This article is about the country.
For other uses, see Ukraine (disambiguation).
"UKR" redirects here.
For other uses, see UKR (disambiguation).
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||List|
|Ethnic groups (2001)|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Prime Minister||Denys Shmyhal|
|Chairman of the||Dmytro Razumkov|
|Independence from Russia|
|Autonomy||23 June 1917|
|Declared||22 January 1918|
|In the West||1 November 1918|
|Act of Unity||22 January 1919|
|Expansion||22 September 1939|
|From the USSR||24 August 1991|
|Current constitution||28 June 1996|
|Last amendments||21 February 2014|
|Total||603,628 km (233,062 sq mi) (45th)|
|October 2020 estimate||41,703,327|
|Density||73.8/km (191.1/sq mi) (115th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|Total||$429.947 billion (48th)|
|Per capita||$10,310 (108th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|Total||$161.872 billion (56th)|
|Per capita||$3,881 (119th)|
low · 18th
high · 88th
|Currency||Ukrainian hryvnia (₴) (UAH)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC+03 (EEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA|
'ʊkrɐˈinə') is a country in Eastern Europe.
Its capital and largest city is Kyiv.
The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC.
Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia.
Ukraine gained its independence in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state; it formed a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while also establishing a partnership with NATO in 1994.
In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which later escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government.
On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters.
The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM organization, and one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Etymology and orthography
Main article: Name of Ukraine
There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine.
According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country".
"The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, and style-guides warn against its use in professional writing.
According to U.S. ambassador William Taylor, "The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty.
The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically."
Main article: History of Ukraine
Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites (43,000–45,000 BC) which include a mammoth bone dwelling.
The territory is also considered to be the likely location for the human domestication of the horse.
Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was part of the Scythian Kingdom, or Scythia.
These colonies thrived well into the sixth century AD.
In the seventh century AD, the territory that is now eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria.
At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land.
In the fifth and sixth centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of what is now Ukraine.
After an Avar raid in 602 and the collapse of the Antes Union, most of these peoples survived as separate tribes until the beginning of the second millennium.
Golden Age of Kyiv
Main article: Kyivan Rus'
Russian historian Boris Rybakov came from studying the linguistics of Russian chronicles to the conclusion that the Polans union of clans of the mid-Dnieper region called itself by the name of one of its clans, "Ros", that joined the union and was known at least since the 6th century far beyond the Slavic world.
The origin of the Kyiv princedom is of a big debate and there exist at least three versions depending on interpretations of the chronicles.
In general it is believed that "Kyivan Rus' included the central, western and northern part of modern Ukraine, Belarus, and the far eastern strip of Poland.
During the 10th and 11th centuries, it became the largest and most powerful state in Europe.
It laid the foundation for the national identity of Ukrainians and Russians.
Kyiv, the capital of modern Ukraine, became the most important city of the Rus'.
In 12th–13th centuries on efforts of Yuri the Long Armed, in area of Zalesye were founded several cities similar in name as in Kyivan Rus such as Vladimir on the Klyazma/Vladimir of Zalesye (Volodymyr), Galich of Merya (Halych), Pereslavl of Zalesye (Pereyaslav of Ruthenian), Pereslavl of Erzya.
The Varangians later assimilated into the Slavic population and became part of the first Rus' dynasty, the Rurik Dynasty.
During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kyivan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power.
The state soon fragmented as the relative importance of regional powers rose again.
After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir II Monomakh (1113–1125) and his son Mstislav (1125–1132), Kyivan Rus' finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav's death.
The 13th-century Mongol invasion devastated Kyivan Rus'.
Kyiv was totally destroyed in 1240.
Under Danylo's reign, the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia was one of the most powerful states in east central Europe.
Following the 1386 Union of Krewo, a dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania, much of what became northern Ukraine was ruled by the increasingly Slavicised local Lithuanian nobles as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
By 1392 the so-called Galicia–Volhynia Wars ended.
Polish colonisers of depopulated lands in northern and central Ukraine founded or re-founded many towns.
In the Black sea cities of modern-day Ukraine, the Republic of Genoa founded numerous colonies, from the mid-13th century to the late 15th century, including the cities of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi ("Moncastro") and Kiliya ("Licostomo"), the colonies used to be large commercial centers in the region, and were headed by a consul (a representative of the Republic).
In 1569 the Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and much Ukrainian territory was transferred from Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, becoming Polish territory de jure.
Under the demographic, cultural and political pressure of Polonisation, which began in the late 14th century, many landed gentry of Polish Ruthenia (another name for the land of Rus) converted to Catholicism and became indistinguishable from the Polish nobility.
Deprived of native protectors among Rus nobility, the commoners (peasants and townspeople) began turning for protection to the emerging Zaporozhian Cossacks, who by the 17th century became devoutly Orthodox.
The Cossacks did not shy from taking up arms against those they perceived as enemies, including the Polish state and its local representatives.
Formed from Golden Horde territory conquered after the Mongol invasion the Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century; in 1571 it even captured and devastated Moscow.
The borderlands suffered annual Tatar invasions.
From the beginning of the 16th century until the end of the 17th century, Crimean Tatar slave raiding bands exported about two million slaves from Russia and Ukraine.
In 1688, Tatars captured a record number of 60,000 Ukrainians.
The Tatar raids took a heavy toll, discouraging settlement in more southerly regions where the soil was better and the growing season was longer.
The last remnant of the Crimean Khanate was finally conquered by the Russian Empire in 1783.
However the continued harsh enserfment of peasantry by Polish nobility and especially the suppression of the Orthodox Church alienated the Cossacks.
These were rejected by the Polish nobility, who dominated the Sejm.
After Khmelnytsky made an entry into Kyiv in 1648, where he was hailed liberator of the people from Polish captivity, he founded the Cossack Hetmanate, which existed until 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).
Khmelnytsky, deserted by his Tatar allies, suffered a crushing deafeat at the Battle of Berestechko in 1651, and turned to the Russian tsar for help.
In 1654, Khmelnytsky was subject to the Pereyaslav Council, forming a military and political alliance with Russia that acknowledged loyalty to the Russian tsar.
In 1657–1686 came "The Ruin", a devastating 30-year war amongst Russia, Poland, the Crimean Khanate, the Ottoman Empire, and Cossacks for control of Ukraine, which occurred at about the same time as the Deluge of Poland.
The wars escalated in intensity with hundreds of thousands of deaths.
The "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" between Russia and Poland in 1686 divided the lands of the Cossack Hetmanate between them, reducing the portion over which Poland had claimed sovereignty.
Eventually Tsar Peter recognized that to consolidate and modernize Russia's political and economic power it was necessary to do away with the Cossack Hetmanate and Ukrainian and Cossack aspirations to autonomy.
Mazepa died in exile after fleeing from the Battle of Poltava (1709), in which the Swedes and their Cossack allies suffered a catastrophic defeat.
The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine, then within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Constitution limited the executive authority of the hetman, and established a democratically elected Cossack parliament called the General Council.
The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk was unique for its period, and was one of the first state constitutions in Europe.
The hetmanate was abolished in 1764; the Zaporozhian Sich was abolished in 1775, as Russia centralised control over its lands.
As part of the Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795, the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper were divided between Russia and Austria.
From 1737 to 1834, expansion into the northern Black Sea littoral and the eastern Danube valley was a cornerstone of Russian foreign policy.
Lithuanians and Poles controlled vast estates in Ukraine, and were a law unto themselves.
Occasionally the landowners battled each other using armies of Ukrainian peasants.
The Poles and Lithuanians were Roman Catholics and tried with some success to convert the Orthodox lesser nobility.
In 1596, they set up the "Greek-Catholic" or Uniate Church; it dominates western Ukraine to this day.
Religious differentiation left the Ukrainian Orthodox peasants leaderless, as they were reluctant to follow the Ukrainian nobles.
Cossacks led an uprising, called Koliyivshchyna, starting in the Ukrainian borderlands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1768.
Ethnicity was one root cause of this revolt, which included the Massacre of Uman that killed tens of thousands of Poles and Jews.
Religious warfare also broke out among Ukrainian groups.
As Uniate religious practices had become more Latinized, Orthodoxy in this region drew even closer into dependence on the Russian Orthodox Church.
Confessional tensions also reflected opposing Polish and Russian political allegiances.
Despite promises in the Treaty of Pereyaslav, the Ukrainian elite and the Cossacks never received the freedoms and the autonomy they had expected.
However, within the Empire, Ukrainians rose to the highest Russian state and church offices.
19th century, World War I and revolution
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the territory of today's Ukraine was included in the governorates of Chernihiv (Chernigov in Russian), Kharkiv (Kharkov), Kyiv 1708–1764, and Little Russia 1764–1781, Podillia (Podolie), and Volyn (Volhynia)—with all but the first two informally grouped into the Southwestern Krai.
After the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Catherine the Great and her immediate successors encouraged German immigration into Ukraine and especially into Crimea, to thin the previously dominant Turk population and encourage agriculture.
In the 19th century, Ukraine was a rural area largely ignored by Russia and Austria.
Beginning in the 19th century, there was migration from Ukraine to distant areas of the Russian Empire.
An additional 1.6 million emigrated to the east in the ten years after the opening of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1906.
Nationalist and socialist parties developed in the late 19th century.
Austro-Hungarian authorities established the Ukrainian Legion to fight against the Russian Empire.
This became the Ukrainian Galician Army that fought against the Bolsheviks and Poles in the post-World War I period (1919–23).
Those suspected of Russophile sentiments in Austria were treated harshly.
World War I destroyed both empires.
A Ukrainian national movement for self-determination emerged, with heavy Communist and Socialist influence.
Several Ukrainian states briefly emerged: the internationally recognized Ukrainian People's Republic (UNR, the predecessor of modern Ukraine, was declared on 23 June 1917 proclaimed at first as a part of the Russian Republic; after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Ukrainian People's Republic proclaimed its independence on 25 January 1918), the Hetmanate, the Directorate and the pro-Bolshevik Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (or Soviet Ukraine) successively established territories in the former Russian Empire; while the West Ukrainian People's Republic and the Hutsul Republic emerged briefly in the Ukrainian lands of former Austro-Hungarian territory.
This led to civil war, and an anarchist movement called the Black Army (later renamed to The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) developed in Southern Ukraine under the command of the anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War.
They protected the operation of "free soviets" and libertarian communes in the Free Territory, an attempt to form a stateless anarchist society from 1918 to 1921 during the Ukrainian Revolution, fighting both the tsarist White Army under Denikin and later the Red Army under Trotsky, before being defeated by the latter in August 1921.
According to the Peace of Riga, western Ukraine was incorporated into Poland, which in turn recognised the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1919.
With establishment of the Soviet power, Ukraine lost half of its territory, while Moldavian autonomy was established on the left bank of the Dniester River.
Ukraine became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in December 1922.
Western Ukraine, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina
The war in Ukraine continued for another two years; by 1921, however, most of Ukraine had been taken over by the Soviet Union, while Galicia and Volhynia (mostly today's West Ukraine) were incorporated into the Second Polish Republic.
A powerful underground Ukrainian nationalist movement arose in eastern Poland in the 1920s and 1930s, which was formed by Ukrainian veterans of the Ukrainian-Soviet war (including Yevhen Konovalets, Andriy Melnyk, and Yuriy Tyutyunyk) and was transformed into the Ukrainian Military Organization and later the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).
The movement attracted a militant following among students.
Hostilities between Polish state authorities and the popular movement led to a substantial number of fatalities, and the autonomy which had been promised was never implemented.
The pre-war Polish government also exercised anti-Ukrainian sentiment; it restricted rights of people who declared Ukrainian nationality, belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church and inhabited the Eastern Borderlands.
The Ukrainian language was restricted in every field possible, especially in governmental institutions, and the term "Ruthenian" was enforced in an attempt to ban the use of the term "Ukrainian".
Despite this, a number of Ukrainian parties, the Ukrainian Catholic Church, an active press, and a business sector existed in Poland.
Economic conditions improved in the 1920s, but the region suffered from the Great Depression in the early 1930s.
Inter-war Soviet Ukraine
See also: Holodomor
It left over 1.5 million people dead and hundreds of thousands homeless in the former Russian Empire territory.
During the 1920s, under the Ukrainisation policy pursued by the national Communist leadership of Mykola Skrypnyk, Soviet leadership encouraged a national renaissance in the Ukrainian culture and language.
The Bolsheviks were also committed to universal health care, education and social-security benefits, as well as the right to work and housing.
Women's rights were greatly increased through new laws.
Most of these policies were sharply reversed by the early 1930s after Joseph Stalin became the de facto communist party leader.
Those who resisted were arrested and deported and agricultural productivity greatly declined.
As members of the collective farms were sometimes not allowed to receive any grain until unrealistic quotas were met, millions starved to death in a famine known as the Holodomor or the "Great Famine".
The Communist leadership perceived famine as a means of class struggle and used starvation as a punishment tool to force peasants into collective farms.
Largely the same groups were responsible for the mass killing operations during the civil war, collectivisation, and the Great Terror.
Yevdokimov transferred into Communist Party administration in 1934, when he became Party secretary for North Caucasus Krai.
He appears to have continued advising Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Yezhov on security matters, and the latter relied on Yevdokimov's former colleagues to carry out the mass killing operations that are known as the Great Terror in 1937–38.
World War II
For the first time in history, the nation was united.
The Ukrainian SSR incorporated the northern and southern districts of Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and the Hertsa region.
These territorial gains of the USSR were internationally recognized by the Paris peace treaties of 1947.
During the interwar period, the Polish government's policies towards the Ukrainian minority were initially very accommodating, however by the late 1930s they became increasingly harsh due to civil unrest.
Both organizations, OUN and UPA supported the goal of an independent Ukrainian state on the territory with a Ukrainian ethnic majority.
Although this brought conflict with Nazi Germany, at times the Melnyk wing of the OUN allied with the Nazi forces.
Also, UPA divisions carried out massacres of ethnic Poles, killing around 100,000 Polish civilians, which brought reprisals.
After the war, the UPA continued to fight the USSR until the 1950s.
At the same time, the Ukrainian Liberation Army, another nationalist movement, fought alongside the Nazis.
In total, the number of ethnic Ukrainians who fought in the ranks of the Soviet Army is estimated from 4.5 million to 7 million.
The pro-Soviet partisan guerrilla resistance in Ukraine is estimated to number at 47,800 from the start of occupation to 500,000 at its peak in 1944, with about 50% being ethnic Ukrainians.
Generally, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army's figures are unreliable, with figures ranging anywhere from 15,000 to as many as 100,000 fighters.
Most of the Ukrainian SSR was organised within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, with the intention of exploiting its resources and eventual German settlement.
Some western Ukrainians, who had only joined the Soviet Union in 1939, hailed the Germans as liberators.
Brutal German rule eventually turned their supporters against the Nazi administrators, who made little attempt to exploit dissatisfaction with Stalinist policies.
Instead, the Nazis preserved the collective-farm system, carried out genocidal policies against Jews, deported millions of people to work in Germany, and began a depopulation program to prepare for German colonisation.
They blockaded the transport of food on the Kyiv River.
The vast majority of the fighting in World War II took place on the Eastern Front.
By some estimates, 93% of all German casualties took place there.
The total losses inflicted upon the Ukrainian population during the war are estimated at about 6 million, including an estimated one and a half million Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen, sometimes with the help of local collaborators.
Of the estimated 8.6 million Soviet troop losses, 1.4 million were ethnic Ukrainians.
Victory Day is celebrated as one of ten Ukrainian national holidays.
Post-World War II
The republic was heavily damaged by the war, and it required significant efforts to recover.
More than 700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages were destroyed.
The situation was worsened by a famine in 1946–47, which was caused by a drought and the wartime destruction of infrastructure.
The death toll of this famine varies, with even the lowest estimate in the tens of thousands.
Post-war ethnic cleansing occurred in the newly expanded Soviet Union.
As of 1 January 1953, Ukrainians were second only to Russians among adult "special deportees", comprising 20% of the total.
Having served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukrainian SSR in 1938–49, Khrushchev was intimately familiar with the republic; after taking power union-wide, he began to emphasize "the friendship" between the Ukrainian and Russian nations.
In 1954, the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav was widely celebrated.
By 1950, the republic had fully surpassed pre-war levels of industry and production.
During the 1946–1950 five-year plan, nearly 20% of the Soviet budget was invested in Soviet Ukraine, a 5% increase from pre-war plans.
As a result, the Ukrainian workforce rose 33.2% from 1940 to 1955 while industrial output grew 2.2 times in that same period.
Soviet Ukraine soon became a European leader in industrial production, and an important centre of the Soviet arms industry and high-tech research.
Such an important role resulted in a major influence of the local elite.
Many members of the Soviet leadership came from Ukraine, most notably Leonid Brezhnev.
He later ousted Khrushchev and became the Soviet leader from 1964 to 1982.
Many prominent Soviet sports players, scientists, and artists came from Ukraine.
This was the only accident to receive the highest possible rating of 7 by the International Nuclear Event Scale, indicating a "major accident", until the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011.
At the time of the accident, 7 million people lived in the contaminated territories, including 2.2 million in Ukraine.
After the accident, the new city of Slavutych was built outside the exclusion zone to house and support the employees of the plant, which was decommissioned in 2000.
On 16 July 1990, the new parliament adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine.
This established the principles of the self-determination, democracy, independence, and the priority of Ukrainian law over Soviet law.
This started a period of confrontation with the central Soviet authorities.
After it failed, on 24 August 1991 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the Act of Independence.
At the meeting in Brest, Belarus on 8 December, followed by the Alma Ata meeting on 21 December, the leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine formally dissolved the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
On 26 December 1991 the Council of Republics of the USSR Supreme Council adapted declaration "In regards to creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States" (Russian: В связи с созданием Содружества Независимых Государств) which de jure dissolved the Soviet Union and the Soviet flag was lowered over the Kremlin.
Ukraine was initially viewed as having favourable economic conditions in comparison to the other regions of the Soviet Union.
However, the country experienced deeper economic slowdown than some of the other former Soviet Republics.
During the recession, Ukraine lost 60% of its GDP from 1991 to 1999, and suffered five-digit inflation rates.
Dissatisfied with the economic conditions, as well as the amounts of crime and corruption in Ukraine, Ukrainians protested and organized strikes.
The Ukrainian economy stabilized by the end of the 1990s.
A new currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in 1996.
After 2000, the country enjoyed steady real economic growth averaging about seven percent annually.
Kuchma was, however, criticised by opponents for corruption, electoral fraud, discouraging free speech and concentrating too much power in his office.
Ukraine also pursued full nuclear disarmament, giving up the third largest nuclear weapons stockpile in the world and dismantling or removing all strategic bombers on its territory in exchange for various assurances (main article: Nuclear weapons and Ukraine).
Main article: Orange Revolution
The results caused a public outcry in support of the opposition candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, who challenged the outcome.
Yushchenko strongly suspected Russian involvement in his poisoning.
Activists of the Orange Revolution were funded and trained in tactics of political organisation and nonviolent resistance by Western pollsters and professional consultants who were partly funded by Western government and non-government agencies but received most of their funding from domestic sources.
State Department and USAID along with the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, the International Republican Institute, the NGO Freedom House and George Soros's Open Society Institute.
The National Endowment for Democracy has supported democracy-building efforts in Ukraine since 1988.
Russian authorities provided support through advisers such as Gleb Pavlovsky, consulting on blackening the image of Yushchenko through the state media, pressuring state-dependent voters to vote for Yanukovych and on vote-rigging techniques such as multiple 'carousel voting' and 'dead souls' voting.
Amid the 2008–09 Ukrainian financial crisis the Ukrainian economy plunged by 15%.
Disputes with Russia briefly stopped all gas supplies to Ukraine in 2006 and again in 2009, leading to gas shortages in other countries.
Euromaidan and 2014 revolution
Further information on the ongoing protests: Timeline of the Euromaidan
The Euromaidan (Ukrainian: Євромайдан, literally "Eurosquare") protests started in November 2013 after the president, Viktor Yanukovych, began moving away from an association agreement that had been in the works with the European Union and instead chose to establish closer ties with the Russian Federation.
Some Ukrainians took to the streets to show their support for closer ties with Europe.
Meanwhile, in the predominantly Russian-speaking east, a large portion of the population opposed the Euromaidan protests, instead supporting the Yanukovych government.
Over time, Euromaidan came to describe a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, the scope of which evolved to include calls for the resignation of President Yanukovych and his government.
Violence escalated after 16 January 2014 when the government accepted new Anti-Protest Laws.
Violent anti-government demonstrators occupied buildings in the centre of Kyiv, including the Justice Ministry building, and riots left 98 dead with approximately fifteen thousand injured and 100 considered missing from 18 to 20 February.
On 21 February, President Yanukovych signed a compromise deal with opposition leaders that promised constitutional changes to restore certain powers to Parliament and called for early elections to be held by December.
However, Members of Parliament voted on 22 February to remove the president and set an election for 25 May to select his replacement.
Petro Poroshenko, running on a pro-European Union platform, won with over fifty percent of the vote, therefore not requiring a run-off election.
Upon his election, Poroshenko announced that his immediate priorities would be to take action in the civil unrest in Eastern Ukraine and mend ties with the Russian Federation.
Poroshenko was inaugurated as president on 7 June 2014, as previously announced by his spokeswoman Irina Friz in a low-key ceremony without a celebration on Kyiv's Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square, the centre of the Euromaidan protests) for the ceremony.
Civil unrest, Russian intervention, and annexation of Crimea
The ousting of Yanukovych prompted Vladimir Putin to begin preparations to annex Crimea on 23 February 2014.
Using the Russian naval base at Sevastopol as cover, Putin directed Russian troops and intelligence agents to disarm Ukrainian forces and take control of Crimea.
After the troops entered Crimea, a controversial referendum was held on 16 March 2014 and the official result was that 97 percent wished to join with Russia.
On 18 March 2014, Russia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in the Russian Federation.
The UN general assembly responded by passing resolution 68/262 that the referendum was invalid and supporting the territorial integrity of Ukraine.
Separately, in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, armed men declaring themselves as local militia supported with pro-Russian protesters seized government buildings, police and special police stations in several cities and held unrecognised status referendums.
Talks in Geneva between the EU, Russia, Ukraine and USA yielded a Joint Diplomatic Statement referred to as the 2014 Geneva Pact in which the parties requested that all unlawful militias lay down their arms and vacate seized government buildings, and also establish a political dialogue that could lead to more autonomy for Ukraine's regions.
When Petro Poroshenko won the presidential election held on 25 May 2014, he vowed to continue the military operations by the Ukrainian government forces to end the armed insurgency.
More than 9,000 people have been killed in the military campaign.
In August 2014, a bilateral commission of leading scholars from the United States and Russia issued the Boisto Agenda indicating a 24-step plan to resolve the crisis in Ukraine.
The Boisto Agenda was organized into five imperative categories for addressing the crisis requiring stabilization identified as: (1) Elements of an Enduring, Verifiable Ceasefire; (2) Economic Relations; (3) Social and Cultural Issues; (4) Crimea; and, (5) International Status of Ukraine.
In late 2014, Ukraine ratified the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, which Poroshenko described as Ukraine's "first but most decisive step" towards EU membership.
Poroshenko also set 2020 as the target for EU membership application.
In February 2015, after a summit hosted in Belarus, Poroshenko negotiated a ceasefire with the separatist troops.
This included conditions such as the withdrawal of heavy weaponry from the front line and decentralisation of rebel regions by the end of 2015.
It also included conditions such as Ukrainian control of the border with Russia in 2015 and the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Ukrainian territory.
The ceasefire began at midnight on 15 February 2015.
Participants in this ceasefire also agreed to attend regular meetings to ensure that the agreement is respected.
On 1 January 2016, Ukraine joined the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with European Union, which aims to modernize and develop Ukraine's economy, governance and rule of law to EU standards and gradually increase integration with the EU Internal market.
Then, on 11 May 2017 the European Union approved visa-free travel for Ukrainian citizens: this took effect from 11 June entitling Ukrainians to travel to the Schengen area for tourism, family visits and business reasons, with the only document required being a valid biometric passport.
From northwest to southeast the soils of Ukraine may be divided into three major aggregations:
- a zone of sandy podzolized soils
- a central belt consisting of the extremely fertile Ukrainian black earth (chernozems)
- a zone of chestnut and salinized soils
As much as two-thirds of the country's surface land consists of the so-called black earth, a resource that has made Ukraine one of the most fertile regions in the world and well known as a "breadbasket".
These soils may be divided into three broad groups:
- in the north a belt of the so-called deep chernozems, about 5 feet (1.5 metres) thick and rich in humus
- south and east of the former, a zone of prairie, or ordinary, chernozems, which are equally rich in humus but only about 3 feet (0.91 metres) thick
- the southernmost belt, which is even thinner and has still less humus
Interspersed in various uplands and along the northern and western perimeters of the deep chernozems are mixtures of gray forest soils and podzolized black-earth soils, which together occupy much of Ukraine's remaining area.
All these soils are very fertile when sufficient water is available.
However, their intensive cultivation, especially on steep slopes, has led to widespread soil erosion and gullying.
The smallest proportion of the soil cover consists of the chestnut soils of the southern and eastern regions.
They become increasingly salinized to the south as they approach the Black Sea.
Further information: Climate of Ukraine
The climate is influenced by moderately warm, humid air coming from the Atlantic Ocean.
Average annual temperatures range from 5.5–7 °C (41.9–44.6 °F) in the north, to 11–13 °C (51.8–55.4 °F) in the south.
Precipitation is disproportionately distributed; it is highest in the west and north and lowest in the east and southeast.
Western Ukraine, particularly in the Carpathian Mountains, receives around 1,200 millimetres (47.2 in) of precipitation annually, while Crimea and the coastal areas of the Black Sea receive around 400 millimetres (15.7 in).
Further information: Wildlife of Ukraine
Ukraine is home to a diverse assemblage of animals, fungi, microorganisms and plants.
Ukraine falls into two main zoological areas.
One of these areas, in the west of the country, is made up of the borderlands of Europe, where there are species typical of mixed forests, the other is located in eastern Ukraine, where steppe-dwelling species thrive.
In the forested areas of the country it is not uncommon to find lynxes, wolves, wild boar and martens, as well as many other similar species; this is especially true of the Carpathian Mountains, where many predatory mammals make their home, as well as a contingent of brown bears.
Around Ukraine's lakes and rivers beavers, otters and mink make their home, whilst in the waters carp, bream and catfish are the most commonly found species of fish.
In the central and eastern parts of the country, rodents such as hamsters and gophers are found in large numbers.
The true total number of fungal species occurring in Ukraine, including species not yet recorded, is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.
Although the amount of available information is still very small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to Ukraine, and 2217 such species have been tentatively identified.
Constitution of Ukraine
Main article: Constitution of Ukraine
With the proclamation of its independence on 24 August 1991, and adoption of a constitution on 28 June 1996, Ukraine became a semi-presidential republic.
However, in 2004, deputies introduced changes to the Constitution, which tipped the balance of power in favour of a parliamentary system.
From 2004 to 2010, the legitimacy of the 2004 Constitutional amendments had official sanction, both with the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, and most major political parties.
Despite this, on 30 September 2010 the Constitutional Court ruled that the amendments were null and void, forcing a return to the terms of the 1996 Constitution and again making Ukraine's political system more presidential in character.
The ruling on the 2004 Constitutional amendments became a major topic of political discourse.
Much of the concern was based on the fact that neither the Constitution of 1996 nor the Constitution of 2004 provided the ability to "undo the Constitution", as the decision of the Constitutional Court would have it, even though the 2004 constitution arguably has an exhaustive list of possible procedures for constitutional amendments (articles 154–159).
In any case, the current Constitution could be modified by a vote in Parliament.
On 21 February 2014 an agreement between President Viktor Yanukovych and opposition leaders saw the country return to the 2004 Constitution.
The historic agreement, brokered by the European Union, followed protests that began in late November 2013 and culminated in a week of violent clashes in which scores of protesters were killed.
In addition to returning the country to the 2004 Constitution, the deal provided for the formation of a coalition government, the calling of early elections, and the release of former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko from prison.
A day after the agreement was reached the Ukraine parliament dismissed Yanukovych and installed its speaker Oleksandr Turchynov as interim president and Arseniy Yatsenyuk as the Prime Minister of Ukraine.
President, parliament and government
|Volodymyr Zelensky||Denys Shmyhal|
However, the President still retains the authority to nominate the Ministers of the Foreign Affairs and of Defence for parliamentary approval, as well as the power to appoint the Prosecutor General and the head of the Security Service.
Other normative acts are subject to judicial review.
The Supreme Court is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.
Local self-government is officially guaranteed.
Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets.
The heads of regional and district administrations are appointed by the President in accordance with the proposals of the Prime Minister.
This system virtually requires an agreement between the President and the Prime Minister, and has in the past led to problems, such as when President Yushchenko exploited a perceived loophole by appointing so-called 'temporarily acting' officers, instead of actual governors or local leaders, thus evading the need to seek a compromise with the Prime Minister.
This practice was controversial and was subject to Constitutional Court review.
Ukraine has many political parties, many of which have tiny memberships and are unknown to the general public.
Small parties often join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocs) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections.
Courts and law enforcement
The courts enjoy legal, financial and constitutional freedom guaranteed by Ukrainian law since 2002.
Judges are largely well protected from dismissal (except in the instance of gross misconduct).
Court justices are appointed by presidential decree for an initial period of five years, after which Ukraine's Supreme Council confirms their positions for life.
Although there are still problems, the system is considered to have been much improved since Ukraine's independence in 1991.
The Supreme Court is regarded as an independent and impartial body, and has on several occasions ruled against the Ukrainian government.
The World Justice Project ranks Ukraine 66 out of 99 countries surveyed in its annual Rule of Law Index.
Prosecutors in Ukraine have greater powers than in most European countries, and according to the European Commission for Democracy through Law 'the role and functions of the Prosecutor's Office is not in accordance with Council of Europe standards".
On 24 March 2010, President Yanukovych formed an expert group to make recommendations how to "clean up the current mess and adopt a law on court organization".
One day later, he stated "We can no longer disgrace our country with such a court system."
The criminal judicial system and the prison system of Ukraine remain quite punitive.
Since 1 January 2010 it has been permissible to hold court proceedings in Russian by mutual consent of the parties.
Citizens unable to speak Ukrainian or Russian may use their native language or the services of a translator.
Previously all court proceedings had to be held in Ukrainian.
Law enforcement agencies in Ukraine are organised under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Law enforcement agencies, particularly the police, faced criticism for their heavy handling of the 2004 Orange Revolution.
Many thousands of police officers were stationed throughout the capital, primarily to dissuade protesters from challenging the state's authority but also to provide a quick reaction force in case of need; most officers were armed.
Bloodshed was only avoided when Lt. Gen. Sergei Popkov heeded his colleagues' calls to withdraw.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs is also responsible for the maintenance of the State Security Service; Ukraine's domestic intelligence agency, which has on occasion been accused of acting like a secret police force serving to protect the country's political elite from media criticism.
On the other hand, however, it is widely accepted that members of the service provided vital information about government plans to the leaders of the Orange Revolution to prevent the collapse of the movement.
In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.
Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics.
Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes.
It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia.
Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992.
Ukraine currently considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice it has always balanced its relationship with the European Union and the United States with strong ties to Russia.
The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association.
On 31 January 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)), and on 10 March 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
Ukraine–NATO relations are close and the country has declared interest in eventual membership.
This was removed from the government's foreign policy agenda upon election of Viktor Yanukovych to the presidency, in 2010.
But after February 2014's Yanukovych ouster and the (denied by Russia) following Russian military intervention in Ukraine Ukraine renewed its drive for NATO membership.
Ukraine is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP).
All major political parties in Ukraine support full eventual integration into the European Union.
The Association Agreement with the EU was expected to be signed and put into effect by the end of 2011, but the process was suspended by 2012 because of the political developments of that time.
The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union was signed in 2014.
The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA), which entered into force in January 2016 following the ratification of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, formally integrates Ukraine into the European Single Market and the European Economic Area.
Ukraine receives further support and assistance for its EU-accession aspirations from the International Visegrád Fund of the Visegrád Group that consists of Central European EU members the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia.
Including Sevastopol and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea that were annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014, Ukraine consists of 27 regions: twenty-four oblasts (provinces), one autonomous republic (Autonomous Republic of Crimea), and two cities of special status – Kyiv, the capital, and Sevastopol.
The 24 oblasts and Crimea are subdivided into 136 raions (districts) and city municipalities of regional significance, or second-level administrative units.
Populated places in Ukraine are split into two categories: urban and rural.
Urban populated places are split further into cities and urban-type settlements (a Soviet administrative invention), while rural populated places consist of villages and settlements (a generally used term).
All cities have certain degree of self-rule depending on their significance such as national significance (as in the case of Kyiv and Sevastopol), regional significance (within each oblast or autonomous republic) or district significance (all the rest of cities).
A city's significance depends on several factors such as its population, socio-economic and historical importance, infrastructure and others.
Main article: Armed Forces of Ukraine
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited a 780,000-man military force on its territory, equipped with the third-largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world.
In May 1992, Ukraine signed the Lisbon Protocol in which the country agreed to give up all nuclear weapons to Russia for disposal and to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state.
Ukraine ratified the treaty in 1994, and by 1996 the country became free of nuclear weapons.
Ukraine took consistent steps toward reduction of conventional weapons.
It signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which called for reduction of tanks, artillery, and armoured vehicles (army forces were reduced to 300,000).
Ukraine has been playing an increasingly larger role in peacekeeping operations.
On Friday 3 January 2014, the Ukrainian frigate Hetman Sagaidachniy joined the European Union's counter piracy Operation Atalanta and will be part of the EU Naval Force off the coast of Somalia for two months.
There was also a maintenance and training battalion deployed in Sierra Leone.
In 2003–05, a Ukrainian unit was deployed as part of the Multinational force in Iraq under Polish command.
The total Ukrainian armed forces deployment around the world is 562 servicemen.
Military units of other states participate in multinational military exercises with Ukrainian forces in Ukraine regularly, including U.S.
Following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state.
The country has had a limited military partnership with Russian Federation, other CIS countries and a partnership with NATO since 1994.
In the 2000s, the government was leaning towards NATO, and a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002.
It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future.
During the 2008 Bucharest summit, NATO declared that Ukraine would eventually become a member of NATO when it meets the criteria for the accession.
Main article: Economy of Ukraine
In Soviet times, the economy of Ukraine was the second largest in the Soviet Union, being an important industrial and agricultural component of the country's planned economy.
The transition was difficult for the majority of the population which plunged into poverty.
Ukraine's economy contracted severely in the years after the Soviet dissolution.
Day-to-day life for the average person living in Ukraine was a struggle.
A significant number of citizens in rural Ukraine survived by growing their own food, often working two or more jobs and buying the basic necessities through the barter economy.
In 1991, the government liberalised most prices to combat widespread product shortages, and was successful in overcoming the problem.
At the same time, the government continued to subsidise state-run industries and agriculture by uncovered monetary emission.
The loose monetary policies of the early 1990s pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels.
For the year 1993, Ukraine holds the world record for inflation in one calendar year.
Those living on fixed incomes suffered the most.
Prices stabilised only after the introduction of new currency, the hryvnia, in 1996.
The country was also slow in implementing structural reforms.
Following independence, the government formed a legal framework for privatisation.
However, widespread resistance to reforms within the government and from a significant part of the population soon stalled the reform efforts.
Many state-owned enterprises were exempt from privatisation.
In the meantime, by 1999, the GDP had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level.
It recovered considerably in the following years.
Ukraine was hit by the economic crisis of 2008 and in November 2008, the IMF approved a stand-by loan of $16.5 billion for the country.
In 2019 the average nominal salary in Ukraine reached 10,000 hryvnias per month or around €300, while in 2018, Ukraine's median wealth per adult was $40.
In 2017, Ukraine's government debt was 75%.
Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft.
Since independence, Ukraine has maintained its own space agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU).
Ukraine became an active participant in scientific space exploration and remote sensing missions.
The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas and, to a large extent, depends on Russia as its energy supplier.
While 25% of the natural gas in Ukraine comes from internal sources, about 35% comes from Russia and the remaining 40% from Central Asia through transit routes that Russia controls.
At the same time, 85% of the Russian gas is delivered to Western Europe through Ukraine.
Growing sectors of the Ukrainian economy include the information technology (IT) market.
Ukraine's 2010 GDP, as calculated by the World Bank, was around $136 billion, 2011 GDP – around $163 billion, 2012 – $176.6 billion, 2013 – $177.4 billion.
In 2014 and 2015, the Ukrainian currency was the world's worst performing currency, having dropped 80 percent of its value since April 2014 since the War in Donbass and the annexation of Crimea by Russia.
The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state.
Significant issues include underdeveloped infrastructure and transportation, corruption and bureaucracy.
The public will to fight against corrupt officials and business elites culminated in a strong wave of public demonstrations against the Victor Yanukovych's regime in November 2013.
In the first quarter of 2017, the level of shadow economy in Ukraine amounted to 37% of GDP.
In the 2000s Ukraine managed to achieve certain progress in reducing absolute poverty, ensuring access to primary and secondary education, improving maternal health and reducing child mortality.
The economy of Ukraine overcame the heavy crisis caused by armed conflict in southeast part of country.
At the same time, 200% devaluation of Ukrainian hryvnia (national currency) in 2014–2015 made Ukrainian goods and services cheaper and more сompetitive.
In 2016, for the first time since 2010, the economy grew more than 2%.
According to World Bank statement growth is projected at 2% in 2017 and 3.5% in 2018.
As of 2017, according to major economic classifications of countries such as gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) or the Human Development Index, Ukraine is the second poorest country in Europe, after Moldova.
Ukraine has a very large heavy-industry base and is one of the largest refiners of metallurgical products in Eastern Europe.
However, the country is also well known for its production of high-technological goods and transport products, such as Antonov aircraft and various private and commercial vehicles.
Ukraine is regarded as a developing economy with high potential for future success, though such a development is thought likely only with new all-encompassing economic and legal reforms.
The reasons are the takeover and monopolisation of traditional heavy industries by wealthy individuals such as Rinat Akhmetov, the enduring failure to broaden the nation's economic base and a lack of effective legal protection for investors and their products.
In total, Ukrainian paved roads stretch for 164,732 kilometres (102,360 mi).
Major routes, marked with the letter 'M' for 'International' (Ukrainian: Міжнародний), extend nationwide and connect all major cities of Ukraine, and provide cross-border routes to the country's neighbours.
There are only two true motorway standard highways in Ukraine; a 175-kilometre (109-mile) stretch of motorway from Kharkiv to Dnipro and a section of the M03 which extends 18 km (11 mi) from Kyiv to Boryspil, where the city's international airport is located.
The total amount of railroad track in Ukraine extends for 22,473 kilometres (13,964 mi), of which 9,250 kilometres (5,750 mi) was electrified in the 2000s.
Currently the state has a monopoly on the provision of passenger rail transport, and all trains, other than those with cooperation of other foreign companies on international routes, are operated by its company 'Ukrzaliznytsia.
Transport by air is developing quickly, with a visa-free programme for EU nationals and citizens of a number of other Western nations, the nation's aviation sector is handling a significantly increased number of travellers.
The Euro 2012 football tournament, held in Poland and Ukraine as joint hosts, prompted the government to invest heavily in transport infrastructure, and in particular airports.
The largest ferry company presently operating these routes is Ukrferry.
Main article: Energy in Ukraine
In 2014, Ukraine was ranked number 19 on the Emerging Market Energy Security Growth Prosperity Index, published by the think tank Bisignis Institute, which ranks emerging market countries using government corruption, GDP growth and oil reserve information.
Ukraine produces and processes its own natural gas and petroleum.
However, the majority of these commodities are imported.
Eighty percent of Ukrainian natural gas supplies are imported, mainly from Russia.
Following the armed conflict in the Donbass, Ukraine was cut off from half of coal and all of its extraction, dropping Ukrainian coal production by 22 percent in 2014.
Russia was Ukraine's largest coal supplier, and in 2014 Russia blocked its coal supplies, forcing 22 Ukrainian power plants to shut down temporarily.
Until the 2010s, all of Ukraine's nuclear fuel was coming from Russia.
In 2008 Westinghouse Electric Company won a five-year contract selling nuclear fuel to three Ukrainian reactors starting in 2011.
After the Russian annexation of Crimea in April 2014, the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company of Ukraine Energoatom and Westinghouse extended the contract for fuel deliveries through 2020.
Renewable energy use
Main article: Renewable energy in Ukraine
The share of renewables within the total energy mix is still very small, but is growing fast.
Total installed capacity of renewable energy installations more than doubled in 2011 and as of 2012 stands at 397 MW.
In 2011 several large solar power stations were opened in Ukraine, among them Europe's largest solar park in Perovo, (Crimea).
The Economic Bank for Reconstruction and Development estimated in 2012 that Ukraine had great renewable energy potential: the technical potential for wind energy is estimated at 40 TWh/year, small hydropower stations at 8.3 TWh/year, biomass at 120 TWh/year, and solar energy at 50 TWh/year.
Internet and IT
As of June 2014, there were 18.2 million desktop Internet users, which is 56% of the adult population.
The core of the audience is the 25 to 34-year-old age bracket, representing 29% of the population.
Ukraine ranks 8th among the world's top ten countries with the fastest Internet access speed.
According to A.T. Kearney Global Services Location Index, Ukraine ranks 24th among the best outsourcing locations, and is among the top 20 offshore services locations in EMEA, according to Gartner.
In the first six months of 2017, the volume of export of computer and information services reached $1.256 billion, which is an 18.3% increase compared to the same period in 2016.
The IT industry ranks third in the export structure of Ukraine after agro-industry and metallurgy.
Ukraine's IT sector employs close to 100,000 workers, including 50,000 software developers.
This number is expected to surpass the 200,000 mark by 2020.
There are over 1,000 IT companies in Ukraine.
In 2017, 13 of them made it to the list of 100 best outsourcing service providers in the world.
More than 100 multinational tech companies have R&D labs in Ukraine.
78% of Ukrainian tech workers report having an intermediate or higher level of English proficiency.
Main article: Tourism in Ukraine
Ukraine has numerous tourist attractions: mountain ranges suitable for skiing, hiking and fishing: the Black Sea coastline as a popular summer destination; nature reserves of different ecosystems; churches, castle ruins and other architectural and park landmarks; various outdoor activity points.
Tourism used to be the mainstay of Crimea's economy but there has been a major fall in visitor numbers following the Russian annexation in 2014.
Main article: Demographics of Ukraine
Post World War II Ukraine's population gradually increased to a peak of 51.9 million in 1993.
From 1993 to 2014, the last year the populations in Donbas and Crimea were included, population had decreased by 6.6 million, or 12.8%.
The decline was caused by a reduction in birth rate, emigration, and a slight increase in death rate, largely attributed to poor living conditions and low-quality health care.
There are about 3 million Ukrainians living in Russia.
Eurostat reported that 662,000 Ukrainians received EU residence permits in 2017, with 585,439 being to Poland.
World Bank statistics show that money remittances back to Ukraine have roughly doubled from 2015 to 2018, worth about 4% of GDP.
It is unclear if those moving to work in the EU intend this to be temporary of permanent.
There are over 2 million Ukrainians working and living in Poland.
The industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and about 67.2% of the population lives in urban areas.
Other significant ethnic groups include Russians (17.3%), Belarusians (0.6%), Moldovans (0.5%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Bulgarians (0.4%), Hungarians (0.3%), Romanians (0.3%), Poles (0.3%), Jews (0.3%), Armenians (0.2%), Greeks (0.2%) and Tatars (0.2%).
Their number may be as high as 100,000, as many ethnic Koreans were assimilated into the majority population.
According to the constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian.
Russian is widely spoken, especially in eastern and southern Ukraine.
According to the 2001 census, 67.5 percent of the population declared Ukrainian as their native language and 29.6 percent declared Russian.
Most native Ukrainian speakers know Russian as a second language.
Russian was the de facto dominant language of the Soviet Union but Ukrainian also held official status and in the schools of the Ukrainian SSR learning Ukrainian was mandatory.
Effective in August 2012, a new law on regional languages entitles any local language spoken by at least a 10 percent minority be declared official within that area.
Russian was within weeks declared as a regional language in several southern and eastern oblasts (provinces) and cities.
Russian can now be used in these cities'/oblasts' administrative office work and documents.
On 23 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the Ukrainian Parliament voted to repeal the law on regional languages, making Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels; however, the repeal was not signed by acting President Turchynov or by President Poroshenko.
In February 2019, the law allowing for regional languages was found unconstitutional.
Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine.
In western Ukraine, Ukrainian is also the dominant language in cities (such as Lviv).
In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kyiv, while Ukrainian is the dominant language in rural communities.
In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and Ukrainian is used in rural areas.
These details result in a significant difference across different survey results, as even a small restating of a question switches responses of a significant group of people.
For a large part of the Soviet era, the number of Ukrainian speakers declined from generation to generation, and by the mid-1980s, the usage of the Ukrainian language in public life had decreased significantly.
Following independence, the government of Ukraine began restoring the image and usage of Ukrainian language through a policy of Ukrainisation.
Today, most foreign films and TV programs, including Russian ones, are subtitled or dubbed in Ukrainian.
Ukraine's 2017 education law bars primary education in public schools in grade five and up in any language but Ukrainian.
According to the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian is the only state language of the republic.
However, the republic's constitution specifically recognises Russian as the language of the majority of its population and guarantees its usage 'in all spheres of public life'.
Similarly, the Crimean Tatar language (the language of 12 percent of population of Crimea) is guaranteed a special state protection as well as the 'languages of other ethnicities'.
Russian speakers constitute an overwhelming majority of the Crimean population (77 percent), with Crimean Tatar speakers 11.4 percent and Ukrainian speakers comprising just 10.1 percent.
But in everyday life the majority of Crimean Tatars and Ukrainians in Crimea use Russian.
Main article: Religion in Ukraine
Ukraine has the second world's largest Eastern Orthodox population.
A 2016 survey conducted by the Razumkov Centre found that 70% of Ukrainians declared themselves believers in some religion, while 10.1% were uncertain whether they believed or not, 7.2% were uninterested in beliefs, 6.3% were unbelievers, 2.7% were atheists, and a further 3.9% found it difficult to answer the question.
A further 16.3% of the population did not identify in one of those listed hitherto.
According to the surveys conducted by Razumkov in the 2000s and early 2010s, such numbers have remained relatively constant throughout the last decade.
Among those Ukrainians who declared to believe in Orthodoxy, 38.1% declared to be members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate (a body that is not canonically recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church), while 23.0% declared to be members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscovian Patriarchate (which is an autonomous Orthodox church under the Russian Orthodox Church).
A further 2.7% were members of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which, like the Kyivan Patriarchate, is not recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Among the remaining Orthodox Ukrainians, 32.3% declared to be "simply Orthodox", without affiliation to any patriarchate, while a further 3.1% declared that they "did not know" which patriarchate or Orthodox church they belonged to.
On 15 December 2018 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP) and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and some members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) (UOC-MP) united to form the Orthodox Church of Ukraine.
The Ecumenical Patriarch granted the status of autocephaly to the new Church the following month on 5 January 2019.
The Patriarch of Moscow retaliated by severing relations with Constantinople.
The union of the Ukrainian Churches has not been recognized by other Orthodox Churches.
The second largest Christian group in Ukraine, Catholicism, is predominantly represented by the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church.
Additionally, there are a small number of Latin Rite Catholic communities (1.0%).
Protestants in Ukraine make up 1.9% of the population as of 2016.
Protestants had increased to 2.2% in the 2018 Razumkov Center survey.
A further 7.1% of the population declares to be simply Christian.
The Razumov Center surveys reported an increase of those who declared themselves Orthodox in 2018 at 67.3% up 1.9% from 2016 while declared Catholics rose from 7.5% to 10.6% in the same two-year period.
Main article: Health in Ukraine
Its immediate tasks were to help refugees and prisoners of war, care for handicapped people and orphaned children, fight famine and epidemics, support and organize sick quarters, hospitals and public canteens.
At present, society involves more than 6.3 million supporters and activists.
Its Visiting Nurses Service has 3,200 qualified nurses.
The organization takes part in more than 40 humanitarian programmes all over Ukraine, which are mostly funded by public donation and corporate partnerships.
By its own estimates, the Society annually provides services to more than 105,000 lonely, elderly people, about 23,000 people disabled during the Second World War and handicapped workers, more than 25,000 war veterans, and more than 8,000 adults handicapped since childhood.
Assistance for orphaned and disabled children is also rendered.
Ukraine's healthcare system is state subsidised and freely available to all Ukrainian citizens and registered residents.
However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes do exist nationwide.
The public sector employs most healthcare professionals, with those working for private medical centres typically also retaining their state employment as they are mandated to provide care at public health facilities on a regular basis.
All of the country's medical service providers and hospitals are subordinate to the Ministry of Healthcare, which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system.
Despite this, standards of hygiene and patient-care have fallen.
Hospitals in Ukraine are organised along the same lines as most European nations, according to the regional administrative structure; as a result most towns have their own hospital (Міська Лікарня) and many also have district hospitals (Районна Лікарня).
Larger and more specialised medical complexes tend only to be found in major cities, with some even more specialised units located only in the capital, Kyiv.
However, all oblasts have their own network of general hospitals which are able to deal with almost all medical problems and are typically equipped with major trauma centres; such hospitals are called 'regional hospitals' (Обласна Лікарня).
Ukraine currently faces a number of major public health issues and is considered to be in a demographic crisis because of its high death rate and low birth rate (the current Ukrainian birth rate is 11 births/1,000 population, and the death rate is 16.3 deaths/1,000 population).
In 2008, the country's population was one of the fastest declining in the world at −5% growth.
The UN warned that Ukraine's population could fall by as much as 10 million by 2050 if trends did not improve.
In addition, obesity, systemic high blood pressure and the HIV endemic are all major challenges facing the Ukrainian healthcare system.
Assisted by deputy Pavlo Kovtoniuk, Suprun first changed the distribution of finances in healthcare.
Funds must follow the patient.
General practitioners will provide basic care for patients.
The patient will have the right to choose one.
Emergency medical service is considered to be fully funded by the state.
Emergency Medicine Reform is also an important part of the healthcare reform.
In addition, patients who suffer from chronic diseases, which cause a high toll of disability and mortality, are provided with free or low price medicine.
According to the Ukrainian constitution, access to free education is granted to all citizens.
Complete general secondary education is compulsory in the state schools which constitute the overwhelming majority.
Free higher education in state and communal educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis.
There is also a small number of accredited private secondary and higher education institutions.
Because of the Soviet Union's emphasis on total access of education for all citizens, which continues today, the literacy rate is an estimated 99.4%.
Since 2005, an eleven-year school programme has been replaced with a twelve-year one: primary education takes four years to complete (starting at age six), middle education (secondary) takes five years to complete; upper secondary then takes three years.
In the 12th grade, students take Government tests, which are also referred to as school-leaving exams.
These tests are later used for university admissions.
The first higher education institutions (HEIs) emerged in Ukraine during the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
The first Ukrainian higher education institution was the Ostrozka School, or Ostrozkiy Greek-Slavic-Latin Collegium, similar to Western European higher education institutions of the time.
Among the oldest is also the Lviv University, founded in 1661.
More higher education institutions were set up in the 19th century, beginning with universities in Kharkiv (1805), Kyiv (1834), Odessa (1865) and Chernivtsi (1875) and a number of professional higher education institutions, e.g.: Nizhyn Historical and Philological Institute (originally established as the Gymnasium of Higher Sciences in 1805), a Veterinary Institute (1873) and a Technological Institute (1885) in Kharkiv, a Polytechnic Institute in Kyiv (1898) and a Higher Mining School (1899) in Katerynoslav.
Rapid growth followed in the Soviet period.
By 1988 a number of higher education institutions increased to 146 with over 850,000 students.
Most HEIs established after 1990 are those owned by private organisations.
Ukraine has more than 800 higher education institutions and in 2010 the number of graduates reached 654,700 people.
Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of post-secondary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population.
Higher education is either state funded or private.
Students that study at state expense receive a standard scholarship if their average marks at the end-of-term exams and differentiated test suffice; this rule may be different in some universities.
For highest grades, the scholarship is increased by 25%.
For most students the government subsidy is not sufficient to cover their basic living expenses.
Most universities provide subsidised housing for out-of-city students.
Also, it is common for libraries to supply required books for all registered students.
Ukrainian universities confer two degrees: the bachelor's degree (4 years) and the master's degree (5–6th year), in accordance with the Bologna process.
Historically, Specialist degree (usually 5 years) is still also granted; it was the only degree awarded by universities in the Soviet times.
The Law of Ukraine On Higher Education came into force on 6 September 2014.
It was approved in Ukrainian Parliament on 1 July 2014.
The main changes in the system of higher education: a separate collegiate body to monitor the quality of education was established (Ukrainian: Національне агентство із забезпечення якості вищої освіти); each higher education institution has the right to implement its own educational and research programs; role of the student government was increased; higher education institution has the right to freely administer own revenues; 5 following types of higher education qualifications were established: Junior Bachelor, Bachelor, Master, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Science; load on lecturers and students was reduced; academic mobility for faculty and students etc.
In the Ukrainian SSR schools, learning Russian was mandatory; currently in modern Ukraine, schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction offer classes in Russian and in the other minority languages.
On the Russian language, on Soviet Union and Ukrainian nationalism, opinion in Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine tends to be the exact opposite of those in Western Ukraine; while opinions in Central Ukraine on these topics tend be less extreme.
Similar historical cleavages also remain evident at the level of individual social identification.
Attitudes toward the most important political issue, relations with Russia, differed strongly between Lviv, identifying more with Ukrainian nationalism and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Donetsk, predominantly Russian orientated and favourable to the Soviet era, while in central and southern Ukraine, as well as Kyiv, such divisions were less important and there was less antipathy toward people from other regions (a poll by the Research & Branding Group held March 2010 showed that the attitude of the citizens of Donetsk to the citizens of Lviv was 79% positive and that the attitude of the citizens of Lviv to the citizens of Donetsk was 88% positive).
However, all were united by an overarching Ukrainian identity based on shared economic difficulties, showing that other attitudes are determined more by culture and politics than by demographic differences.
Surveys of regional identities in Ukraine have shown that the feeling of belonging to a "Soviet identity" is strongest in the Donbas (about 40%) and the Crimea (about 30%).
During elections voters of Western and Central Ukrainian oblasts (provinces) vote mostly for parties (Our Ukraine, Batkivshchyna) and presidential candidates (Viktor Yuschenko, Yulia Tymoshenko) with a pro-Western and state reform platform, while voters in Southern and Eastern oblasts vote for parties (CPU, Party of Regions) and presidential candidates (Viktor Yanukovych) with a pro-Russian and status quo platform.
However, this geographical division is decreasing.
Main article: List of cities in Ukraine
In total, Ukraine has 457 cities, 176 of them are labelled oblast-class, 279 smaller raion-class cities, and two special legal status cities.
These are followed by 886 urban-type settlements and 28,552 villages.
Main article: Ukrainian culture
Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Orthodox Christianity, the dominant religion in the country.
Gender roles also tend to be more traditional, and grandparents play a greater role in bringing up children, than in the West.
The culture of Ukraine has also been influenced by its eastern and western neighbours, reflected in its architecture, music and art.
The Communist era had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine.
In 1932, Stalin made socialist realism state policy in the Soviet Union when he promulgated the decree "On the Reconstruction of Literary and Art Organisations".
This greatly stifled creativity.
During the 1980s glasnost (openness) was introduced and Soviet artists and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted.
These eggs were drawn on with wax to create a pattern; then, the dye was applied to give the eggs their pleasant colours, the dye did not affect the previously wax-coated parts of the egg.
After the entire egg was dyed, the wax was removed leaving only the colourful pattern.
This tradition is thousands of years old, and precedes the arrival of Christianity to Ukraine.
In the city of Kolomyia near the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains in 2000 was built the museum of Pysanka which won a nomination as the monument of modern Ukraine in 2007, part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine action.
Weaving and embroidery
Ukrainian embroidery varies depending on the region of origin and the designs have a long history of motifs, compositions, choice of colours and types of stitches.
Use of colour is very important and has roots in Ukrainian folklore.
National dress is woven and highly decorated.
Weaving with handmade looms is still practised in the village of Krupove, situated in Rivne Oblast.
The village is the birthplace of two famous personalities in the scene of national crafts fabrication.
Nina Myhailivna and Uliana Petrivna with international recognition.
To preserve this traditional knowledge the village is planning to open a local weaving centre, a museum and weaving school.
Main article: Ukrainian literature
The history of Ukrainian literature dates back to the 11th century, following the Christianisation of Kyivan Rus'.
The writings of the time were mainly liturgical and were written in Old Church Slavonic.
Literary activity faced a sudden decline during the Mongol invasion of Rus'.
Ukrainian literature again began to develop in the 14th century, and was advanced significantly in the 16th century with the introduction of print and with the beginning of the Cossack era, under both Russian and Polish dominance.
These advances were then set back in the 17th and early 18th centuries, when publishing in the Ukrainian language was outlawed and prohibited.
Nonetheless, by the late 18th century modern literary Ukrainian finally emerged.
Where Ivan Kotliarevsky is considered to be the father of literature in the Ukrainian vernacular; Shevchenko is the father of a national revival.
Then, in 1863, use of the Ukrainian language in print was effectively prohibited by the Russian Empire.
This severely curtailed literary activity in the area, and Ukrainian writers were forced to either publish their works in Russian or release them in Austrian controlled Galicia.
The ban was never officially lifted, but it became obsolete after the revolution and the Bolsheviks' coming to power.
Ukrainian literature continued to flourish in the early Soviet years, when nearly all literary trends were approved (the most important literary figures of that time were Mykola Khvylovy, Valerian Pidmohylny, Mykola Kulish, Mykhayl Semenko and some others).
In general around 223 writers were repressed by what was known as the Executed Renaissance.
These repressions were part of Stalin's implemented policy of socialist realism.
The doctrine did not necessarily repress the use of the Ukrainian language, but it required that writers follow a certain style in their works.
In post-Stalinist times literary activities continued to be somewhat limited under the Communist Party.
Literary freedom grew in the late 1980s and early 1990s alongside the decline and collapse of the USSR and the reestablishment of Ukrainian independence in 1991.
Main article: Ukrainian architecture
Ukrainian architecture includes the motifs and styles that are found in structures built in modern Ukraine, and by Ukrainians worldwide.
After the union with the Tsardom of Russia, many structures in the larger eastern, Russian-ruled area were built in the styles of Russian architecture of that period, whilst the western Galicia was developed under Austro-Hungarian architectural influences.
Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine.
The architectural style of the Kyivan state was strongly influenced by the Byzantine.
Major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes, which led some art historians to take this as an indication of the appearance of pre-Christian pagan Slavic temples.
Several examples of these churches survive; however, during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, many were externally rebuilt in the Ukrainian Baroque style (see below).
Examples include the grand St. – the year 1017 is the earliest record of foundation laid, Sophia of KyivChurch of the Saviour at Berestove – built from 1113 to 1125 and St. , circa 12th-century. Cyril's Church
All can still be found in the Ukrainian capital.
Several buildings were reconstructed during the late-19th century, including the in Volodymyr-Volynskyi, built in 1160 and reconstructed in 1896–1900, the , built in 1201 with reconstruction done in the late 1940s, and the Golden gates in Kyiv, built in 1037 and reconstructed in 1982.
The latter's reconstruction was criticised by some art and architecture historians as a revivalist fantasy.
As Ukraine became increasingly integrated into the Russian Empire, Russian architects had the opportunity to realise their projects in the picturesque landscape that many Ukrainian cities and regions offered.
St. (1747–1754), built by Andrew's Church of KyivBartolomeo Rastrelli, is a notable example of Baroque architecture, and its location on top of the Kyivan mountain made it a recognisable monument of the city.
Russia eventually conquered the south of Ukraine and Crimea, and renamed them as New Russia.
These would contain notable examples of Imperial Russian architecture.
Previously, the city was seen as only a regional centre, hence received little attention.
All of that was to change, at great price.
The first examples of Stalinist architecture were already showing, and, in light of the official policy, a new city was to be built on top of the old one.
This meant that much-admired examples such as the St. were destroyed. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
Even the St. Sophia Cathedral was under threat.
Also, the Second World War contributed to the wreckage.
After the war, a new project for the reconstruction of central Kyiv transformed Khreshchatyk avenue into a notable example of Stalinism in Architecture.
However, by 1955, the new politics of architecture once again stopped the project from fully being realised.
The task for modern Ukrainian architecture is diverse application of modern aesthetics, the search for an architect's own artistic style and inclusion of the existing historico-cultural environment.
An example of modern Ukrainian architecture is the reconstruction and renewal of the Maidan Nezalezhnosti in central Kyiv.
Despite the limit set by narrow space within the plaza, the engineers were able to blend together the uneven landscape, and use underground space for a new shopping centre.
A major project, which may take up most of the 21st century, is the construction of the Kyiv City-Centre on the Rybalskyi Peninsula, which, when finished, will include a dense skyscraper park amid the picturesque landscape of the Dnieper.
Main article: Music of Ukraine
Music is a major part of Ukrainian culture, with a long history and many influences.
Elements from traditional Ukrainian folk music made their way into Western music and even into modern jazz.
Ukrainian music sometimes presents a perplexing mix of exotic melismatic singing with chordal harmony.
The most striking general characteristic of authentic ethnic Ukrainian folk music is the wide use of minor modes or keys which incorporate augmented 2nd intervals.
During the Baroque period, music was an important discipline for those that had received a higher education in Ukraine.
It had a place of considerable importance in the curriculum of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
The first dedicated musical academy was set up in Hlukhiv, Ukraine in 1738 and students were taught to sing, play violin and bandura from manuscripts.
As a result, many of the earliest composers and performers within the Russian empire were ethnically Ukrainian, having been born or educated in Hlukhiv, or had been closely associated with this music school.
Ukrainian classical music falls into three distinct categories defined by whether the composer was of Ukrainian ethnicity living in Ukraine, a composer of non-Ukrainian ethnicity who was born or at some time was a citizen of Ukraine, or an ethnic Ukrainian living outside of Ukraine within the Ukrainian diaspora.
The music of these three groups differs considerably, as do the audiences for whom they cater.
Since the mid-1960s, Western-influenced pop music has been growing in popularity in Ukraine.
Folk singer and harmonium player Mariana Sadovska is prominent.
Modern musical culture of Ukraine is presented both with academic and entertainment music.
Ukraine has five conservatories, 6 opera houses, five houses of Chamber Music, Philharmony in all regional centers.
Main article: Cinema of Ukraine
Ukraine has had an influence on the history of the cinema.
Ukrainian directors Alexander Dovzhenko, often cited as one of the most important early Soviet filmmakers, as well as being a pioneer of Soviet montage theory, Dovzhenko Film Studios, and Sergei Parajanov, Armenian film director and artist who made significant contributions to Ukrainian, Armenian and Georgian cinema.
He invented his own cinematic style, Ukrainian poetic cinema, which was totally out of step with the guiding principles of socialist realism.
Other important directors including Kira Muratova, Sergei Loznitsa, Myroslav Slaboshpytskyi, Larisa Shepitko, Sergei Bondarchuk, Leonid Bykov, Yuri Ilyenko, Leonid Osyka, Ihor Podolchak with his Delirium and Maryna Vroda.
Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of European and Russian influence.
Ukrainian producers are active in international co-productions and Ukrainian actors, directors and crew feature regularly in Russian (Soviet in past) films.
Also successful films have been based on Ukrainian people, stories or events, including Battleship Potemkin, Man with a Movie Camera, Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom, Everything Is Illuminated.
Ukrainian State Film Agency owns National Oleksandr Dovzhenko Film Centre, film copying laboratory and archive, takes part in hosting of the Odessa International Film Festival, and Molodist is the only one FIAPF accredited International Film Festival held in Ukraine; competition program is devoted to student, first short and first full feature films from all over the world.
Held annually in October.
Main article: Media of Ukraine
Published mainly in Ukrainian with selected articles published in or translated to Russian and English, the newspaper has particular emphasis on the politics of Ukraine.
Freedom of the press in Ukraine is considered to be among the freest of the post-Soviet states other than the Baltic states.
Freedom House classifies the Internet in Ukraine as "free" and the press as "partly free".
Press freedom has significantly improved since the Orange Revolution of 2004.
However, in 2010 Freedom House perceived "negative trends in Ukraine".
National newspapers Den, Mirror Weekly, tabloids, such as The Ukrainian Week or Focus (Russian), and television and radio are largely based there, although Lviv is also a significant national media centre.
The National News Agency of Ukraine, Ukrinform was founded here in 1918.
The Ukraine publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover.
BBC Ukrainian started its broadcasts in 1992.
Several television channels operate, and many websites are popular.
Main article: Sport in Ukraine
Ukraine greatly benefited from the Soviet emphasis on physical education.
Such policies left Ukraine with hundreds of stadia, swimming pools, gymnasia and many other athletic facilities.
The most popular sport is football.
The top professional league is the Vyscha Liha ("premier league").
This award was only presented to one Ukrainian after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Andriy Shevchenko.
Ukrainian boxers are amongst the best in the world.
Basketball is becoming popular in Ukraine.
In 2011, Ukraine was granted a right to organize EuroBasket 2015.
Chess is a popular sport in Ukraine.
Ruslan Ponomariov is the former world champion.
Rugby league is played throughout Ukraine.
Ukraine made its Olympic debut at the 1994 Winter Olympics.
Ukraine is currently ranked 35th by number of gold medals won in the All-time Olympic Games medal count, with every country above it, except for Russia, having more appearances.
Main article: Ukrainian cuisine
The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms.
Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh, boiled or pickled vegetables.
Popular traditional dishes include varenyky (boiled dumplings with mushrooms, potatoes, sauerkraut, cottage cheese, cherries or berries), nalysnyky (pancakes with cottage cheese, poppy seeds, mushrooms, caviar or meat), kapuśniak (soup made with meat, potatoes, carrots, onions, cabbage, millet, tomato paste, spices and fresh herbs), borscht (soup made of beets, cabbage and mushrooms or meat), holubtsy (stuffed cabbage rolls filled with rice, carrots, onion and minced meat) and pierogi (dumplings filled with boiled potatoes and cheese or meat).
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine.