mir display server, with X11 programs to have operated through the XMir compatibility layer. Ubuntu version history_sentence_222

However, after the development of XMir ran into "outstanding technical difficulties" for multiple monitors, Canonical decided to postpone the default use of Mir in Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_223

Mir will still be released as the default display server for Ubuntu Touch 13.10. Ubuntu version history_sentence_224

Ryan Paul of Ars Technica wrote that although 13.10 brings useful enhancements, it is "a relatively thin update". Ubuntu version history_sentence_225

He also said "the new Dash concept is intriguing, but its usefulness is a bit limited"; and even though he thinks that universal Web search is potentially useful, he's somewhat uncomfortable with how Canonical joins it with local system searches. Ubuntu version history_sentence_226

In a review of Ubuntu 13.10 Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu criticized the new Smart Scopes feature, saying, "it's less of a help and more of a hindrance. Ubuntu version history_sentence_227

With so many web services offering results for a search term – however innocuous it might be – the Dash ends up resembling a wall painted in unintelligible, irrelevant mess." Ubuntu version history_sentence_228

Sneddon noted that internet search engines turn in more useful and better organized results and recommended selectively disabling individual scopes to reduce the noise factor. Ubuntu version history_sentence_229

Jim Lynch of Linux Desktop Reviews described the release as "boring" and noted, "alas, Ubuntu 13.10 follows in the footsteps of Ubuntu 13.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_230

The big new desktop feature is Smart Scopes ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_231

Beyond that there's not a whole lot that is interesting or exciting to talk about. Ubuntu version history_sentence_232

It turns out that Saucy Salamander is one truly dull amphibian. Ubuntu version history_sentence_233

Canonical really should rename this release to 'Snoozing Salamander' instead." Ubuntu version history_sentence_234

Lynch described the Smart Scopes, "this is a very useful function, and it can save you a lot of time when looking for information. Ubuntu version history_sentence_235

I understand that some people will regard this as a privacy violation, no problem. Ubuntu version history_sentence_236

There's an easy way to disable Smart Scopes." Ubuntu version history_sentence_237

Maria Korolov writing for Network World in December 2013 said of the release, "there is a benefit to be had in being able to search for files you own on both local drives and in cloud services such as Google Drive and Flickr. Ubuntu version history_sentence_238

That's the idea behind Unity Smart Scopes ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_239

The result is a cluttered mess. Ubuntu version history_sentence_240

The first thing many users will probably do after installing Ubuntu 13.10 is to get rid of most of these results ... mixing generic Web results in with your own files is just confusing." Ubuntu version history_sentence_241

In its year-end Readers Choice Awards, Linux Journal readers voted Ubuntu as Best Linux Distribution and Best Desktop Distribution for 2013. Ubuntu version history_sentence_242

Support for Ubuntu 13.10 ended on 17 July 2014. Ubuntu version history_sentence_243

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr) Ubuntu version history_section_21

Mark Shuttleworth announced on 31 October 2011 that by Ubuntu 14.04, Ubuntu would support smartphones, tablets, TVs and smart screens. Ubuntu version history_sentence_244

On 18 October 2013, it was announced that Ubuntu 14.04 would be dubbed "Trusty Tahr". Ubuntu version history_sentence_245

This version was released on 17 April 2014, and is the 20th release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_246

Shuttleworth indicated that the focus in this development cycle would be a release characterized by "performance, refinement, maintainability, technical debt" and encouraged the developers to make "conservative choices". Ubuntu version history_sentence_247

Technical debt refers to catching up and refining supporting work for earlier changes. Ubuntu version history_sentence_248

The development cycle for this release focused on the tablet interface, specifically for the Nexus 7 and Nexus 10 tablets. Ubuntu version history_sentence_249

There were few changes to the desktop, as 14.04 used the existing mature Unity 7 interface. Ubuntu version history_sentence_250

Ubuntu 14.04 included the ability to turn off the global menu system and used locally integrated menus instead for individual applications. Ubuntu version history_sentence_251

Other features were the retention of Xorg and not Mir or XMir, a Unity 8 developers' preview, new mobile applications, a redesigned USB Startup Disk Creator tool, a new forked version of the GNOME Control Center, called the Unity Control Center and default SSD TRIM support. Ubuntu version history_sentence_252

GNOME 3.10 is installed by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_253

Point releases included 14.04.1 on 24 July 2014, 14.04.2 on 19 February 2015, 14.04.3 on 6 August 2015, 14.04.4 on 18 February 2016, 14.04.5 on 4 August 2016 and 14.04.6 on 7 March 2019. Ubuntu version history_sentence_254

The release initially included Linux kernel 3.13, but this was updated to 4.2 with the point release of 14.04.4 on 18 February 2016. Ubuntu version history_sentence_255

Point release 14.04.5, which provided the latest Linux kernel and graphics stacks from Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, was intended to be the final point release for 14.04 LTS, but 14.04.6 was released on 7 March 2019 as a security-targeted update. Ubuntu version history_sentence_256

Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu noted that recent Ubuntu releases have received lower and lower amounts of mainstream press coverage and termed it an "established product that has, by and large, remained a niche interest". Ubuntu version history_sentence_257

In reviewing Ubuntu 14.04 LTS in April 2014, Jim Lynch concluded: "Ubuntu 14.04 seems to be all about refining the Ubuntu desktop. Ubuntu version history_sentence_258

While there are not a lot of amazing new features in this release, there are quite a few very useful and needed tweaks that add up to a much better desktop experience. Ubuntu version history_sentence_259

Canonical's designers seem to be listening to Ubuntu users again, and they seem willing to make the changes necessary to give the users what they want. Ubuntu version history_sentence_260

That may be the single most important thing about Ubuntu 14.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_261

It could be an indication of a sea change in Canonical's attitude toward Ubuntu users." Ubuntu version history_sentence_262

Jack Wallin writing for TechRepublic termed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, "as polished a distribution as you'll find. Ubuntu version history_sentence_263

It's cleaner, performs better, and is all around improved. Ubuntu version history_sentence_264

Some users may say that this is the most boring release Canonical has unleashed in years, but I believe it to be one of the finest." Ubuntu version history_sentence_265

Terry Relph-Knight of ZDNet said, "although there are no amazing 'must-have' new features in Ubuntu 14.04, it is worth upgrading just to get the latest LTS release with a more recent kernel and default applications." Ubuntu version history_sentence_266

Scott Gilbertson of Ars Technica stated, "Ubuntu is one of the most polished desktops around, certainly the most polished in the Linux world, but in many ways that polish is increasingly skin deep at the expense of some larger usability issues, which continue to go unaddressed release after release." Ubuntu version history_sentence_267

Normal LTS support continued until 25 April 2019, after which extended security maintenance is available to Ubuntu Advantage customers and as a separate commercial purchase, as was the case previously with 12.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_268

Ubuntu 14.10 (Utopic Unicorn) Ubuntu version history_section_22

On 23 April 2014 Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 14.10 would carry the name Utopic Unicorn. Ubuntu version history_sentence_269

Version 14.10 was released on 23 October, having only minor updates to the kernel, Unity Desktop, and included packages such as LibreOffice and Mozilla Firefox and Thunderbird. Ubuntu version history_sentence_270

The kernel was updated to 3.16 for hardware support (e.g. graphics) and has for security, full kernel address space layout randomization applied to the kernel and its modules, plus the closure of a number of information leaks in /proc. Ubuntu version history_sentence_271

This version is the 21st release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_272

Ubuntu 14.10 was officially characterized as a release that addressed "bug fixes and incremental quality improvements" and so it incorporated very few new features. Ubuntu version history_sentence_273

Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu wrote in reviewing this release, "Ubuntu 14.10, codenamed "Utopic Unicorn", is saddled with a modest changelog, composed largely of bug fixes, stability improvements and key software updates. Ubuntu version history_sentence_274

All worthy, but falls a little way short of the "fresh ideas and new art" that should "raise the roof" – quotes from Mark Shuttleworth's "U" name announcement ... For the release taking place in the week of Ubuntu's 10th anniversary, this may all read like a bit of an anticlimax. Ubuntu version history_sentence_275

No headline user features, no visual changes (bar a few new icons for the sidebar of Nautilus) – there's not even a new default wallpaper to look at...But on the flip side it's perhaps the most fitting release; the one that shows just how far Ubuntu has come in the past few years. Ubuntu version history_sentence_276

Mature, dependable and sure in its own (Ambiance-themed) skin, buggy feature churn has given way to a sustained era of assured stability ... Ubuntu 14.10 is a rock-solid, hearty and dependable release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_277

Perhaps more here than ever before. Ubuntu version history_sentence_278

There's no getting away from the fact that it's an uninspiring update on paper, and is far from being anything approaching essential." Ubuntu version history_sentence_279

Michael Larabel of Phoronix wrote, "At the end of the day simple end-users won't see much of a difference over Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, which is a bit sad given that this is the tenth anniversary release of Ubuntu Linux. Ubuntu version history_sentence_280

For everyday Linux desktop users the many upgraded packages are great but there isn't too much more to celebrate about today on the desktop front." Ubuntu version history_sentence_281

Scott Gilbertson, writing for The Register, explained, "I've been covering Ubuntu for seven of the release's 10 years and 14.10 is the first time I've had to dig deep into the release notes just to find something new to test ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_282

If you needed further proof that Canonical is currently solely focused on bringing its Unity 8 interface to mobile devices, 14.10 is the best evidence yet ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_283

Almost nothing Canonical develops has changed in this release – there isn't even a new desktop wallpaper. Ubuntu version history_sentence_284

There are some updates to be sure, but they don't hail from Canonical ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_285

The lack of updates isn't unexpected, in fact that's been the plan all along ... Ubuntu version history_sentence_286

Desktop Ubuntu is currently in a kind of suspended animation, waiting on Unity 8 and Mir to be ready for its coming metamorphosis. Ubuntu version history_sentence_287

The short story is that it makes no sense for Canonical to keep refining Unity 7 when it will soon be retired." Ubuntu version history_sentence_288

Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet) Ubuntu version history_section_23

On 20 October 2014 Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 15.04 would be named Vivid Vervet. Ubuntu version history_sentence_289

It was released on 23 April 2015. Ubuntu version history_sentence_290

This was the 22nd Ubuntu release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_291

Ubuntu 15.04 used systemd instead of Upstart by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_292

This release also featured locally integrated menus by default, replacing the previous default global menus. Ubuntu version history_sentence_293

Silviu Stahie, writing for Softpedia, said about this release while it was in beta, "Ubuntu 15.04 is not an exciting release, but that it's only a surface impression. Ubuntu version history_sentence_294

The truth is that it's an important upgrade, because some very important changes have been made, including the adoption of systemd. Ubuntu version history_sentence_295

Users will notice that not too many visual changes have been implemented in Ubuntu 15.04, but that was to be expected. Ubuntu version history_sentence_296

The team is transitioning to a new Unity version that is still not ready for general use, so it's easy to understand why Ubuntu 15.04 is not all that different from Ubuntu 14.10." Ubuntu version history_sentence_297

This release included modest improvements in Intel Haswell graphics performance and bigger improvements for AMD Radeon graphics cards using the open-source Radeon R600 and RadeonSI Gallium3D drivers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_298

In reviewing this release, Joey Sneddon, of OMG Ubuntu, said "Ubuntu 15.04 is yet another solid entry in the distribution's long release history. Ubuntu version history_sentence_299

A dependable desktop operating system suited for end users but with plenty of convenient extras to woo developers with. Ubuntu version history_sentence_300

Though the Unity 7 desktop is largely mothballed as work progresses on the new converged experience with Unity 8, the modest refinements received here buff the experience. Ubuntu version history_sentence_301

Unity in Ubuntu 15.04 shines brighter, a glowing example of a desktop that 'just works' for users. Ubuntu version history_sentence_302

". Ubuntu version history_sentence_303

Jesse Smith of DistroWatch wrote, "One of the changes I was interested in exploring was Ubuntu's switch from the Upstart init software to systemd. Ubuntu version history_sentence_304

In this regard I was pleasantly surprised. Ubuntu version history_sentence_305

I find most distributions, when they initially make the switch to systemd, introduce bugs or, at the very least, break backward compatibility. Ubuntu version history_sentence_306

Sometimes service managers stop working properly and network device names usually change. Ubuntu version history_sentence_307

Even if everything works as it should, the administrator needs to adjust to systemd's approach to logging and adopt a different method of managing services. Ubuntu version history_sentence_308

Ubuntu has taken an approach I like with regards to adopting systemd." Ubuntu version history_sentence_309

He concluded, "on the surface, Ubuntu 15.04 does not bring many changes. Ubuntu version history_sentence_310

There are a few cosmetic adjustments, but nothing major that desktop users are likely to notice. Ubuntu version history_sentence_311

Most of the interesting work appears to be going on behind the scenes ... Ubuntu 15.04 feels very stable and easy to configure. Ubuntu version history_sentence_312

This is an operating system that is virtually effortless to set up and run and I feel the Unity 7 desktop does a nice job of providing lots of features while staying out of the way ... All in all, I like what Canonical has done with Ubuntu 15.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_313

This feels like a small, incremental evolution for Ubuntu and Unity. Ubuntu version history_sentence_314

The init switch, which has disrupted the users of several other distributions, goes largely unnoticed in Ubuntu and I think that is worthy of praise." Ubuntu version history_sentence_315

Ubuntu 15.10 (Wily Werewolf) Ubuntu version history_section_24

Shuttleworth announced on 4 May 2015 that Ubuntu 15.10 would be called Wily Werewolf. Ubuntu version history_sentence_316

He initially expressed hope that the release would include the Mir display server, but it was released on 22 October 2015 without Mir. Ubuntu version history_sentence_317

It was the 23rd release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_318

Ubuntu 15.10 eliminated the disappearing window edge scrollbars in favour of the upstream GNOME scrollbars, a move designed to save developer time in creating patches and updates. Ubuntu version history_sentence_319

In reviewing the release, Chris Jones wrote, "Ubuntu 15.10 as an operating system for Review is pretty lackluster. Ubuntu version history_sentence_320

There's nothing new as such and there's nothing we can really say that is going to change your opinion from its predecessor, 15.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_321

Therefore, we recommend you to upgrade either out of habit and according to your regular upgrade schedule rather than out of a specific necessity for a specific feature of this release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_322

Because there is really nothing that could possibly differentiate it from the older, yet still very stable 15.04 release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_323

But if you're going to stick with 15.04 for a little longer, we do recommend that you look at upgrading the kernel to the latest 4.2 branch. Ubuntu version history_sentence_324

It is worth it. Ubuntu version history_sentence_325

If you really want a reason to upgrade? Ubuntu version history_sentence_326

Linux kernel 4.2 would be our sole reason for taking Ubuntu 15.10 into consideration." Ubuntu version history_sentence_327

Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu noted, "For a release named after a terrifying mythological creature Ubuntu 15.10 is surprisingly tame. Ubuntu version history_sentence_328

There are no dramatic transformations, no bone popping or shirt ripping and certainly no hair sprouting under the milky eye of full moon. Ubuntu version history_sentence_329

In fact, a new wallpaper and change in scrollbar appearance is about as shapeshift-y as this werewolf gets." Ubuntu version history_sentence_330

Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols of ZDNet praised the release for its integration of cloud services, such as the new Ubuntu OpenStack cloud deployment and management tool, OpenStack Autopilot as well as its server tools. Ubuntu version history_sentence_331

Ubuntu's machine container hypervisor, LXD, included by default in 15.10, was singled out. Ubuntu version history_sentence_332

Vaughan-Nichols concluded, "with these advances, chances are you're more likely to use Ubuntu, hidden behind the scenes, on clouds and servers." Ubuntu version history_sentence_333

A Hectic Geek review noted problems with X.Org Server crashes and concluded "If you use Ubuntu 14.04 LTS and if it's working out for you, then there really is no need to switch to a non-LTS release, especially to the 15.10." Ubuntu version history_sentence_334

A review on Dedoimedo identified problems with Samba, Bluetooth, desktop searching, battery life and the smartphone interface and found the release inconsistent, saying, "unpredictability is horrible. Ubuntu version history_sentence_335

Give me a good experience, or give me a bad experience, but please try not to seesaw between them erratically. Ubuntu version history_sentence_336

Continuous, steady change in behavior, any which way." Ubuntu version history_sentence_337

The review concluded, "it underperforms compared to some of its siblings and ancestors. Ubuntu version history_sentence_338

Not the best, definitely not worth a perma upgrade, but you might find it more palatable to your hardware and use cases. Ubuntu version history_sentence_339

Overall, though Wily isn't the best of distros. Ubuntu version history_sentence_340

It sure gave me the willies. Ubuntu version history_sentence_341

7/10." Ubuntu version history_sentence_342

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) Ubuntu version history_section_25

Shuttleworth announced on 21 October 2015 that Ubuntu 16.04 LTS would be called Xenial Xerus. Ubuntu version history_sentence_343

It was released on 21 April 2016. Ubuntu version history_sentence_344

The default desktop environment continues to be Unity 7, with an option for Unity 8. Ubuntu version history_sentence_345

In May 2015, Shuttleworth indicated that Ubuntu 16.04 LTS would include Unity 8 and Mir, but that users have a choice of that or Unity 7 and X.org. Ubuntu version history_sentence_346

He said, "Unity 8 will be an option for 16.04 and we'll let the community decide the default for 16.04." Ubuntu version history_sentence_347

The release adds support for Ceph and ZFS filesystems, the LXD hypervisor (using seccomp) for OpenStack, and Snap packages will be supported. Ubuntu version history_sentence_348

It will use systemd instead of Upstart as its init system. Ubuntu version history_sentence_349

This release will replace the Ubuntu Software Center with GNOME Software and eliminate Empathy and Brasero from the ISO file. Ubuntu version history_sentence_350

Reviewer Jack Wallen said, "The truth of the matter is, the Ubuntu Software Center has been a horrible tool for a very long time. Ubuntu version history_sentence_351

Making this move will greatly improve the Ubuntu experience for every user." Ubuntu version history_sentence_352

This release has online Dash search results disabled by default in Unity 7. Ubuntu version history_sentence_353

"None of your search terms will leave your computer", stated Ubuntu desktop manager Will Cooke. Ubuntu version history_sentence_354

Reviewer Jack Wallen said about this, "I've never considered the inclusion of online search results to be spyware. Ubuntu version history_sentence_355

In fact, I have always considered the online results to be an efficient means of searching for products through Amazon (etc.). Ubuntu version history_sentence_356

That being said, with the release of 16.04, this feature is disabled." Ubuntu version history_sentence_357

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS does not support the AMD Catalyst (fglrx) driver for AMD/ATI graphics cards and instead recommends the radeon and AMDGPU alternatives. Ubuntu version history_sentence_358

These may not provide optimal graphics performance, however. Ubuntu version history_sentence_359

AMDGPU-PRO is available for Ubuntu 16.04 Ubuntu version history_sentence_360

The first point release, 16.04.1, was released on 21 July 2016. Ubuntu version history_sentence_361

Release of Ubuntu 16.04.2 was delayed a number of times, but it was eventually released on 17 February 2017. Ubuntu version history_sentence_362

Ubuntu 16.04.3 was released on 3 August 2017. Ubuntu version history_sentence_363

Ubuntu 16.04.4 was delayed from 15 February 2018 and released on 1 March 2018, providing the latest Linux kernel, 4.13, from Ubuntu 17.10. Ubuntu version history_sentence_364

Ubuntu 16.04.5 was released on 2 August 2018, and Ubuntu 16.04.6 was released on 28 February 2019. Ubuntu version history_sentence_365

Ubuntu 16.04.7 was released on 13 August 2020. Ubuntu version history_sentence_366

Ubuntu 16.10 (Yakkety Yak) Ubuntu version history_section_26

"Yakkety Yak" redirects here. Ubuntu version history_sentence_367

For the pop song, see Yakety Yak. Ubuntu version history_sentence_368

For other uses, see Yakety Yak (disambiguation). Ubuntu version history_sentence_369

Mark Shuttleworth announced on 21 April 2016 that Ubuntu 16.10 would be called Yakkety Yak. Ubuntu version history_sentence_370

It was released on 13 October 2016. Ubuntu version history_sentence_371

This release features a maintenance version of Unity 7, but offers Unity 8 packages included in the ISO, so that users can test them. Ubuntu version history_sentence_372

Other improvements include a new version of Ubuntu Software that supports faster loading, better support for installing command-line-only non-GUI applications, support for installing fonts and multimedia codecs and introduction of paid applications. Ubuntu version history_sentence_373

It is based on Linux kernel version 4.8. Ubuntu version history_sentence_374

This version of Ubuntu introduced only minor incremental changes. Ubuntu version history_sentence_375

These included LibreOffice 5.2, GTK3 version by default, the Update Manager shows changelog entries for Personal Package Archives (PPAs), as well as repository software, GNOME applications updated to version 3.20, with some using version 3.22. Ubuntu version history_sentence_376

Also, systemd now handles user sessions as well as the previously implemented system sessions. Ubuntu version history_sentence_377

Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu said, "Ubuntu 16.10 is not a big update over Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, released back in April. Ubuntu version history_sentence_378

If you were hoping it'd be a compelling or must-have upgrade you'll be sadly disappointed." Ubuntu version history_sentence_379

He did find some improvements, "The Ubuntu Software app is also significantly faster in use. Ubuntu version history_sentence_380

This solves a real pet peeve of mine on the incumbent LTS desktop. Ubuntu version history_sentence_381

Thankfully, Yakkety makes it quicker to find, browser, search and install applications," but concluded, "Ubuntu 16.10 is not a must-have upgrade—not for most people." Ubuntu version history_sentence_382

Marius Nestor of Softpedia noted, "Ubuntu 16.10 is not an exciting release for fans of the open source operating system. Ubuntu version history_sentence_383

Probably the most important feature of Yakkety Yak is Linux kernel 4.8, which brings support for the latest hardware, but other than that, you'll get some updated components that are mostly based on the old GNOME 3.20 Stack." Ubuntu version history_sentence_384

Writing in Makeuseof, Bertel King, Jr. said, "If you're feeling underwhelmed, you probably remember the Ubuntu of yesteryear. Ubuntu version history_sentence_385

Back in the days of 8.10, 9.04, and 10.04 each release brought forth a new theme or ambitious feature. Ubuntu version history_sentence_386

Unity first appeared in 10.10 as a netbook interface before replacing the regular desktop in 11.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_387

By comparison, modern Ubuntu updates feel relatively stagnant. Ubuntu version history_sentence_388

You would be forgiven for not being able to distinguish between 12.04 and 16.10." Ubuntu version history_sentence_389

Ubuntu 17.04 (Zesty Zapus) Ubuntu version history_section_27

On 17 October 2016, Mark Shuttleworth announced that the codename of Ubuntu 17.04, released on 13 April 2017, would be Zesty Zapus. Ubuntu version history_sentence_390

This release dropped support for the 32-bit PowerPC architecture, following the same move by the upstream Debian project. Ubuntu version history_sentence_391

Other changes include the default DNS resolver now being systemd-resolved, Linux kernel 4.10, and support for printers, which allow printing without printer-specific drivers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_392

Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu said of this release, "this is no normal release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_393

It's potentially the last version of the distribution that will come with the Unity 7 desktop by default. Ubuntu version history_sentence_394

That's not a certainty, of course, but we know that Ubuntu will switch to GNOME for Ubuntu 18.04 LTS next year. Ubuntu version history_sentence_395

It's reasonable to expect developers to want to kick a few tyres on that switch ahead of time, in the next interim release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_396

A bittersweet release then, Ubuntu 17.04 sees the distro reach the end of the alphabet in codenames, and the end of an era in everything else. Ubuntu version history_sentence_397

Sadly there's not an awful lot to say. Ubuntu version history_sentence_398

Unity is, by and large, the same as it is in the 16.04 LTS ... Ubuntu 17.04 is an iterative update with modest appeal. Ubuntu version history_sentence_399

While there is little compelling reason for anyone running Ubuntu 16.04 LTS to upgrade (especially for those who opt receive the newer hardware enablement stack) it's not an irrelevant release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_400

Ubuntu 16.10 users will want to upgrade to Ubuntu 17.04 for the general around improvements, access to newer apps, and because the truncated support period of these short term releases necessitates it." Ubuntu version history_sentence_401

Maruis Nestor of Softpedia called it, "a powerful release, both inside and outside" and noted, "the default desktop environment remains Unity 7, so your beloved Ubuntu desktop environment is not going anyway at the moment. Ubuntu version history_sentence_402

It will also be available in the upcoming Ubuntu 17.10 release, whose development will start next month. Ubuntu version history_sentence_403

After that, starting with Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, the GNOME desktop will be used by default." Ubuntu version history_sentence_404

Ubuntu 17.10 (Artful Aardvark) Ubuntu version history_section_28

The name of this release, Artful Aardvark, was announced via Launchpad on 21 April 2017, instead of on Shuttleworth's blog as had been the case in the past. Ubuntu version history_sentence_405

It was released on 19 October 2017. Ubuntu version history_sentence_406

This was the first release of Ubuntu to use the GNOME Shell interface, and replaced X11 with the Wayland display server. Ubuntu version history_sentence_407

In May 2017, Ken VanDine, a Canonical Software Engineer on the Ubuntu desktop team tasked with the switch to GNOME, confirmed that the intention is to ship the most current version of GNOME, with very few changes from a stock installation. Ubuntu version history_sentence_408

This release also dropped support for 32-bit desktop images but a 32-bit system can still be installed from the minimal ISO. Ubuntu version history_sentence_409

Writer J.A. Ubuntu version history_sentence_410

Watson of ZDNet said, "I have not been much of an Ubuntu fan for a long time now, but this release includes a lot of significant changes, many of which might address some of my most serious objections about Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_411

So I think I should take a closer look at it than I normally do." Ubuntu version history_sentence_412

He noted on printer configuration, "I got a notice that our wireless printer had been successfully configured. Ubuntu version history_sentence_413

I hadn't even thought about trying to set up a printer yet, so that was a very nice surprise – and a good thing to point out to those who are still going around spouting 5+ years out of date information about how difficult it is to use printers with Linux." Ubuntu version history_sentence_414

Reviewer Scott Gilbertson of Ars Technica wrote, "Ubuntu 17.10 is a huge departure for Ubuntu, but one that sees the distro seemingly getting its footing back. Ubuntu version history_sentence_415

The transition to GNOME, while not without its pitfalls for some users, is surprisingly smooth. Ubuntu version history_sentence_416

Unity did have some features you won't find in GNOME, but Canonical has done a good job of making things familiar, if not identical. Ubuntu version history_sentence_417

More important than individual features in 17.10, this release sees Ubuntu starting over to some degree. Ubuntu version history_sentence_418

The long development process of Unity 8 was threatening to turn it into Godot, but now Ubuntu is free of Unity 8. Ubuntu version history_sentence_419

Its users no longer have to wait for anything." Ubuntu version history_sentence_420

The first point release, 17.10.1, was released on 12 January 2018. Ubuntu version history_sentence_421

It fixed a problem that prevented the firmware of some Lenovo computers from booting. Ubuntu version history_sentence_422

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) Ubuntu version history_section_29

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver is a long-term support version that was released on 26 April 2018, Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS was released three months later on 26 July 2018. Ubuntu version history_sentence_423

Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS was released six months after Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS, on 15 February 2019. Ubuntu version history_sentence_424

Further incremental update releases of the 18.04 LTS cycle were released as 18.04.3 and 18.04.4 at an approximately six-month release cycle, on August 8, 2019, and February 12, 2020, respectively. Ubuntu version history_sentence_425

Version 18.04.5 was released six months later, on 13 August 2020. Ubuntu version history_sentence_426

Plans to include a new theme, created by the Ubuntu community, were announced on 5 February 2018. Ubuntu version history_sentence_427

However, as the development of the theme was unfinished and buggy as of 13 March 2018, Ubuntu 18.04 LTS did not include a new theme, and instead retained the Ambiance theme from 2010 as its default theme. Ubuntu version history_sentence_428

The new theme was available as a Snap package. Ubuntu version history_sentence_429

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS introduced new features, such as colour emoticons, a new To-Do application preinstalled in the default installation, and added the option of a "Minimal Install" to the Ubuntu 18.04 LTS installer, which only installs a web browser and system tools. Ubuntu version history_sentence_430

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS's default display server was returned to Xorg for more stability and reliability, however, Wayland is still included as part of the default install. Ubuntu version history_sentence_431

This release employed Linux kernel version 4.15, which incorporated a CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, AMD secure memory encryption support and improved SATA Link Power Management Ubuntu version history_sentence_432

For the first time some applications were delivered by default as snaps. Ubuntu version history_sentence_433

In reviewing Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, Michael Larabel of Phoronix wrote, "Ubuntu 18.04 is mostly an incremental upgrade over Ubuntu 17.10 with updated packages, the switch back to X.Org session by default rather than Wayland, continued presence of Snaps, and a variety of minor user-interface updates. Ubuntu version history_sentence_434

It's really not a big deal going from 17.10 to 18.04 besides the LTS extended support nature, but it is quite a change if upgrading from Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. Ubuntu version history_sentence_435

For that upgrade you now have the GCC 7 compiler, Unity 7 to GNOME Shell by default, and a wealth of other package updates." Ubuntu version history_sentence_436

In reviewing the Ubuntu 18.04 LTS server version, Michael Larabel of Phoronix indicated that the newly developed text-based installer is an improvement over previous installers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_437

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS has normal LTS support for five years, until April 2023 and has paid ESM support available from Canonical for an additional five years, until April 2028. Ubuntu version history_sentence_438

Ubuntu 18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish) Ubuntu version history_section_30

On 8 May 2018, Mark Shuttleworth announced that the codename of Ubuntu 18.10, which was released on 18 October 2018, would be Cosmic Cuttlefish. Ubuntu version history_sentence_439

The Ubuntu 18.10 installation includes a new theme, named Yaru and the new icon theme, Suru. Ubuntu version history_sentence_440

Installation speeds are faster due to a lossless compression algorithm known as Zstandard. Ubuntu version history_sentence_441

Startup speeds of pre-installed Snap applications were also improved. Ubuntu version history_sentence_442

In a review of 18.10 Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu wrote, "Ubuntu 18.10 'Cosmic Cuttlefish' is a modest update compared to 18.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_443

The vast majority of notable improvements are tucked away out of sight, 'under the hood' ... Upstream GNOME Shell developers spent the past six months trying to lower GNOME Shell's memory usage and improve the overall performance of the shell, its animations, display manager, and parts of the GNOME extension framework (specifically Gjs), as we touched on in our recap of the new features in GNOME 3.30. Ubuntu version history_sentence_444

Invisible and abstract though these changes are, they're appreciable. Ubuntu version history_sentence_445

So much so that, if I had to describe this release in just one word it'd be 'peppy'. Ubuntu version history_sentence_446

That's testament to the power of collaboration; with upstream devs and Canonical's engineering team working together." Ubuntu version history_sentence_447

Michael Larabel of Phoronix wrote, "Overall, Ubuntu 18.10 "Cosmic Cuttlefish" is quite a modest six-month upgrade for being the first past the Ubuntu 18.04 cycle. Ubuntu version history_sentence_448

Exciting me the most, of course, is simply the package upgrades with riding Linux 4.18 + Mesa 18.2 for a much better Linux gaming experience and having moved on now to GCC8 ... What didn't get achieved for the Ubuntu 18.10 cycle is the long-awaited data viewer to the Ubuntu software/hardware survey introduced in 18.04 LTS ... As of writing there's still no public means of being able to view the statistics on these opt-in Ubuntu survey installations. Ubuntu version history_sentence_449

Additionally, the plans for better Android phone integration with the Ubuntu 18.10 desktop by means of bundling GS Connect also didn't happen as planned for the Ubuntu 18.10 cycle." Ubuntu version history_sentence_450

Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo) Ubuntu version history_section_31

Ubuntu 19.04, codenamed Disco Dingo, was released on 18 April 2019. Ubuntu version history_sentence_451

It incorporates the Linux kernel version 5.0, which adds support for AMD FreeSync technology for liquid-crystal displays, Raspberry Pi touchscreens, Adiantum encryption, Btrfs swap files as well as many USB 3.2 and Type-C improvements and several new hardware. Ubuntu version history_sentence_452

Ubuntu 19.04 uses GNOME Shell Desktop 3.32, which includes a new icon set, increased performance, smoother animations, night-light intensity control and advanced application permissions. Ubuntu version history_sentence_453

The updated Nautilus 3.32 file manager now supports favoriting files. Ubuntu version history_sentence_454

A new header bar, as well as 'find' and 'read only' modes have been added to the default terminal emulator. Ubuntu version history_sentence_455

Version 19 of the open-source graphics drivers Mesa is also natively available in this version of Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_456

Furthermore, the Grub menu now allows a 'safe graphics' mode, in case of issues with graphics cards or graphics drivers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_457

This option will boot Ubuntu with "NOMODESET" turned on and will allow the installation any proprietary drivers needed by the system. Ubuntu version history_sentence_458

Geoclue integration and fractional scaling in the GNOME Shell for HiDPI displays (currently available only in Wayland sessions and experimentally in Xorg sessions) are also included. Ubuntu version history_sentence_459

Improvements for running Ubuntu on a VMWare virtual machine include integration of open-vm-tools within Ubuntu, allowing for bi-directional clipboard and file sharing. Ubuntu version history_sentence_460

Ubuntu Server 19.04 updated QEMU to version 3.1, allowing for creation of a virtual 3D GPU inside QEMU virtual machines. Ubuntu version history_sentence_461

libvirt was updated to version 5.0 and Samba was updated to version 4.10.x. Ubuntu version history_sentence_462

Samba and its dependencies were updated to Python 3, with the exception of tdb, which still builds a Python 2 package, namely python-tdb. Ubuntu version history_sentence_463

Ubuntu Server 19.04 includes the latest OpenStack release, Stein, and has vSwitch version 2.11. Ubuntu version history_sentence_464

Ubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) Ubuntu version history_section_32

Ubuntu 19.10, codenamed "Eoan Ermine" (/iːˈoʊən/), was released on 17 October 2019. Ubuntu version history_sentence_465

Based on the Linux kernel 5.3 which, among others, introduces compatibility for third-generation Ryzen CPU motherboards and associated Intel Wireless devices as well as AMD's 7 nm Navi GPUs, this release improves on loading speeds and adds several new features. Ubuntu version history_sentence_466

Experimental support for the ZFS filesystem is now available from the installer and can be chosen besides the ext4 filesytem. Ubuntu version history_sentence_467

NVIDIA-specific improvements were made. Ubuntu version history_sentence_468

Proprietary NVIDIA graphics drivers are embedded within the Ubuntu ISO image and therefore are available for direct installation from the installer without the need to be downloaded, in place of the open-source Nouveau drivers. Ubuntu version history_sentence_469

Support for the Raspberry Pi 4 platform was added. Ubuntu version history_sentence_470

The installation media now uses LZ4 compression which, compared to the previously used compression algorithm, gzip, offers faster installation times. Ubuntu version history_sentence_471

This was decided following benchmarking of a variety of compression algorithms conducted by the Ubuntu kernel team. Ubuntu version history_sentence_472

Kernel load and decompression times were tested and LZ4 was found to offer decompression as much as seven times faster. Ubuntu version history_sentence_473

Ubuntu 19.10 uses GNOME 3.34 which, among others, adds the ability to group application icons into folders, introduces a background settings panel and a separate Night Light tab as well as improves upon performance and smoothness. Ubuntu version history_sentence_474

A new Yaru light theme was introduced with this release as well. Ubuntu version history_sentence_475

In a November 2019, Ars Technica review by Scott Gilbertson, he concluded, "Ubuntu 19.10 is unusual for an October Ubuntu release in that I would call it a must-have upgrade. Ubuntu version history_sentence_476

While it retains some of the experimental elements Ubuntu's fall releases have always been known for, the speed boosts to GNOME alone make this release well worth your time ... Ubuntu 19.10 is quite possibly the best release of Ubuntu Canonical has ever delivered. Ubuntu version history_sentence_477

It's well worth upgrading if you're already an Ubuntu user, and it's well worth trying even if you're not." Ubuntu version history_sentence_478

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) Ubuntu version history_section_33

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, codenamed Focal Fossa, is the latest long-term support release and was released on 23 April 2020. Ubuntu version history_sentence_479

Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS was released on 6 August 2020. Ubuntu version history_sentence_480

As an LTS release, it will provide maintenance updates for 5 years, until April 2025. Ubuntu version history_sentence_481

This release is based on the long-term supported Linux kernel 5.4 which adds support for new hardware, including Intel Comet Lake CPUs and initial Tiger Lake platforms, Qualcomm's Snapdragon 835 and 855 SoCs as well as AMD Navi 12 and 14 GPUs. Ubuntu version history_sentence_482

It also enables support for the exFAT filesystem and the open-source WireGuard VPN, as well as integration with Livepatch which allows for reboot-free kernel updates. Ubuntu version history_sentence_483

A new Linux Security Module named Lockdown, disabled by default, was introduced in this kernel release and aims to prevent high-privileged root accounts from interacting with the underlying kernel by restricting certain kernel functionality, disallowing execution of arbitrary code and enforcing kernel module signatures among others. Ubuntu version history_sentence_484

An updated toolchain offers glibc 2.31, OpenJDK 11, Python 3.8.2, php 7.4, perl 5.30 and golang 1.13. Ubuntu version history_sentence_485

Python 2 is no longer used and has been moved to the universe repository. Ubuntu version history_sentence_486

This release uses GNOME 3.36 which brings improvements to the user interface including a revamped login screen and refreshed Yaru theme. Ubuntu version history_sentence_487

Improvements have also been made to the system menu and the installation screen, which now shows a graphical drive checking routine. Ubuntu version history_sentence_488

Moreover, the OEM logo is now displayed during boot. Ubuntu version history_sentence_489

The Ubuntu Software Center will now install packages from the Snap Store, while it also adds an option for selecting the desired release channel to install from. Ubuntu version history_sentence_490

This release also ended all support for the 32-bit architecture. Ubuntu version history_sentence_491

The recommended minimum system requirements for the desktop edition of this release are: Ubuntu version history_sentence_492

Ubuntu version history_unordered_list_0

  • 2 GHz dual core processorUbuntu version history_item_0_0
  • 4 GiB of RAMUbuntu version history_item_0_1
  • 25 GB of hard-drive, USB stick, memory card or external drive spaceUbuntu version history_item_0_2
  • VGA capable of 1024x768 screen resolutionUbuntu version history_item_0_3
  • a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer mediaUbuntu version history_item_0_4
  • Internet access is desirable, but not essentialUbuntu version history_item_0_5

Reviewer Joey Sneddon noted in OMG Ubuntu, "tradition dictates that Ubuntu LTS releases play things safer than the interim so-called "short-term releases" by only including features that Ubuntu developers can commit to maintain for at least five years. Ubuntu version history_sentence_493

Focal doesn't buck that trend. Ubuntu version history_sentence_494

But while this means there are few "omg!" Ubuntu version history_sentence_495

changes in 20.04 there are a number of iterative improvements, usability and user interface refinements, and some much needed updates, spread throughout the whole of the system." Ubuntu version history_sentence_496

Dave Mackay, writing for HowToGeek, concluded, "Ubuntu 20.04 Is a Great Release. Ubuntu version history_sentence_497

This is a polished, good-looking, and fast release from Canonical." Ubuntu version history_sentence_498

Writing in It's FOSS, Abhishek Prakash wrote, "Since it's an LTS release, stability is of the upmost importance. Ubuntu version history_sentence_499

Canonical team is not going to try any radical changes here. Ubuntu version history_sentence_500

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS users would surely notice the visual changes and performance improvements but I don't think you’ll see many changes between 19.10 and 20.04." Ubuntu version history_sentence_501

In a review in DistroWatch, Jesse Smith detailed a number of problems found in testing this release, including boot issues, the decision to have Ubuntu Software only offer Snaps, which are few in number, slow, use a lot of memory and do not integrate well. Ubuntu version history_sentence_502

He also criticized the ZFS file system for not working right and the lack of Flatpak support. Ubuntu version history_sentence_503

He concluded, "these issues, along with the slow boot times and spotty wireless network access, gave me a very poor impression of Ubuntu 20.04. Ubuntu version history_sentence_504

This was especially disappointing since just six months ago I had a positive experience with Xubuntu 19.10, which was also running on ZFS. Ubuntu version history_sentence_505

My experience this week was frustrating - slow, buggy, and multiple components felt incomplete. Ubuntu version history_sentence_506

This is, in my subjective opinion, a poor showing and a surprisingly unpolished one considering Canonical plans to support this release for the next five years." Ubuntu version history_sentence_507

In a 29 May 2020 review in Full Circle, Adam Hunt concluded, 20.04 was a "virtually flawless release". Ubuntu version history_sentence_508

Ubuntu 20.10 (Groovy Gorilla) Ubuntu version history_section_34

Ubuntu 20.10, codenamed Groovy Gorilla, was released on 22 October 2020. Ubuntu version history_sentence_509

This release is based on the Linux kernel 5.8 which introduces support for several modern hardware devices and protocols. Ubuntu version history_sentence_510

Notable features include support for USB4, AMD Zen 3 CPUs and Intel Ice Lake and Tiger Lake graphics as well as initial support for booting POWER10 processors. Ubuntu version history_sentence_511

GNOME 3.38 brings enhancements to the core GNOME apps and tweaked the app grid, among other user experience improvements. Ubuntu version history_sentence_512

Ubuntu 20.10 is the first release to feature desktop images for the Raspberry Pi 4 (4GB and 8GB models) and the Compute Module 4. Ubuntu version history_sentence_513

Older Pi models with less memory may still be able to boot but they are not officially supported. Ubuntu version history_sentence_514

An updated toolchain set includes glibc 2.32, OpenJDK 11, rustc 1.41, GCC 10, LLVM 11, Python 3.8.6, ruby 2.7.0, php 7.4.9, perl 5.30 and golang 1.13. Ubuntu version history_sentence_515

In addition to these, nftables is now the default firewall backend, replacing iptables. Ubuntu version history_sentence_516

In an October 2020 review in HowToGeek, Dave MacKay concludes, "we recommend that most people stick with Ubuntu 20.04 LTS for stability. Ubuntu version history_sentence_517

Ubuntu 20.10 doesn’t offer any huge improvements. Ubuntu version history_sentence_518

Rather, it just shows that Ubuntu is still a solid platform, making good progress toward its next LTS release in 2022 ... Canonical estimates that 95% of Ubuntu installations are LTS versions. Ubuntu version history_sentence_519

If that’s true, then plainly interim builds won’t appeal to many people who use Ubuntu. Ubuntu version history_sentence_520

Even if Canonical’s figures are slightly off, it’s obvious the vast majority prefer stability and guaranteed long-term support over the incremental benefits of interim builds." Ubuntu version history_sentence_521

Tim Anderson of The Register concluded, "...this is not the biggest of Ubuntu releases but keeps the momentum going for Canonical's distribution, hugely popular for server use on public cloud and becoming more polished for desktop users too." Ubuntu version history_sentence_522

Bogdan Popa, writing for Softpedia, noted of this release, "Ubuntu was, is, and will probably remain the leading Linux distribution out there, at least as far as the number of users is considered." Ubuntu version history_sentence_523

A review in Full Circle magazine concluded, "While Ubuntu 20.10 is a really solid release, it has surprisingly few new features for a release that initiates a new Ubuntu development cycle. Ubuntu version history_sentence_524

In many ways this is probably a good sign, though. Ubuntu version history_sentence_525

After 33 releases over 16 years, Ubuntu a very mature Linux distribution and it gets almost everything right. Ubuntu version history_sentence_526

There is not really a lot that needs changing, beyond updating the hardware support for the next generation of computers and also updating the default applications, both of which this release does. Ubuntu version history_sentence_527

These days most Ubuntu users run the current LTS release and only upgrade when a new LTS version comes out. Ubuntu version history_sentence_528

This standard release offers very little to entice most Ubuntu users to switch, especially since it has only nine months of support." Ubuntu version history_sentence_529

Ubuntu 21.04 (Hirsute Hippo) Ubuntu version history_section_35

Ubuntu 21.04, codenamed Hirsute Hippo, is scheduled for release in April 2021. Ubuntu version history_sentence_530

Table of versions Ubuntu version history_section_36

Version timeline Ubuntu version history_section_37

Version end of life Ubuntu version history_section_38

After each version of Ubuntu has reached its end-of-life time, its repositories are removed from the main Ubuntu servers and consequently the mirrors. Ubuntu version history_sentence_531

Older versions of Ubuntu repositories and releases can be found on the old Ubuntu releases website. Ubuntu version history_sentence_532

See also Ubuntu version history_section_39

Ubuntu version history_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu version history.