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For other uses, see Omar (disambiguation). Omar_sentence_0


Umar ibn Al-Khattab

عمر بن الخطابOmar_header_cell_0_0_0

2nd Caliph of the Rashidun CaliphateOmar_header_cell_0_1_0
ReignOmar_header_cell_0_2_0 23 August 634 CE – 3 November 644 CEOmar_cell_0_2_1
PredecessorOmar_header_cell_0_3_0 Abu BakrOmar_cell_0_3_1
SuccessorOmar_header_cell_0_4_0 Uthman ibn AffanOmar_cell_0_4_1
BornOmar_header_cell_0_6_0 584

Mecca, ArabiaOmar_cell_0_6_1

DiedOmar_header_cell_0_7_0 November 644(644-11-00) (aged 59–60) (Dhu al-Hijjah 23 AH/Muharram 24 AH)

Medina, Arabia, Rashidun EmpireOmar_cell_0_7_1

BurialOmar_header_cell_0_8_0 Prophet's Mosque, MedinaOmar_cell_0_8_1
SpouseOmar_header_cell_0_9_0 {{ubl|Zaynab bint Madhun|Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal|Qurayba bint Abi Umayya|Jamila bint Thabit|Atiqa bint Zayd|Umm Hakim bint al-Harith|Umm Kulthum bint Ali|Omar_cell_0_9_1
IssueOmar_header_cell_0_10_0 Omar_cell_0_10_1
Full name‘Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb

Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب‎Omar_cell_0_11_0

Full nameOmar_header_cell_0_12_0
TribeOmar_header_cell_0_13_0 Quraysh (Banu Adi)Omar_cell_0_13_1
FatherOmar_header_cell_0_14_0 Khattab ibn NufaylOmar_cell_0_14_1
MotherOmar_header_cell_0_15_0 Hantamah binti HishamOmar_cell_0_15_1
Venerated inOmar_header_cell_0_16_0 All of Sunni Islam (Salafi Sunnis honor rather than venerate him).Omar_cell_0_16_1

Omar ((/ˈoʊmɑːr/), also spelled Umar /ˈuːmɑːr/; Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب‎ ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb [ˈʕomɑr-, ˈʕʊmɑr ɪbn alxɑtˤˈtˤɑːb, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE – 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. Omar_sentence_1

He was a senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Omar_sentence_2

He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. Omar_sentence_3

He was an expert Muslim jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes (between right and wrong)"). Omar_sentence_4

He is sometimes referred to as Omar I by historians of early Islam, since a later Umayyad caliph, Umar II, also bore that name. Omar_sentence_5

Under Omar, the caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate, ruling the Sasanian Empire and more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire. Omar_sentence_6

His attacks against the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in less than two years (642–644). Omar_sentence_7

According to Jewish tradition, Omar set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed them into Jerusalem and to worship. Omar_sentence_8

Omar was eventually killed by the Persian Piruz Nahavandi (known as ’Abū Lu’lu’ah in Arabic) in 644 CE. Omar_sentence_9

Omar is revered in the Sunni tradition as a great ruler and paragon of Islamic virtues, and some hadiths identify him as the second greatest of the Sahabah after Abu Bakr. Omar_sentence_10

He is viewed negatively in the Shia tradition. Omar_sentence_11

Early life Omar_section_0

Omar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitration among the tribes. Omar_sentence_12

His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantama bint Hisham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. Omar_sentence_13

In his youth he used to tend to his father's camels in the plains near Mecca. Omar_sentence_14

His merchant father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe. Omar_sentence_15

Omar himself said: "My father, Al-Khattab was a ruthless man. Omar_sentence_16

He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion." Omar_sentence_17

Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Omar learned to read and write in his youth. Omar_sentence_18

Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for poetry and literature. Omar_sentence_19

According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Omar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. Omar_sentence_20

He was tall, physically powerful and a renowned wrestler. Omar_sentence_21

He was also a gifted orator who succeeded his father as an arbitrator among the tribes. Omar_sentence_22

Omar became a merchant and made several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met various scholars and analyzed Roman and Persian societies. Omar_sentence_23

As a merchant he was unsuccessful. Omar_sentence_24

Like others around him, Omar was fond of drinking in his pre-Islamic days. Omar_sentence_25

During Muhammad's era Omar_section_1

Initial hostility to Islam Omar_section_2

In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam. Omar_sentence_26

However, like many others in Mecca, Omar opposed Islam and even threatened to kill Muhammad. Omar_sentence_27

He resolved to defend the traditional polytheistic religion of Arabia. Omar_sentence_28

He was adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad, and very prominent in persecuting Muslims. Omar_sentence_29

He recommended Muhammad's death. Omar_sentence_30

He firmly believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord. Omar_sentence_31

Due to persecution, Muhammad ordered some of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia. Omar_sentence_32

When a small group of Muslims migrated, Omar became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated. Omar_sentence_33

Conversion to Islam Omar_section_3

Omar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia. Omar_sentence_34

The story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah. Omar_sentence_35

On his way to murder Muhammad, Omar met his best friend Nua'im bin Abdullah who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Omar. Omar_sentence_36

When Omar informed him that he had set out to kill Muhammad, Nua'im said, “By God, you have deceived yourself, O Omar! Omar_sentence_37

Do you think that Banu Abd Manaf would let you run around alive once you had killed their son Muhammad? Omar_sentence_38

Why don't you return to your own house and at least set it straight?" Omar_sentence_39

Nuaimal Hakim told him to inquire about his own house where his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Omar_sentence_40

Upon arriving at her house, Omar found his sister and brother-in-law Saeed bin Zaid (Omar's cousin) reciting the verses of the Quran from sura Ta-Ha. Omar_sentence_41

He started quarreling with his brother-in-law. Omar_sentence_42

When his sister came to rescue her husband, he also started quarreling with her. Omar_sentence_43

Yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". Omar_sentence_44

Upon hearing these words, Omar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth. Omar_sentence_45

When he saw what he did to his sister, he calmed down out of guilt and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. Omar_sentence_46

His sister replied in the negative and said "You are unclean, and no unclean person can touch the Scripture." Omar_sentence_47

He insisted, but his sister was not prepared to allow him to touch the pages unless he washed his body. Omar_sentence_48

Omar at last gave in. Omar_sentence_49

He washed his body and then began to read the verses that were: Verily, I am Allah: there is no God but Me; so serve Me (only), and establish regular prayer for My remembrance (Quran 20:14). Omar_sentence_50

He wept and declared, "Surely this is the word of Allah. Omar_sentence_51

I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." Omar_sentence_52

On hearing this, Khabbab came out from inside and said: "O, Omar! Omar_sentence_53

Glad tidings for you. Omar_sentence_54

Yesterday Muhammad prayed to Allah, 'O, Allah! Omar_sentence_55

Strengthen Islam with either Omar or Abu Jahl, whomsoever Thou likest.' Omar_sentence_56

It seems that his prayer has been answered in your favour." Omar_sentence_57

Omar then went to Muhammad with the same sword he intended to kill him with and accepted Islam in front of him and his companions. Omar_sentence_58

Omar was 39 years old when he accepted Islam. Omar_sentence_59

Following his conversion, Omar went to inform the chief of Quraish, Amr ibn Hishām, about his acceptance of Islam. Omar_sentence_60

According to one account, Omar thereafter openly prayed at the Kaaba as the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hishām and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, reportedly watched in anger. Omar_sentence_61

This further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. Omar_sentence_62

At this stage Omar even challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to interfere with Omar when he was openly praying. Omar_sentence_63

Omar's conversion to Islam granted power to the Muslims and to the Islamic faith in Mecca. Omar_sentence_64

It was after this event that Muslims offered prayers openly in Masjid al-Haram for the first time. Omar_sentence_65

Abdullah bin Masoud said, Omar_sentence_66

Migration to Medina Omar_section_4

In 622 CE, due to the safety offered by Yathrib (later renamed Medīnat an-Nabī, or simply Medina), Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Medina. Omar_sentence_67

Most Muslims migrated at night fearing Quraish resistance, but Omar is reported to have left openly during the day saying: "Any one who wants to make his wife a widow and his children orphans should come and meet me there behind that cliff." Omar_sentence_68

Omar migrated to Medina accompanied by his cousin and brother-in-law Saeed ibn Zaid. Omar_sentence_69

Life in Medina Omar_section_5

When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired each immigrant (Muhajir) with one of the residents of the city (Ansari), joining Muhammad ibn Maslamah with Omar, making them brothers in faith. Omar_sentence_70

Later in Omar's reign as caliph, Muhammad ibn Muslamah would be assigned the office of Chief Inspector of Accountability. Omar_sentence_71

Muslims remained in peace in Medina for approximately a year before the Quraish raised an army to attack them. Omar_sentence_72

In 624 Omar participated in the first battle between Muslims and Quraish of Mecca i.e., the Battle of Badr. Omar_sentence_73

In 625 he took part in the Battle of Uhud. Omar_sentence_74

In the second phase of the battle, when Khalid ibn Walid's cavalry attacked the Muslim rear, turning the tide of battle, rumours of Muhammad's death were spread and many Muslim warriors were routed from the battlefield, Omar among them. Omar_sentence_75

However, hearing that Muhammad was still alive, he went to Muhammad at the mountain of Uhud and prepared for the defence of the hill. Omar_sentence_76

Later in the year Omar was a part of a campaign against the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. Omar_sentence_77

In 625 Omar's daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad. Omar_sentence_78

Later in 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza. Omar_sentence_79

In 628 Omar witnessed the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Omar_sentence_80

In 628 he fought in the Battle of Khaybar. Omar_sentence_81

In 629 Muhammad sent Amr ibn al-A’as to Zaat-ul-Sallasal, after which, Muhammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah with reinforcements, including Abu Bakr and Omar, whereupon they attacked and defeated the enemy. Omar_sentence_82

In 630, when Muslim armies rushed for the conquest of Mecca, he was part of that army. Omar_sentence_83

Later in 630, he fought in the Battle of Hunayn and the Siege of Ta'if. Omar_sentence_84

He was part of the Muslim army that contested the Battle of Tabouk under Muhammad's command and he was reported to have given half of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition. Omar_sentence_85

He also participated in the farewell Hajj of Muhammad in 632. Omar_sentence_86

Death of Muhammad Omar_section_6

When Muhammad died on 8 June 632 Omar initially disbelieved that he was dead. Omar_sentence_87

It is said that Omar promised to strike the head of any man who would say that Muhammad died. Omar_sentence_88

Omar said: "He has not died but rather he has gone to his lord just as Moses went, remaining absent from his people for forty nights after which he has returned to them. Omar_sentence_89

By Allah, the messenger of Allah will indeed return just as Moses returned (to his people) and he will cut off the hands and legs of those men who claimed he has died." Omar_sentence_90

Abu Bakr then publicly spoke to the community in the mosque, saying: Omar_sentence_91

Abū Bakr then recited these verses from the Qur'an: Omar_sentence_92

Hearing this, Omar fell on his knees in sorrow and acceptance. Omar_sentence_93

Sunni Muslims say that this denial of Muhammad's death was occasioned by his deep love for him. Omar_sentence_94

Foundation of the caliphate Omar_section_7

Omar's political capacity first manifested as the architect of the caliphate after Muhammad died on 8 June 632. Omar_sentence_95

While the funeral of Muhammad was being arranged a group of Muhammad's followers who were natives of Medina, the Ansar (helpers), organised a meeting on the outskirts of the city, effectively locking out those companions known as Muhajirs (The Emigrants) including Omar. Omar_sentence_96

Omar found out about this meeting at Saqifah Bani Saadah, and, taking with him two other Muhajirs, Abu Bakr and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, proceeded to the meeting, presumably to head off the Ansars' plans for political separation. Omar_sentence_97

Arriving at the meeting, Omar was faced with a unified community of tribes from the Ansar who refused to accept the leadership of the Muhajirs. Omar_sentence_98

However, Omar was undeterred in his belief the caliphate should be under the control of the Muhajirs. Omar_sentence_99

Though the Khazraj were in disagreement, Omar, after strained negotiations lasting one or two days, brilliantly divided the Ansar into their old warring factions of Aws and Khazraj tribes. Omar_sentence_100

Omar resolved the divisions by placing his hand on that of Abu Bakr as a unity candidate for those gathered in the Saqifah. Omar_sentence_101

Others at the Saqifah followed suit, with the exception of the Khazraj tribe and their leader, Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, who were ostracized as a result. Omar_sentence_102

The Khazraj tribe is said to have posed no significant threat as there were sufficient men of war from the Medinan tribes such as the Banu Aws to immediately organize them into a military bodyguard for Abu Bakr. Omar_sentence_103

Wilferd Madelung summarises Omar's contribution: Omar_sentence_104

According to various Twelver Shia sources and Madelung, Omar and Abu Bakr had in effect mounted a political coup against Ali at the Saqifah According to one version of narrations in primary sources, Omar and Abu Bakr are also said to have used force to try to secure the allegiance from Ali and his party. Omar_sentence_105

It has been reported in mainly Persian historical sources written 300 years later, such as in the History of al-Tabari, that after Ali's refusal to pay homage, Abu Bakr sent Omar with an armed contingent to Fatimah's house where Ali and his supporters are said to have gathered. Omar_sentence_106

Omar is reported to have warned those in the House that unless Ali succumbed to Abu Bakr, he would set the House on fire and under these circumstances Ali was forced to capitulate. Omar_sentence_107

This version of events, fully accepted by Shia scholars, is generally rejected by Sunni scholars who, in view of other reports in their literature, believe that Ali gave an oath of alliance to Abu Bakr without any grievance. Omar_sentence_108

But then other Sunni and Shia sources say that Ali did not swear allegiance to Abu Bakr after his election but six months later after the death of his wife Fatimah putting into question al-Tabari's account. Omar_sentence_109

Either way the Sunni and the Shia accounts both accept that Ali felt that Abu Bakr should have informed him before going into the meeting with the Ansar and that Ali did swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. Omar_sentence_110

Western scholars tend to agree that Ali believed he had a clear mandate to succeed Muhammad, but offer differing views as to the extent of use of force by Omar in an attempt to intimidate Ali and his supporters. Omar_sentence_111

For instance, Madelung discounts the possibility of the use of force and argues that: Omar_sentence_112

According to Tom Holland, Omar's historicity is beyond dispute. Omar_sentence_113

An Armenian bishop writing a decade or so after Qadisiyya describes Omar as a "mighty potentate coordinating the advance of the sons of Ismael from the depths of the desert". Omar_sentence_114

Tom Holland writes "What added incomparably to his prestige, was that his earth-shaking qualities as a generalissimo were combined with the most distinctive cast of virtues. Omar_sentence_115

Rather than ape the manner of a Caesar, as the Ghassanid kings had done, he drew on the example of a quite different kind of Christian. Omar_sentence_116

Omar's threadbare robes, his diet of bread, salt and water, and his rejection of worldly riches would have reminded anyone from the desert reaches beyond Palestine of a very particular kind of person. Omar_sentence_117

Monks out in the Judaean desert had long been casting themselves as warriors of God. Omar_sentence_118

The achievement of Omar was to take such language to a literal and previously unimaginable extreme." Omar_sentence_119

Abu Bakr's era Omar_section_8

Due to the delicate political situation in Arabia, Omar initially opposed military operations against the rebel tribes there, hoping to gain their support in the event of an invasion by the Romans or the Persians. Omar_sentence_120

Later, however, he came to agree with Abu Bakr's strategy to crush the rebellion by force. Omar_sentence_121

By late 632 CE, Khalid ibn Walid had successfully united Arabia after consecutive victories against the rebels. Omar_sentence_122

During his own reign later, Omar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the incorporated lands rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare. Omar_sentence_123

Omar advised Abu Bakr to compile the Quran in the form of a book after 300 huffāẓ (memorizers) of the Quran died in the Battle of Yamamah. Omar_sentence_124

Appointment as a caliph Omar_section_9

Abu Bakr appointed Omar as his successor before dying in 634 CE. Omar_sentence_125

Due to his strict and autocratic nature, Omar was not a very popular figure among the notables of Medina and members of Majlis al Shura; accordingly, high-ranking companions of Abu Bakr attempted to discourage him from naming Omar. Omar_sentence_126

Nevertheless, Abu Bakr decided to make Omar his successor. Omar_sentence_127

Omar was well known for his extraordinary willpower, intelligence, political astuteness, impartiality, justice, and care for the poor. Omar_sentence_128

Abu Bakr is reported to have said to the high-ranking advisers: Omar_sentence_129

Abu Bakr was aware of Omar's power and ability to succeed him. Omar_sentence_130

His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions of power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. Omar_sentence_131

Before his death, Abu Bakr called Uthman to write his will in which he declared Omar his successor. Omar_sentence_132

In his will he instructed Omar to continue the conquests on Iraqi and Syrian fronts. Omar_sentence_133

Reign as caliph Omar_section_10

Initial challenges Omar_section_11

Even though almost all of the Muslims had given their pledge of loyalty to Omar, he was feared more than loved. Omar_sentence_134

According to Muhammad Husayn Haykal, the first challenge for Omar was to win over his subjects and the members of Majlis al Shura. Omar_sentence_135

Omar was a gifted orator, and he used his ability to improve his reputation among the people. Omar_sentence_136

Muhammad Husayn Haykal wrote that Omar's stress was on the well-being of the poor and underprivileged. Omar_sentence_137

In addition to this, Omar, in order to improve his reputation and relation with the Banu Hashim, the tribe of Ali, delivered to the latter his disputed estates in Khayber. Omar_sentence_138

He followed Abu Bakr's decision over the disputed land of Fidak, continuing to treat it as state property. Omar_sentence_139

In the Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners from rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the expeditions. Omar_sentence_140

Omar ordered a general amnesty for the prisoners, and their immediate emancipation. Omar_sentence_141

This made Omar quite popular among the Bedouin tribes. Omar_sentence_142

With the necessary public support on his side, Omar took the bold decision of recalling Khalid ibn Walid from supreme command on the Roman front. Omar_sentence_143

Political and civil administration Omar_section_12

The government of Omar was a unitary government, where the sovereign political authority was the caliph. Omar_sentence_144

The empire of Omar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories, e.g., Azerbaijan and Armenia, that had accepted the suzerainty of the caliphate. Omar_sentence_145

The provinces were administered by the provincial governors or Wali, personally and fastidiously selected by Omar. Omar_sentence_146

Provinces were further divided into about 100 districts. Omar_sentence_147

Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Amir, usually appointed by Omar himself, but occasionally also appointed by the provincial governor. Omar_sentence_148

Other officers at the provincial level were: Omar_sentence_149


  1. Katib, the Chief Secretary.Omar_item_0_0
  2. Katib-ud-Diwan, the Military Secretary.Omar_item_0_1
  3. Sahib-ul-Kharaj, the Revenue Collector.Omar_item_0_2
  4. Sahib-ul-Ahdath, the Police chief.Omar_item_0_3
  5. Sahib-Bait-ul-Mal, the Treasury Officer.Omar_item_0_4
  6. Qadi, the Chief Judge.Omar_item_0_5

In some districts there were separate military officers, though the Wali was, in most cases, the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province. Omar_sentence_150

Every appointment was made in writing. Omar_sentence_151

At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the Wali's conduct. Omar_sentence_152

On assuming office, the Wali was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them. Omar_sentence_153

Omar's general instructions to his officers were: Omar_sentence_154

Various other strict codes of conduct were to be obeyed by the governors and state officials. Omar_sentence_155

The principal officers were required to travel to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj, during which people were free to present any complaint against them. Omar_sentence_156

In order to minimize the chances of corruption, Omar made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. Omar_sentence_157

Provincial governors received as much as five to seven thousand dirham annually besides their shares of the spoils of war (if they were also the commander in chief of the army of their sector). Omar_sentence_158

Under Omar the empire was divided into the following provinces: Omar_sentence_159


  1. Mecca (Arabia)Omar_item_1_6
  2. Medina (Arabia)Omar_item_1_7
  3. Basra (Iraq)Omar_item_1_8
  4. Kufa (Iraq)Omar_item_1_9
  5. Jazira, in the upper reaches of the Tigris and EuphratesOmar_item_1_10
  6. SyriaOmar_item_1_11
  7. Iliyā' (إلياء) (Palestine)Omar_item_1_12
  8. Ramlah (Palestine)Omar_item_1_13
  9. Upper EgyptOmar_item_1_14
  10. Lower EgyptOmar_item_1_15
  11. Khorasan (Persia)Omar_item_1_16
  12. Azerbaijan (Persia)Omar_item_1_17
  13. Fars (Persia)Omar_item_1_18

Omar was first to establish a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State. Omar_sentence_160

This department acted as the Administrative court, where the legal proceedings were personally led by Omar. Omar_sentence_161

The Department was under the charge of Muhammad ibn Maslamah, one of Omar's most trusted men. Omar_sentence_162

In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Omar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action. Omar_sentence_163

Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. Omar_sentence_164

On occasion, the officers against whom complaints were received were summoned to Medina, and charged in Omar's administrative court. Omar_sentence_165

Omar was known for this intelligence service through which he made his officials accountable. Omar_sentence_166

This service was also said to have inspired fear in his subjects. Omar_sentence_167

Omar was a pioneer in some affairs: Omar_sentence_168


  1. Omar was the first to introduce the public ministry system, where the records of officials and soldiers were kept. He also kept a record system for messages he sent to Governors and heads of state.Omar_item_2_19
  2. He was the first to appoint police forces to keep civil order.Omar_item_2_20
  3. He was the first to discipline the people when they became disordered.Omar_item_2_21

Another important aspect of Omar's rule was that he forbade any of his governors and agents from engaging in any sort of business dealings whilst in a position of power. Omar_sentence_169

An agent of Omar by the name of Al Harith ibn K'ab ibn Wahb was once found to have extra money beyond his salary and Omar enquired about his wealth. Omar_sentence_170

Al Harith replied that he had some money and he engaged in trade with it. Omar_sentence_171

Omar said: By Allah, we did not send you to engage in trade! Omar_sentence_172

and he took from him the profits he had made. Omar_sentence_173

Canals Omar_section_13

Since Medina, with a rapidly growing population, was at risk of recurring famines when crops were lacking, Omar sought to facilitate the import of grain. Omar_sentence_174

He ordered the building of a canal connecting the Nile to the Red Sea and an improvement of port infrastructure on the Arabian coast. Omar_sentence_175

When Basra was established during Omar's rule, he started building a nine-mile canal from the Tigris to the new city for irrigation and drinking water. Omar_sentence_176

Al-Tabari reports that 'Utba ibn Ghazwan built the first canal from the Tigris River to the site of Basra when the city was in the planning stage. Omar_sentence_177

After the city was built, Omar appointed Abu Musa Ashaari (17-29/638 – 650) as its first governor. Omar_sentence_178

He began building two important canals, the al-Ubulla and the Ma'qil, linking Basra with the Tigris River. Omar_sentence_179

These two canals were the basis for the agricultural development for the whole Basra region and used for drinking water. Omar_sentence_180

Omar also adopted a policy of assigning barren lands to those who undertook to cultivate them. Omar_sentence_181

This policy continued during the Umayyad period and resulted in the cultivation of large areas of barren lands through the construction of irrigation canals by the state and by individuals. Omar_sentence_182

Reforms Omar_section_14

Main articles: Reforms of Umar's era and Covenant of Umar I Omar_sentence_183

Under Omar's leadership, the empire expanded; accordingly, he began to build a political structure that would hold together the vast territory. Omar_sentence_184

He undertook many administrative reforms and closely oversaw public policy, establishing an advanced administration for the newly conquered lands, including several new ministries and bureaucracies, and ordered a census of all the Muslim territories. Omar_sentence_185

During his rule, the garrison cities (amsar) of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. Omar_sentence_186

In 638, he extended and renovated the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) in Mecca and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina. Omar_sentence_187

Omar also ordered the expulsion to Syria and Iraq of the Christian and Jewish communities of Najran and Khaybar. Omar_sentence_188

He also permitted Jewish families to resettle in Jerusalem, which had previously been barred from all Jews. Omar_sentence_189

He issued orders that these Christians and Jews should be treated well and allotted them the equivalent amount of land in their new settlements. Omar_sentence_190

Omar also forbade non-Muslims from residing in the Hejaz for longer than three days. Omar_sentence_191

He was first to establish the army as a state department. Omar_sentence_192

Omar was founder of Fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence. Omar_sentence_193

He is regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the greatest Faqih, and, as such, he started the process of codifying Islamic Law. Omar_sentence_194

In 641, he established Bayt al-mal, a financial institution and started annual allowances for the Muslims. Omar_sentence_195

As a leader, 'Omar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Omar_sentence_196

Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. Omar_sentence_197

In 638, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year since the Hijra, he decreed that the Islamic calendar should be counted from the year of the Hijra of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Omar_sentence_198

Visit to Jerusalem in 637 CE Omar_section_15

Omar's visit to Jerusalem is documented in several sources. Omar_sentence_199

A recently discovered Judeo-Arabic text has disclosed the following anecdote: Omar_sentence_200

"Omar ordered Gentiles and a group of Jews to sweep the area of the Temple Mount. Omar_sentence_201

Omar oversaw the work. Omar_sentence_202

The Jews who had come sent letters to the rest of the Jews in Palestine and informed them that Omar had permitted resettlement of Jerusalem by Jews. Omar_sentence_203

Omar, after some consultation, permitted seventy Jewish households to return. Omar_sentence_204

They returned to live in the southern part of the city, i.e., the Market of the Jews. Omar_sentence_205

(Their aim was to be near the water of Silwan and the Temple Mount and its gates). Omar_sentence_206

Then the Commander Omar granted them this request. Omar_sentence_207

The seventy families moved to Jerusalem from Tiberias and the area around it with their wives and children." Omar_sentence_208

It is also reported in the name of the Alexandrian Bishop Eutychius (932–940 CE) that the rock known as the Temple Mount had been a place of ruins as far back as the time of the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who built churches in Jerusalem. Omar_sentence_209

"The Byzantines," he said, "had deliberately left the ancient site of the Temple as it was, and had even thrown rubbish on it, so that a great heap of rubble formed." Omar_sentence_210

It was only when Omar marched into Jerusalem with an army that he asked Kaab, who was Jewish before he converted to Islam, "Where do you advise me to build a place of worship?" Omar_sentence_211

Kaab indicated the Temple Rock, now a gigantic heap of ruins from the temple of Jupiter. Omar_sentence_212

The Jews, Kaab explained, had briefly won back their old capital a quarter of a century before (when Persians overran Syria and Palestine), but they had not had time to clear the site of the Temple, for the Rums (Byzantines) had recaptured the city. Omar_sentence_213

It was then that Omar ordered the rubbish on the Ṣakhra (rock) to be removed by the Nabataeans, and after three showers of heavy rain had cleansed the Rock, he instituted prayers there. Omar_sentence_214

To this day, the place is known as ḳubbat es ṣakhra, the Dome of the Rock. Omar_sentence_215

According to lexicographer David ben Abraham al-Fasi (died before 1026 CE), the Muslim conquest of Palestine brought relief to the country's Jewish citizens, who had previously been barred by the Byzantines from praying on the Temple Mount. Omar_sentence_216

Military expansion Omar_section_16

Main article: Military conquests of Umar's era Omar_sentence_217

The military conquests were partially terminated between 638 and 639 during the years of great famine in Arabia and plague in the Levant. Omar_sentence_218

During his reign the Levant, Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan, Eastern Anatolia, almost the whole of the Sassanid Persian Empire including Bactria, Persia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Caucasus and Makran were annexed to the Rashidun Caliphate. Omar_sentence_219

According to one estimate more than 4,050 cities were captured during these military conquests. Omar_sentence_220

Prior to his death in 644, Omar had ceased all military expeditions apparently to consolidate his rule in recently conquered Roman Egypt and the newly conquered Sassanid Empire (642–644). Omar_sentence_221

At his death in November 644, his rule extended from present day Libya in the west to the Indus river in the east and the Oxus river in the north. Omar_sentence_222

Great famine Omar_section_17

In 638 CE, Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. Omar_sentence_223

Soon after, the reserves of food at Medina began to run out. Omar_sentence_224

Omar ordered caravans of supplies from Syria and Iraq, and personally supervised their distribution. Omar_sentence_225

His actions saved countless lives throughout Arabia. Omar_sentence_226

The first governor to respond was Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, the governor of Syria and supreme commander of the Rashidun army. Omar_sentence_227

Later, Abu Ubaidah paid a personal visit to Medina and acted as an officer of disaster management, which was headed personally by Omar. Omar_sentence_228

For internally displaced people, Omar hosted a dinner every night at Medina, which according to one estimate, had attendance of more than a hundred thousand people. Omar_sentence_229

Great plague Omar_section_18

While famine was ending in Arabia, many districts in Syria and Palestine were devastated by plague. Omar_sentence_230

While Omar was on his way to visit Syria, at Elat, he was received by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, governor of Syria, who informed him about the plague and its intensity, and suggested that Omar go back to Medina. Omar_sentence_231

Omar tried to persuade Abu Ubaidah to come with him to Medina, but he declined to leave his troops in that critical situation. Omar_sentence_232

Abu Ubaidah died in 639 of the plague, which also cost the lives of 25,000 Muslims in Syria. Omar_sentence_233

After the plague had weakened, in late 639, Omar visited Syria for political and administrative re-organization, as most of the veteran commanders and governors had died of the plague. Omar_sentence_234

Welfare state Omar_section_19

To be close to the poor, Omar lived in a simple mud hut without doors and walked the streets every evening. Omar_sentence_235

After consulting with the poor, Omar established the first welfare state, Bayt al-mal. Omar_sentence_236

The Bayt al-mal aided the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. Omar_sentence_237

The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years, from the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century through the Umayyad period (661–750) and well into the Abbasid era. Omar_sentence_238

Omar also introduced a child benefit and pensions for the children and the elderly. Omar_sentence_239

Free trade Omar_section_20

Local populations of Jews and Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. Omar_sentence_240

As new areas were attached to the Caliphate, they also benefited from free trade, while trading with other areas in the Caliphate (to encourage commerce, in Islam trade is not taxed, but wealth is subject to the zakat). Omar_sentence_241

Since the so-called Constitution of Medina, drafted by Muhammad, the Jews and the Christians continued to use their own laws in the Caliphate and had their own judges. Omar_sentence_242

Assassination Omar_section_21

In 644, Omar was assassinated by a Persian slave named Abu Lulu by later accounts. Omar_sentence_243

His motivation for the assassination is not clear. Omar_sentence_244

One possible explanation was that it was done in response to the Muslim conquest of Persia. Omar_sentence_245

The assassination was planned several months earlier. Omar_sentence_246

In October 644, Omar undertook a Hajj to Mecca, during which the assassins pronounced Omar's imminent death that year, and the massive crowd of the congregation was used by the conspirators as a veil to hide themselves. Omar_sentence_247

During one of rituals of Hajj, the Ramy al-Jamarat (stoning of the Devil), someone threw a stone at Omar that wounded his head; a voice was heard that Omar will not attend the Hajj ever again. Omar_sentence_248

The Persian slave Piruz Nahavandi (also known as Abu Lulu) brought a complaint to Omar about the high tax charged by his master Mughirah. Omar_sentence_249

Omar wrote to Mughirah and inquired about the tax; Mughirah's reply was satisfactory, but Omar held that the tax charged to Abu Lulu was reasonable, owing to his daily income. Omar_sentence_250

Omar then is reported to have asked Abu Lulu: "I heard that you make windmills; make one for me as well." Omar_sentence_251

In a sullen mood, Piruz said, "Verily I will make such a mill for you, that the whole world would remember it". Omar_sentence_252

It was Piruz who was assigned the mission of assassinating Omar. Omar_sentence_253

According to the plan, before the Fajr prayers (the morning prayers before the dawn) Piruz would enter Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, the main mosque of Medina where Omar led the prayers and would attack Omar during the prayers, and then flee or mix with the congregation at the mosque. Omar_sentence_254

On 31 October 644, Piruz attacked Omar while he was leading the morning prayers, stabbing him six times in the belly and finally in the navel, that proved fatal. Omar_sentence_255

Omar was left profusely bleeding while Piruz tried to flee, but people from all sides rushed to capture him; in his efforts to escape he is reported to have wounded twelve other people, six or nine of whom later died, before slashing himself with his own blade to commit suicide. Omar_sentence_256

Omar died of the wounds three days later on Wednesday 3 November 644 (26 Dhu al-Hijjah 23 AH). Omar_sentence_257

As per Omar's will, he was buried next to Al-Masjid al-Nabawi alongside Muhammad and caliph Abu Bakr by the permission of Aisha. Omar_sentence_258

Aftermath Omar_section_22

On his deathbed, Omar vacillated on his succession. Omar_sentence_259

However, it has been reported that he said that if Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Khalid ibn Walid or Salim, the mawla and freed Persian slave, were alive he would have appointed one of them his successor. Omar_sentence_260

Omar finally appointed a committee of six persons to choose a caliph from amongst them: Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, Talha ibn Ubaidullah, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam. Omar_sentence_261

All six are among the ten people promised paradise according to Sunnis. Omar_sentence_262

The only one out of the 'famous ten' left out of the committee who was still alive at the time was Saeed ibn Zaid, the cousin and brother-in-law of Omar. Omar_sentence_263

He was excluded on the basis of being related by blood and of the same tribe as Omar. Omar_sentence_264

Omar had a policy of not appointing anyone related to him to a position of authority even if they were qualified by his standards. Omar_sentence_265

Omar appointed a band of fifty armed soldiers to protect the house where the meeting was proceeding. Omar_sentence_266

Until the appointment of the next caliph, Omar appointed a notable Sahabi and mawla, Suhayb ar-Rumi (Suhayb the Roman), as a caretaker caliph. Omar_sentence_267

While the meeting for selection of a caliph was proceeding, Abdulrehman ibn Abu Bakr and Abdur Rahman bin Awf revealed that they saw the dagger used by Piruz, the assassin of Omar. Omar_sentence_268

A night before Omar's assassination, reported Abdur Rahman bin Awf, he saw Hurmuzan, Jafina and Abu Lulu, while they were suspiciously discussing something. Omar_sentence_269

Surprised by his presence, the dagger fell; it was the same two-sided dagger used in the assassination. Omar_sentence_270

Abdulrehman ibn Abu Bakr, son of the late caliph Abu Bakr, confirmed that, a few days before Omar's assassination, he saw this dagger in Hurmuzan's possession. Omar_sentence_271

After this revelation, it seemed clear that it had been planned by the Persians residing in Medina. Omar_sentence_272

Infuriated by this, Omar's younger son Ubaidullah ibn Umar sought to kill all the Persians in Medina. Omar_sentence_273

He killed Hurmuzan, Jafinah, and the daughter of Omar's assassin Abu Lulu, who is believed to have been a Muslim. Omar_sentence_274

Ubaidullah was intercepted by the people of Medina, who prevented him from continuing the massacre. Omar_sentence_275

Amr ibn al-Aas is said to have intercepted him and convinced him to hand over his sword. Omar_sentence_276

The murder of Jafinah enraged Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, his foster brother, and he assaulted Ubaidullah ibn Umar; again the companions intervened. Omar_sentence_277

When Omar was informed about the incident, he ordered Ubaidullah imprisoned, and that the next caliph should decide his fate. Omar_sentence_278

Omar died on 3 November 644; on 7 November Uthman succeeded him as caliph. Omar_sentence_279

After prolonged negotiations, the tribunal decided to give blood money to the victims, and released Omar's son Ubaidullah on the ground that, after the tragedy of Omar's assassination, people would be further infuriated by the execution of his son the very next day. Omar_sentence_280

Physical appearance Omar_section_23

Omar was strong, fit, athletic and good at wrestling. Omar_sentence_281

He is said to have participated in the wrestling matches on the occasion of the annual fair of Ukaz. Omar_sentence_282

From first hand accounts of his physical appearance Omar is said to be vigorous, robust and a very tall man; in markets he would tower above the people. Omar_sentence_283

The front part of his head was bald, always A'sara Yusran (working with two hands), both his eyes were black, with yellow skin; however, ibn Sa'ad in his book stated that he never knew that 'Omar had yellow skin, except for a certain part of Omar's life where his color changed due to his frequent consumption of oil. Omar_sentence_284

Others say he had reddish-white skin. Omar_sentence_285

His teeth were ashnabul asnan (very white shining). Omar_sentence_286

He would always color his beard and take care of his hair using a type of plant. Omar_sentence_287

Early Muslim historians Ibn Saad and Al-Hakim mention that Abu Miriam Zir, a native of Kufa, described Omar as being "advanced in years, bald, of a tawny colour – a left handed man, tall and towering above the people". Omar_sentence_288

Omar's eldest son Abdullah described his father as "a man of fair complexion, a ruddy tint prevailing, tall, bald and grey". Omar_sentence_289

Historian Salima bin al-Akwa'a said that "Omar was ambidextrous, he could use both his hands equally well". Omar_sentence_290

On the authority of Abu Raja al-U'taridi, Ibn Asakir records that "Omar was a man tall, stout, very bald, very ruddy with scanty hair on the cheeks, his moustaches large, and the ends thereof reddish". Omar_sentence_291

Assessments Omar_section_24

Political legacy Omar_section_25

One writer states that Omar was a political genius and, as an architect of the Islamic Empire, rates him as the 52nd most influential figure in history. Omar_sentence_292

Omar was one of Muhammad's chief advisers. Omar_sentence_293

After Muhammad's passing, it was Omar who reconciled the Medinan Muslims to accept Abu Bakr, a Meccan, as the caliph. Omar_sentence_294

During Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his secretary and main adviser. Omar_sentence_295

After succeeding Abu Bakr as caliph, Omar won over the hearts of Bedouin tribes by emancipating all their prisoners and slaves taken during the Ridda wars. Omar_sentence_296

He built up an efficient administrative structure that held together his vast realm. Omar_sentence_297

He organized an effective intelligence network, one of the reasons for his strong grip on his bureaucracy. Omar_sentence_298

Omar never appointed governors for more than two years, for they might amass too much local power. Omar_sentence_299

He dismissed his most successful general, Khalid ibn Walid, because he wanted people to know that it is Allah who grants victory, and to counter the cult of personality that had built up around Khalid, for the sake of the Muslim faith. Omar_sentence_300

He would patrol the streets of Medina with a whip in his hand, ready to punish any offenders he might come across. Omar_sentence_301

It is said that Omar's whip was feared more than the sword of another man. Omar_sentence_302

But with all of this, he was also known for being kindhearted, answering the needs of the fatherless and widows. Omar_sentence_303

Omar's swift imposition of justice against his governors for misdeeds made even powerful governors such as Muawiyah scared of him. Omar_sentence_304

Ali ibn Abu Talib, during the later rule of Uthman ibn Affan, wanted Uthman to be more strict with his governors, saying, "I adjure you by God, do you know that Mu'awiyah was more afraid of Omar than was Omar's own servant Yarfa?" Omar_sentence_305

Under Omar's rule, in order to promote strict discipline, Arab soldiers were settled outside of cities, between the desert and cultivated lands in special garrison towns known as "amsar". Omar_sentence_306

Known examples of such settlements are Basra and Kufa, in Iraq, and Fustat south of what would later become Cairo. Omar_sentence_307

His soldiers were forbidden to own land outside of Arabia. Omar_sentence_308

There were restrictions on their right to seize buildings and other immovable things usually thought of as prizes of war. Omar_sentence_309

Movable spoils were shared with the people of the umma, regardless of their social stratum. Omar_sentence_310

A modern researcher writes about this: Omar_sentence_311

In The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Gibbon refers to Omar in the following terms: Omar_sentence_312

His rule was one of the few moments in the history of Islam where Muslims were united as a single community. Omar_sentence_313

Abdullah ibn Masʿud would often weep whenever the subject of Omar was brought up. Omar_sentence_314

He said: "Umar was a fortress of Islam. Omar_sentence_315

People would enter Islam and not leave. Omar_sentence_316

When he died, the fortress was breached and now people are going out of Islam". Omar_sentence_317

Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah before Omar died famously said: "If Omar dies, Islam would be weakened". Omar_sentence_318

People asked him why and his reply was "You will see what I am speaking about if you survive." Omar_sentence_319

His greatest achievement from a religious perspective was the compilation of the Qur'an. Omar_sentence_320

This had not been done during the time of Muhammad. Omar_sentence_321

However, during the Battle of Yamama a great number of the memorizers of the Quran perished in the battle. Omar_sentence_322

On the advice of Omar, Abu Bakr tasked Zayd ibn Thabit with the momentous task of compiling the Quran into a single Book. Omar_sentence_323

Military legacy Omar_section_26

Along with Khalid ibn Walid, Omar was influential in the Ridda wars. Omar_sentence_324

One strategic success was his sundering of the Byzantine-Sassanid alliance in 636, when Emperor Heraclius and Emperor Yazdegerd III allied against their common enemy. Omar_sentence_325

He was lucky in that the Persian Emperor Yazdegerd III couldn't synchronize with Heraclius as planned. Omar_sentence_326

Omar fully availed himself of the opportunity by inducing the Byzantines to act prematurely. Omar_sentence_327

This was contrary to the orders of Emperor Heraclius, who presumably wanted a coordinated attack along with the Persians. Omar_sentence_328

Omar did this by sending reinforcements to the Roman front in the Battle of Yarmouk, with instructions that they should appear in the form of small bands, one after the other, giving the impression of a continuous stream of reinforcements that finally lured the Byzantines to an untimely battle. Omar_sentence_329

On the other hand, Yazdegerd III was engaged in negotiations that further gave Omar time to transfer his troops from Syria to Iraq. Omar_sentence_330

These troops proved decisive in the Battle of Qadisiyyah. Omar_sentence_331

His strategy resulted in a Muslim victory at the Second Battle of Emesa in 638, where the pro-Byzantine Christian Arabs of Jazira, aided by the Byzantine Emperor, made an unexpected flanking movement and laid siege to Emesa (Homs). Omar_sentence_332

Omar issued an order to invade the very homeland of the Christian Arab forces besieging Emesa, the Jazirah. Omar_sentence_333

A three-pronged attack against Jazirah was launched from Iraq. Omar_sentence_334

To further pressure the Christian Arab armies, Omar instructed Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, commander of Muslim forces in Iraq, to send reinforcements to Emesa. Omar_sentence_335

Omar himself led reinforcements there from Medina. Omar_sentence_336

Under this unprecedented pressure, the Christian Arabs retreated from Emesa before Muslim reinforcements could arrive. Omar_sentence_337

The Muslims annexed Mesopotamia and parts of Byzantine Armenia. Omar_sentence_338

After the Battle of Nahavand, Omar launched a full-scale invasion of the Sassanid Persian Empire. Omar_sentence_339

The invasion was a series of well-coordinated multi-pronged attacks designed to isolate and destroy their targets. Omar_sentence_340

Omar launched the invasion by attacking the very heart of Persia, aiming to isolate Azerbaijan and eastern Persia. Omar_sentence_341

This was immediately followed by simultaneous attacks on Azerbaijan and Fars. Omar_sentence_342

Next, Sistan and Kirman were captured, thus isolating the stronghold of Persia, the Khurasan. Omar_sentence_343

The final expedition was launched against Khurasan, where, after the Battle of Oxus River, the Persian empire ceased to exist, and Yazdegerd III fled to Central Asia. Omar_sentence_344

Religious legacy Omar_section_27

Sunni views Omar_section_28

Main article: Sunni view of Umar Omar_sentence_345

Omar is remembered by Sunnis as a rigid Muslim of a sound and just disposition in matters of religion; a man they title Farooq, meaning "leader, jurist and statesman", and the second of the rightly guided caliphs. Omar_sentence_346

He patched his clothes with skin, took buckets on his two shoulders, always riding his donkey without the saddle, rarely laughing and never joking with anyone. Omar_sentence_347

On his ring is written the words "Enough is Death as a reminder to you O' 'Omar". Omar_sentence_348

He did not seek advancement for his own family, but rather sought to advance the interests of the Muslim community, the ummah. Omar_sentence_349

According to one of Muhammad's companions, Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud: Omar_sentence_350

Shia views Omar_section_29

Main article: Shia view of Umar Omar_sentence_351

Omar is viewed very negatively in the literature of Twelver Shi'a (the main branch of Shia Islam) and is often regarded as a usurper of Ali's right to the Caliphate. Omar_sentence_352

After the Saqifah assembly chose Abu Bakr as caliph, Omar marched with armed men to Ali's house in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his supporters. Omar_sentence_353

Sources indicate that a threat was made to burn Ali's house if he refused, but the encounter ended when Fatimah, wife of Ali, intervened. Omar_sentence_354

According to the majority of Twelver scholar writings, Fatimah was physically assaulted by Omar, that this caused her to miscarry her child, Muhsin ibn Ali, and led to her death soon after. Omar_sentence_355

(see Umar at Fatimah's house). Omar_sentence_356

However, some Twelver scholars, such as Fadhlalla, reject these accounts of physical abuse as a "myth", although Fadlallah mentioned that his speech is a probability, and not a certain reason to reject that event. Omar_sentence_357

Another Shia sect, the Zaidiyyah followers of Zaid ibn Ali, generally has two views about that. Omar_sentence_358

Some branches, such as Jaroudiah (Sarhubiyya), don't accept Omar and Abu Bakr as legitimate caliphs. Omar_sentence_359

For instance, Jarudiyya believes that Muhammad appointed Ali and believes that the denial of the Imamate of Ali after Muhammad's passing would lead to infidelity and deviation from the right path. Omar_sentence_360

The other view accepts Omar and Abu Bakr as legitimate caliphs, albeit inferior to Ali. Omar_sentence_361

According to al-Tabari (and Ibn A'tham), when asked about Abu Bakr and Omar, Zayd ibn Ali replied: "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Omar_sentence_362

". Omar_sentence_363

Family Omar_section_30

Main article: Family tree of Umar Omar_sentence_364

Omar married nine women in his lifetime and had fourteen children: ten sons and four daughters. Omar_sentence_365

See also Omar_section_31


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