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For other uses, see Uganda (disambiguation). Uganda_sentence_0


Republic of Uganda

Jamhuri ya Uganda  (Swahili)Uganda_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityUganda_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesUganda_header_cell_0_2_0 English


Religion (2014 census)Uganda_header_cell_0_3_0 Uganda_cell_0_3_1
Demonym(s)Uganda_header_cell_0_4_0 UgandanUganda_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentUganda_header_cell_0_5_0 Unitary dominant-party presidential republicUganda_cell_0_5_1
PresidentUganda_header_cell_0_6_0 Yoweri MuseveniUganda_cell_0_6_1
Vice-PresidentUganda_header_cell_0_7_0 Edward SsekandiUganda_cell_0_7_1
Prime MinisterUganda_header_cell_0_8_0 Ruhakana RugundaUganda_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureUganda_header_cell_0_9_0 ParliamentUganda_cell_0_9_1
from the United KingdomUganda_header_cell_0_11_0 9 October 1962Uganda_cell_0_11_1
Current constitutionUganda_header_cell_0_12_0 8 October 1995Uganda_cell_0_12_1
Area Uganda_header_cell_0_13_0
TotalUganda_header_cell_0_14_0 241,038 km (93,065 sq mi) (79th)Uganda_cell_0_14_1
Water (%)Uganda_header_cell_0_15_0 15.39Uganda_cell_0_15_1
2018 estimateUganda_header_cell_0_17_0 42,729,036 (35th)Uganda_cell_0_17_1
2014 censusUganda_header_cell_0_18_0 34,634,650Uganda_cell_0_18_1
DensityUganda_header_cell_0_19_0 157.1/km (406.9/sq mi)Uganda_cell_0_19_1
GDP (PPP)Uganda_header_cell_0_20_0 2019 estimateUganda_cell_0_20_1
TotalUganda_header_cell_0_21_0 $102.659 billionUganda_cell_0_21_1
Per capitaUganda_header_cell_0_22_0 $2,566Uganda_cell_0_22_1
GDP (nominal)Uganda_header_cell_0_23_0 2019 estimateUganda_cell_0_23_1
TotalUganda_header_cell_0_24_0 $30.765 billionUganda_cell_0_24_1
Per capitaUganda_header_cell_0_25_0 $956Uganda_cell_0_25_1
Gini (2012)Uganda_header_cell_0_26_0 41.01


HDI (2018)Uganda_header_cell_0_27_0 0.528

low · 159thUganda_cell_0_27_1

CurrencyUganda_header_cell_0_28_0 Ugandan shilling (UGX)Uganda_cell_0_28_1
Time zoneUganda_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC+3 (EAT)Uganda_cell_0_29_1
Driving sideUganda_header_cell_0_30_0 leftUganda_cell_0_30_1
Calling codeUganda_header_cell_0_31_0 +256Uganda_cell_0_31_1
ISO 3166 codeUganda_header_cell_0_32_0 UGUganda_cell_0_32_1
Internet TLDUganda_header_cell_0_33_0 .ugUganda_cell_0_33_1

Uganda (Luganda: Yuganda), officially the Republic of Uganda (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. Uganda_sentence_1

It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, and to the south by Tanzania. Uganda_sentence_2

The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda_sentence_3

Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda_sentence_4

Uganda also lies within the Nile basin, and has a varied but generally a modified equatorial climate. Uganda_sentence_5

Uganda is named after the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala. Uganda_sentence_6

The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Uganda_sentence_7

Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, which established administrative law across the territory. Uganda_sentence_8

Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962. Uganda_sentence_9

The period since then has been marked by violent conflicts, including an eight-year-long military dictatorship led by Idi Amin. Uganda_sentence_10

The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Uganda_sentence_11

Luganda, a central language, is widely spoken across the country, and several other languages are also spoken, including Lango, Acholi, Runyoro, Runyankole, Rukiga, Luo and Lusoga. Uganda_sentence_12

Uganda's current president is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who took power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war. Uganda_sentence_13

Following constitutional amendments that removed term limits for the president, he was able to stand and was elected president of Uganda in the 2011 and in the 2016 general elections. Uganda_sentence_14

History Uganda_section_0

Main article: History of Uganda Uganda_sentence_15

Pre-colonial Uganda Uganda_section_1

Main article: Early history of Uganda Uganda_sentence_16

The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Uganda_sentence_17

Bantu-speaking populations, who were probably from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. Uganda_sentence_18

According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika. Uganda_sentence_19

Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Toro, Ankole, and Busoga kingdoms. Uganda_sentence_20

Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu society there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara. Uganda_sentence_21

Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s. Uganda_sentence_22

They were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. Uganda_sentence_23

British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 (a situation which gave rise to the death of the Uganda Martyrs) and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879. Uganda_sentence_24

The British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC) to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. Uganda_sentence_25

From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda, initially between Muslims and Christians and then, from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics. Uganda_sentence_26

Because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. Uganda_sentence_27

British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annexe Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. Uganda_sentence_28

Uganda Protectorate (1894–1962) Uganda_section_2

Main article: Uganda Protectorate Uganda_sentence_29

In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Uganda_sentence_30

Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Uganda_sentence_31

Subsequently, some became traders and took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. Uganda_sentence_32

From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda_sentence_33

Independence (1962 to 1965) Uganda_section_3

Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. Uganda_sentence_34

In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. Uganda_sentence_35

The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka (KY). Uganda_sentence_36

UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka (King) Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of president. Uganda_sentence_37

Buganda crisis (1962–1966) Uganda_section_4

Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. Uganda_sentence_38

From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Uganda_sentence_39

Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula that worked. Uganda_sentence_40

This was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Uganda_sentence_41

Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left. Uganda_sentence_42

This was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Uganda_sentence_43

Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, and those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state. Uganda_sentence_44

The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka (Kabaka Only) KY, and the Democratic Party (DP) that had roots in the Catholic Church. Uganda_sentence_45

The bitterness between these two parties was extremely intense especially as the first elections for the post-Colonial parliament approached. Uganda_sentence_46

The Kabaka particularly disliked the DP leader, Benedicto Kiwanuka. Uganda_sentence_47

Outside Buganda, a quiet-spoken politician from Northern Uganda, Milton Obote, had forged an alliance of non-Buganda politicians to form the Uganda People's Congress (UPC). Uganda_sentence_48

The UPC at its heart was dominated by politicians who wanted to rectify what they saw as the regional inequality that favoured Buganda's special status. Uganda_sentence_49

This drew in substantial support from outside Buganda. Uganda_sentence_50

The party however remained a loose alliance of interests but Obote showed great skill at negotiating them into a common ground based on a federal formula. Uganda_sentence_51

At Independence, the Buganda question remained unresolved. Uganda_sentence_52

Uganda was one of the few colonial territories that achieved independence without a dominant political party with a clear majority in parliament. Uganda_sentence_53

In the pre-Independence elections, the UPC ran no candidates in Buganda and won 37 of the 61 directly elected seats (outside Buganda). Uganda_sentence_54

The DP won 24 seats outside Buganda. Uganda_sentence_55

The "special status" granted to Buganda meant that the 21 Buganda seats were elected by proportional representation reflecting the elections to the Buganda parliament – the Lukikko. Uganda_sentence_56

KY won a resounding victory over DP, winning all 21 seats. Uganda_sentence_57

The UPC reached a high at the end of 1964 when the leader of the DP in parliament, Basil Kiiza Bataringaya crossed the parliamentary floor with five other MPs, leaving DP with only nine seats. Uganda_sentence_58

The DP MPs were not particularly happy that their leader Benedicto Kiwanuka's hostility towards the Kabaka that was hindering their chances of compromise with KY. Uganda_sentence_59

The trickle of defections turned into a flood when 10 KY members crossed the floor when they realised the formal coalition with the UPC was no longer viable. Uganda_sentence_60

Obote's charismatic speeches across the country were sweeping all before him, and the UPC was winning almost every local election held and increasing its control over all district councils and legislatures outside Buganda. Uganda_sentence_61

The response from the Kabaka was mute – probably content in his ceremonial role and symbolism in his part of the country. Uganda_sentence_62

However, there were also major divisions within his palace that made it difficult for him to act effectively against Obote. Uganda_sentence_63

By the time Uganda had become independent, Buganda "was a divided house with contending social and political forces" There were however problems brewing inside the UPC. Uganda_sentence_64

As its ranks swelled, the ethnic, religious, regional and personal interests began to shake the party. Uganda_sentence_65

The party's apparent strength was eroded in a complex sequence of factional conflicts in its central and regional structures. Uganda_sentence_66

And by 1966, the UPC was tearing itself apart. Uganda_sentence_67

The conflicts were further intensified by the newcomers who had crossed the parliamentary floor from DP and KY. Uganda_sentence_68

The UPC delegates arrived in Gulu in 1964 for their delegates conference. Uganda_sentence_69

Here was the first demonstration as to how Obote was losing control of his party. Uganda_sentence_70

The battle over the Secretary General of the party was a bitter contest between the new moderate's candidate – Grace Ibingira and the radical John Kakonge. Uganda_sentence_71

Ibingira subsequently became the symbol of the opposition to Obote within the UPC. Uganda_sentence_72

This is an important factor when looking at the subsequent events that led to the crisis between Buganda and the Central government. Uganda_sentence_73

For those outside the UPC (including KY supporters), this was a sign that Obote was vulnerable. Uganda_sentence_74

Keen observers realised the UPC was not a cohesive unit. Uganda_sentence_75

The collapse of the UPC-KY alliance openly revealed the dissatisfaction Obote and others had about Buganda's "special status". Uganda_sentence_76

In 1964 The government responded to demands from some parts of the vast Buganda Kingdom that they were not the Kabaka's subjects. Uganda_sentence_77

Prior to colonial rule Buganda had been rivalled by the neighbouring Bunyoro kingdom. Uganda_sentence_78

Buganda had conquered parts of Bunyoro and the British colonialists had formalised this in the Buganda Agreements. Uganda_sentence_79

Known as the "lost counties", the people in these areas wished to revert to being part of Bunyoro. Uganda_sentence_80

Obote decided to allow a referendum, which angered the Kabaka and most of the rest of Buganda. Uganda_sentence_81

The residents of the counties voted to return to Bunyoro despite the Kabaka's attempts to influence the vote. Uganda_sentence_82

Having lost the referendum, KY opposed the bill to pass the counties to Bunyoro, thus ending the alliance with the UPC. Uganda_sentence_83

The tribal nature of Ugandan politics was also manifesting itself in government. Uganda_sentence_84

The UPC which had previously been a national party began to break along tribal lines when Ibingira challenged Obote in the UPC. Uganda_sentence_85

The "North/South" ethnic divide that had been evident in economic and social spheres now entrenched itself in politics. Uganda_sentence_86

Obote surrounded himself with mainly northern politicians – A. Uganda_sentence_87

A. Neykon, Felix Onama, Alex Ojera – while Ibingira's supporters who were subsequently arrested and jailed with him, were mainly from the South – George Magezi, B. Kirya, Matthias Ngobi. Uganda_sentence_88

In time, the two factions acquired ethnic labels – "Bantu" (the mainly Southern Ibingira faction) and "Nilotic" (the mainly Northern Obote faction). Uganda_sentence_89

The perception that the government was at war with the Bantu was further enhanced when Obote arrested and imprisoned the mainly Bantu ministers who backed Ibingira. Uganda_sentence_90

These labels brought into the mix two very powerful influences. Uganda_sentence_91

First Buganda – the people of Buganda are Bantu and therefore naturally aligned to the Ibingira faction. Uganda_sentence_92

The Ibingira faction further advanced this alliance by accusing Obote of wanting to overthrow the Kabaka. Uganda_sentence_93

They were now aligned to opposing Obote. Uganda_sentence_94

Second – the security forces – the British colonialists had recruited the army and police almost exclusively from Northern Uganda due to their perceived suitability for these roles. Uganda_sentence_95

At independence, the army and police was dominated by northern tribes – mainly Nilotic. Uganda_sentence_96

They would now feel more affiliated to Obote, and he took full advantage of this to consolidate his power. Uganda_sentence_97

In April 1966, Obote passed out eight hundred new army recruits at Moroto, of whom seventy percent came from the Northern Region. Uganda_sentence_98

At the time there was a tendency to perceive central government and security forces as dominated by "northerners" – particularly the Acholi who through the UPC had significant access to government positions at national level. Uganda_sentence_99

In northern Uganda there were also varied degrees of anti-Buganda feelings, particularly over the kingdom's "special status" before and after independence, and all the economic and social benefits that came with this status. Uganda_sentence_100

"Obote brought significant numbers of northerners into the central state, both through the civil service and military, and created a patronage machine in Northern Uganda". Uganda_sentence_101

However, both "Bantu" and "Nilotic" labels represent significant ambiguities. Uganda_sentence_102

The Bantu category for example includes both Buganda and Bunyoro – historically bitter rivals. Uganda_sentence_103

The Nilotic label includes the Lugbara, Acholi and Langi who have bitter rivalries that were to define Uganda's military politics later. Uganda_sentence_104

Despite these ambiguities, these events unwittingly brought to fore the northerner/southerner political divide which to some extent still influences Ugandan politics. Uganda_sentence_105

The UPC fragmentation continued as opponents sensed Obote's vulnerability. Uganda_sentence_106

At local level where the UPC dominated most councils discontent began to challenge incumbent council leaders. Uganda_sentence_107

Even in Obote's home district, attempts were made to oust the head of the local district council in 1966. Uganda_sentence_108

A more worrying fact for the UPC was that the next national elections loomed in 1967 – and without the support of KY (who were now likely to back the DP), and the growing factionalism in the UPC, there was the real possibility that the UPC would be out of power in months. Uganda_sentence_109

Obote went after KY with a new act of parliament in early 1966 that blocked any attempt by KY to expand outside Buganda. Uganda_sentence_110

KY appeared to respond in parliament through one of their few remaining MPs, the terminally ill Daudi Ochieng. Uganda_sentence_111

Ochieng was an irony – although from Northern Uganda, he had risen high in the ranks of KY and become a close confidant to the Kabaka who had gifted him with large land titles in Buganda. Uganda_sentence_112

In Obote's absence from Parliament, Ochieng laid bare the illegal plundering of ivory and gold from the Congo that had been orchestrated by Obote's army chief of staff, Colonel Idi Amin. Uganda_sentence_113

He further alleged that Obote, Onama and Neykon had all benefited from the scheme. Uganda_sentence_114

Parliament overwhelmingly voted in favour of a motion to censure Amin and investigate Obote's involvement. Uganda_sentence_115

This shook the government and raised tensions in the country. Uganda_sentence_116

KY further demonstrated its ability to challenge Obote from within his party at the UPC Buganda conference where Godfrey Binaisa (the Attorney General) was ousted by a faction believed to have the backing of KY, Ibingira and other anti-Obote elements in Buganda. Uganda_sentence_117

Obote's response was to arrest Ibingira and other ministers at a cabinet meeting and to assume special powers in February 1966. Uganda_sentence_118

In March 1966, Obote also announced that the offices of President and Vice-President would cease to exist – effectively dismissing the Kabaka. Uganda_sentence_119

Obote also gave Amin more power – giving him the Army Commander position over the previous holder (Opolot) who had relations to Buganda through marriage (possibly believing Opolot would be reluctant to take military action against the Kabaka if it came to that). Uganda_sentence_120

Obote abolished the constitution and effectively suspended elections due in a few months. Uganda_sentence_121

Obote went on television and radio to accuse the Kabaka of various offences including requesting foreign troops which appears to have been explored by the Kabaka following the rumours of Amin plotting a coup. Uganda_sentence_122

Obote further dismantled the authority of the Kabaka by announcing among other measures: Uganda_sentence_123


  • The abolition of independent public service commissions for federal units. This removed the Kabaka's authority to appoint civil servants in Buganda.Uganda_item_0_0
  • The abolition of the Buganda High Court – removing any judicial authority the Kabaka had.Uganda_item_0_1
  • The bringing of Buganda financial management under further central control.Uganda_item_0_2
  • Abolition of lands for Buganda chiefs. Land is one the key sources of Kabaka's power over his subjects.Uganda_item_0_3

The lines were now drawn for a show down between Buganda and the Central government. Uganda_sentence_124

Historians may argue about whether this could have been avoided through compromise. Uganda_sentence_125

This was unlikely as Obote now felt emboldened and saw the Kabaka as weak. Uganda_sentence_126

Indeed, by accepting the presidency four years earlier and siding with the UPC, the Kabaka had divided his people and taken the side of one against the other. Uganda_sentence_127

Within Buganda's political institutions, rivalries driven by religion and personal ambition made the institutions ineffective and unable to respond to the central government moves. Uganda_sentence_128

The Kabaka was often regarded as aloof and unresponsive to advice from the younger Buganda politicians who better understood the new post-Independence politics, unlike the traditionalists who were ambivalent to what was going on as long as their traditional benefits were maintained. Uganda_sentence_129

The Kabaka favoured the neo-traditionalists. Uganda_sentence_130

In May 1966, the Kabaka made his move. Uganda_sentence_131

He asked for foreign help and the Buganda parliament demanded that the Uganda government leave Buganda (including the capital, Kampala). Uganda_sentence_132

In response Obote ordered Idi Amin to attack the Kabaka's palace. Uganda_sentence_133

The battle for the Kabaka's palace was fierce – the Kabaka's guards putting up more resistance that had been expected. Uganda_sentence_134

The British trained Captain – the Kabaka with about 120 armed men kept Idi Amin at bay for twelve hours. Uganda_sentence_135

It is estimated that up to 2,000 people died in the battle which ended when the army called in heavier guns and overran the palace. Uganda_sentence_136

The anticipated countryside uprising in Buganda did not materialise and a few hours later a beaming Obote met the press to relish his victory. Uganda_sentence_137

The Kabaka escaped over the palace walls and was transported into exile in London by supporters. Uganda_sentence_138

He died there three years later. Uganda_sentence_139

1966–1971 (before the coup) Uganda_section_5

In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government and King Muteesa, Obote suspended the constitution and removed the ceremonial president and vice-president. Uganda_sentence_140

In 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic and abolished the traditional kingdoms. Uganda_sentence_141

Obote was declared the president. Uganda_sentence_142

1971 (after the coup) –1979 (end of Amin regime) Uganda_section_6

Main article: History of Uganda (1971–79) Uganda_sentence_143

After a military coup on 25 January 1971, Obote was deposed from power and General Idi Amin seized control of the country. Uganda_sentence_144

Amin ruled Uganda as dictator with the support of the military for the next eight years. Uganda_sentence_145

He carried out mass killings within the country to maintain his rule. Uganda_sentence_146

An estimated 80,000–500,000 Ugandans lost their lives during his regime. Uganda_sentence_147

Aside from his brutalities, he forcibly removed the entrepreneurial Indian minority from Uganda. Uganda_sentence_148

In June 1976, Palestinian terrorists hijacked an Air France flight and forced it to land at Entebbe airport. Uganda_sentence_149

One hundred of the 250 passengers originally on board were held hostage until an Israeli commando raid rescued them ten days later. Uganda_sentence_150

Amin's reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1979, in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda. Uganda_sentence_151

1979–present Uganda_section_7

Main article: History of Uganda (1979–present) Uganda_sentence_152

Yoweri Museveni has been president since his forces toppled the previous regime in January 1986. Uganda_sentence_153

Political parties in Uganda were restricted in their activities beginning that year, in a measure ostensibly designed to reduce sectarian violence. Uganda_sentence_154

In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by Museveni, political parties continued to exist, but they could operate only a headquarters office. Uganda_sentence_155

They could not open branches, hold rallies, or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates could belong to political parties). Uganda_sentence_156

A constitutional referendum cancelled this nineteen-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005. Uganda_sentence_157

In the mid-to-late 1990s, Museveni was lauded by western countries as part of a new generation of African leaders. Uganda_sentence_158

His presidency has been marred, however, by invading and occupying the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the Second Congo War, resulting in an estimated 5.4 million deaths since 1998, and by participating in other conflicts in the Great Lakes region of Africa. Uganda_sentence_159

He has struggled for years in the civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has been guilty of numerous crimes against humanity, including child slavery, the Atiak massacre, and other mass murders. Uganda_sentence_160

Conflict in northern Uganda has killed thousands and displaced millions. Uganda_sentence_161

Parliament abolished presidential term limits in 2005, allegedly because Museveni used public funds to pay US$2,000 to each member of parliament who supported the measure. Uganda_sentence_162

Presidential elections were held in February 2006. Uganda_sentence_163

Museveni ran against several candidates, the most prominent of them being Kizza Besigye. Uganda_sentence_164

On 20 February 2011, the Uganda Electoral Commission declared the incumbent president Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the winning candidate of the 2011 elections that were held on 18 February 2011. Uganda_sentence_165

The opposition however, were not satisfied with the results, condemning them as full of sham and rigging. Uganda_sentence_166

According to the official results, Museveni won with 68 percent of the votes. Uganda_sentence_167

This easily topped his nearest challenger, Besigye, who had been Museveni's physician and told reporters that he and his supporters "downrightly snub" the outcome as well as the unremitting rule of Museveni or any person he may appoint. Uganda_sentence_168

Besigye added that the rigged elections would definitely lead to an illegitimate leadership and that it is up to Ugandans to critically analyse this. Uganda_sentence_169

The European Union's Election Observation Mission reported on improvements and flaws of the Ugandan electoral process: "The electoral campaign and polling day were conducted in a peaceful manner [...] However, the electoral process was marred by avoidable administrative and logistical failures that led to an unacceptable number of Ugandan citizens being disfranchised." Uganda_sentence_170

Since August 2012, hacktivist group Anonymous has threatened Ugandan officials and hacked official government websites over its anti-gay bills. Uganda_sentence_171

Some international donors have threatened to cut financial aid to the country if anti-gay bills continue. Uganda_sentence_172

Indicators of a plan for succession by the president's son, Muhoozi Kainerugaba, have increased tensions. Uganda_sentence_173

Geography Uganda_section_8

Main article: Geography of Uganda Uganda_sentence_174

Uganda is located in southeast Africa between 1º N and 4º N latitude, and 30º E and 35º E longitude, its geography is very diverse consisting of volcanic hills, mountains, and lakes. Uganda_sentence_175

The country sits at an average of 900 meters above sea level. Uganda_sentence_176

Both the eastern and western borders of Uganda have mountains. Uganda_sentence_177

The Ruwenzori mountain range contains the highest peak in Uganda, which is named Alexandra and measures 5,094 meters. Uganda_sentence_178

Lakes and rivers Uganda_section_9

Much of the south of the country is heavily influenced by one of the world's biggest lakes, Lake Victoria, which contains many islands. Uganda_sentence_179

Most important cities are located in the south, near this lake, including the capital Kampala and the nearby city of Entebbe. Uganda_sentence_180

Lake Kyoga is in the centre of the country and is surrounded by extensive marshy areas. Uganda_sentence_181

Although landlocked, Uganda contains many large lakes. Uganda_sentence_182

Besides Lakes Victoria and Kyoga, there are Lake Albert, Lake Edward, and the smaller Lake George. Uganda_sentence_183

Uganda lies almost completely within the Nile basin. Uganda_sentence_184

The Victoria Nile drains from Lake Victoria into Lake Kyoga and thence into Lake Albert on the Congolese border. Uganda_sentence_185

It then runs northwards into South Sudan. Uganda_sentence_186

An area in eastern Uganda is drained by the Suam River, part of the internal drainage basin of Lake Turkana. Uganda_sentence_187

The extreme north-eastern part of Uganda drains into the Lotikipi Basin, which is primarily in Kenya. Uganda_sentence_188

Environment and conservation Uganda_section_10

Main article: Conservation in Uganda Uganda_sentence_189

Uganda has 60 protected areas, including ten national parks: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Rwenzori Mountains National Park (both UNESCO World Heritage Sites), Kibale National Park, Kidepo Valley National Park, Lake Mburo National Park, Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Mount Elgon National Park, Murchison Falls National Park, Queen Elizabeth National Park, and Semuliki National Park. Uganda_sentence_190

Government and politics Uganda_section_11

Human rights Uganda_section_12

Main article: Human rights in Uganda Uganda_sentence_191

There are many areas which continue to attract concern when it comes to human rights in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_192

Conflict in the northern parts of the country continues to generate reports of abuses by both the rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony, and the Ugandan Army. Uganda_sentence_193

A UN official accused the LRA in February 2009 of "appalling brutality" in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Uganda_sentence_194

The number of internally displaced persons is estimated at 1.4 million. Uganda_sentence_195

Torture continues to be a widespread practice amongst security organisations. Uganda_sentence_196

Attacks on political freedom in the country, including the arrest and beating of opposition members of parliament, have led to international criticism, culminating in May 2005 in a decision by the British government to withhold part of its aid to the country. Uganda_sentence_197

The arrest of the main opposition leader Kizza Besigye and the siege of the High Court during a hearing of Besigye's case by heavily armed security forces – before the February 2006 elections – led to condemnation. Uganda_sentence_198

Child labour is common in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_199

Many child workers are active in agriculture. Uganda_sentence_200

Children who work on tobacco farms in Uganda are exposed to health hazards. Uganda_sentence_201

Child domestic servants in Uganda risk sexual abuse. Uganda_sentence_202

Trafficking of children occurs. Uganda_sentence_203

Slavery and forced labour are prohibited by the Ugandan constitution. Uganda_sentence_204

The US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several violations of refugee rights in 2007, including forcible deportations by the Ugandan government and violence directed against refugees. Uganda_sentence_205

Torture and extrajudicial killings have been a pervasive problem in Uganda in recent years. Uganda_sentence_206

For instance, according to a 2012 US State Department report, "the African Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation for Torture Victims registered 170 allegations of torture against police, 214 against the UPDF, 1 against military police, 23 against the Special Investigations Unit, 361 against unspecified security personnel, and 24 against prison officials" between January and September 2012. Uganda_sentence_207

In September 2009 Museveni refused Kabaka Muwenda Mutebi, the Baganda king, permission to visit some areas of Buganda Kingdom, particularly the Kayunga district. Uganda_sentence_208

Riots occurred and over 40 people were killed while others remain imprisoned to this date. Uganda_sentence_209

Furthermore, 9 more people were killed during the April 2011 "Walk to Work" demonstrations. Uganda_sentence_210

According to the Humans Rights Watch 2013 World Report on Uganda, the government has failed to investigate the killings associated with both of these events. Uganda_sentence_211

LGBT rights Uganda_section_13

Main article: LGBT rights in Uganda Uganda_sentence_212

In 2007, a Ugandan newspaper, the Red Pepper, published a list of allegedly gay men, many of whom suffered harassment as a result. Uganda_sentence_213

On 9 October 2010, the Ugandan newspaper Rolling Stone published a front-page article titled "100 Pictures of Uganda's Top Homos Leak" that listed the names, addresses, and photographs of 100 homosexuals alongside a yellow banner that read "Hang Them". Uganda_sentence_214

The paper also alleged that homosexuals aimed to recruit Ugandan children. Uganda_sentence_215

This publication attracted international attention and criticism from human rights organisations, such as Amnesty International, No Peace Without Justice and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. Uganda_sentence_216

According to gay rights activists, many Ugandans have been attacked since the publication. Uganda_sentence_217

On 27 January 2011, gay rights activist David Kato was murdered. Uganda_sentence_218

In 2009, the Ugandan parliament considered an Anti-Homosexuality Bill that would have broadened the criminalisation of homosexuality by introducing the death penalty for people who have previous convictions, or are HIV-positive, and engage in same-sex sexual acts. Uganda_sentence_219

The bill also included provisions for Ugandans who engage in same-sex sexual relations outside of Uganda, asserting that they may be extradited back to Uganda for punishment, and included penalties for individuals, companies, media organisations, or non-governmental organizations that support legal protection for homosexuality or sodomy. Uganda_sentence_220

The private member's bill was submitted by MP David Bahati in Uganda on 14 October 2009, and was believed to have had widespread support in the Uganda parliament. Uganda_sentence_221

The hacktivist group Anonymous hacked into Ugandan government websites in protest of the bill. Uganda_sentence_222

The debate of the bill was delayed in response to global condemnation but was eventually passed on 20 December 2013 and signed by President Yoweri Museveni on 24 February 2014. Uganda_sentence_223

The death penalty was dropped in the final legislation. Uganda_sentence_224

The law was widely condemned by the international community. Uganda_sentence_225

Denmark, the Netherlands, and Sweden said they would withhold aid. Uganda_sentence_226

The World Bank on 28 February 2014 said it would postpone a US$90 million loan, while the United States said it was reviewing ties with Uganda. Uganda_sentence_227

On 1 August 2014, the Constitutional Court of Uganda ruled the bill invalid as it was not passed with the required quorum. Uganda_sentence_228

A 13 August 2014 news report said that the Ugandan attorney general had dropped all plans to appeal, per a directive from President Museveni who was concerned about foreign reaction to the bill and who also said that any newly introduced bill should not criminalise same-sex relationships between consenting adults. Uganda_sentence_229

Progress on the continent of Africa has been slow but progressing with South Africa being the only country where same sex marriages are recognised. Uganda_sentence_230

Economy and infrastructure Uganda_section_14

Main articles: Economy of Uganda, Energy in Uganda, and Agriculture in Uganda Uganda_sentence_231

The Bank of Uganda is the central bank of Uganda and handles monetary policy along with the printing of the Ugandan shilling. Uganda_sentence_232

In 2015, Uganda's economy generated export income from the following merchandise: coffee (US$402.63 million), oil re-exports (US$131.25 million), base metals and products (US$120.00 million), fish (US$117.56 million), maize (US$90.97 million), cement (US$80.13 million), tobacco (US$73.13 million), tea (US$69.94 million), sugar (US$66.43 million), hides and skins (US$62.71 million), cocoa beans (US$55.67 million), beans (US$53.88 million), simsim (US$52.20 million), flowers (US$51.44 million), and other products (US$766.77 million). Uganda_sentence_233

The country has been experiencing consistent economic growth. Uganda_sentence_234

In fiscal year 2015–16, Uganda recorded gross domestic product growth of 4.6 percent in real terms and 11.6 percent in nominal terms. Uganda_sentence_235

This compares to 5.0 percent real growth in fiscal year 2014–15. Uganda_sentence_236

The country has largely untapped reserves of both crude oil and natural gas. Uganda_sentence_237

While agriculture accounted for 56 percent of the economy in 1986, with coffee as its main export, it has now been surpassed by the services sector, which accounted for 52 percent of GDP in 2007. Uganda_sentence_238

In the 1950s, the British colonial regime encouraged some 500,000 subsistence farmers to join co-operatives. Uganda_sentence_239

Since 1986, the government (with the support of foreign countries and international agencies) has acted to rehabilitate an economy devastated during the regime of Idi Amin and the subsequent civil war. Uganda_sentence_240

In 2012, the World Bank still listed Uganda on the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries list. Uganda_sentence_241

Economic growth has not always led to poverty reduction. Uganda_sentence_242

Despite an average annual growth of 2.5 percent between 2000 and 2003, poverty levels increased by 3.8 percent during that time. Uganda_sentence_243

This has highlighted the importance of avoiding jobless growth and is part of the rising awareness in development circles of the need for equitable growth not just in Uganda, but across the developing world. Uganda_sentence_244

With the Uganda securities exchanges established in 1996, several equities have been listed. Uganda_sentence_245

The government has used the stock market as an avenue for privatisation. Uganda_sentence_246

All government treasury issues are listed on the securities exchange. Uganda_sentence_247

The Capital Markets Authority has licensed 18 brokers, asset managers, and investment advisors including: African Alliance Investment Bank, Baroda Capital Markets Uganda Limited, Crane Financial Services Uganda Limited, Crested Stocks and Securities Limited, Dyer & Blair Investment Bank, Equity Stock Brokers Uganda Limited, Renaissance Capital Investment Bank and UAP Financial Services Limited. Uganda_sentence_248

As one of the ways of increasing formal domestic savings, pension sector reform is the centre of attention (2007). Uganda_sentence_249

Uganda traditionally depends on Kenya for access to the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa. Uganda_sentence_250

Efforts have intensified to establish a second access route to the sea via the lakeside ports of Bukasa in Uganda and Musoma in Tanzania, connected by railway to Arusha in the Tanzanian interior and to the port of Tanga on the Indian Ocean. Uganda_sentence_251

Uganda is a member of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation. Uganda_sentence_252

Uganda has a large diaspora, residing mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom. Uganda_sentence_253

This diaspora has contributed enormously to Uganda's economic growth through remittances and other investments (especially property). Uganda_sentence_254

According to the World Bank, Uganda received in 2016 an estimated US$1.099 billion in remittances from abroad, second only to Kenya (US$1.574 billion) in the East African Community. Uganda_sentence_255

and seventh in Africa Uganda also serves as an economic hub for a number of neighbouring countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and Rwanda. Uganda_sentence_256

The Ugandan Bureau of Statistics announced inflation was 4.6 percent in November 2016. Uganda_sentence_257

On 29 June 2018, Uganda's statistics agency said the country registered a drop in inflation to 3.4 percent in the financial year ending 2017/18 compared to the 5.7 percent recorded in the financial year 2016/17. Uganda_sentence_258

Industry Uganda_section_15

Uganda ranked as number 102 among the countries of the world in nominal Gross Domestic Product by the International Monetary Fund with a GDP of 26,349 (US$million). Uganda_sentence_259

The World Bank ranked Uganda as number 99 in nominal GDP with a GDP of 25,891 (US$million). Uganda_sentence_260

Based on the GDP with purchasing power parity the IMF ranked Uganda as number 86 (91,212 million of current Int$) and the World Bank ranked them 90 (79,889 million of current Int$). Uganda_sentence_261

Since the 1990s, the economy in Uganda is growing. Uganda_sentence_262

Real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average of 6.7% annually during the period 1990–2015, whereas real GDP per capita grew at 3.3% per annum during the same period. Uganda_sentence_263

Poverty Uganda_section_16

Main article: Poverty in Uganda Uganda_sentence_264

Uganda is one of the poorest nations in the world. Uganda_sentence_265

In 2012, 37.8 percent of the population lived on less than $1.25 a day. Uganda_sentence_266

Despite making enormous progress in reducing the countrywide poverty incidence from 56 percent of the population in 1992 to 24.5 percent in 2009, poverty remains deep-rooted in the country's rural areas, which are home to 84 percent of Ugandans. Uganda_sentence_267

People in rural areas of Uganda depend on farming as the main source of income and 90 per cent of all rural women work in the agricultural sector. Uganda_sentence_268

In addition to agricultural work, rural women are responsible for the caretaking of their families. Uganda_sentence_269

The average Ugandan woman spends 9 hours a day on domestic tasks, such as preparing food and clothing, fetching water and firewood, and caring for the elderly, the sick as well as orphans. Uganda_sentence_270

As such, women on average work longer hours than men, between 12 and 18 hours per day, with a mean of 15 hours, as compared to men, who work between 8 and 10 hours a day. Uganda_sentence_271

To supplement their income, rural women may engage in small-scale entrepreneurial activities such as rearing and selling local breeds of animals. Uganda_sentence_272

Nonetheless, because of their heavy workload, they have little time for these income-generating activities. Uganda_sentence_273

The poor cannot support their children at school and in most cases, girls drop out of school to help out in domestic work or to get married. Uganda_sentence_274

Other girls engage in sex work. Uganda_sentence_275

As a result, young women tend to have older and more sexually experienced partners and this puts women at a disproportionate risk of getting affected by HIV, accounting for about 5.7 per cent of all adults living with HIV in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_276

Maternal health in rural Uganda lags behind national policy targets and the Millennium Development Goals, with geographical inaccessibility, lack of transport and financial burdens identified as key demand-side constraints to accessing maternal health services; as such, interventions like intermediate transport mechanisms have been adopted as a means to improve women's access to maternal health care services in rural regions of the country. Uganda_sentence_277

Gender inequality is the main hindrance to reducing women's poverty. Uganda_sentence_278

Women are subjected to an overall lower social status than men. Uganda_sentence_279

For many women, this reduces their power to act independently, participate in community life, become educated and escape reliance upon abusive men. Uganda_sentence_280

Air transportation Uganda_section_17

There are 35 airports in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_281

Commercial airlines operate scheduled passenger services out of four airports. Uganda_sentence_282

Uganda has an international airport, Entebbe International Airport, which is located 25 miles (40 km) south-west of Kampala. Uganda_sentence_283

In 2017 the airport traffic hit 1.53 million passengers, 8% more than the previous year. Uganda_sentence_284

A second international airport, Hoima International Airport, is currently under construction. Uganda_sentence_285

Road network Uganda_section_18

Road transportation is the most important way of transportation in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_286

95% of freight and passenger traffic is handled by road traffic. Uganda_sentence_287

The road network in Uganda is approximately 80,448 miles (129,469 km) long. Uganda_sentence_288

About 4% of these roads are paved which means about 3,293 miles (5,300 km). Uganda_sentence_289

The different types of roads are national roads (13,676 mi (22,009 km)—17%), district roads (20,916 mi (33,661 km)—26%), urban roads (5,631 mi (9,062 km)—7%), and community roads (40,224 mi (64,734 km)—50%). Uganda_sentence_290

The national roads make up about 17% of the road network but carry over 80% of the total road traffic. Uganda_sentence_291

In Uganda there are 83,000 private cars which means 2.94 cars per 1000 inhabitants. Uganda_sentence_292

Railroad Uganda_section_19

The rail network in Uganda is approximately 783 miles (1,260 km) long. Uganda_sentence_293

The longest lines are the main line from Kampala to Tororo (155 miles (249 km)), the western line from Kampala to Kasese (207 miles (333 km)), the northern line from Tororo to Pakwach (398 miles (641 km)). Uganda_sentence_294

Communications Uganda_section_20

Main article: Communications in Uganda Uganda_sentence_295

There are seven telecommunications companies serving over 21 million subscribers in a population of over 34 million. Uganda_sentence_296

More than 95 percent of internet connections are made using mobile phones. Uganda_sentence_297

The total mobile and fixed telephony subscriptions increased from over 20 million to over 21 million yielding an increment of over 1.1 million subscribers (5.4 increase) compared to the 4.1 percent increases realised in the previous quarter Q4 2014 (October–December). Uganda_sentence_298


Mobile & Fixed TelephonyUganda_table_caption_1
IndicatorsUganda_header_cell_1_0_0 Q4 2014Uganda_header_cell_1_0_1 Q1 2015Uganda_header_cell_1_0_2 Change (%)Uganda_header_cell_1_0_3
Mobile Subscriptions (prepaid)Uganda_cell_1_1_0 20,257,656Uganda_cell_1_1_1 21,347,079Uganda_cell_1_1_2 5.4Uganda_cell_1_1_3
Mobile Subscriptions (post-paid)Uganda_cell_1_2_0 108,285Uganda_cell_1_2_1 110,282Uganda_cell_1_2_2 1.8Uganda_cell_1_2_3
Fixed subscriptionsUganda_cell_1_3_0 324,442Uganda_cell_1_3_1 349,163Uganda_cell_1_3_2 7.6Uganda_cell_1_3_3
Tele-densityUganda_cell_1_4_0 56.5Uganda_cell_1_4_1 62.5Uganda_cell_1_4_2 10.6Uganda_cell_1_4_3
National statusUganda_cell_1_5_0 20,690,383Uganda_cell_1_5_1 21,806,523Uganda_cell_1_5_2 5.4Uganda_cell_1_5_3

Energy Uganda_section_21

See also: Energy in Uganda Uganda_sentence_299

Uganda is richly endowed with abundant energy resources, which are fairly distributed throughout the country. Uganda_sentence_300

These include hydropower, biomass, solar, geothermal, peat and fossil fuels. Uganda_sentence_301

In the 1980s, the majority of energy in Uganda came from charcoal and wood. Uganda_sentence_302

However, oil was found in the Lake Albert area, totaling an estimated 95 million cubic metres (3.4×10^ cu ft) barrels of crude. Uganda_sentence_303

Heritage Oil discovered one of the largest crude oil finds in Uganda, and continues operations there. Uganda_sentence_304

Uganda and Tanzania signed a deal on 13 September 2016 that will see the two countries build a 1,445km, $3.5bn crude oil pipeline. Uganda_sentence_305

The Uganda–Tanzania Crude Oil Pipeline (UTCOP), also known as the East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) will be the first of its kind in East Africa, will connect Uganda’s oil-rich Hoima region with the Indian ocean through the Tanga port in Tanzania. Uganda_sentence_306

Water supply and sanitation Uganda_section_22

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Uganda Uganda_sentence_307

According to a 2006 published report, the Ugandan water supply and sanitation sector had made substantial progress in urban areas since the mid-1990s, with substantial increases in coverage as well as in operational and commercial performance. Uganda_sentence_308

Sector reforms in the period 1998–2003 included the commercialisation and modernisation of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation operating in cities and larger towns, as well as decentralisation and private sector participation in small towns. Uganda_sentence_309

Although these reforms have attracted significant international attention, 38 percent of the population still had no access to an improved water source in 2010. Uganda_sentence_310

Concerning access to improved sanitation, figures have varied widely. Uganda_sentence_311

According to government figures, it was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban areas in 2011, while according to UN figures it was only 34 percent. Uganda_sentence_312

The water and sanitation sector was recognised as a key area under the 2004 Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), Uganda's main strategy paper to fight poverty. Uganda_sentence_313

According to a 2006 published report, a comprehensive expenditure framework had been introduced to co-ordinate financial support by external donors, the national government, and nongovernmental organisations. Uganda_sentence_314

The PEAP estimated that from 2001 to 2015, about US$1.4 billion, or US$92 million per year, was needed to increase water supply coverage up to 95 percent, with rural areas needing US$956 million, urban areas and large towns needing US$281 million, and small towns needing US$136 million. Uganda_sentence_315

Education Uganda_section_23

Main article: Education in Uganda Uganda_sentence_316

Uganda’s educational system, while lacking in many areas, has seen significant change in recent years. Uganda_sentence_317

The educational system is set up so that children spend seven years in primary school, six years in secondary school, and three to five years in post secondary school. Uganda_sentence_318

In 1997, the government declared that primary school would be free for all children. Uganda_sentence_319

This amendment has had huge benefits. Uganda_sentence_320

In 1986, only two million children were attending primary school. Uganda_sentence_321

By 1999, six million children were attending primary school, and this number has continued to climb. Uganda_sentence_322

Following significant gains in access to primary education since 1997 when universal primary education (UPE) was introduced, Uganda in 2007 became the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to introduce universal secondary education (USE). Uganda_sentence_323

This bold step by the Government of Uganda led to an increase in lower secondary enrolment of nearly 25% between 2007 and 2012. Uganda_sentence_324

At the 2002 census, Uganda had a literacy rate of 66.8 percent (76.8 percent male and 57.7 percent female). Uganda_sentence_325

Public spending on education was at 5.2 percent of the 2002–2005 GDP. Uganda_sentence_326

As of 2020, the NCHE website listed 46 private accredited universities. Uganda_sentence_327

to mention a few, Makerere University, Mbarara University of science and technology, Kyambogo University, Gulu University, Uganda Christian University, Kampala international University among many more. Uganda_sentence_328

Health Uganda_section_24

Main articles: Health in Uganda and HIV/AIDS in Uganda Uganda_sentence_329

Health system Uganda_section_25

There were eight physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s. Uganda_sentence_330

Uganda's elimination of user fees at state health facilities in 2001 has resulted in an 80 percent increase in visits, with over half of this increase coming from the poorest 20 percent of the population. Uganda_sentence_331

This policy has been cited as a key factor in helping Uganda achieve its Millennium Development Goals and as an example of the importance of equity in achieving those goals. Uganda_sentence_332

Despite this policy, many users are denied care if they do not provide their own medical equipment, as happened in the highly publicised case of Jennifer Anguko. Uganda_sentence_333

Poor communication within hospitals, low satisfaction with health services and distance to health service providers undermine the provision of quality health care to people living in Uganda, and particularly for those in poor and elderly-headed households. Uganda_sentence_334

The provision of subsidies for poor and rural populations, along with the extension of public private partnerships, have been identified as important provisions to enable vulnerable populations to access health services. Uganda_sentence_335

Life expectancy Uganda_section_26

Life expectancy at birth was estimated to be 53.45 years in 2012. Uganda_sentence_336

The infant mortality rate was approximately 61 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012. Uganda_sentence_337

Infectious disease Uganda_section_27

In July 2012, there was an Ebola outbreak in the Kibaale District of the country. Uganda_sentence_338

On 4 October 2012, the Ministry of Health officially declared the end of the outbreak after at least 16 people had died. Uganda_sentence_339

The Health Ministry announced on 16 August 2013 that three people had died in northern Uganda from a suspected outbreak of Congo Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever. Uganda_sentence_340

Uganda has been among the rare HIV success stories. Uganda_sentence_341

Infection rates of 30 per cent of the population in the 1980s fell to 6.4 percent by the end of 2008. Uganda_sentence_342

Meanwhile, the practice of abstinence was found to have decreased. Uganda_sentence_343

Reproductive health Uganda_section_28

Less than half of all sexually active unmarried women use a modern contraceptive method, a fraction that has barely changed from 2000 to 2011. Uganda_sentence_344

However, only ~26% of married women used contraceptives in 2011. Uganda_sentence_345

The use of contraceptives also differs substantially between poor (~15%) and wealthy women (~40%). Uganda_sentence_346

As a result, Ugandan women have ~6 children while they prefer to have around ~4. Uganda_sentence_347

According to the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), more than 40% of births are unplanned. Uganda_sentence_348

In 2010, the Ugandan Ministry of Health estimated that unsafe abortion accounted for 8% of the country's maternal deaths. Uganda_sentence_349

The 2006 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS) indicated that roughly 6,000 women die each year from pregnancy-related complications. Uganda_sentence_350

Pilot studies in 2012 by Future Health Systems have shown that this rate could be significantly reduced by implementing a voucher scheme for health services and transport to clinics. Uganda_sentence_351

The prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) is low: according to a 2013 UNICEF report, only 1 percent of women in Uganda have undergone FGM, with the practice being illegal in the country. Uganda_sentence_352

Crime and law enforcement Uganda_section_29

In Uganda, the Allied Democratic Forces is considered a violent rebel force that opposes the Ugandan government. Uganda_sentence_353

These rebels are an enemy of the Uganda People's Defence Force and are considered an affiliate of Al-Shabaab. Uganda_sentence_354

Tourism Uganda_section_30

Main article: Tourism in Uganda Uganda_sentence_355

Tourism in Uganda is focused on Uganda's landscape and wildlife. Uganda_sentence_356

It is a major driver of employment, investment and foreign exchange, contributing 4.9 trillion Ugandan shillings (US$1.88 billion or €1.4 billion as of August 2013) to Uganda's GDP in the financial year 2012–13. Uganda_sentence_357

The Uganda Tourism Board is responsible for maintaining information pertaining to tourism in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_358

The main attractions are photo safaris through the National parks and game Reserves. Uganda_sentence_359

Other attractions include the Mountain Gorillas found in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (MGNP), Uganda having some of the oldest cultural kingdom in Africa has many Cultural sites. Uganda_sentence_360

Uganda is a birding paradise boasting a massive bird list of more of than 1073 recorded bird species ranking 4th in Africa's bird species and 16th internationally. Uganda_sentence_361

Uganda has landscapes ranging from white-capped Rwenzori mountains and the Great Rift Valley. Uganda_sentence_362

Science and technology Uganda_section_31

Main article: Science and technology in Uganda Uganda_sentence_363

The National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy dates from 2009. Uganda_sentence_364

Its overarching goal is to ‘strengthen national capability to generate, transfer and apply scientific knowledge, skills and technologies that ensure sustainable utilization of natural resources for the realisation of Uganda's development objectives.’ The policy precedes Uganda Vision 2040, which was launched in April 2013 to transform ‘Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years,’ in the words of the Cabinet. Uganda_sentence_365

Uganda Vision 2040 vows to strengthen the private sector, improve education and training, modernize infrastructure and the underdeveloped services and agriculture sectors, foster industrialization and promote good governance, among other goals. Uganda_sentence_366

Potential areas for economic development include oil and gas, tourism, minerals and information and communication technologies (ICTs). Uganda_sentence_367

Research funding climbed between 2008 and 2010 from 0.33% to 0.48% of GDP. Uganda_sentence_368

Over the same period, the number of researchers doubled (in head counts) from 1 387 to 2 823, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Uganda_sentence_369

This represents a leap from 44 to 83 researchers per million inhabitants over the same period. Uganda_sentence_370

One in four researchers is a woman. Uganda_sentence_371

Uganda has been able to manufacture prototype of cars called kiira in which the government invested 70usd. Uganda_sentence_372

Demographics Uganda_section_32

Main article: Demographics of Uganda Uganda_sentence_373


YearUganda_header_cell_2_0_0 MillionUganda_header_cell_2_0_1
1950Uganda_cell_2_1_0 5.1Uganda_cell_2_1_1
2000Uganda_cell_2_2_0 24.0Uganda_cell_2_2_1
2018Uganda_cell_2_3_0 42.7Uganda_cell_2_3_1

Uganda's population grew from 9.5 million people in 1969 to 34.9 million in 2014. Uganda_sentence_374

With respect to the last inter-censal period (September 2002), the population increased by 10.6 million people in the past 12 years. Uganda_sentence_375

Uganda's median age of 15 years is the lowest in the world. Uganda_sentence_376

Uganda has the fifth highest total fertility rate in the world, at 5.97 children born per woman (2014 estimates). Uganda_sentence_377

There were about 80,000 Indians in Uganda before Idi Amin required the expulsion of Ugandan-Asians (mostly of Indian origin) in 1972, which reduced the population to as low as 7,000. Uganda_sentence_378

Many Indians, however, returned to Uganda after Amin's fall ouster in 1979. Uganda_sentence_379

Around 90 percent of Ugandan Indians reside in Kampala. Uganda_sentence_380

According to the UNHCR, Uganda hosts over 1.1 million refugees on its soil as of November 2018. Uganda_sentence_381

Most come from neighbouring countries in the African Great Lakes region, particularly South Sudan (68.0 percent) and Democratic Republic of the Congo (24.6%). Uganda_sentence_382

Languages Uganda_section_33

Main article: Languages of Uganda Uganda_sentence_383

Swahili, a widely used language throughout the African Great Lakes region, was approved as the country's second official national language in 2005. Uganda_sentence_384

English was the only official language until the constitution was amended in 2005. Uganda_sentence_385

Although Swahili has not been favoured by the Bantu-speaking populations of the south and south-west of the country, it is an important lingua franca in the northern regions. Uganda_sentence_386

It is also widely used in the police and military forces, which may be a historical result of the disproportionate recruitment of northerners into the security forces during the colonial period. Uganda_sentence_387

The status of Swahili has thus alternated with the political group in power. Uganda_sentence_388

For example, Idi Amin, who came from the north-west, declared Swahili to be the national language. Uganda_sentence_389

Religion Uganda_section_34

Main article: Religion in Uganda Uganda_sentence_390

The Roman Catholic Church had the largest number of adherents (39.3 percent, down from 41.6 in 2002), followed by the Anglican Church of Uganda (32 percent, down from 35.9 percent). Uganda_sentence_391

The category of Evangelical/Pentecostal/Born-Again showed the most growth, rising from 4.7% in 2002 to 11.1% in 2018. Uganda_sentence_392

Adventist and other Protestant churches claimed most of the remaining Christians, although there was also a small Eastern Orthodox community. Uganda_sentence_393

The next most reported religion of Uganda was Islam, with Muslims representing 13.7 percent of the population, up from 12.1% in 2002. Uganda_sentence_394

The remainder of the population according to the 2014 census followed traditional religions (0.1 percent, down from 1% in 2002), other religions (1.4 percent), or had no religious affiliation (0.2 percent). Uganda_sentence_395

Largest cities and towns Uganda_section_35


1Uganda_cell_3_0_0 KampalaUganda_cell_3_0_1 1,507,080Uganda_cell_3_0_2 0°18′49″N 32°34′52″EUganda_cell_3_0_3
2Uganda_cell_3_1_0 NansanaUganda_cell_3_1_1 365,124Uganda_cell_3_1_2 0°21′50″N 32°31′43″EUganda_cell_3_1_3
3Uganda_cell_3_2_0 KiraUganda_cell_3_2_1 317,157Uganda_cell_3_2_2 0°23′50″N 32°38′20″EUganda_cell_3_2_3
4Uganda_cell_3_3_0 SsabagaboUganda_cell_3_3_1 283,272Uganda_cell_3_3_2 0°14′34″N 32°33′36″EUganda_cell_3_3_3
5Uganda_cell_3_4_0 MbararaUganda_cell_3_4_1 195,531Uganda_cell_3_4_2 0°36′48″S 30°39′30″EUganda_cell_3_4_3
6Uganda_cell_3_5_0 MukonoUganda_cell_3_5_1 162,710Uganda_cell_3_5_2 0°21′36″N 32°45′00″EUganda_cell_3_5_3
7Uganda_cell_3_6_0 NjeruUganda_cell_3_6_1 159,549Uganda_cell_3_6_2 0°25′52″N 33°08′52″EUganda_cell_3_6_3
8Uganda_cell_3_7_0 GuluUganda_cell_3_7_1 150,306Uganda_cell_3_7_2 2°46′54″N 32°17′57″EUganda_cell_3_7_3
9Uganda_cell_3_8_0 LugaziUganda_cell_3_8_1 114,524Uganda_cell_3_8_2 0°22′08″N 32°56′25″EUganda_cell_3_8_3
10Uganda_cell_3_9_0 MasakaUganda_cell_3_9_1 103,227Uganda_cell_3_9_2 0°20′28″S 31°44′10″EUganda_cell_3_9_3
11Uganda_cell_3_10_0 KaseseUganda_cell_3_10_1 101,065Uganda_cell_3_10_2 0°11′12″N 30°05′17″EUganda_cell_3_10_3
12Uganda_cell_3_11_0 HoimaUganda_cell_3_11_1 100,099Uganda_cell_3_11_2 1°25′55″N 31°21′09″EUganda_cell_3_11_3
13Uganda_cell_3_12_0 LiraUganda_cell_3_12_1 99,392Uganda_cell_3_12_2 2°14′50″N 32°54′00″EUganda_cell_3_12_3
14Uganda_cell_3_13_0 MityanaUganda_cell_3_13_1 95,428Uganda_cell_3_13_2 0°24′02″N 32°02′32″EUganda_cell_3_13_3
15Uganda_cell_3_14_0 MubendeUganda_cell_3_14_1 103,473Uganda_cell_3_14_2 0°33′27″N 31°23′42″EUganda_cell_3_14_3
16Uganda_cell_3_15_0 MasindiUganda_cell_3_15_1 94,438Uganda_cell_3_15_2 1°41′01″N 31°43′20″EUganda_cell_3_15_3
17Uganda_cell_3_16_0 MbaleUganda_cell_3_16_1 92,857Uganda_cell_3_16_2 1°04′50″N 34°10′30″EUganda_cell_3_16_3
18Uganda_cell_3_17_0 JinjaUganda_cell_3_17_1 76,188Uganda_cell_3_17_2 0°25′24″N 33°12′24″EUganda_cell_3_17_3
19Uganda_cell_3_18_0 EntebbeUganda_cell_3_18_1 70,219Uganda_cell_3_18_2 0°03′00″N 32°27′36″EUganda_cell_3_18_3
20Uganda_cell_3_19_0 KitgumUganda_cell_3_19_1 44,719Uganda_cell_3_19_2 3°17′20″N 32°52′40″EUganda_cell_3_19_3

Culture Uganda_section_36

Main articles: Culture of Uganda, Music of Uganda, Ugandan cuisine, List of African writers (by country) § Uganda, and List of Ugandans Uganda_sentence_396

Owing to the large number of communities, culture within Uganda is diverse. Uganda_sentence_397

Many Asians (mostly from India) who were expelled during the regime of Idi Amin have returned to Uganda. Uganda_sentence_398

Sport Uganda_section_37

Further information: Uganda at the Olympics and Uganda at the Commonwealth Games Uganda_sentence_399

Football is the national sport in Uganda. Uganda_sentence_400

The Uganda national football team, nicknamed "The Cranes" is controlled by the Federation of Uganda Football Associations. Uganda_sentence_401

They have never qualified for the FIFA World Cup finals. Uganda_sentence_402

Their best finish in the African Cup of Nations was second in 1978. Uganda_sentence_403

As of 2020, Uganda at the Olympics has won a total of two gold, three silver, and two bronze medals; four of which were in boxing and three in athletics. Uganda_sentence_404

Uganda at the Commonwealth Games has collected 13 gold medals and a total 49 medals, all in boxing and athletics. Uganda_sentence_405

The Uganda national boxing team is called The Bombers. Uganda_sentence_406

They have won four medals at the Summer Olympics from 1968 to 1980, as well as two medals the 1974 World Amateur Boxing Championships. Uganda_sentence_407

Notable boxers include Cornelius Boza-Edwards, Justin Juuko, Ayub Kalule, John Mugabi, Eridadi Mukwanga, Joseph Nsubuga, Kassim Ouma, Sam Rukundo and Leo Rwabwogo. Uganda_sentence_408

In athletics, John Akii-Bua won the first Olympic gold medal for Uganda. Uganda_sentence_409

At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, he won the 400m hurdles race with a world record time of 47.82 seconds. Uganda_sentence_410

400 metres runner Davis Kamoga earned the bronze medal at 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the silver medal at the 1997 World Championships. Uganda_sentence_411

Dorcus Inzikuru won the 3000 m steeplechase at the 2005 World Championships and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Uganda_sentence_412

Stephen Kiprotich has won the marathon at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and the 2013 World Championships, and finished second at the 2015 Tokyo Marathon. Uganda_sentence_413

Joshua Cheptegei has won 10 km races at the World Championships, World Athletics Cross Country Championships and Commonwealth Games, and has set world records in 5 km and 15 km. Uganda_sentence_414

Halimah Nakaayi won the 800 meters race at the 2019 World Championships. Uganda_sentence_415

In cricket, Uganda was part of the East Africa team that qualified for the Cricket World Cup in 1975. Uganda_sentence_416

The country has an increasingly successful national basketball team. Uganda_sentence_417

It is nicknamed "The Silverbacks," and made its debut at the 2015 FIBA Africa Championship. Uganda_sentence_418

In July 2011, Kampala, Uganda qualified for the 2011 Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania for the first time, beating Saudi Arabian baseball team Dharan LL, although visa complications prevented them from attending the series. Uganda_sentence_419

Little League teams from Uganda qualified for and attended the 2012 Little League World Series. Uganda_sentence_420

Olympics Uganda_section_38

Cinema Uganda_section_39

Main article: Cinema of Uganda Uganda_sentence_421

The Ugandan film industry is relatively young. Uganda_sentence_422

It is developing quickly, but still faces an assortment of challenges. Uganda_sentence_423

There has been support for the industry as seen in the proliferation of film festivals such as Amakula, Pearl International Film Festival, Maisha African Film Festival and Manya Human Rights Festival. Uganda_sentence_424

However, filmmakers struggle against the competing markets from other countries on the continent such as those in Nigeria and South Africa in addition to the big budget films from Hollywood. Uganda_sentence_425

The first publicly recognised film that was produced solely by Ugandans was Feelings Struggle, which was directed and written by Hajji Ashraf Ssemwogerere in 2005. Uganda_sentence_426

This marks the year of ascent of film in Uganda, a time where many enthusiasts were proud to classify themselves as cinematographers in varied capacities. Uganda_sentence_427

The local film industry is polarised between two types of filmmakers. Uganda_sentence_428

The first are filmmakers who use the Nollywood video film era's guerrilla approach to film making, churning out a picture in around two weeks and screening it in makeshift video halls. Uganda_sentence_429

The second is the filmmaker who has the film aesthetic, but with limited funds has to depend on the competitive scramble for donor cash. Uganda_sentence_430

Though cinema in Uganda is evolving, it still faces major challenges. Uganda_sentence_431

Along with technical problems such as refining acting and editing skills, there are issues regarding funding and lack of government support and investment. Uganda_sentence_432

There are no schools in the country dedicated to film, banks do not extend credit to film ventures, and distribution and marketing of movies remains poor. Uganda_sentence_433

The Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) is preparing regulations starting in 2014 that require Ugandan television to broadcast 70 percent Ugandan content and of this, 40 percent to be independent productions. Uganda_sentence_434

With the emphasis on Ugandan Film and the UCC regulations favouring Ugandan productions for mainstream television, Ugandan film may become more prominent and successful in the near future. Uganda_sentence_435

Media Uganda_section_40

Main article: Media of Uganda Uganda_sentence_436

See also Uganda_section_41


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