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This article is about the country. Ukraine_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ukraine (disambiguation). Ukraine_sentence_1

"UKR" redirects here. Ukraine_sentence_2

For other uses, see UKR (disambiguation). Ukraine_sentence_3



and largest cityUkraine_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesUkraine_header_cell_0_2_0 UkrainianUkraine_cell_0_2_1
Recognised regional languagesUkraine_header_cell_0_3_0 ListUkraine_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2001)Ukraine_header_cell_0_4_0 Ukraine_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2018)Ukraine_header_cell_0_5_0 Ukraine_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Ukraine_header_cell_0_6_0 UkrainianUkraine_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentUkraine_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republicUkraine_cell_0_7_1
PresidentUkraine_header_cell_0_8_0 Volodymyr ZelenskyUkraine_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterUkraine_header_cell_0_9_0 Denys ShmyhalUkraine_cell_0_9_1
Chairman of the

Verkhovna RadaUkraine_header_cell_0_10_0

Dmytro RazumkovUkraine_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureUkraine_header_cell_0_11_0 Verkhovna RadaUkraine_cell_0_11_1
Independence from RussiaUkraine_header_cell_0_12_0
AutonomyUkraine_header_cell_0_13_0 23 June 1917Ukraine_cell_0_13_1
DeclaredUkraine_header_cell_0_14_0 22 January 1918Ukraine_cell_0_14_1
In the WestUkraine_header_cell_0_15_0 1 November 1918Ukraine_cell_0_15_1
Act of UnityUkraine_header_cell_0_16_0 22 January 1919Ukraine_cell_0_16_1
ExpansionUkraine_header_cell_0_17_0 22 September 1939Ukraine_cell_0_17_1
From the USSRUkraine_header_cell_0_18_0 24 August 1991Ukraine_cell_0_18_1
Current constitutionUkraine_header_cell_0_19_0 28 June 1996Ukraine_cell_0_19_1
Last amendmentsUkraine_header_cell_0_20_0 21 February 2014Ukraine_cell_0_20_1
Area Ukraine_header_cell_0_21_0
TotalUkraine_header_cell_0_22_0 603,628 km (233,062 sq mi) (45th)Ukraine_cell_0_22_1
Water (%)Ukraine_header_cell_0_23_0 7Ukraine_cell_0_23_1
October 2020 estimateUkraine_header_cell_0_25_0 41,703,327

(excluding Crimea and Sevastopol) (34th)Ukraine_cell_0_25_1

2001 censusUkraine_header_cell_0_26_0 48,457,102Ukraine_cell_0_26_1
DensityUkraine_header_cell_0_27_0 73.8/km (191.1/sq mi) (115th)Ukraine_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Ukraine_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateUkraine_cell_0_28_1
TotalUkraine_header_cell_0_29_0 $429.947 billion (48th)Ukraine_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaUkraine_header_cell_0_30_0 $10,310 (108th)Ukraine_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Ukraine_header_cell_0_31_0 2020 estimateUkraine_cell_0_31_1
TotalUkraine_header_cell_0_32_0 $161.872 billion (56th)Ukraine_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaUkraine_header_cell_0_33_0 $3,881 (119th)Ukraine_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2018)Ukraine_header_cell_0_34_0 26.1

low · 18thUkraine_cell_0_34_1

HDI (2018)Ukraine_header_cell_0_35_0 0.750

high · 88thUkraine_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyUkraine_header_cell_0_36_0 Ukrainian hryvnia (₴) (UAH)Ukraine_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneUkraine_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC+2 (EET)Ukraine_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Ukraine_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC+03 (EEST)Ukraine_cell_0_38_1
Driving sideUkraine_header_cell_0_39_0 rightUkraine_cell_0_39_1
Calling codeUkraine_header_cell_0_40_0 +380Ukraine_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeUkraine_header_cell_0_41_0 UAUkraine_cell_0_41_1
Internet TLDUkraine_header_cell_0_42_0 Ukraine_cell_0_42_1

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanized: Ukrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ (listen); Russian: Украина, romanized: Ukraina, lit. Ukraine_sentence_4

'ʊkrɐˈinə') is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraine_sentence_5

It is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine_sentence_6

Ukraine also borders Crimea to its south, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014, though Ukraine still continues to claim the territory. Ukraine_sentence_7

Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km (233,062 sq mi), making it the second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia, and the 46th-largest country in the world. Ukraine_sentence_8

Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42 million, making it the eighth-most populous country in Europe, and the 34th-most populous country in the world. Ukraine_sentence_9

Its capital and largest city is Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_10

The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. Ukraine_sentence_11

During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kyivan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Ukraine_sentence_12

Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Ukraine_sentence_13

A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between Poland and the Russian Empire. Ukraine_sentence_14

In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, a Ukrainian national movement for self-determination emerged and the internationally recognized Ukrainian People's Republic was declared on 23 June 1917. Ukraine_sentence_15

After World War II the western part of Ukraine merged into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the whole country became a part of the Soviet Union. Ukraine_sentence_16

Ukraine gained its independence in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Ukraine_sentence_17

Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state; it formed a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while also establishing a partnership with NATO in 1994. Ukraine_sentence_18

In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which later escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government. Ukraine_sentence_19

These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. Ukraine_sentence_20

On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union. Ukraine_sentence_21

Ukraine is a developing country and ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. Ukraine_sentence_22

Ukraine is the poorest country in Europe alongside Moldova, and suffers from a very high poverty rate as well as severe corruption. Ukraine_sentence_23

However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine_sentence_24

It also maintains the third-largest military in Europe after Russia and France. Ukraine_sentence_25

Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. Ukraine_sentence_26

The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM organization, and one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Ukraine_sentence_27

Etymology and orthography Ukraine_section_0

Main article: Name of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_28

There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_29

According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country". Ukraine_sentence_30

"The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, and style-guides warn against its use in professional writing. Ukraine_sentence_31

According to U.S. ambassador William Taylor, "The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty. Ukraine_sentence_32

The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Ukraine_sentence_33

History Ukraine_section_1

Main article: History of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_34

Early history Ukraine_section_2

Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites (43,000–45,000 BC) which include a mammoth bone dwelling. Ukraine_sentence_35

The territory is also considered to be the likely location for the human domestication of the horse. Ukraine_sentence_36

Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. Ukraine_sentence_37

By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. Ukraine_sentence_38

During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians. Ukraine_sentence_39

Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was part of the Scythian Kingdom, or Scythia. Ukraine_sentence_40

Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras, Olbia, and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea. Ukraine_sentence_41

These colonies thrived well into the sixth century AD. Ukraine_sentence_42

The Goths stayed in the area, but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. Ukraine_sentence_43

In the seventh century AD, the territory that is now eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. Ukraine_sentence_44

At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land. Ukraine_sentence_45

In the fifth and sixth centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of what is now Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_46

The Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Severians, Polans, Drevlyans, Dulebes, Ulichians, and Tiverians. Ukraine_sentence_47

Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Ukraine_sentence_48

Northern migrations, reaching almost to the Ilmen lakes, led to the emergence of the Ilmen Slavs, Krivichs, and Radimichs, the groups ancestral to the Russians. Ukraine_sentence_49

After an Avar raid in 602 and the collapse of the Antes Union, most of these peoples survived as separate tribes until the beginning of the second millennium. Ukraine_sentence_50

Golden Age of Kyiv Ukraine_section_3

Main article: Kyivan Rus' Ukraine_sentence_51

Kyivan Rus' was founded in the territory of the Polans, who lived among the rivers Ros, Rosava, and Dnieper. Ukraine_sentence_52

Russian historian Boris Rybakov came from studying the linguistics of Russian chronicles to the conclusion that the Polans union of clans of the mid-Dnieper region called itself by the name of one of its clans, "Ros", that joined the union and was known at least since the 6th century far beyond the Slavic world. Ukraine_sentence_53

The origin of the Kyiv princedom is of a big debate and there exist at least three versions depending on interpretations of the chronicles. Ukraine_sentence_54

In general it is believed that "Kyivan Rus' included the central, western and northern part of modern Ukraine, Belarus, and the far eastern strip of Poland. Ukraine_sentence_55

According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia. Ukraine_sentence_56

During the 10th and 11th centuries, it became the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Ukraine_sentence_57

It laid the foundation for the national identity of Ukrainians and Russians. Ukraine_sentence_58

Kyiv, the capital of modern Ukraine, became the most important city of the Rus'. Ukraine_sentence_59

In 12th–13th centuries on efforts of Yuri the Long Armed, in area of Zalesye were founded several cities similar in name as in Kyivan Rus such as Vladimir on the Klyazma/Vladimir of Zalesye (Volodymyr), Galich of Merya (Halych), Pereslavl of Zalesye (Pereyaslav of Ruthenian), Pereslavl of Erzya. Ukraine_sentence_60

The Varangians later assimilated into the Slavic population and became part of the first Rus' dynasty, the Rurik Dynasty. Ukraine_sentence_61

Kyivan Rus' was composed of several principalities ruled by the interrelated Rurikid knyazes ("princes"), who often fought each other for possession of Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_62

The Golden Age of Kyivan Rus' began with the reign of Vladimir the Great (980–1015), who turned Rus' toward Byzantine Christianity. Ukraine_sentence_63

During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kyivan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power. Ukraine_sentence_64

The state soon fragmented as the relative importance of regional powers rose again. Ukraine_sentence_65

After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir II Monomakh (1113–1125) and his son Mstislav (1125–1132), Kyivan Rus' finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav's death. Ukraine_sentence_66

The 13th-century Mongol invasion devastated Kyivan Rus'. Ukraine_sentence_67

Kyiv was totally destroyed in 1240. Ukraine_sentence_68

On today's Ukrainian territory, the principalities of Halych and Volodymyr-Volynskyi arose, and were merged into the state of Galicia-Volhynia. Ukraine_sentence_69

Danylo Romanovych (Daniel I of Galicia or Danylo Halytskyi) son of Roman Mstyslavych, re-united all of south-western Rus', including Volhynia, Galicia and Rus' ancient capital of Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_70

Danylo was crowned by the papal archbishop in Dorohychyn 1253 as the first King of all Rus'. Ukraine_sentence_71

Under Danylo's reign, the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia was one of the most powerful states in east central Europe. Ukraine_sentence_72

Foreign domination Ukraine_section_4

See also: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Crimean Khanate, Ottoman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Russian Empire Ukraine_sentence_73

In the mid-14th century, upon the death of Bolesław Jerzy II of Mazovia, king Casimir III of Poland initiated campaigns (1340–1366) to take Galicia-Volhynia. Ukraine_sentence_74

Meanwhile, the heartland of Rus', including Kyiv, became the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, ruled by Gediminas and his successors, after the Battle on the Irpen' River. Ukraine_sentence_75

Following the 1386 Union of Krewo, a dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania, much of what became northern Ukraine was ruled by the increasingly Slavicised local Lithuanian nobles as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Ukraine_sentence_76

By 1392 the so-called Galicia–Volhynia Wars ended. Ukraine_sentence_77

Polish colonisers of depopulated lands in northern and central Ukraine founded or re-founded many towns. Ukraine_sentence_78

In the Black sea cities of modern-day Ukraine, the Republic of Genoa founded numerous colonies, from the mid-13th century to the late 15th century, including the cities of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi ("Moncastro") and Kiliya ("Licostomo"), the colonies used to be large commercial centers in the region, and were headed by a consul (a representative of the Republic). Ukraine_sentence_79

In 1430 Podolia was incorporated under the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland as Podolian Voivodeship. Ukraine_sentence_80

In 1441, in the southern Ukraine, especially Crimea and surrounding steppes, Genghisid prince Haci I Giray founded the Crimean Khanate. Ukraine_sentence_81

In 1569 the Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and much Ukrainian territory was transferred from Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, becoming Polish territory de jure. Ukraine_sentence_82

Under the demographic, cultural and political pressure of Polonisation, which began in the late 14th century, many landed gentry of Polish Ruthenia (another name for the land of Rus) converted to Catholicism and became indistinguishable from the Polish nobility. Ukraine_sentence_83

Deprived of native protectors among Rus nobility, the commoners (peasants and townspeople) began turning for protection to the emerging Zaporozhian Cossacks, who by the 17th century became devoutly Orthodox. Ukraine_sentence_84

The Cossacks did not shy from taking up arms against those they perceived as enemies, including the Polish state and its local representatives. Ukraine_sentence_85

Formed from Golden Horde territory conquered after the Mongol invasion the Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century; in 1571 it even captured and devastated Moscow. Ukraine_sentence_86

The borderlands suffered annual Tatar invasions. Ukraine_sentence_87

From the beginning of the 16th century until the end of the 17th century, Crimean Tatar slave raiding bands exported about two million slaves from Russia and Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_88

According to Orest Subtelny, "from 1450 to 1586, eighty-six Tatar raids were recorded, and from 1600 to 1647, seventy." Ukraine_sentence_89

In 1688, Tatars captured a record number of 60,000 Ukrainians. Ukraine_sentence_90

The Tatar raids took a heavy toll, discouraging settlement in more southerly regions where the soil was better and the growing season was longer. Ukraine_sentence_91

The last remnant of the Crimean Khanate was finally conquered by the Russian Empire in 1783. Ukraine_sentence_92

In the mid-17th century, a Cossack military quasi-state, the Zaporozhian Host, was formed by Dnieper Cossacks and by Ruthenian peasants who had fled Polish serfdom. Ukraine_sentence_93

Poland exercised little real control over this population, but found the Cossacks to be a useful opposing force to the Turks and Tatars, and at times the two were allies in military campaigns. Ukraine_sentence_94

However the continued harsh enserfment of peasantry by Polish nobility and especially the suppression of the Orthodox Church alienated the Cossacks. Ukraine_sentence_95

The Cossacks sought representation in the Polish Sejm, recognition of Orthodox traditions, and the gradual expansion of the Cossack Registry. Ukraine_sentence_96

These were rejected by the Polish nobility, who dominated the Sejm. Ukraine_sentence_97

Cossack Hetmanate Ukraine_section_5

In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Petro Doroshenko led the largest of the Cossack uprisings against the Commonwealth and the Polish king. Ukraine_sentence_98

After Khmelnytsky made an entry into Kyiv in 1648, where he was hailed liberator of the people from Polish captivity, he founded the Cossack Hetmanate, which existed until 1764 (some sources claim until 1782). Ukraine_sentence_99

Khmelnytsky, deserted by his Tatar allies, suffered a crushing deafeat at the Battle of Berestechko in 1651, and turned to the Russian tsar for help. Ukraine_sentence_100

In 1654, Khmelnytsky was subject to the Pereyaslav Council, forming a military and political alliance with Russia that acknowledged loyalty to the Russian tsar. Ukraine_sentence_101

In 1657–1686 came "The Ruin", a devastating 30-year war amongst Russia, Poland, the Crimean Khanate, the Ottoman Empire, and Cossacks for control of Ukraine, which occurred at about the same time as the Deluge of Poland. Ukraine_sentence_102

The wars escalated in intensity with hundreds of thousands of deaths. Ukraine_sentence_103

The "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" between Russia and Poland in 1686 divided the lands of the Cossack Hetmanate between them, reducing the portion over which Poland had claimed sovereignty. Ukraine_sentence_104

In 1709, Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1639–1709) defected to Sweden against Russia in the Great Northern War (1700–1721). Ukraine_sentence_105

Eventually Tsar Peter recognized that to consolidate and modernize Russia's political and economic power it was necessary to do away with the Cossack Hetmanate and Ukrainian and Cossack aspirations to autonomy. Ukraine_sentence_106

Mazepa died in exile after fleeing from the Battle of Poltava (1709), in which the Swedes and their Cossack allies suffered a catastrophic defeat. Ukraine_sentence_107

The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine, then within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ukraine_sentence_108

It established a standard for the separation of powers in government between the legislative, executive, and judiciary branches, well before the publication of Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws. Ukraine_sentence_109

The Constitution limited the executive authority of the hetman, and established a democratically elected Cossack parliament called the General Council. Ukraine_sentence_110

The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk was unique for its period, and was one of the first state constitutions in Europe. Ukraine_sentence_111

The hetmanate was abolished in 1764; the Zaporozhian Sich was abolished in 1775, as Russia centralised control over its lands. Ukraine_sentence_112

As part of the Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795, the Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper were divided between Russia and Austria. Ukraine_sentence_113

From 1737 to 1834, expansion into the northern Black Sea littoral and the eastern Danube valley was a cornerstone of Russian foreign policy. Ukraine_sentence_114

Lithuanians and Poles controlled vast estates in Ukraine, and were a law unto themselves. Ukraine_sentence_115

Judicial rulings from Kraków were routinely flouted, while peasants were heavily taxed and practically tied to the land as serfs. Ukraine_sentence_116

Occasionally the landowners battled each other using armies of Ukrainian peasants. Ukraine_sentence_117

The Poles and Lithuanians were Roman Catholics and tried with some success to convert the Orthodox lesser nobility. Ukraine_sentence_118

In 1596, they set up the "Greek-Catholic" or Uniate Church; it dominates western Ukraine to this day. Ukraine_sentence_119

Religious differentiation left the Ukrainian Orthodox peasants leaderless, as they were reluctant to follow the Ukrainian nobles. Ukraine_sentence_120

Cossacks led an uprising, called Koliyivshchyna, starting in the Ukrainian borderlands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1768. Ukraine_sentence_121

Ethnicity was one root cause of this revolt, which included the Massacre of Uman that killed tens of thousands of Poles and Jews. Ukraine_sentence_122

Religious warfare also broke out among Ukrainian groups. Ukraine_sentence_123

Increasing conflict between Uniate and Orthodox parishes along the newly reinforced Polish-Russian border on the Dnieper in the time of Catherine the Great set the stage for the uprising. Ukraine_sentence_124

As Uniate religious practices had become more Latinized, Orthodoxy in this region drew even closer into dependence on the Russian Orthodox Church. Ukraine_sentence_125

Confessional tensions also reflected opposing Polish and Russian political allegiances. Ukraine_sentence_126

After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire in 1783, Novorossiya was settled by Ukrainians and Russians. Ukraine_sentence_127

Despite promises in the Treaty of Pereyaslav, the Ukrainian elite and the Cossacks never received the freedoms and the autonomy they had expected. Ukraine_sentence_128

However, within the Empire, Ukrainians rose to the highest Russian state and church offices. Ukraine_sentence_129

In a later period, tsarists established a policy of Russification, suppressing the use of the Ukrainian language in print and in public. Ukraine_sentence_130

19th century, World War I and revolution Ukraine_section_6

Main articles: Southwestern Krai, Kharkov Governorate, and Chernigov Governorate Ukraine_sentence_131

Further information: Ukraine during World War I, Ukrainian War of Independence, Russian Civil War, and Ukraine after the Russian Revolution Ukraine_sentence_132

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the territory of today's Ukraine was included in the governorates of Chernihiv (Chernigov in Russian), Kharkiv (Kharkov), Kyiv 1708–1764, and Little Russia 1764–1781, Podillia (Podolie), and Volyn (Volhynia)—with all but the first two informally grouped into the Southwestern Krai. Ukraine_sentence_133

After the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Catherine the Great and her immediate successors encouraged German immigration into Ukraine and especially into Crimea, to thin the previously dominant Turk population and encourage agriculture. Ukraine_sentence_134

Numerous Ukrainians, Russians, Germans, Bulgarians, Serbs and Greeks moved into the northern Black Sea steppe formerly known as the "Wild Fields". Ukraine_sentence_135

In the 19th century, Ukraine was a rural area largely ignored by Russia and Austria. Ukraine_sentence_136

With growing urbanization and modernization, and a cultural trend toward romantic nationalism, a Ukrainian intelligentsia committed to national rebirth and social justice emerged. Ukraine_sentence_137

The serf-turned-national-poet Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861) and the political theorist Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841–1895) led the growing nationalist movement. Ukraine_sentence_138

Beginning in the 19th century, there was migration from Ukraine to distant areas of the Russian Empire. Ukraine_sentence_139

According to the 1897 census, there were 223,000 ethnic Ukrainians in Siberia and 102,000 in Central Asia. Ukraine_sentence_140

An additional 1.6 million emigrated to the east in the ten years after the opening of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1906. Ukraine_sentence_141

Far Eastern areas with an ethnic Ukrainian population became known as Green Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_142

Nationalist and socialist parties developed in the late 19th century. Ukraine_sentence_143

Austrian Galicia, under the relatively lenient rule of the Habsburgs, became the centre of the nationalist movement. Ukraine_sentence_144

Ukrainians entered World War I on the side of both the Central Powers, under Austria, and the Triple Entente, under Russia. Ukraine_sentence_145

3.5 million Ukrainians fought with the Imperial Russian Army, while 250,000 fought for the Austro-Hungarian Army. Ukraine_sentence_146

Austro-Hungarian authorities established the Ukrainian Legion to fight against the Russian Empire. Ukraine_sentence_147

This became the Ukrainian Galician Army that fought against the Bolsheviks and Poles in the post-World War I period (1919–23). Ukraine_sentence_148

Those suspected of Russophile sentiments in Austria were treated harshly. Ukraine_sentence_149

World War I destroyed both empires. Ukraine_sentence_150

The Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the founding of the Soviet Union under the Bolsheviks, and subsequent civil war in Russia. Ukraine_sentence_151

A Ukrainian national movement for self-determination emerged, with heavy Communist and Socialist influence. Ukraine_sentence_152

Several Ukrainian states briefly emerged: the internationally recognized Ukrainian People's Republic (UNR, the predecessor of modern Ukraine, was declared on 23 June 1917 proclaimed at first as a part of the Russian Republic; after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Ukrainian People's Republic proclaimed its independence on 25 January 1918), the Hetmanate, the Directorate and the pro-Bolshevik Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (or Soviet Ukraine) successively established territories in the former Russian Empire; while the West Ukrainian People's Republic and the Hutsul Republic emerged briefly in the Ukrainian lands of former Austro-Hungarian territory. Ukraine_sentence_153

The short lived Act Zluky (Unification Act) was an agreement signed on 22 January 1919 by the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic on the St. Ukraine_sentence_154

Sophia Square in Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_155

This led to civil war, and an anarchist movement called the Black Army (later renamed to The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) developed in Southern Ukraine under the command of the anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War. Ukraine_sentence_156

They protected the operation of "free soviets" and libertarian communes in the Free Territory, an attempt to form a stateless anarchist society from 1918 to 1921 during the Ukrainian Revolution, fighting both the tsarist White Army under Denikin and later the Red Army under Trotsky, before being defeated by the latter in August 1921. Ukraine_sentence_157

Poland defeated Western Ukraine in the Polish-Ukrainian War, but failed against the Bolsheviks in an offensive against Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_158

According to the Peace of Riga, western Ukraine was incorporated into Poland, which in turn recognised the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1919. Ukraine_sentence_159

With establishment of the Soviet power, Ukraine lost half of its territory, while Moldavian autonomy was established on the left bank of the Dniester River. Ukraine_sentence_160

Ukraine became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in December 1922. Ukraine_sentence_161

Western Ukraine, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina Ukraine_section_7

See also: Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938) Ukraine_sentence_162

The war in Ukraine continued for another two years; by 1921, however, most of Ukraine had been taken over by the Soviet Union, while Galicia and Volhynia (mostly today's West Ukraine) were incorporated into the Second Polish Republic. Ukraine_sentence_163

Modern-day Bukovina was annexed by Romania and Carpathian Ruthenia was admitted to the Czechoslovak Republic as an autonomy. Ukraine_sentence_164

A powerful underground Ukrainian nationalist movement arose in eastern Poland in the 1920s and 1930s, which was formed by Ukrainian veterans of the Ukrainian-Soviet war (including Yevhen Konovalets, Andriy Melnyk, and Yuriy Tyutyunyk) and was transformed into the Ukrainian Military Organization and later the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). Ukraine_sentence_165

The movement attracted a militant following among students. Ukraine_sentence_166

Hostilities between Polish state authorities and the popular movement led to a substantial number of fatalities, and the autonomy which had been promised was never implemented. Ukraine_sentence_167

The pre-war Polish government also exercised anti-Ukrainian sentiment; it restricted rights of people who declared Ukrainian nationality, belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church and inhabited the Eastern Borderlands. Ukraine_sentence_168

The Ukrainian language was restricted in every field possible, especially in governmental institutions, and the term "Ruthenian" was enforced in an attempt to ban the use of the term "Ukrainian". Ukraine_sentence_169

Despite this, a number of Ukrainian parties, the Ukrainian Catholic Church, an active press, and a business sector existed in Poland. Ukraine_sentence_170

Economic conditions improved in the 1920s, but the region suffered from the Great Depression in the early 1930s. Ukraine_sentence_171

Inter-war Soviet Ukraine Ukraine_section_8

See also: Holodomor Ukraine_sentence_172

The Russian Civil War devastated the whole Russian Empire including Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_173

It left over 1.5 million people dead and hundreds of thousands homeless in the former Russian Empire territory. Ukraine_sentence_174

Soviet Ukraine also faced the Russian famine of 1921 (primarily affecting the Russian Volga-Ural region). Ukraine_sentence_175

During the 1920s, under the Ukrainisation policy pursued by the national Communist leadership of Mykola Skrypnyk, Soviet leadership encouraged a national renaissance in the Ukrainian culture and language. Ukraine_sentence_176

Ukrainisation was part of the Soviet-wide policy of Korenisation (literally indigenisation). Ukraine_sentence_177

The Bolsheviks were also committed to universal health care, education and social-security benefits, as well as the right to work and housing. Ukraine_sentence_178

Women's rights were greatly increased through new laws. Ukraine_sentence_179

Most of these policies were sharply reversed by the early 1930s after Joseph Stalin became the de facto communist party leader. Ukraine_sentence_180

Starting from the late 1920s with a centrally planned economy, Ukraine was involved in Soviet industrialisation and the republic's industrial output quadrupled during the 1930s. Ukraine_sentence_181

The peasantry suffered from the programme of collectivisation of agriculture which began during and was part of the first five-year plan and was enforced by regular troops and secret police. Ukraine_sentence_182

Those who resisted were arrested and deported and agricultural productivity greatly declined. Ukraine_sentence_183

As members of the collective farms were sometimes not allowed to receive any grain until unrealistic quotas were met, millions starved to death in a famine known as the Holodomor or the "Great Famine". Ukraine_sentence_184

Scholars are divided as to whether this famine fits the definition of genocide, but the Ukrainian parliament and the governments of other countries have acknowledged it as such. Ukraine_sentence_185

The Communist leadership perceived famine as a means of class struggle and used starvation as a punishment tool to force peasants into collective farms. Ukraine_sentence_186

Largely the same groups were responsible for the mass killing operations during the civil war, collectivisation, and the Great Terror. Ukraine_sentence_187

These groups were associated with Yefim Yevdokimov (1891–1939) and operated in the Secret Operational Division within General State Political Administration (OGPU) in 1929–31. Ukraine_sentence_188

Yevdokimov transferred into Communist Party administration in 1934, when he became Party secretary for North Caucasus Krai. Ukraine_sentence_189

He appears to have continued advising Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Yezhov on security matters, and the latter relied on Yevdokimov's former colleagues to carry out the mass killing operations that are known as the Great Terror in 1937–38. Ukraine_sentence_190

On 13 January 2010, Kyiv Appellate Court posthumously found Stalin, Kaganovich and other Soviet Communist Party functionaries guilty of genocide against Ukrainians during the Holodomor famine. Ukraine_sentence_191

World War II Ukraine_section_9

See also: Eastern Front (World War II), Reichskommissariat Ukraine, and The Holocaust in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_192

Following the Invasion of Poland in September 1939, German and Soviet troops divided the territory of Poland. Ukraine_sentence_193

Thus, Eastern Galicia and Volhynia with their Ukrainian population became part of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_194

For the first time in history, the nation was united. Ukraine_sentence_195

In 1940, the Soviets annexed Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. Ukraine_sentence_196

The Ukrainian SSR incorporated the northern and southern districts of Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and the Hertsa region. Ukraine_sentence_197

But it ceded the western part of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to the newly created Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. Ukraine_sentence_198

These territorial gains of the USSR were internationally recognized by the Paris peace treaties of 1947. Ukraine_sentence_199

German armies invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, initiating nearly four years of total war. Ukraine_sentence_200

The Axis initially advanced against desperate but unsuccessful efforts of the Red Army. Ukraine_sentence_201

In the encirclement battle of Kyiv, the city was acclaimed as a "Hero City", because of its fierce resistance. Ukraine_sentence_202

More than 600,000 Soviet soldiers (or one-quarter of the Soviet Western Front) were killed or taken captive there, with many suffering severe mistreatment. Ukraine_sentence_203

Although the majority of Ukrainians fought in or alongside the Red Army and Soviet resistance, in Western Ukraine an independent Ukrainian Insurgent Army movement arose (UPA, 1942). Ukraine_sentence_204

Created as armed forces of the underground (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, OUN) which had developed in interwar Poland as a reactionary nationalist organization. Ukraine_sentence_205

During the interwar period, the Polish government's policies towards the Ukrainian minority were initially very accommodating, however by the late 1930s they became increasingly harsh due to civil unrest. Ukraine_sentence_206

Both organizations, OUN and UPA supported the goal of an independent Ukrainian state on the territory with a Ukrainian ethnic majority. Ukraine_sentence_207

Although this brought conflict with Nazi Germany, at times the Melnyk wing of the OUN allied with the Nazi forces. Ukraine_sentence_208

Also, UPA divisions carried out massacres of ethnic Poles, killing around 100,000 Polish civilians, which brought reprisals. Ukraine_sentence_209

After the war, the UPA continued to fight the USSR until the 1950s. Ukraine_sentence_210

At the same time, the Ukrainian Liberation Army, another nationalist movement, fought alongside the Nazis. Ukraine_sentence_211

In total, the number of ethnic Ukrainians who fought in the ranks of the Soviet Army is estimated from 4.5 million to 7 million. Ukraine_sentence_212

The pro-Soviet partisan guerrilla resistance in Ukraine is estimated to number at 47,800 from the start of occupation to 500,000 at its peak in 1944, with about 50% being ethnic Ukrainians. Ukraine_sentence_213

Generally, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army's figures are unreliable, with figures ranging anywhere from 15,000 to as many as 100,000 fighters. Ukraine_sentence_214

Most of the Ukrainian SSR was organised within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, with the intention of exploiting its resources and eventual German settlement. Ukraine_sentence_215

Some western Ukrainians, who had only joined the Soviet Union in 1939, hailed the Germans as liberators. Ukraine_sentence_216

Brutal German rule eventually turned their supporters against the Nazi administrators, who made little attempt to exploit dissatisfaction with Stalinist policies. Ukraine_sentence_217

Instead, the Nazis preserved the collective-farm system, carried out genocidal policies against Jews, deported millions of people to work in Germany, and began a depopulation program to prepare for German colonisation. Ukraine_sentence_218

They blockaded the transport of food on the Kyiv River. Ukraine_sentence_219

The vast majority of the fighting in World War II took place on the Eastern Front. Ukraine_sentence_220

By some estimates, 93% of all German casualties took place there. Ukraine_sentence_221

The total losses inflicted upon the Ukrainian population during the war are estimated at about 6 million, including an estimated one and a half million Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen, sometimes with the help of local collaborators. Ukraine_sentence_222

Of the estimated 8.6 million Soviet troop losses, 1.4 million were ethnic Ukrainians. Ukraine_sentence_223

Victory Day is celebrated as one of ten Ukrainian national holidays. Ukraine_sentence_224

Post-World War II Ukraine_section_10

Further information: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, History of the Soviet Union (1953–1964), History of the Soviet Union (1964–1982), and History of the Soviet Union (1982–1991) Ukraine_sentence_225

The republic was heavily damaged by the war, and it required significant efforts to recover. Ukraine_sentence_226

More than 700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages were destroyed. Ukraine_sentence_227

The situation was worsened by a famine in 1946–47, which was caused by a drought and the wartime destruction of infrastructure. Ukraine_sentence_228

The death toll of this famine varies, with even the lowest estimate in the tens of thousands. Ukraine_sentence_229

In 1945, the Ukrainian SSR became one of the founding members of the United Nations organization, part of a special agreement at the Yalta Conference. Ukraine_sentence_230

Post-war ethnic cleansing occurred in the newly expanded Soviet Union. Ukraine_sentence_231

As of 1 January 1953, Ukrainians were second only to Russians among adult "special deportees", comprising 20% of the total. Ukraine_sentence_232

In addition, over 450,000 ethnic Germans from Ukraine and more than 200,000 Crimean Tatars were victims of forced deportations. Ukraine_sentence_233

Following the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader of the USSR. Ukraine_sentence_234

Having served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukrainian SSR in 1938–49, Khrushchev was intimately familiar with the republic; after taking power union-wide, he began to emphasize "the friendship" between the Ukrainian and Russian nations. Ukraine_sentence_235

In 1954, the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav was widely celebrated. Ukraine_sentence_236

Crimea was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR. Ukraine_sentence_237

By 1950, the republic had fully surpassed pre-war levels of industry and production. Ukraine_sentence_238

During the 1946–1950 five-year plan, nearly 20% of the Soviet budget was invested in Soviet Ukraine, a 5% increase from pre-war plans. Ukraine_sentence_239

As a result, the Ukrainian workforce rose 33.2% from 1940 to 1955 while industrial output grew 2.2 times in that same period. Ukraine_sentence_240

Soviet Ukraine soon became a European leader in industrial production, and an important centre of the Soviet arms industry and high-tech research. Ukraine_sentence_241

Such an important role resulted in a major influence of the local elite. Ukraine_sentence_242

Many members of the Soviet leadership came from Ukraine, most notably Leonid Brezhnev. Ukraine_sentence_243

He later ousted Khrushchev and became the Soviet leader from 1964 to 1982. Ukraine_sentence_244

Many prominent Soviet sports players, scientists, and artists came from Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_245

On 26 April 1986, a reactor in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded, resulting in the Chernobyl disaster, the worst nuclear reactor accident in history. Ukraine_sentence_246

This was the only accident to receive the highest possible rating of 7 by the International Nuclear Event Scale, indicating a "major accident", until the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011. Ukraine_sentence_247

At the time of the accident, 7 million people lived in the contaminated territories, including 2.2 million in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_248

After the accident, the new city of Slavutych was built outside the exclusion zone to house and support the employees of the plant, which was decommissioned in 2000. Ukraine_sentence_249

A report prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization attributed 56 direct deaths to the accident and estimated that there may have been 4,000 extra cancer deaths. Ukraine_sentence_250

Independence Ukraine_section_11

On 16 July 1990, the new parliament adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_251

This established the principles of the self-determination, democracy, independence, and the priority of Ukrainian law over Soviet law. Ukraine_sentence_252

A month earlier, a similar declaration was adopted by the parliament of the Russian SFSR. Ukraine_sentence_253

This started a period of confrontation with the central Soviet authorities. Ukraine_sentence_254

In August 1991, a faction among the Communist leaders of the Soviet Union attempted a coup to remove Mikhail Gorbachev and to restore the Communist party's power. Ukraine_sentence_255

After it failed, on 24 August 1991 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the Act of Independence. Ukraine_sentence_256

A referendum and the first presidential elections took place on 1 December 1991. Ukraine_sentence_257

More than 90% of the electorate expressed their support for the Act of Independence, and they elected the chairman of the parliament, Leonid Kravchuk as the first President of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_258

At the meeting in Brest, Belarus on 8 December, followed by the Alma Ata meeting on 21 December, the leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine formally dissolved the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Ukraine_sentence_259

On 26 December 1991 the Council of Republics of the USSR Supreme Council adapted declaration "In regards to creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States" (Russian: В связи с созданием Содружества Независимых Государств) which de jure dissolved the Soviet Union and the Soviet flag was lowered over the Kremlin. Ukraine_sentence_260

Ukraine was initially viewed as having favourable economic conditions in comparison to the other regions of the Soviet Union. Ukraine_sentence_261

However, the country experienced deeper economic slowdown than some of the other former Soviet Republics. Ukraine_sentence_262

During the recession, Ukraine lost 60% of its GDP from 1991 to 1999, and suffered five-digit inflation rates. Ukraine_sentence_263

Dissatisfied with the economic conditions, as well as the amounts of crime and corruption in Ukraine, Ukrainians protested and organized strikes. Ukraine_sentence_264

The Ukrainian economy stabilized by the end of the 1990s. Ukraine_sentence_265

A new currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in 1996. Ukraine_sentence_266

After 2000, the country enjoyed steady real economic growth averaging about seven percent annually. Ukraine_sentence_267

A new Constitution of Ukraine was adopted under second President Leonid Kuchma in 1996, which turned Ukraine into a semi-presidential republic and established a stable political system. Ukraine_sentence_268

Kuchma was, however, criticised by opponents for corruption, electoral fraud, discouraging free speech and concentrating too much power in his office. Ukraine_sentence_269

Ukraine also pursued full nuclear disarmament, giving up the third largest nuclear weapons stockpile in the world and dismantling or removing all strategic bombers on its territory in exchange for various assurances (main article: Nuclear weapons and Ukraine). Ukraine_sentence_270

Orange Revolution Ukraine_section_12

Main article: Orange Revolution Ukraine_sentence_271

In 2004, Viktor Yanukovych, then Prime Minister, was declared the winner of the presidential elections, which had been largely rigged, as the Supreme Court of Ukraine later ruled. Ukraine_sentence_272

The results caused a public outcry in support of the opposition candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, who challenged the outcome. Ukraine_sentence_273

During the tumultuous months of the revolution, candidate Yushchenko suddenly became gravely ill, and was soon found by multiple independent physician groups to have been poisoned by TCDD dioxin. Ukraine_sentence_274

Yushchenko strongly suspected Russian involvement in his poisoning. Ukraine_sentence_275

All of this eventually resulted in the peaceful Orange Revolution, bringing Viktor Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko to power, while casting Viktor Yanukovych in opposition. Ukraine_sentence_276

Activists of the Orange Revolution were funded and trained in tactics of political organisation and nonviolent resistance by Western pollsters and professional consultants who were partly funded by Western government and non-government agencies but received most of their funding from domestic sources. Ukraine_sentence_277

According to The Guardian, the foreign donors included the U.S. Ukraine_sentence_278

State Department and USAID along with the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, the International Republican Institute, the NGO Freedom House and George Soros's Open Society Institute. Ukraine_sentence_279

The National Endowment for Democracy has supported democracy-building efforts in Ukraine since 1988. Ukraine_sentence_280

Writings on nonviolent struggle by Gene Sharp contributed in forming the strategic basis of the student campaigns. Ukraine_sentence_281

Russian authorities provided support through advisers such as Gleb Pavlovsky, consulting on blackening the image of Yushchenko through the state media, pressuring state-dependent voters to vote for Yanukovych and on vote-rigging techniques such as multiple 'carousel voting' and 'dead souls' voting. Ukraine_sentence_282

Yanukovych returned to power in 2006 as Prime Minister in the Alliance of National Unity, until snap elections in September 2007 made Tymoshenko Prime Minister again. Ukraine_sentence_283

Amid the 2008–09 Ukrainian financial crisis the Ukrainian economy plunged by 15%. Ukraine_sentence_284

Disputes with Russia briefly stopped all gas supplies to Ukraine in 2006 and again in 2009, leading to gas shortages in other countries. Ukraine_sentence_285

Viktor Yanukovych was elected President in 2010 with 48% of votes. Ukraine_sentence_286

Euromaidan and 2014 revolution Ukraine_section_13

Main articles: Euromaidan and 2014 Ukrainian revolution Ukraine_sentence_287

Further information on the ongoing protests: Timeline of the Euromaidan Ukraine_sentence_288

The Euromaidan (Ukrainian: Євромайдан, literally "Eurosquare") protests started in November 2013 after the president, Viktor Yanukovych, began moving away from an association agreement that had been in the works with the European Union and instead chose to establish closer ties with the Russian Federation. Ukraine_sentence_289

Some Ukrainians took to the streets to show their support for closer ties with Europe. Ukraine_sentence_290

Meanwhile, in the predominantly Russian-speaking east, a large portion of the population opposed the Euromaidan protests, instead supporting the Yanukovych government. Ukraine_sentence_291

Over time, Euromaidan came to describe a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, the scope of which evolved to include calls for the resignation of President Yanukovych and his government. Ukraine_sentence_292

Violence escalated after 16 January 2014 when the government accepted new Anti-Protest Laws. Ukraine_sentence_293

Violent anti-government demonstrators occupied buildings in the centre of Kyiv, including the Justice Ministry building, and riots left 98 dead with approximately fifteen thousand injured and 100 considered missing from 18 to 20 February. Ukraine_sentence_294

On 21 February, President Yanukovych signed a compromise deal with opposition leaders that promised constitutional changes to restore certain powers to Parliament and called for early elections to be held by December. Ukraine_sentence_295

However, Members of Parliament voted on 22 February to remove the president and set an election for 25 May to select his replacement. Ukraine_sentence_296

Petro Poroshenko, running on a pro-European Union platform, won with over fifty percent of the vote, therefore not requiring a run-off election. Ukraine_sentence_297

Upon his election, Poroshenko announced that his immediate priorities would be to take action in the civil unrest in Eastern Ukraine and mend ties with the Russian Federation. Ukraine_sentence_298

Poroshenko was inaugurated as president on 7 June 2014, as previously announced by his spokeswoman Irina Friz in a low-key ceremony without a celebration on Kyiv's Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square, the centre of the Euromaidan protests) for the ceremony. Ukraine_sentence_299

In October 2014 Parliament elections, Petro Poroshenko Bloc "Solidarity" won 132 of the 423 contested seats. Ukraine_sentence_300

Civil unrest, Russian intervention, and annexation of Crimea Ukraine_section_14

Main articles: 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), War in Donbass, and Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation Ukraine_sentence_301

The ousting of Yanukovych prompted Vladimir Putin to begin preparations to annex Crimea on 23 February 2014. Ukraine_sentence_302

Using the Russian naval base at Sevastopol as cover, Putin directed Russian troops and intelligence agents to disarm Ukrainian forces and take control of Crimea. Ukraine_sentence_303

After the troops entered Crimea, a controversial referendum was held on 16 March 2014 and the official result was that 97 percent wished to join with Russia. Ukraine_sentence_304

On 18 March 2014, Russia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in the Russian Federation. Ukraine_sentence_305

The UN general assembly responded by passing resolution 68/262 that the referendum was invalid and supporting the territorial integrity of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_306

Separately, in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, armed men declaring themselves as local militia supported with pro-Russian protesters seized government buildings, police and special police stations in several cities and held unrecognised status referendums. Ukraine_sentence_307

The insurgency was led by Russian emissaries Igor Girkin and Alexander Borodai as well as militants from Russia, such as Arseny Pavlov. Ukraine_sentence_308

Talks in Geneva between the EU, Russia, Ukraine and USA yielded a Joint Diplomatic Statement referred to as the 2014 Geneva Pact in which the parties requested that all unlawful militias lay down their arms and vacate seized government buildings, and also establish a political dialogue that could lead to more autonomy for Ukraine's regions. Ukraine_sentence_309

When Petro Poroshenko won the presidential election held on 25 May 2014, he vowed to continue the military operations by the Ukrainian government forces to end the armed insurgency. Ukraine_sentence_310

More than 9,000 people have been killed in the military campaign. Ukraine_sentence_311

In August 2014, a bilateral commission of leading scholars from the United States and Russia issued the Boisto Agenda indicating a 24-step plan to resolve the crisis in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_312

The Boisto Agenda was organized into five imperative categories for addressing the crisis requiring stabilization identified as: (1) Elements of an Enduring, Verifiable Ceasefire; (2) Economic Relations; (3) Social and Cultural Issues; (4) Crimea; and, (5) International Status of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_313

In late 2014, Ukraine ratified the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, which Poroshenko described as Ukraine's "first but most decisive step" towards EU membership. Ukraine_sentence_314

Poroshenko also set 2020 as the target for EU membership application. Ukraine_sentence_315

In February 2015, after a summit hosted in Belarus, Poroshenko negotiated a ceasefire with the separatist troops. Ukraine_sentence_316

This included conditions such as the withdrawal of heavy weaponry from the front line and decentralisation of rebel regions by the end of 2015. Ukraine_sentence_317

It also included conditions such as Ukrainian control of the border with Russia in 2015 and the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Ukrainian territory. Ukraine_sentence_318

The ceasefire began at midnight on 15 February 2015. Ukraine_sentence_319

Participants in this ceasefire also agreed to attend regular meetings to ensure that the agreement is respected. Ukraine_sentence_320

On 1 January 2016, Ukraine joined the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with European Union, which aims to modernize and develop Ukraine's economy, governance and rule of law to EU standards and gradually increase integration with the EU Internal market. Ukraine_sentence_321

Then, on 11 May 2017 the European Union approved visa-free travel for Ukrainian citizens: this took effect from 11 June entitling Ukrainians to travel to the Schengen area for tourism, family visits and business reasons, with the only document required being a valid biometric passport. Ukraine_sentence_322

COVID-19 Ukraine_section_15

Soil Ukraine_section_16

From northwest to southeast the soils of Ukraine may be divided into three major aggregations: Ukraine_sentence_323


  • a zone of sandy podzolized soilsUkraine_item_0_0
  • a central belt consisting of the extremely fertile Ukrainian black earth (chernozems)Ukraine_item_0_1
  • a zone of chestnut and salinized soilsUkraine_item_0_2

As much as two-thirds of the country's surface land consists of the so-called black earth, a resource that has made Ukraine one of the most fertile regions in the world and well known as a "breadbasket". Ukraine_sentence_324

These soils may be divided into three broad groups: Ukraine_sentence_325


  • in the north a belt of the so-called deep chernozems, about 5 feet (1.5 metres) thick and rich in humusUkraine_item_1_3
  • south and east of the former, a zone of prairie, or ordinary, chernozems, which are equally rich in humus but only about 3 feet (0.91 metres) thickUkraine_item_1_4
  • the southernmost belt, which is even thinner and has still less humusUkraine_item_1_5

Interspersed in various uplands and along the northern and western perimeters of the deep chernozems are mixtures of gray forest soils and podzolized black-earth soils, which together occupy much of Ukraine's remaining area. Ukraine_sentence_326

All these soils are very fertile when sufficient water is available. Ukraine_sentence_327

However, their intensive cultivation, especially on steep slopes, has led to widespread soil erosion and gullying. Ukraine_sentence_328

The smallest proportion of the soil cover consists of the chestnut soils of the southern and eastern regions. Ukraine_sentence_329

They become increasingly salinized to the south as they approach the Black Sea. Ukraine_sentence_330

Climate Ukraine_section_17

Further information: Climate of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_331

Ukraine has a mostly temperate climate, with the exception of the southern coast of Crimea which has a subtropical climate. Ukraine_sentence_332

The climate is influenced by moderately warm, humid air coming from the Atlantic Ocean. Ukraine_sentence_333

Average annual temperatures range from 5.5–7 °C (41.9–44.6 °F) in the north, to 11–13 °C (51.8–55.4 °F) in the south. Ukraine_sentence_334

Precipitation is disproportionately distributed; it is highest in the west and north and lowest in the east and southeast. Ukraine_sentence_335

Western Ukraine, particularly in the Carpathian Mountains, receives around 1,200 millimetres (47.2 in) of precipitation annually, while Crimea and the coastal areas of the Black Sea receive around 400 millimetres (15.7 in). Ukraine_sentence_336

Biodiversity Ukraine_section_18

Further information: Wildlife of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_337

Ukraine is home to a diverse assemblage of animals, fungi, microorganisms and plants. Ukraine_sentence_338

Animals Ukraine_section_19

See also: List of fish in Ukraine and List of fish of the Black Sea Ukraine_sentence_339

Ukraine falls into two main zoological areas. Ukraine_sentence_340

One of these areas, in the west of the country, is made up of the borderlands of Europe, where there are species typical of mixed forests, the other is located in eastern Ukraine, where steppe-dwelling species thrive. Ukraine_sentence_341

In the forested areas of the country it is not uncommon to find lynxes, wolves, wild boar and martens, as well as many other similar species; this is especially true of the Carpathian Mountains, where many predatory mammals make their home, as well as a contingent of brown bears. Ukraine_sentence_342

Around Ukraine's lakes and rivers beavers, otters and mink make their home, whilst in the waters carp, bream and catfish are the most commonly found species of fish. Ukraine_sentence_343

In the central and eastern parts of the country, rodents such as hamsters and gophers are found in large numbers. Ukraine_sentence_344

Fungi Ukraine_section_20

More than 6,600 species of fungi (including lichen-forming species) have been recorded from Ukraine, but this number is far from complete. Ukraine_sentence_345

The true total number of fungal species occurring in Ukraine, including species not yet recorded, is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered. Ukraine_sentence_346

Although the amount of available information is still very small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to Ukraine, and 2217 such species have been tentatively identified. Ukraine_sentence_347

Politics Ukraine_section_21

Main articles: Politics of Ukraine, Government of Ukraine, and Elections in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_348

Further information: 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and War in Donbass Ukraine_sentence_349

Ukraine is a republic under a mixed semi-parliamentary semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Ukraine_sentence_350

Constitution of Ukraine Ukraine_section_22

Main article: Constitution of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_351

With the proclamation of its independence on 24 August 1991, and adoption of a constitution on 28 June 1996, Ukraine became a semi-presidential republic. Ukraine_sentence_352

However, in 2004, deputies introduced changes to the Constitution, which tipped the balance of power in favour of a parliamentary system. Ukraine_sentence_353

From 2004 to 2010, the legitimacy of the 2004 Constitutional amendments had official sanction, both with the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, and most major political parties. Ukraine_sentence_354

Despite this, on 30 September 2010 the Constitutional Court ruled that the amendments were null and void, forcing a return to the terms of the 1996 Constitution and again making Ukraine's political system more presidential in character. Ukraine_sentence_355

The ruling on the 2004 Constitutional amendments became a major topic of political discourse. Ukraine_sentence_356

Much of the concern was based on the fact that neither the Constitution of 1996 nor the Constitution of 2004 provided the ability to "undo the Constitution", as the decision of the Constitutional Court would have it, even though the 2004 constitution arguably has an exhaustive list of possible procedures for constitutional amendments (articles 154–159). Ukraine_sentence_357

In any case, the current Constitution could be modified by a vote in Parliament. Ukraine_sentence_358

On 21 February 2014 an agreement between President Viktor Yanukovych and opposition leaders saw the country return to the 2004 Constitution. Ukraine_sentence_359

The historic agreement, brokered by the European Union, followed protests that began in late November 2013 and culminated in a week of violent clashes in which scores of protesters were killed. Ukraine_sentence_360

In addition to returning the country to the 2004 Constitution, the deal provided for the formation of a coalition government, the calling of early elections, and the release of former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko from prison. Ukraine_sentence_361

A day after the agreement was reached the Ukraine parliament dismissed Yanukovych and installed its speaker Oleksandr Turchynov as interim president and Arseniy Yatsenyuk as the Prime Minister of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_362

President, parliament and government Ukraine_section_23


Ukraine_cell_1_0_0 Ukraine_cell_1_0_1
Volodymyr Zelensky


Denys Shmyhal

Prime MinisterUkraine_cell_1_1_1

The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and is the formal head of state. Ukraine_sentence_363

Ukraine's legislative branch includes the 450-seat unicameral parliament, the Verkhovna Rada. Ukraine_sentence_364

The parliament is primarily responsible for the formation of the executive branch and the Cabinet of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. Ukraine_sentence_365

However, the President still retains the authority to nominate the Ministers of the Foreign Affairs and of Defence for parliamentary approval, as well as the power to appoint the Prosecutor General and the head of the Security Service. Ukraine_sentence_366

Laws, acts of the parliament and the cabinet, presidential decrees, and acts of the Crimean parliament may be abrogated by the Constitutional Court, should they be found to violate the constitution. Ukraine_sentence_367

Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. Ukraine_sentence_368

The Supreme Court is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. Ukraine_sentence_369

Local self-government is officially guaranteed. Ukraine_sentence_370

Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets. Ukraine_sentence_371

The heads of regional and district administrations are appointed by the President in accordance with the proposals of the Prime Minister. Ukraine_sentence_372

This system virtually requires an agreement between the President and the Prime Minister, and has in the past led to problems, such as when President Yushchenko exploited a perceived loophole by appointing so-called 'temporarily acting' officers, instead of actual governors or local leaders, thus evading the need to seek a compromise with the Prime Minister. Ukraine_sentence_373

This practice was controversial and was subject to Constitutional Court review. Ukraine_sentence_374

Ukraine has many political parties, many of which have tiny memberships and are unknown to the general public. Ukraine_sentence_375

Small parties often join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocs) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections. Ukraine_sentence_376

Courts and law enforcement Ukraine_section_24

Main articles: Judicial system of Ukraine and Law enforcement in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_377

The courts enjoy legal, financial and constitutional freedom guaranteed by Ukrainian law since 2002. Ukraine_sentence_378

Judges are largely well protected from dismissal (except in the instance of gross misconduct). Ukraine_sentence_379

Court justices are appointed by presidential decree for an initial period of five years, after which Ukraine's Supreme Council confirms their positions for life. Ukraine_sentence_380

Although there are still problems, the system is considered to have been much improved since Ukraine's independence in 1991. Ukraine_sentence_381

The Supreme Court is regarded as an independent and impartial body, and has on several occasions ruled against the Ukrainian government. Ukraine_sentence_382

The World Justice Project ranks Ukraine 66 out of 99 countries surveyed in its annual Rule of Law Index. Ukraine_sentence_383

Prosecutors in Ukraine have greater powers than in most European countries, and according to the European Commission for Democracy through Law 'the role and functions of the Prosecutor's Office is not in accordance with Council of Europe standards". Ukraine_sentence_384

The criminal judicial system maintains an average conviction rate of over 99%, equal to the conviction rate of the Soviet Union, with suspects often being incarcerated for long periods before trial. Ukraine_sentence_385

On 24 March 2010, President Yanukovych formed an expert group to make recommendations how to "clean up the current mess and adopt a law on court organization". Ukraine_sentence_386

One day later, he stated "We can no longer disgrace our country with such a court system." Ukraine_sentence_387

The criminal judicial system and the prison system of Ukraine remain quite punitive. Ukraine_sentence_388

Since 1 January 2010 it has been permissible to hold court proceedings in Russian by mutual consent of the parties. Ukraine_sentence_389

Citizens unable to speak Ukrainian or Russian may use their native language or the services of a translator. Ukraine_sentence_390

Previously all court proceedings had to be held in Ukrainian. Ukraine_sentence_391

Law enforcement agencies in Ukraine are organised under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Ukraine_sentence_392

They consist primarily of the national police force (Мiлiцiя) and various specialised units and agencies such as the State Border Guard and the Coast Guard services. Ukraine_sentence_393

Law enforcement agencies, particularly the police, faced criticism for their heavy handling of the 2004 Orange Revolution. Ukraine_sentence_394

Many thousands of police officers were stationed throughout the capital, primarily to dissuade protesters from challenging the state's authority but also to provide a quick reaction force in case of need; most officers were armed. Ukraine_sentence_395

Bloodshed was only avoided when Lt. Gen. Sergei Popkov heeded his colleagues' calls to withdraw. Ukraine_sentence_396

The Ministry of Internal Affairs is also responsible for the maintenance of the State Security Service; Ukraine's domestic intelligence agency, which has on occasion been accused of acting like a secret police force serving to protect the country's political elite from media criticism. Ukraine_sentence_397

On the other hand, however, it is widely accepted that members of the service provided vital information about government plans to the leaders of the Orange Revolution to prevent the collapse of the movement. Ukraine_sentence_398

Foreign relations Ukraine_section_25

Main articles: Foreign relations of Ukraine, International membership of Ukraine, Ukraine–European Union relations, and The World Bank in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_399

In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Ukraine_sentence_400

Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine_sentence_401

Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. Ukraine_sentence_402

It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia. Ukraine_sentence_403

Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992. Ukraine_sentence_404

Ukraine currently considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice it has always balanced its relationship with the European Union and the United States with strong ties to Russia. Ukraine_sentence_405

The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on 1 March 1998. Ukraine_sentence_406

The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association. Ukraine_sentence_407

On 31 January 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)), and on 10 March 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine_sentence_408

Ukraine–NATO relations are close and the country has declared interest in eventual membership. Ukraine_sentence_409

This was removed from the government's foreign policy agenda upon election of Viktor Yanukovych to the presidency, in 2010. Ukraine_sentence_410

But after February 2014's Yanukovych ouster and the (denied by Russia) following Russian military intervention in Ukraine Ukraine renewed its drive for NATO membership. Ukraine_sentence_411

Ukraine is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Ukraine_sentence_412

All major political parties in Ukraine support full eventual integration into the European Union. Ukraine_sentence_413

The Association Agreement with the EU was expected to be signed and put into effect by the end of 2011, but the process was suspended by 2012 because of the political developments of that time. Ukraine_sentence_414

The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union was signed in 2014. Ukraine_sentence_415

Ukraine long had close ties with all its neighbours, but Russia–Ukraine relations became difficult in 2014 by the annexation of Crimea, energy dependence and payment disputes. Ukraine_sentence_416

There are also tensions with Poland and Hungary. Ukraine_sentence_417

The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA), which entered into force in January 2016 following the ratification of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, formally integrates Ukraine into the European Single Market and the European Economic Area. Ukraine_sentence_418

Ukraine receives further support and assistance for its EU-accession aspirations from the International Visegrád Fund of the Visegrád Group that consists of Central European EU members the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia. Ukraine_sentence_419

Administrative divisions Ukraine_section_26

Main articles: Administrative divisions of Ukraine and Ukrainian historical regions Ukraine_sentence_420

Further information: Political status of Crimea and Sevastopol and Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation Ukraine_sentence_421

The system of Ukrainian subdivisions reflects the country's status as a unitary state (as stated in the country's constitution) with unified legal and administrative regimes for each unit. Ukraine_sentence_422

Including Sevastopol and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea that were annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014, Ukraine consists of 27 regions: twenty-four oblasts (provinces), one autonomous republic (Autonomous Republic of Crimea), and two cities of special status – Kyiv, the capital, and Sevastopol. Ukraine_sentence_423

The 24 oblasts and Crimea are subdivided into 136 raions (districts) and city municipalities of regional significance, or second-level administrative units. Ukraine_sentence_424

Populated places in Ukraine are split into two categories: urban and rural. Ukraine_sentence_425

Urban populated places are split further into cities and urban-type settlements (a Soviet administrative invention), while rural populated places consist of villages and settlements (a generally used term). Ukraine_sentence_426

All cities have certain degree of self-rule depending on their significance such as national significance (as in the case of Kyiv and Sevastopol), regional significance (within each oblast or autonomous republic) or district significance (all the rest of cities). Ukraine_sentence_427

A city's significance depends on several factors such as its population, socio-economic and historical importance, infrastructure and others. Ukraine_sentence_428



Volyn Rivne_Oblast  Rivne Zhytomyr_Oblast  Zhytomyr Kiev_Oblast  Kyiv Khmelnytskyi_Oblast  Khmeln- ytsky Ternopil_Oblast  Ternopil Ivano-Frankivsk_Oblast  Ivano- Frankivsk Zakarpattia_Oblast  Zakarpattia Chernivtsi_Oblast  Chernivtsi Vinnytsia_Oblast  Vinnytsia Cherkasy_Oblast  Cherkasy Kirovohrad_Oblast  Kirovohrad Mykolaiv_Oblast  Mykolaiv Poltava_Oblast  Poltava Chernihiv_Oblast  Chernihiv Sumy_Oblast  Sumy Kharkiv_Oblast  Kharkiv Dnipropetrovsk_Oblast  Dnipropetrovsk Odessa_Oblast  Odessa Kherson_Oblast  Kherson Zaporizhia_Oblast  Zaporizhzhia Donetsk_Oblast  Donetsk Autonomous_Republic_of_Crimea  Crimea Luhansk_Oblast  Luhansk Kyiv

Sevastopol Lviv_Oblast  Lviv Ukraine_cell_2_0_0

Armed forces Ukraine_section_27

Main article: Armed Forces of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_429

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited a 780,000-man military force on its territory, equipped with the third-largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world. Ukraine_sentence_430

In May 1992, Ukraine signed the Lisbon Protocol in which the country agreed to give up all nuclear weapons to Russia for disposal and to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. Ukraine_sentence_431

Ukraine ratified the treaty in 1994, and by 1996 the country became free of nuclear weapons. Ukraine_sentence_432

Ukraine took consistent steps toward reduction of conventional weapons. Ukraine_sentence_433

It signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which called for reduction of tanks, artillery, and armoured vehicles (army forces were reduced to 300,000). Ukraine_sentence_434

The country plans to convert the current conscript-based military into a professional volunteer military. Ukraine_sentence_435

Ukraine has been playing an increasingly larger role in peacekeeping operations. Ukraine_sentence_436

On Friday 3 January 2014, the Ukrainian frigate Hetman Sagaidachniy joined the European Union's counter piracy Operation Atalanta and will be part of the EU Naval Force off the coast of Somalia for two months. Ukraine_sentence_437

Ukrainian troops are deployed in Kosovo as part of the Ukrainian-Polish Battalion. Ukraine_sentence_438

A Ukrainian unit was deployed in Lebanon, as part of UN Interim Force enforcing the mandated ceasefire agreement. Ukraine_sentence_439

There was also a maintenance and training battalion deployed in Sierra Leone. Ukraine_sentence_440

In 2003–05, a Ukrainian unit was deployed as part of the Multinational force in Iraq under Polish command. Ukraine_sentence_441

The total Ukrainian armed forces deployment around the world is 562 servicemen. Ukraine_sentence_442

Military units of other states participate in multinational military exercises with Ukrainian forces in Ukraine regularly, including U.S. Ukraine_sentence_443

military forces. Ukraine_sentence_444

Following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Ukraine_sentence_445

The country has had a limited military partnership with Russian Federation, other CIS countries and a partnership with NATO since 1994. Ukraine_sentence_446

In the 2000s, the government was leaning towards NATO, and a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. Ukraine_sentence_447

It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Ukraine_sentence_448

Recently deposed President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO. Ukraine_sentence_449

During the 2008 Bucharest summit, NATO declared that Ukraine would eventually become a member of NATO when it meets the criteria for the accession. Ukraine_sentence_450

Economy Ukraine_section_28

Main article: Economy of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_451

In Soviet times, the economy of Ukraine was the second largest in the Soviet Union, being an important industrial and agricultural component of the country's planned economy. Ukraine_sentence_452

With the dissolution of the Soviet system, the country moved from a planned economy to a market economy. Ukraine_sentence_453

The transition was difficult for the majority of the population which plunged into poverty. Ukraine_sentence_454

Ukraine's economy contracted severely in the years after the Soviet dissolution. Ukraine_sentence_455

Day-to-day life for the average person living in Ukraine was a struggle. Ukraine_sentence_456

A significant number of citizens in rural Ukraine survived by growing their own food, often working two or more jobs and buying the basic necessities through the barter economy. Ukraine_sentence_457

In 1991, the government liberalised most prices to combat widespread product shortages, and was successful in overcoming the problem. Ukraine_sentence_458

At the same time, the government continued to subsidise state-run industries and agriculture by uncovered monetary emission. Ukraine_sentence_459

The loose monetary policies of the early 1990s pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels. Ukraine_sentence_460

For the year 1993, Ukraine holds the world record for inflation in one calendar year. Ukraine_sentence_461

Those living on fixed incomes suffered the most. Ukraine_sentence_462

Prices stabilised only after the introduction of new currency, the hryvnia, in 1996. Ukraine_sentence_463

The country was also slow in implementing structural reforms. Ukraine_sentence_464

Following independence, the government formed a legal framework for privatisation. Ukraine_sentence_465

However, widespread resistance to reforms within the government and from a significant part of the population soon stalled the reform efforts. Ukraine_sentence_466

Many state-owned enterprises were exempt from privatisation. Ukraine_sentence_467

In the meantime, by 1999, the GDP had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Ukraine_sentence_468

It recovered considerably in the following years. Ukraine_sentence_469

Ukraine was hit by the economic crisis of 2008 and in November 2008, the IMF approved a stand-by loan of $16.5 billion for the country. Ukraine_sentence_470

In 2019 the average nominal salary in Ukraine reached 10,000  hryvnias per month or around €300, while in 2018, Ukraine's median wealth per adult was $40. Ukraine_sentence_471

In 2017, Ukraine's government debt was 75%. Ukraine_sentence_472

Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft. Ukraine_sentence_473

Antonov airplanes and KrAZ trucks are exported to many countries. Ukraine_sentence_474

The majority of Ukrainian exports are marketed to the European Union and CIS. Ukraine_sentence_475

Since independence, Ukraine has maintained its own space agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU). Ukraine_sentence_476

Ukraine became an active participant in scientific space exploration and remote sensing missions. Ukraine_sentence_477

Between 1991 and 2007, Ukraine has launched six self made satellites and 101 launch vehicles, and continues to design spacecraft. Ukraine_sentence_478

The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas and, to a large extent, depends on Russia as its energy supplier. Ukraine_sentence_479

While 25% of the natural gas in Ukraine comes from internal sources, about 35% comes from Russia and the remaining 40% from Central Asia through transit routes that Russia controls. Ukraine_sentence_480

At the same time, 85% of the Russian gas is delivered to Western Europe through Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_481

Growing sectors of the Ukrainian economy include the information technology (IT) market. Ukraine_sentence_482

In 2013, Ukraine ranked fourth in the world in number of certified IT professionals after the United States, India and Russia. Ukraine_sentence_483

Ukraine's 2010 GDP, as calculated by the World Bank, was around $136 billion, 2011 GDP – around $163 billion, 2012 – $176.6 billion, 2013 – $177.4 billion. Ukraine_sentence_484

In 2014 and 2015, the Ukrainian currency was the world's worst performing currency, having dropped 80 percent of its value since April 2014 since the War in Donbass and the annexation of Crimea by Russia. Ukraine_sentence_485

The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state. Ukraine_sentence_486

Significant issues include underdeveloped infrastructure and transportation, corruption and bureaucracy. Ukraine_sentence_487

The public will to fight against corrupt officials and business elites culminated in a strong wave of public demonstrations against the Victor Yanukovych's regime in November 2013. Ukraine_sentence_488

According to Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, Ukraine was ranked 120th with a score of 32 out of 100 in 2018. Ukraine_sentence_489

In the first quarter of 2017, the level of shadow economy in Ukraine amounted to 37% of GDP. Ukraine_sentence_490

In the 2000s Ukraine managed to achieve certain progress in reducing absolute poverty, ensuring access to primary and secondary education, improving maternal health and reducing child mortality. Ukraine_sentence_491

The economy of Ukraine overcame the heavy crisis caused by armed conflict in southeast part of country. Ukraine_sentence_492

At the same time, 200% devaluation of Ukrainian hryvnia (national currency) in 2014–2015 made Ukrainian goods and services cheaper and more сompetitive. Ukraine_sentence_493

In 2016, for the first time since 2010, the economy grew more than 2%. Ukraine_sentence_494

According to World Bank statement growth is projected at 2% in 2017 and 3.5% in 2018. Ukraine_sentence_495

As of 2017, according to major economic classifications of countries such as gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) or the Human Development Index, Ukraine is the second poorest country in Europe, after Moldova. Ukraine_sentence_496

Ukraine has one of the most equal income distribution as measured by the Gini index and Palma ratio. Ukraine_sentence_497

Corporations Ukraine_section_29

Ukraine has a very large heavy-industry base and is one of the largest refiners of metallurgical products in Eastern Europe. Ukraine_sentence_498

However, the country is also well known for its production of high-technological goods and transport products, such as Antonov aircraft and various private and commercial vehicles. Ukraine_sentence_499

The country's largest and most competitive firms are components of the PFTS index, traded on the PFTS Ukraine Stock Exchange. Ukraine_sentence_500

Well-known Ukrainian brands include Naftogaz Ukrainy, AvtoZAZ, PrivatBank, Roshen, Yuzhmash, Nemiroff, Motor Sich, Khortytsia, Kyivstar and Aerosvit. Ukraine_sentence_501

Ukraine is regarded as a developing economy with high potential for future success, though such a development is thought likely only with new all-encompassing economic and legal reforms. Ukraine_sentence_502

Although Foreign Direct Investment in Ukraine remained relatively strong since recession of the early 1990s, the country has had trouble maintaining stable economic growth. Ukraine_sentence_503

The reasons are the takeover and monopolisation of traditional heavy industries by wealthy individuals such as Rinat Akhmetov, the enduring failure to broaden the nation's economic base and a lack of effective legal protection for investors and their products. Ukraine_sentence_504

Transport Ukraine_section_30

Main articles: Transport in Ukraine and Ukrainian Railways Ukraine_sentence_505

In total, Ukrainian paved roads stretch for 164,732 kilometres (102,360 mi). Ukraine_sentence_506

Major routes, marked with the letter 'M' for 'International' (Ukrainian: Міжнародний), extend nationwide and connect all major cities of Ukraine, and provide cross-border routes to the country's neighbours. Ukraine_sentence_507

There are only two true motorway standard highways in Ukraine; a 175-kilometre (109-mile) stretch of motorway from Kharkiv to Dnipro and a section of the M03 which extends 18 km (11 mi) from Kyiv to Boryspil, where the city's international airport is located. Ukraine_sentence_508

Rail transport in Ukraine connects all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centres with neighbouring countries. Ukraine_sentence_509

The heaviest concentration of railway track is the Donbas region of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_510

Although rail freight transport fell in the 1990s, Ukraine is still one of the world's highest rail users. Ukraine_sentence_511

The total amount of railroad track in Ukraine extends for 22,473 kilometres (13,964 mi), of which 9,250 kilometres (5,750 mi) was electrified in the 2000s. Ukraine_sentence_512

Currently the state has a monopoly on the provision of passenger rail transport, and all trains, other than those with cooperation of other foreign companies on international routes, are operated by its company 'Ukrzaliznytsia. Ukraine_sentence_513

Transport by air is developing quickly, with a visa-free programme for EU nationals and citizens of a number of other Western nations, the nation's aviation sector is handling a significantly increased number of travellers. Ukraine_sentence_514

The Euro 2012 football tournament, held in Poland and Ukraine as joint hosts, prompted the government to invest heavily in transport infrastructure, and in particular airports. Ukraine_sentence_515

The Donetsk airport, completed for Euro 2012, was destroyed by the end of 2014 because of the ongoing war between the government and the separatist movement. Ukraine_sentence_516

Kyiv Boryspil is the county's largest international airport; it has three main passenger terminals and is the base for the country's flag carrier, Ukraine International Airlines. Ukraine_sentence_517

Other large airports in the country include those in Kharkiv, Lviv and Donetsk (now destroyed), whilst those in Dnipro and Odessa have plans for terminal upgrades in the near future. Ukraine_sentence_518

In addition to its flag carrier, Ukraine has a number of airlines including Windrose Airlines, Dniproavia, Azur Air Ukraine, and AtlasGlobal Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_519

Antonov Airlines, a subsidiary of the Antonov Aerospace Design Bureau is the only operator of the world's largest fixed wing aircraft, the An-225. Ukraine_sentence_520

International maritime travel is mainly provided through the Port of Odessa, from where ferries sail regularly to Istanbul, Varna and Haifa. Ukraine_sentence_521

The largest ferry company presently operating these routes is Ukrferry. Ukraine_sentence_522

Energy Ukraine_section_31

Main article: Energy in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_523

In 2014, Ukraine was ranked number 19 on the Emerging Market Energy Security Growth Prosperity Index, published by the think tank Bisignis Institute, which ranks emerging market countries using government corruption, GDP growth and oil reserve information. Ukraine_sentence_524

Ukraine produces and processes its own natural gas and petroleum. Ukraine_sentence_525

However, the majority of these commodities are imported. Ukraine_sentence_526

Eighty percent of Ukrainian natural gas supplies are imported, mainly from Russia. Ukraine_sentence_527

Natural gas is heavily utilised not only in energy production but also by steel and chemical industries of the country, as well as by the district heating sector. Ukraine_sentence_528

In 2012, Shell started exploration drilling for shale gas in Ukraine—a project aimed at the nation's total gas supply independence. Ukraine_sentence_529

Following the armed conflict in the Donbass, Ukraine was cut off from half of coal and all of its extraction, dropping Ukrainian coal production by 22 percent in 2014. Ukraine_sentence_530

Russia was Ukraine's largest coal supplier, and in 2014 Russia blocked its coal supplies, forcing 22 Ukrainian power plants to shut down temporarily. Ukraine_sentence_531

Power generation Ukraine_section_32

Ukraine has been a net energy exporting country, for example in 2011, 3.3% of electricity produced were exported, but also one of Europe's largest energy consumers. Ukraine_sentence_532

As of 2011, 47.6% of total electricity generation was from nuclear power The largest nuclear power plant in Europe, the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, is located in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_533

Until the 2010s, all of Ukraine's nuclear fuel was coming from Russia. Ukraine_sentence_534

In 2008 Westinghouse Electric Company won a five-year contract selling nuclear fuel to three Ukrainian reactors starting in 2011. Ukraine_sentence_535

Following Euromaidan then President Viktor Yanukovych introduced a ban on Rosatom nuclear fuel shipments to Europe via Ukraine, which was in effect from 28 January until 6 March 2014. Ukraine_sentence_536

By 2016, Russia's share was down to 55 percent, Westinghouse supplying nuclear fuel for six of Ukraine's VVER-1000 nuclear reactors. Ukraine_sentence_537

After the Russian annexation of Crimea in April 2014, the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company of Ukraine Energoatom and Westinghouse extended the contract for fuel deliveries through 2020. Ukraine_sentence_538

Coal and gas-fired thermal power stations and hydroelectricity are the second and third largest kinds of power generation in the country. Ukraine_sentence_539

Renewable energy use Ukraine_section_33

Main article: Renewable energy in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_540

The share of renewables within the total energy mix is still very small, but is growing fast. Ukraine_sentence_541

Total installed capacity of renewable energy installations more than doubled in 2011 and as of 2012 stands at 397 MW. Ukraine_sentence_542

In 2011 several large solar power stations were opened in Ukraine, among them Europe's largest solar park in Perovo, (Crimea). Ukraine_sentence_543

The Economic Bank for Reconstruction and Development estimated in 2012 that Ukraine had great renewable energy potential: the technical potential for wind energy is estimated at 40 TWh/year, small hydropower stations at 8.3 TWh/year, biomass at 120 TWh/year, and solar energy at 50 TWh/year. Ukraine_sentence_544

Internet and IT Ukraine_section_34

Main articles: Internet in Ukraine and Telecommunications in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_545

Ukraine has a large and steadily growing Internet sector, mostly uninfluenced by the financial crisis of 2007–08. Ukraine_sentence_546

As of June 2014, there were 18.2 million desktop Internet users, which is 56% of the adult population. Ukraine_sentence_547

The core of the audience is the 25 to 34-year-old age bracket, representing 29% of the population. Ukraine_sentence_548

Ukraine ranks 8th among the world's top ten countries with the fastest Internet access speed. Ukraine_sentence_549

According to A.T. Kearney Global Services Location Index, Ukraine ranks 24th among the best outsourcing locations, and is among the top 20 offshore services locations in EMEA, according to Gartner. Ukraine_sentence_550

In the first six months of 2017, the volume of export of computer and information services reached $1.256 billion, which is an 18.3% increase compared to the same period in 2016. Ukraine_sentence_551

The IT industry ranks third in the export structure of Ukraine after agro-industry and metallurgy. Ukraine_sentence_552

Ukraine's IT sector employs close to 100,000 workers, including 50,000 software developers. Ukraine_sentence_553

This number is expected to surpass the 200,000 mark by 2020. Ukraine_sentence_554

There are over 1,000 IT companies in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_555

In 2017, 13 of them made it to the list of 100 best outsourcing service providers in the world. Ukraine_sentence_556

More than 100 multinational tech companies have R&D labs in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_557

Ukraine ranks first worldwide in the number of C++ and Unity3D developers, and second in the number of JavaScript, Scala, and Magento engineers. Ukraine_sentence_558

78% of Ukrainian tech workers report having an intermediate or higher level of English proficiency. Ukraine_sentence_559

Tourism Ukraine_section_35

Main article: Tourism in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_560

In 2007 Ukraine occupied 8th place in Europe by the number of tourists visiting, according to the World Tourism Organization rankings. Ukraine_sentence_561

Ukraine has numerous tourist attractions: mountain ranges suitable for skiing, hiking and fishing: the Black Sea coastline as a popular summer destination; nature reserves of different ecosystems; churches, castle ruins and other architectural and park landmarks; various outdoor activity points. Ukraine_sentence_562

Kyiv, Lviv, Odessa and Kamyanets-Podilskyi are Ukraine's principal tourist centres each offering many historical landmarks as well as formidable hospitality infrastructure. Ukraine_sentence_563

Tourism used to be the mainstay of Crimea's economy but there has been a major fall in visitor numbers following the Russian annexation in 2014. Ukraine_sentence_564

The Seven Wonders of Ukraine and Seven Natural Wonders of Ukraine are the selection of the most important landmarks of Ukraine, chosen by the general public through an Internet-based vote. Ukraine_sentence_565

Demographics Ukraine_section_36

Main article: Demographics of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_566

Population Ukraine_section_37

Post World War II Ukraine's population gradually increased to a peak of 51.9 million in 1993. Ukraine_sentence_567

From 1993 to 2014, the last year the populations in Donbas and Crimea were included, population had decreased by 6.6 million, or 12.8%. Ukraine_sentence_568

The decline was caused by a reduction in birth rate, emigration, and a slight increase in death rate, largely attributed to poor living conditions and low-quality health care. Ukraine_sentence_569

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, millions of Ukrainians migrated to Canada, the United States, or other parts of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, creating a large Ukrainian diaspora. Ukraine_sentence_570

There are about 3 million Ukrainians living in Russia. Ukraine_sentence_571

Since about 2015 there has been a growing number of Ukrainians working in the European Union, particularly Poland. Ukraine_sentence_572

Eurostat reported that 662,000 Ukrainians received EU residence permits in 2017, with 585,439 being to Poland. Ukraine_sentence_573

World Bank statistics show that money remittances back to Ukraine have roughly doubled from 2015 to 2018, worth about 4% of GDP. Ukraine_sentence_574

It is unclear if those moving to work in the EU intend this to be temporary of permanent. Ukraine_sentence_575

There are over 2 million Ukrainians working and living in Poland. Ukraine_sentence_576

The industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and about 67.2% of the population lives in urban areas. Ukraine_sentence_577

Ethnic composition Ukraine_section_38

According to the Ukrainian Census of 2001, Ukrainians make up 77.8% of the population. Ukraine_sentence_578

Other significant ethnic groups include Russians (17.3%), Belarusians (0.6%), Moldovans (0.5%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Bulgarians (0.4%), Hungarians (0.3%), Romanians (0.3%), Poles (0.3%), Jews (0.3%), Armenians (0.2%), Greeks (0.2%) and Tatars (0.2%). Ukraine_sentence_579

It is also estimated that there are about 50,000 ethnic Koreans (0.12%) in Ukraine that belong to the Koryo-saram group. Ukraine_sentence_580

Their number may be as high as 100,000, as many ethnic Koreans were assimilated into the majority population. Ukraine_sentence_581

Language Ukraine_section_39

Main articles: Ukrainian language, Russian language in Ukraine, Languages of Ukraine, and Name of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_582

According to the constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. Ukraine_sentence_583

Russian is widely spoken, especially in eastern and southern Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_584

According to the 2001 census, 67.5 percent of the population declared Ukrainian as their native language and 29.6 percent declared Russian. Ukraine_sentence_585

Most native Ukrainian speakers know Russian as a second language. Ukraine_sentence_586

Russian was the de facto dominant language of the Soviet Union but Ukrainian also held official status and in the schools of the Ukrainian SSR learning Ukrainian was mandatory. Ukraine_sentence_587

Effective in August 2012, a new law on regional languages entitles any local language spoken by at least a 10 percent minority be declared official within that area. Ukraine_sentence_588

Russian was within weeks declared as a regional language in several southern and eastern oblasts (provinces) and cities. Ukraine_sentence_589

Russian can now be used in these cities'/oblasts' administrative office work and documents. Ukraine_sentence_590

On 23 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the Ukrainian Parliament voted to repeal the law on regional languages, making Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels; however, the repeal was not signed by acting President Turchynov or by President Poroshenko. Ukraine_sentence_591

In February 2019, the law allowing for regional languages was found unconstitutional. Ukraine_sentence_592

Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_593

In western Ukraine, Ukrainian is also the dominant language in cities (such as Lviv). Ukraine_sentence_594

In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kyiv, while Ukrainian is the dominant language in rural communities. Ukraine_sentence_595

In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and Ukrainian is used in rural areas. Ukraine_sentence_596

These details result in a significant difference across different survey results, as even a small restating of a question switches responses of a significant group of people. Ukraine_sentence_597

Hungarian is spoken in the Zakarpattia Oblast. Ukraine_sentence_598

For a large part of the Soviet era, the number of Ukrainian speakers declined from generation to generation, and by the mid-1980s, the usage of the Ukrainian language in public life had decreased significantly. Ukraine_sentence_599

Following independence, the government of Ukraine began restoring the image and usage of Ukrainian language through a policy of Ukrainisation. Ukraine_sentence_600

Today, most foreign films and TV programs, including Russian ones, are subtitled or dubbed in Ukrainian. Ukraine_sentence_601

Ukraine's 2017 education law bars primary education in public schools in grade five and up in any language but Ukrainian. Ukraine_sentence_602

The Unian reported that "A ban on the use of cultural products, namely movies, books, songs, etc., in the Russian language in the public has been introduced" in the Lviv Oblast in September 2018. Ukraine_sentence_603

According to the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian is the only state language of the republic. Ukraine_sentence_604

However, the republic's constitution specifically recognises Russian as the language of the majority of its population and guarantees its usage 'in all spheres of public life'. Ukraine_sentence_605

Similarly, the Crimean Tatar language (the language of 12 percent of population of Crimea) is guaranteed a special state protection as well as the 'languages of other ethnicities'. Ukraine_sentence_606

Russian speakers constitute an overwhelming majority of the Crimean population (77 percent), with Crimean Tatar speakers 11.4 percent and Ukrainian speakers comprising just 10.1 percent. Ukraine_sentence_607

But in everyday life the majority of Crimean Tatars and Ukrainians in Crimea use Russian. Ukraine_sentence_608

Religion Ukraine_section_40

Main article: Religion in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_609

Ukraine has the second world's largest Eastern Orthodox population. Ukraine_sentence_610

A 2016 survey conducted by the Razumkov Centre found that 70% of Ukrainians declared themselves believers in some religion, while 10.1% were uncertain whether they believed or not, 7.2% were uninterested in beliefs, 6.3% were unbelievers, 2.7% were atheists, and a further 3.9% found it difficult to answer the question. Ukraine_sentence_611

The level of religiosity in Ukraine is greatest in Western Ukraine (91%), and lowest in Eastern Ukraine (56%) and the Donbass (57%). Ukraine_sentence_612

Of the Ukrainian population, 81.9% were Christians, comprising a 65.4% who declared to be Orthodox, 7.1% simply Christians, 6.5% Greek Rite Catholics, and 1.9% Protestants. Ukraine_sentence_613

A further 1.1% were Muslims and 1.0% Latin Rite Catholics. Ukraine_sentence_614

Judaism and Hinduism were the religions of 0.2% of the population each. Ukraine_sentence_615

A further 16.3% of the population did not identify in one of those listed hitherto. Ukraine_sentence_616

According to the surveys conducted by Razumkov in the 2000s and early 2010s, such numbers have remained relatively constant throughout the last decade. Ukraine_sentence_617

Among those Ukrainians who declared to believe in Orthodoxy, 38.1% declared to be members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate (a body that is not canonically recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church), while 23.0% declared to be members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscovian Patriarchate (which is an autonomous Orthodox church under the Russian Orthodox Church). Ukraine_sentence_618

A further 2.7% were members of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which, like the Kyivan Patriarchate, is not recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Ukraine_sentence_619

Among the remaining Orthodox Ukrainians, 32.3% declared to be "simply Orthodox", without affiliation to any patriarchate, while a further 3.1% declared that they "did not know" which patriarchate or Orthodox church they belonged to. Ukraine_sentence_620

On 15 December 2018 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP) and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and some members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) (UOC-MP) united to form the Orthodox Church of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_621

The Ecumenical Patriarch granted the status of autocephaly to the new Church the following month on 5 January 2019. Ukraine_sentence_622

The Patriarch of Moscow retaliated by severing relations with Constantinople. Ukraine_sentence_623

The union of the Ukrainian Churches has not been recognized by other Orthodox Churches. Ukraine_sentence_624

The second largest Christian group in Ukraine, Catholicism, is predominantly represented by the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. Ukraine_sentence_625

It recognizes the primacy of the Pope as head of the Church while still maintaining a similar liturgical and spiritual tradition as Eastern Orthodoxy. Ukraine_sentence_626

Additionally, there are a small number of Latin Rite Catholic communities (1.0%). Ukraine_sentence_627

The church consists mainly of ethnic Poles and Hungarians, who live predominantly in the western regions of the country. Ukraine_sentence_628

According to the 2018 survey, 'Religion in Ukraine,' by Razumkov the declared religion population is 9.4% Ukrainian Byzantine Rite Catholics and 0.8% Latin Rite Catholics. Ukraine_sentence_629

Protestants in Ukraine make up 1.9% of the population as of 2016. Ukraine_sentence_630

Protestants had increased to 2.2% in the 2018 Razumkov Center survey. Ukraine_sentence_631

A further 7.1% of the population declares to be simply Christian. Ukraine_sentence_632

The Razumov Center surveys reported an increase of those who declared themselves Orthodox in 2018 at 67.3% up 1.9% from 2016 while declared Catholics rose from 7.5% to 10.6% in the same two-year period. Ukraine_sentence_633

Health Ukraine_section_41

Main article: Health in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_634

The Ukrainian Red Cross Society was established in April 1918 in Kyiv as an independent humanitarian society of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Ukraine_sentence_635

Its immediate tasks were to help refugees and prisoners of war, care for handicapped people and orphaned children, fight famine and epidemics, support and organize sick quarters, hospitals and public canteens. Ukraine_sentence_636

At present, society involves more than 6.3 million supporters and activists. Ukraine_sentence_637

Its Visiting Nurses Service has 3,200 qualified nurses. Ukraine_sentence_638

The organization takes part in more than 40 humanitarian programmes all over Ukraine, which are mostly funded by public donation and corporate partnerships. Ukraine_sentence_639

By its own estimates, the Society annually provides services to more than 105,000 lonely, elderly people, about 23,000 people disabled during the Second World War and handicapped workers, more than 25,000 war veterans, and more than 8,000 adults handicapped since childhood. Ukraine_sentence_640

Assistance for orphaned and disabled children is also rendered. Ukraine_sentence_641

Ukraine's healthcare system is state subsidised and freely available to all Ukrainian citizens and registered residents. Ukraine_sentence_642

However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes do exist nationwide. Ukraine_sentence_643

The public sector employs most healthcare professionals, with those working for private medical centres typically also retaining their state employment as they are mandated to provide care at public health facilities on a regular basis. Ukraine_sentence_644

All of the country's medical service providers and hospitals are subordinate to the Ministry of Healthcare, which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system. Ukraine_sentence_645

Despite this, standards of hygiene and patient-care have fallen. Ukraine_sentence_646

Hospitals in Ukraine are organised along the same lines as most European nations, according to the regional administrative structure; as a result most towns have their own hospital (Міська Лікарня) and many also have district hospitals (Районна Лікарня). Ukraine_sentence_647

Larger and more specialised medical complexes tend only to be found in major cities, with some even more specialised units located only in the capital, Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_648

However, all oblasts have their own network of general hospitals which are able to deal with almost all medical problems and are typically equipped with major trauma centres; such hospitals are called 'regional hospitals' (Обласна Лікарня). Ukraine_sentence_649

Ukraine currently faces a number of major public health issues and is considered to be in a demographic crisis because of its high death rate and low birth rate (the current Ukrainian birth rate is 11 births/1,000 population, and the death rate is 16.3 deaths/1,000 population). Ukraine_sentence_650

A factor contributing to the high death rate is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes such as alcohol poisoning and smoking. Ukraine_sentence_651

In 2008, the country's population was one of the fastest declining in the world at −5% growth. Ukraine_sentence_652

The UN warned that Ukraine's population could fall by as much as 10 million by 2050 if trends did not improve. Ukraine_sentence_653

In addition, obesity, systemic high blood pressure and the HIV endemic are all major challenges facing the Ukrainian healthcare system. Ukraine_sentence_654

As of March 2009 the Ukrainian government is reforming the health care system, by the creation of a national network of family doctors and improvements in the medical emergency services. Ukraine_sentence_655

In November 2009, former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko proposed introducing a public healthcare system based on health insurance in the spring of 2010. Ukraine_sentence_656

Active reformation of Ukraine's healthcare system was initiated right after the appointment of Ulana Suprun as a head of the Ministry of Healthcare. Ukraine_sentence_657

Assisted by deputy Pavlo Kovtoniuk, Suprun first changed the distribution of finances in healthcare. Ukraine_sentence_658

Funds must follow the patient. Ukraine_sentence_659

General practitioners will provide basic care for patients. Ukraine_sentence_660

The patient will have the right to choose one. Ukraine_sentence_661

Emergency medical service is considered to be fully funded by the state. Ukraine_sentence_662

Emergency Medicine Reform is also an important part of the healthcare reform. Ukraine_sentence_663

In addition, patients who suffer from chronic diseases, which cause a high toll of disability and mortality, are provided with free or low price medicine. Ukraine_sentence_664

Education Ukraine_section_42

Main articles: Education in Ukraine and List of universities in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_665

According to the Ukrainian constitution, access to free education is granted to all citizens. Ukraine_sentence_666

Complete general secondary education is compulsory in the state schools which constitute the overwhelming majority. Ukraine_sentence_667

Free higher education in state and communal educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis. Ukraine_sentence_668

There is also a small number of accredited private secondary and higher education institutions. Ukraine_sentence_669

Because of the Soviet Union's emphasis on total access of education for all citizens, which continues today, the literacy rate is an estimated 99.4%. Ukraine_sentence_670

Since 2005, an eleven-year school programme has been replaced with a twelve-year one: primary education takes four years to complete (starting at age six), middle education (secondary) takes five years to complete; upper secondary then takes three years. Ukraine_sentence_671

In the 12th grade, students take Government tests, which are also referred to as school-leaving exams. Ukraine_sentence_672

These tests are later used for university admissions. Ukraine_sentence_673

The first higher education institutions (HEIs) emerged in Ukraine during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Ukraine_sentence_674

The first Ukrainian higher education institution was the Ostrozka School, or Ostrozkiy Greek-Slavic-Latin Collegium, similar to Western European higher education institutions of the time. Ukraine_sentence_675

Established in 1576 in the town of Ostrog, the Collegium was the first higher education institution in the Eastern Slavic territories. Ukraine_sentence_676

The oldest university was the Kyiv Mohyla Academy, first established in 1632 and in 1694 officially recognised by the government of Imperial Russia as a higher education institution. Ukraine_sentence_677

Among the oldest is also the Lviv University, founded in 1661. Ukraine_sentence_678

More higher education institutions were set up in the 19th century, beginning with universities in Kharkiv (1805), Kyiv (1834), Odessa (1865) and Chernivtsi (1875) and a number of professional higher education institutions, e.g.: Nizhyn Historical and Philological Institute (originally established as the Gymnasium of Higher Sciences in 1805), a Veterinary Institute (1873) and a Technological Institute (1885) in Kharkiv, a Polytechnic Institute in Kyiv (1898) and a Higher Mining School (1899) in Katerynoslav. Ukraine_sentence_679

Rapid growth followed in the Soviet period. Ukraine_sentence_680

By 1988 a number of higher education institutions increased to 146 with over 850,000 students. Ukraine_sentence_681

Most HEIs established after 1990 are those owned by private organisations. Ukraine_sentence_682

The Ukrainian higher education system comprises higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under national, municipal and self-governing bodies in charge of education. Ukraine_sentence_683

The organisation of higher education in Ukraine is built up in accordance with the structure of education of the world's higher developed countries, as is defined by UNESCO and the UN. Ukraine_sentence_684

Ukraine has more than 800 higher education institutions and in 2010 the number of graduates reached 654,700 people. Ukraine_sentence_685

Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of post-secondary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population. Ukraine_sentence_686

Higher education is either state funded or private. Ukraine_sentence_687

Students that study at state expense receive a standard scholarship if their average marks at the end-of-term exams and differentiated test suffice; this rule may be different in some universities. Ukraine_sentence_688

For highest grades, the scholarship is increased by 25%. Ukraine_sentence_689

For most students the government subsidy is not sufficient to cover their basic living expenses. Ukraine_sentence_690

Most universities provide subsidised housing for out-of-city students. Ukraine_sentence_691

Also, it is common for libraries to supply required books for all registered students. Ukraine_sentence_692

Ukrainian universities confer two degrees: the bachelor's degree (4 years) and the master's degree (5–6th year), in accordance with the Bologna process. Ukraine_sentence_693

Historically, Specialist degree (usually 5 years) is still also granted; it was the only degree awarded by universities in the Soviet times. Ukraine_sentence_694

The Law of Ukraine On Higher Education came into force on 6 September 2014. Ukraine_sentence_695

It was approved in Ukrainian Parliament on 1 July 2014. Ukraine_sentence_696

The main changes in the system of higher education: a separate collegiate body to monitor the quality of education was established (Ukrainian: Національне агентство із забезпечення якості вищої освіти); each higher education institution has the right to implement its own educational and research programs; role of the student government was increased; higher education institution has the right to freely administer own revenues; 5 following types of higher education qualifications were established: Junior Bachelor, Bachelor, Master, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Science; load on lecturers and students was reduced; academic mobility for faculty and students etc. Ukraine_sentence_697

Regional differences Ukraine_section_43

See also: Demographics of Ukraine § Regional differences, Central Ukraine, Eastern Ukraine, Southern Ukraine, and Western Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_698

Ukrainian is the dominant language in Western Ukraine and in Central Ukraine, while Russian is the dominant language in the cities of Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_699

In the Ukrainian SSR schools, learning Russian was mandatory; currently in modern Ukraine, schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction offer classes in Russian and in the other minority languages. Ukraine_sentence_700

On the Russian language, on Soviet Union and Ukrainian nationalism, opinion in Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine tends to be the exact opposite of those in Western Ukraine; while opinions in Central Ukraine on these topics tend be less extreme. Ukraine_sentence_701

Similar historical cleavages also remain evident at the level of individual social identification. Ukraine_sentence_702

Attitudes toward the most important political issue, relations with Russia, differed strongly between Lviv, identifying more with Ukrainian nationalism and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Donetsk, predominantly Russian orientated and favourable to the Soviet era, while in central and southern Ukraine, as well as Kyiv, such divisions were less important and there was less antipathy toward people from other regions (a poll by the Research & Branding Group held March 2010 showed that the attitude of the citizens of Donetsk to the citizens of Lviv was 79% positive and that the attitude of the citizens of Lviv to the citizens of Donetsk was 88% positive). Ukraine_sentence_703

However, all were united by an overarching Ukrainian identity based on shared economic difficulties, showing that other attitudes are determined more by culture and politics than by demographic differences. Ukraine_sentence_704

Surveys of regional identities in Ukraine have shown that the feeling of belonging to a "Soviet identity" is strongest in the Donbas (about 40%) and the Crimea (about 30%). Ukraine_sentence_705

During elections voters of Western and Central Ukrainian oblasts (provinces) vote mostly for parties (Our Ukraine, Batkivshchyna) and presidential candidates (Viktor Yuschenko, Yulia Tymoshenko) with a pro-Western and state reform platform, while voters in Southern and Eastern oblasts vote for parties (CPU, Party of Regions) and presidential candidates (Viktor Yanukovych) with a pro-Russian and status quo platform. Ukraine_sentence_706

However, this geographical division is decreasing. Ukraine_sentence_707

Urbanisation Ukraine_section_44

Main article: List of cities in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_708

In total, Ukraine has 457 cities, 176 of them are labelled oblast-class, 279 smaller raion-class cities, and two special legal status cities. Ukraine_sentence_709

These are followed by 886 urban-type settlements and 28,552 villages. Ukraine_sentence_710

Culture Ukraine_section_45

Main article: Ukrainian culture Ukraine_sentence_711

Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Orthodox Christianity, the dominant religion in the country. Ukraine_sentence_712

Gender roles also tend to be more traditional, and grandparents play a greater role in bringing up children, than in the West. Ukraine_sentence_713

The culture of Ukraine has also been influenced by its eastern and western neighbours, reflected in its architecture, music and art. Ukraine_sentence_714

The Communist era had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_715

In 1932, Stalin made socialist realism state policy in the Soviet Union when he promulgated the decree "On the Reconstruction of Literary and Art Organisations". Ukraine_sentence_716

This greatly stifled creativity. Ukraine_sentence_717

During the 1980s glasnost (openness) was introduced and Soviet artists and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted. Ukraine_sentence_718

The tradition of the Easter egg, known as pysanky, has long roots in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_719

These eggs were drawn on with wax to create a pattern; then, the dye was applied to give the eggs their pleasant colours, the dye did not affect the previously wax-coated parts of the egg. Ukraine_sentence_720

After the entire egg was dyed, the wax was removed leaving only the colourful pattern. Ukraine_sentence_721

This tradition is thousands of years old, and precedes the arrival of Christianity to Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_722

In the city of Kolomyia near the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains in 2000 was built the museum of Pysanka which won a nomination as the monument of modern Ukraine in 2007, part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine action. Ukraine_sentence_723

Weaving and embroidery Ukraine_section_46

Artisan textile arts play an important role in Ukrainian culture, especially in Ukrainian wedding traditions. Ukraine_sentence_724

Ukrainian embroidery, weaving and lace-making are used in traditional folk dress and in traditional celebrations. Ukraine_sentence_725

Ukrainian embroidery varies depending on the region of origin and the designs have a long history of motifs, compositions, choice of colours and types of stitches. Ukraine_sentence_726

Use of colour is very important and has roots in Ukrainian folklore. Ukraine_sentence_727

Embroidery motifs found in different parts of Ukraine are preserved in the Rushnyk Museum in Pereiaslav. Ukraine_sentence_728

National dress is woven and highly decorated. Ukraine_sentence_729

Weaving with handmade looms is still practised in the village of Krupove, situated in Rivne Oblast. Ukraine_sentence_730

The village is the birthplace of two famous personalities in the scene of national crafts fabrication. Ukraine_sentence_731

Nina Myhailivna and Uliana Petrivna with international recognition. Ukraine_sentence_732

To preserve this traditional knowledge the village is planning to open a local weaving centre, a museum and weaving school. Ukraine_sentence_733

Literature Ukraine_section_47

Main article: Ukrainian literature Ukraine_sentence_734

The history of Ukrainian literature dates back to the 11th century, following the Christianisation of Kyivan Rus'. Ukraine_sentence_735

The writings of the time were mainly liturgical and were written in Old Church Slavonic. Ukraine_sentence_736

Historical accounts of the time were referred to as chronicles, the most significant of which was the Primary Chronicle. Ukraine_sentence_737

Literary activity faced a sudden decline during the Mongol invasion of Rus'. Ukraine_sentence_738

Ukrainian literature again began to develop in the 14th century, and was advanced significantly in the 16th century with the introduction of print and with the beginning of the Cossack era, under both Russian and Polish dominance. Ukraine_sentence_739

The Cossacks established an independent society and popularized a new kind of epic poems, which marked a high point of Ukrainian oral literature. Ukraine_sentence_740

These advances were then set back in the 17th and early 18th centuries, when publishing in the Ukrainian language was outlawed and prohibited. Ukraine_sentence_741

Nonetheless, by the late 18th century modern literary Ukrainian finally emerged. Ukraine_sentence_742

The 19th century initiated a vernacular period in Ukraine, led by Ivan Kotliarevsky's work Eneyida, the first publication written in modern Ukrainian. Ukraine_sentence_743

By the 1830s, Ukrainian romanticism began to develop, and the nation's most renowned cultural figure, romanticist poet-painter Taras Shevchenko emerged. Ukraine_sentence_744

Where Ivan Kotliarevsky is considered to be the father of literature in the Ukrainian vernacular; Shevchenko is the father of a national revival. Ukraine_sentence_745

Then, in 1863, use of the Ukrainian language in print was effectively prohibited by the Russian Empire. Ukraine_sentence_746

This severely curtailed literary activity in the area, and Ukrainian writers were forced to either publish their works in Russian or release them in Austrian controlled Galicia. Ukraine_sentence_747

The ban was never officially lifted, but it became obsolete after the revolution and the Bolsheviks' coming to power. Ukraine_sentence_748

Ukrainian literature continued to flourish in the early Soviet years, when nearly all literary trends were approved (the most important literary figures of that time were Mykola Khvylovy, Valerian Pidmohylny, Mykola Kulish, Mykhayl Semenko and some others). Ukraine_sentence_749

These policies faced a steep decline in the 1930s, when prominent representatives as well as many others were killed by NKVD as part of the Great Purge. Ukraine_sentence_750

In general around 223 writers were repressed by what was known as the Executed Renaissance. Ukraine_sentence_751

These repressions were part of Stalin's implemented policy of socialist realism. Ukraine_sentence_752

The doctrine did not necessarily repress the use of the Ukrainian language, but it required that writers follow a certain style in their works. Ukraine_sentence_753

In post-Stalinist times literary activities continued to be somewhat limited under the Communist Party. Ukraine_sentence_754

The most famous figures of Ukrainian post-war Soviet literature were Lina Kostenko, Dmytro Pavlychko, Borys Oliynyk (poet), Ivan Drach, Oles Honchar, Vasyl Stus, Vasyl Symonenko. Ukraine_sentence_755

Literary freedom grew in the late 1980s and early 1990s alongside the decline and collapse of the USSR and the reestablishment of Ukrainian independence in 1991. Ukraine_sentence_756

Architecture Ukraine_section_48

Main article: Ukrainian architecture Ukraine_sentence_757

Ukrainian architecture includes the motifs and styles that are found in structures built in modern Ukraine, and by Ukrainians worldwide. Ukraine_sentence_758

These include initial roots which were established in the Eastern Slavic state of Kyivan Rus'. Ukraine_sentence_759

Since the Christianization of Kyivan Rus' for several ages Ukrainian architecture was influenced by the Byzantine architecture. Ukraine_sentence_760

After the 12th century, the distinct architectural history continued in the principalities of Galicia-Volhynia. Ukraine_sentence_761

During the epoch of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, a new style unique to Ukraine was developed under the western influences of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ukraine_sentence_762

After the union with the Tsardom of Russia, many structures in the larger eastern, Russian-ruled area were built in the styles of Russian architecture of that period, whilst the western Galicia was developed under Austro-Hungarian architectural influences. Ukraine_sentence_763

Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_764

The great churches of the Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. Ukraine_sentence_765

The architectural style of the Kyivan state was strongly influenced by the Byzantine. Ukraine_sentence_766

Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, with the simplest form of church becoming known as a cell church. Ukraine_sentence_767

Major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes, which led some art historians to take this as an indication of the appearance of pre-Christian pagan Slavic temples. Ukraine_sentence_768

Several examples of these churches survive; however, during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, many were externally rebuilt in the Ukrainian Baroque style (see below). Ukraine_sentence_769

Examples include the grand St. Ukraine_sentence_770 Sophia of Kyiv – the year 1017 is the earliest record of foundation laid, Church of the Saviour at Berestove – built from 1113 to 1125 and St. Ukraine_sentence_771 Cyril's Church, circa 12th-century. Ukraine_sentence_772

All can still be found in the Ukrainian capital. Ukraine_sentence_773

Several buildings were reconstructed during the late-19th century, including the in Volodymyr-Volynskyi, built in 1160 and reconstructed in 1896–1900, the , built in 1201 with reconstruction done in the late 1940s, and the Golden gates in Kyiv, built in 1037 and reconstructed in 1982. Ukraine_sentence_774

The latter's reconstruction was criticised by some art and architecture historians as a revivalist fantasy. Ukraine_sentence_775

Unfortunately little secular or vernacular architecture of Kyivan Rus' has survived. Ukraine_sentence_776

As Ukraine became increasingly integrated into the Russian Empire, Russian architects had the opportunity to realise their projects in the picturesque landscape that many Ukrainian cities and regions offered. Ukraine_sentence_777

St. Ukraine_sentence_778 Andrew's Church of Kyiv (1747–1754), built by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, is a notable example of Baroque architecture, and its location on top of the Kyivan mountain made it a recognisable monument of the city. Ukraine_sentence_779

An equally notable contribution of Rasetrelli was the Mariyinsky Palace, which was built to be a summer residence to Russian Empress Elizabeth. Ukraine_sentence_780

During the reign of the last Hetman of Ukraine, Kirill Razumovsky, many of the Cossack Hetmanate's towns such as Hlukhiv, Baturyn and Koselets had grandiose projects built by Andrey Kvasov. Ukraine_sentence_781

Russia eventually conquered the south of Ukraine and Crimea, and renamed them as New Russia. Ukraine_sentence_782

New cities such as Nikolayev, Odessa, Kherson and Sevastopol were founded. Ukraine_sentence_783

These would contain notable examples of Imperial Russian architecture. Ukraine_sentence_784

In 1934, the capital of Soviet Ukraine moved from Kharkiv to Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_785

Previously, the city was seen as only a regional centre, hence received little attention. Ukraine_sentence_786

All of that was to change, at great price. Ukraine_sentence_787

The first examples of Stalinist architecture were already showing, and, in light of the official policy, a new city was to be built on top of the old one. Ukraine_sentence_788

This meant that much-admired examples such as the St. Ukraine_sentence_789 Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery were destroyed. Ukraine_sentence_790

Even the St. Sophia Cathedral was under threat. Ukraine_sentence_791

Also, the Second World War contributed to the wreckage. Ukraine_sentence_792

After the war, a new project for the reconstruction of central Kyiv transformed Khreshchatyk avenue into a notable example of Stalinism in Architecture. Ukraine_sentence_793

However, by 1955, the new politics of architecture once again stopped the project from fully being realised. Ukraine_sentence_794

The task for modern Ukrainian architecture is diverse application of modern aesthetics, the search for an architect's own artistic style and inclusion of the existing historico-cultural environment. Ukraine_sentence_795

An example of modern Ukrainian architecture is the reconstruction and renewal of the Maidan Nezalezhnosti in central Kyiv. Ukraine_sentence_796

Despite the limit set by narrow space within the plaza, the engineers were able to blend together the uneven landscape, and use underground space for a new shopping centre. Ukraine_sentence_797

A major project, which may take up most of the 21st century, is the construction of the Kyiv City-Centre on the Rybalskyi Peninsula, which, when finished, will include a dense skyscraper park amid the picturesque landscape of the Dnieper. Ukraine_sentence_798

Music Ukraine_section_49

Main article: Music of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_799

Music is a major part of Ukrainian culture, with a long history and many influences. Ukraine_sentence_800

From traditional folk music, to classical and modern rock, Ukraine has produced several internationally recognised musicians including Kirill Karabits, Okean Elzy and Ruslana. Ukraine_sentence_801

Elements from traditional Ukrainian folk music made their way into Western music and even into modern jazz. Ukraine_sentence_802

Ukrainian music sometimes presents a perplexing mix of exotic melismatic singing with chordal harmony. Ukraine_sentence_803

The most striking general characteristic of authentic ethnic Ukrainian folk music is the wide use of minor modes or keys which incorporate augmented 2nd intervals. Ukraine_sentence_804

During the Baroque period, music was an important discipline for those that had received a higher education in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_805

It had a place of considerable importance in the curriculum of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. Ukraine_sentence_806

Much of the nobility was well versed in music with many Ukrainian Cossack leaders such as (Mazepa, Paliy, Holovatyj, Sirko) being accomplished players of the kobza, bandura or torban. Ukraine_sentence_807

The first dedicated musical academy was set up in Hlukhiv, Ukraine in 1738 and students were taught to sing, play violin and bandura from manuscripts. Ukraine_sentence_808

As a result, many of the earliest composers and performers within the Russian empire were ethnically Ukrainian, having been born or educated in Hlukhiv, or had been closely associated with this music school. Ukraine_sentence_809

See: Dmytro Bortniansky, Maksym Berezovsky and Artemiy Vedel. Ukraine_sentence_810

Ukrainian classical music falls into three distinct categories defined by whether the composer was of Ukrainian ethnicity living in Ukraine, a composer of non-Ukrainian ethnicity who was born or at some time was a citizen of Ukraine, or an ethnic Ukrainian living outside of Ukraine within the Ukrainian diaspora. Ukraine_sentence_811

The music of these three groups differs considerably, as do the audiences for whom they cater. Ukraine_sentence_812

Since the mid-1960s, Western-influenced pop music has been growing in popularity in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_813

Folk singer and harmonium player Mariana Sadovska is prominent. Ukraine_sentence_814

Ukrainian pop and folk music arose with the international popularity of groups and performers like Vopli Vidoplyasova, Dakh Daughters, Dakha Brakha, Ivan Dorn and Okean Elzy. Ukraine_sentence_815

Modern musical culture of Ukraine is presented both with academic and entertainment music. Ukraine_sentence_816

Ukraine has five conservatories, 6 opera houses, five houses of Chamber Music, Philharmony in all regional centers. Ukraine_sentence_817

Ukraine hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 and the Eurovision Song Contest 2017. Ukraine_sentence_818

Cinema Ukraine_section_50

Main article: Cinema of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_819

Ukraine has had an influence on the history of the cinema. Ukraine_sentence_820

Ukrainian directors Alexander Dovzhenko, often cited as one of the most important early Soviet filmmakers, as well as being a pioneer of Soviet montage theory, Dovzhenko Film Studios, and Sergei Parajanov, Armenian film director and artist who made significant contributions to Ukrainian, Armenian and Georgian cinema. Ukraine_sentence_821

He invented his own cinematic style, Ukrainian poetic cinema, which was totally out of step with the guiding principles of socialist realism. Ukraine_sentence_822

Other important directors including Kira Muratova, Sergei Loznitsa, Myroslav Slaboshpytskyi, Larisa Shepitko, Sergei Bondarchuk, Leonid Bykov, Yuri Ilyenko, Leonid Osyka, Ihor Podolchak with his Delirium and Maryna Vroda. Ukraine_sentence_823

Many Ukrainian actors have achieved international fame and critical success, including: Vera Kholodnaya, Bohdan Stupka, Milla Jovovich, Olga Kurylenko, Mila Kunis. Ukraine_sentence_824

Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of European and Russian influence. Ukraine_sentence_825

Ukrainian producers are active in international co-productions and Ukrainian actors, directors and crew feature regularly in Russian (Soviet in past) films. Ukraine_sentence_826

Also successful films have been based on Ukrainian people, stories or events, including Battleship Potemkin, Man with a Movie Camera, Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom, Everything Is Illuminated. Ukraine_sentence_827

Ukrainian State Film Agency owns National Oleksandr Dovzhenko Film Centre, film copying laboratory and archive, takes part in hosting of the Odessa International Film Festival, and Molodist is the only one FIAPF accredited International Film Festival held in Ukraine; competition program is devoted to student, first short and first full feature films from all over the world. Ukraine_sentence_828

Held annually in October. Ukraine_sentence_829

Media Ukraine_section_51

Main article: Media of Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_830

Ukrayinska Pravda was founded by Georgiy Gongadze in April 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum). Ukraine_sentence_831

Published mainly in Ukrainian with selected articles published in or translated to Russian and English, the newspaper has particular emphasis on the politics of Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_832

Freedom of the press in Ukraine is considered to be among the freest of the post-Soviet states other than the Baltic states. Ukraine_sentence_833

Freedom House classifies the Internet in Ukraine as "free" and the press as "partly free". Ukraine_sentence_834

Press freedom has significantly improved since the Orange Revolution of 2004. Ukraine_sentence_835

However, in 2010 Freedom House perceived "negative trends in Ukraine". Ukraine_sentence_836

Kyiv dominates the media sector in Ukraine: the Kyiv Post is Ukraine's leading English-language newspaper. Ukraine_sentence_837

National newspapers Den, Mirror Weekly, tabloids, such as The Ukrainian Week or Focus (Russian), and television and radio are largely based there, although Lviv is also a significant national media centre. Ukraine_sentence_838

The National News Agency of Ukraine, Ukrinform was founded here in 1918. Ukraine_sentence_839

The Ukraine publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover. Ukraine_sentence_840

Sanoma publishes Ukrainian editions of such magazines as Esquire, Harpers Bazaar and National Geographic Magazine. Ukraine_sentence_841

BBC Ukrainian started its broadcasts in 1992. Ukraine_sentence_842

Ukrainians listen to radio programming, such as Radio Ukraine or Radio Liberty, largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day. Ukraine_sentence_843

Several television channels operate, and many websites are popular. Ukraine_sentence_844

Sport Ukraine_section_52

Main article: Sport in Ukraine Ukraine_sentence_845

Ukraine greatly benefited from the Soviet emphasis on physical education. Ukraine_sentence_846

Such policies left Ukraine with hundreds of stadia, swimming pools, gymnasia and many other athletic facilities. Ukraine_sentence_847

The most popular sport is football. Ukraine_sentence_848

The top professional league is the Vyscha Liha ("premier league"). Ukraine_sentence_849

Many Ukrainians also played for the Soviet national football team, most notably Ballon d'Or winners Ihor Belanov and Oleh Blokhin. Ukraine_sentence_850

This award was only presented to one Ukrainian after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Andriy Shevchenko. Ukraine_sentence_851

The national team made its debut in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and reached the quarterfinals before losing to eventual champions, Italy. Ukraine_sentence_852

Ukrainian boxers are amongst the best in the world. Ukraine_sentence_853

The brothers Vitali and Wladimir Klitschko are former heavyweight world champions who held multiple world titles throughout their careers. Ukraine_sentence_854

Also hailing from Ukraine, Vasyl Lomachenko, a 2008 and 2012 Olympic gold medalist. Ukraine_sentence_855

He is the current unified lightweight world champion who ties the record for winning a world title in the fewest professional fights; three. Ukraine_sentence_856

As of September 2018, he is ranked as the world's best active boxer, pound for pound, by ESPN, Ukraine_sentence_857

Sergey Bubka held the record in the Pole vault from 1993 to 2014; with great strength, speed and gymnastic abilities, he was voted the world's best athlete on several occasions. Ukraine_sentence_858

Basketball is becoming popular in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_859

In 2011, Ukraine was granted a right to organize EuroBasket 2015. Ukraine_sentence_860

Two years later the Ukraine national basketball team finished 6th in EuroBasket 2013 and qualified to FIBA World Cup for the first time in its history. Ukraine_sentence_861

Euroleague participant Budivelnyk Kyiv is the strongest professional basketball club in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_862

Chess is a popular sport in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_863

Ruslan Ponomariov is the former world champion. Ukraine_sentence_864

There are about 85 Grandmasters and 198 International Masters in Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_865

Rugby league is played throughout Ukraine. Ukraine_sentence_866

Ukraine made its Olympic debut at the 1994 Winter Olympics. Ukraine_sentence_867

So far, Ukraine at the Olympics has been much more successful in Summer Olympics (115 medals in five appearances) than in the Winter Olympics. Ukraine_sentence_868

Ukraine is currently ranked 35th by number of gold medals won in the All-time Olympic Games medal count, with every country above it, except for Russia, having more appearances. Ukraine_sentence_869

Cuisine Ukraine_section_53

Main article: Ukrainian cuisine Ukraine_sentence_870

The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms. Ukraine_sentence_871

Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh, boiled or pickled vegetables. Ukraine_sentence_872

Popular traditional dishes include varenyky (boiled dumplings with mushrooms, potatoes, sauerkraut, cottage cheese, cherries or berries), nalysnyky (pancakes with cottage cheese, poppy seeds, mushrooms, caviar or meat), kapuśniak (soup made with meat, potatoes, carrots, onions, cabbage, millet, tomato paste, spices and fresh herbs), borscht (soup made of beets, cabbage and mushrooms or meat), holubtsy (stuffed cabbage rolls filled with rice, carrots, onion and minced meat) and pierogi (dumplings filled with boiled potatoes and cheese or meat). Ukraine_sentence_873

Ukrainian specialties also include Chicken Kiev and Kyiv cake. Ukraine_sentence_874

Ukrainians drink stewed fruit, juices, milk, buttermilk (they make cottage cheese from this), mineral water, tea and coffee, beer, wine and horilka. Ukraine_sentence_875

See also Ukraine_section_54


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