United Arab Emirates

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"UAE" redirects here. United Arab Emirates_sentence_0

For other uses, see UAE (disambiguation). United Arab Emirates_sentence_1

United Arab Emirates_table_infobox_0

United Arab Emirates

الإمارات العربية المتحدة (Arabic) al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyah al-MuttaḥidahUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_1_0 Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_2_0 DubaiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_2_1
Official languagesUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_3_0 ArabicUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2015)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_4_0 United Arab Emirates_cell_0_4_1
ReligionUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_5_0 IslamUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_6_0 EmiratiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal elective constitutional monarchyUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_7_1
PresidentUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_8_0 Khalifa bin Zayed Al NahyanUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_8_1
Prime Minister & Vice PresidentUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_9_0 Mohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_9_1
SpeakerUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_10_0 Saqr GhobashUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_11_0 Federal National CouncilUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_11_1
Emirate of Ras Al KhaimahUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_13_0 1708United Arab Emirates_cell_0_13_1
SharjahUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_14_0 1727United Arab Emirates_cell_0_14_1
Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_15_0 1761United Arab Emirates_cell_0_15_1
Umm Al QuwainUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_16_0 1768United Arab Emirates_cell_0_16_1
AjmanUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_17_0 1816United Arab Emirates_cell_0_17_1
DubaiUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_18_0 1833United Arab Emirates_cell_0_18_1
FujairahUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_19_0 1879United Arab Emirates_cell_0_19_1
Independence from the United Kingdom and the Trucial StatesUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_20_0 2 December 1971United Arab Emirates_cell_0_20_1
Admitted to the United NationsUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_21_0 9 December 1971United Arab Emirates_cell_0_21_1
Admission of Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah to the UAEUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_22_0 10 February 1972United Arab Emirates_cell_0_22_1
AreaUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_23_0
TotalUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_24_0 83,600 km (32,300 sq mi) (114th)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_24_1
Water (%)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_25_0 negligibleUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_25_1
PopulationUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_26_0
2020 estimateUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_27_0 9,890,400 (92nd)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_27_1
2005 censusUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_28_0 4,106,427United Arab Emirates_cell_0_28_1
DensityUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_29_0 99/km (256.4/sq mi) (110th)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_29_1
GDP (PPP)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_30_0 2020 estimateUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_30_1
TotalUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_31_0 US$987.456 billion (32nd)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_32_0 US$70,441 (7th)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_32_1
GDP (nominal)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_33_0 2018 estimateUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_33_1
TotalUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_34_0 US$432.612 billion (28th)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_34_1
Per capitaUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_35_0 US$41,476 (19th)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_35_1
Gini (2014)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_36_0 32.5

mediumUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_36_1

HDI (2018)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_37_0 0.866

very high · 35thUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_37_1

CurrencyUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_38_0 UAE dirham (AED)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_38_1
Time zoneUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC+04:00 (United Arab Emirates Standard Time)United Arab Emirates_cell_0_39_1
Date formatUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_40_0 dd/mm/yyyyUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_40_1
Driving sideUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_41_0 rightUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_41_1
Calling codeUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_42_0 +971United Arab Emirates_cell_0_42_1
ISO 3166 codeUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_43_0 AEUnited Arab Emirates_cell_0_43_1
Internet TLDUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_0_44_0 United Arab Emirates_cell_0_44_1

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic: الإمارات العربية المتحدة al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyah al-Muttaḥidah), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabic: الإمارات al-ʾImārāt), is a sovereign state in Western Asia located at the eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula. United Arab Emirates_sentence_2

It borders Oman and Saudi Arabia, and has maritime borders in the Persian Gulf with Qatar and Iran. United Arab Emirates_sentence_3

It is a federal elective constitutional monarchy formed from a federation of seven emirates, consisting of Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. United Arab Emirates_sentence_4

Their boundaries have numerous enclaves within each other. United Arab Emirates_sentence_5

Each emirate is governed by a ruler, who together form the Federal Supreme Council, and one of whom serves as President of the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_6

In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million were Emirati citizens and 7.8 million were expatriates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_7

The estimated population of the UAE in 2020 was 9.89 million. United Arab Emirates_sentence_8

Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language. United Arab Emirates_sentence_9

The UAE's oil reserves are the sixth-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventh-largest. United Arab Emirates_sentence_10

Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education, and infrastructure. United Arab Emirates_sentence_11

The UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is a global city and international aviation and maritime trade hub. United Arab Emirates_sentence_12

The country has become less reliant on oil and gas, and is economically focusing on tourism and business. United Arab Emirates_sentence_13

The UAE government does not levy income tax, although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value-added tax at 5% was established in 2018. United Arab Emirates_sentence_14

The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. United Arab Emirates_sentence_15

The UAE is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Gulf Cooperation Council. United Arab Emirates_sentence_16

History United Arab Emirates_section_0

Main article: History of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_17

Human occupation has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 124,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-2 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_18

Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais. United Arab Emirates_sentence_19

Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period which traded between the Indus Valley, Bahrain and Mesopotamia as well as Iran, Bactria and the Levant. United Arab Emirates_sentence_20

The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior. United Arab Emirates_sentence_21

The Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. United Arab Emirates_sentence_22

The UAE' history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present-day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a regional trading and maritime hub in the area. United Arab Emirates_sentence_23

The maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese Empire and the British Empire. United Arab Emirates_sentence_24

Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of the General Maritime Treaty with the British in 1820 (ratified in 1853 and again in 1892), which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_25

This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. United Arab Emirates_sentence_26

Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971; the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. United Arab Emirates_sentence_27

Antiquity United Arab Emirates_section_1

Main articles: Umm Al Nar Culture and Wadi Suq culture United Arab Emirates_sentence_28

Stone tools recovered reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago. United Arab Emirates_sentence_29

There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia, Iran and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley. United Arab Emirates_sentence_30

This contact persisted and became wider, probably motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_31

Sumerian sources talk of UAE as home to the 'Makkan' or Magan people. United Arab Emirates_sentence_32

There are six periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in UAE before Islam, which include the Hafit period from 3,200 to 2,600 BCE, the Umm Al Nar culture spanned from 2,600 to 2,000 BCE, the Wadi Suq people dominated from 2,000 to 1,300 BCE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_33

From 1,200 BCE to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by the Achaemenids and other forces, and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. United Arab Emirates_sentence_34

In ancient times, Al Hasa (today's Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman (today's UAE and Oman). United Arab Emirates_sentence_35

From the second century CE, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman. United Arab Emirates_sentence_36

Islam United Arab Emirates_section_2

The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic Prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 CE, nine years after the hijrah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_37

This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sasanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time. United Arab Emirates_sentence_38

Following the death of Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. United Arab Emirates_sentence_39

The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory (the Ridda Wars) with the Battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost. United Arab Emirates_sentence_40

This assured the integrity of the Caliphate and the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the newly emerging Rashidun Caliphate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_41

In 637, Julfar (in the area of today's Ras Al Khaimah) was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sasanian Empire. United Arab Emirates_sentence_42

The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tu'am and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior. United Arab Emirates_sentence_43

The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. United Arab Emirates_sentence_44

Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 CE, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 CE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_45

It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 CE following trade routes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_46

Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 CE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_47

Portuguese era United Arab Emirates_section_3

See also: Portuguese Empire and Piracy in the Persian Gulf United Arab Emirates_sentence_48

The harsh desert environment led to the emergence of the "versatile tribesman", nomadic groups who subsisted due to a variety of economic activities, including animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting. United Arab Emirates_sentence_49

The seasonal movements of these groups led to not only frequent clashes between groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. United Arab Emirates_sentence_50

These formed tribal groupings whose names are still carried by modern Emiratis, including the Bani Yas and Al Bu Falah of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Liwa and the west coast, the Dhawahir, Awamir, Al Ali and Manasir of the interior, the Sharqiyin of the east coast and the Qawasim to the North. United Arab Emirates_sentence_51

With the expansion of European colonialism, Portuguese, English and Dutch forces appeared in the Persian Gulf region. United Arab Emirates_sentence_52

By the 18th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi, while the Northern Al Qawasim (Al Qasimi) dominated maritime commerce. United Arab Emirates_sentence_53

The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building forts in the wake of the bloody 16th-century conquests of coastal communities by Albuquerque and the Portuguese commanders who followed him – particularly on the east coast at Muscat, Sohar and Khor Fakkan. United Arab Emirates_sentence_54

The southern coast of the Persian Gulf was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", as boats of the Al Qawasim federation harassed British-flagged shipping from the 17th century into the 19th. United Arab Emirates_sentence_55

The charge of piracy is disputed by modern Emirati historians, including the current Ruler of Sharjah, Sheikh Sultan Al Qasimi, in his 1986 book The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. United Arab Emirates_sentence_56

British bloody expeditions to protect the Indian trade led to campaigns against Ras Al Khaimah and other harbours along the coast, including the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1809 and the more successful campaign of 1819. United Arab Emirates_sentence_57

The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a maritime truce, giving rise to the term Trucial States, which came to define the status of the coastal emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_58

A further treaty was signed in 1843 and, in 1853 the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Truce was agreed. United Arab Emirates_sentence_59

To this was added the 'Exclusive Agreements', signed in 1892, which made the Trucial States a British protectorate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_60

Under the 1892 treaty, the trucial sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the British and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the British without their consent. United Arab Emirates_sentence_61

In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. United Arab Emirates_sentence_62

The Exclusive Agreement was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain between 6 and 8 March 1892. United Arab Emirates_sentence_63

It was subsequently ratified by the Governor-General of India and the British Government in London. United Arab Emirates_sentence_64

British maritime policing meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. United Arab Emirates_sentence_65

However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants. United Arab Emirates_sentence_66

In 1869, the Qubaisat tribe settled at Khawr al Udayd and tried to enlist the support of the Ottomans, whose flag was occasionally seen flying there. United Arab Emirates_sentence_67

Khawr al Udayd was claimed by Abu Dhabi at that time, a claim supported by the British. United Arab Emirates_sentence_68

In 1906, the British Political Resident, Percy Cox, confirmed in writing to the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan ('Zayed the Great') that Khawr al Udayd belonged to his sheikhdom. United Arab Emirates_sentence_69

British era and discovery of oil United Arab Emirates_section_4

See also: Persian Gulf campaign of 1809, Persian Gulf campaign of 1819, General Maritime Treaty of 1820, and Trucial States United Arab Emirates_sentence_70

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. United Arab Emirates_sentence_71

The World War I had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the invention of the cultured pearl, that wiped out the trade. United Arab Emirates_sentence_72

The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the World War II, when the newly independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. United Arab Emirates_sentence_73

The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States. United Arab Emirates_sentence_74

In 1922, the British government secured undertakings from the rulers of the Trucial States not to sign concessions with foreign companies without their consent. United Arab Emirates_sentence_75

Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following finds in Persia (from 1908) and Mesopotamia (from 1927), a British-led oil company, the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), showed an interest in the region. United Arab Emirates_sentence_76

The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP) had a 23.75% share in IPC. United Arab Emirates_sentence_77

From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were granted by local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd (PCL), an associate company of IPC. United Arab Emirates_sentence_78

APOC was prevented from developing the region alone because of the restrictions of the Red Line Agreement, which required it to operate through IPC. United Arab Emirates_sentence_79

A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. United Arab Emirates_sentence_80

However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. United Arab Emirates_sentence_81

The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPC's operating company, Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd (PDTC) at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a 13,000-foot-deep (4,000-metre) bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of £1 million. United Arab Emirates_sentence_82

The British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_83

The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. United Arab Emirates_sentence_84

In 1952, they formed the Trucial States Council, and appointed Adi Bitar, Dubai's Sheikh Rashid's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the council. United Arab Emirates_sentence_85

The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed. United Arab Emirates_sentence_86

The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. United Arab Emirates_sentence_87

The Trucial Oman Scouts was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace. United Arab Emirates_sentence_88

In 1953, a subsidiary of BP, D'Arcy Exploration Ltd, obtained an offshore concession from the ruler of Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_89

BP joined with Compagnie Française des Pétroles (later Total) to form operating companies, Abu Dhabi Marine Areas Ltd (ADMA) and Dubai Marine Areas Ltd (DUMA). United Arab Emirates_sentence_90

A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by the famous marine explorer Jacques Cousteau. United Arab Emirates_sentence_91

In 1958, a floating platform rig was towed from Hamburg, Germany, and positioned over the Umm Shaif pearl bed, in Abu Dhabi waters, where drilling began. United Arab Emirates_sentence_92

In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. United Arab Emirates_sentence_93

This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in 1962. United Arab Emirates_sentence_94

ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai and the Mubarak field off Sharjah (shared with Iran). United Arab Emirates_sentence_95

Meanwhile, onshore exploration was hindered by territorial disputes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_96

In 1955, the United Kingdom represented Abu Dhabi and Oman in their dispute with Saudi Arabia over the Buraimi Oasis. United Arab Emirates_sentence_97

A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia seemed to have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute, but this has not been ratified. United Arab Emirates_sentence_98

The UAE's border with Oman was ratified in 2008. United Arab Emirates_sentence_99

PDTC continued its onshore exploration away from the disputed area, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry. United Arab Emirates_sentence_100

However, on 27 October 1960, the company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. United Arab Emirates_sentence_101

3 well on the coast near Tarif. United Arab Emirates_sentence_102

In 1962, PDTC became the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. United Arab Emirates_sentence_103

As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. United Arab Emirates_sentence_104

When Dubai's oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern global city of Dubai. United Arab Emirates_sentence_105

Independence United Arab Emirates_section_5

By 1966, it had become clear the British government could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_106

British Members of Parliament (MPs) debated the preparedness of the Royal Navy to defend the sheikhdoms. United Arab Emirates_sentence_107

Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey reported that the British Armed Forces were seriously overstretched and in some respects dangerously under-equipped to defend the sheikhdoms. United Arab Emirates_sentence_108

On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister Edward Heath, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. United Arab Emirates_sentence_109

Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, fearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_110

The British Labour government rejected the offer. United Arab Emirates_sentence_111

After Labour MP Goronwy Roberts informed Sheikh Zayed of the news of British withdrawal, the nine Persian Gulf sheikhdoms attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year. United Arab Emirates_sentence_112

Fears of vulnerability were realised the day before independence. United Arab Emirates_sentence_113

An Iranian destroyer group broke formation from an exercise in the lower Gulf, sailing to the Tunb islands. United Arab Emirates_sentence_114

The islands were taken by force, civilians and Arab defenders alike allowed to flee. United Arab Emirates_sentence_115

A British warship stood idle during the course of the invasion. United Arab Emirates_sentence_116

A destroyer group approached the island Abu Musa as well. United Arab Emirates_sentence_117

But there, Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi had already negotiated with the Iranian Shah, and the island was quickly leased to Iran for $3 million a year. United Arab Emirates_sentence_118

Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_119

Originally intended to be part of the proposed Federation of Arab Emirates, Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. United Arab Emirates_sentence_120

When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, both emirates became fully independent. United Arab Emirates_sentence_121

On 2 December 1971, at the Dubai Guesthouse (now known as Union House) six of the emirates (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain) agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_122

Ras al-Khaimah joined it later, on 10 January 1972. United Arab Emirates_sentence_123

In February 1972, the Federal National Council (FNC) was created; it was a 40-member consultative body appointed by the seven rulers. United Arab Emirates_sentence_124

The UAE joined the Arab League on 6 December 1971 and the United Nations on 9 December. United Arab Emirates_sentence_125

It was a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council in May 1981, with Abu Dhabi hosting the first GCC summit. United Arab Emirates_sentence_126

A 19-year-old Emirati from Abu Dhabi, Abdullah Mohammed Al Maainah, designed the UAE flag in 1971. United Arab Emirates_sentence_127

The four colours of the flag are the Pan-Arab colors red, green, white, and black, and represent the unity of the Arab nations. United Arab Emirates_sentence_128

It was adopted on 2 December 1971. United Arab Emirates_sentence_129

Al Maainah went on to serve as the UAE ambassador to Chile and currently serves as the UAE ambassador to the Czech Republic. United Arab Emirates_sentence_130

Post-Independence period United Arab Emirates_section_6

The UAE supported military operations from the US and other coalition nations engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on terror for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_131

The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch. United Arab Emirates_sentence_132

The country had already signed a military defence agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995. United Arab Emirates_sentence_133

In January 2008, France and the UAE signed a deal allowing France to set up a permanent military base in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_134

The UAE joined international military operations in Libya in March 2011. United Arab Emirates_sentence_135

On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. United Arab Emirates_sentence_136

Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan was elected as the President of the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_137

In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. United Arab Emirates_sentence_138

Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_139

In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles. United Arab Emirates_sentence_140

The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. United Arab Emirates_sentence_141

A number of voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council. United Arab Emirates_sentence_142

The UAE has largely escaped the Arab Spring, which other countries have experienced; however, 60 Emirati activists from Al Islah were apprehended for an alleged coup attempt and the attempt of the establishment of an Islamism state in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_143

Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media. United Arab Emirates_sentence_144

On January 29, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached the UAE, as a 73-year-old Chinese woman had tested positive for the disease. United Arab Emirates_sentence_145

Two months later, in March, the government announced the closure of shopping malls, schools, and places of worship, in addition to imposing a 24-hour curfew, and suspending all Emirates passenger flights. United Arab Emirates_sentence_146

This resulted in a major economic downfall, which eventually led to the merger of more than 50% of the UAE's federal agencies. United Arab Emirates_sentence_147

Geography United Arab Emirates_section_7

Politics United Arab Emirates_section_8

Main article: Politics of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_148

The United Arab Emirates is a federal constitutional monarchy made up from a federation of seven hereditary tribal monarchy-styled political system called Sheikhdoms. United Arab Emirates_sentence_149

It is governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of the ruling Sheikhs of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain. United Arab Emirates_sentence_150

All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the individual emirate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_151

A percentage of revenues from each emirate is allocated to the UAE's central budget. United Arab Emirates_sentence_152

The United Arab Emirates uses the title Sheikh instead of Emir to refer to the rulers of individual emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_153

The title is used due to the sheikhdom styled governing system in adherence to the culture of tribes of Arabia, where Sheikh means leader, elder, or the tribal chief of the clan who partakes in shared decision making with his followers. United Arab Emirates_sentence_154

The President and Prime Minister are elected by the Federal Supreme Council. United Arab Emirates_sentence_155

Usually, a sheikh from Abu Dhabi holds the presidency and a sheikh from Dubai the prime minister-ship. United Arab Emirates_sentence_156

All prime ministers but one have served concurrently as vice president. United Arab Emirates_sentence_157

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan is the UAE founding father and widely accredited for unifying the seven emirates into one country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_158

He was the UAE's first president from the nation's founding until his death on 2 November 2004. United Arab Emirates_sentence_159

On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post. United Arab Emirates_sentence_160

The federal government is composed of three branches: United Arab Emirates_sentence_161

United Arab Emirates_unordered_list_0

The UAE e-Government is the extension of the UAE Federal Government in its electronic form. United Arab Emirates_sentence_162

The UAE's Council of Ministers (Arabic: مجلس الوزراء‎) is the chief executive branch of the government presided over by the Prime Minister. United Arab Emirates_sentence_163

The Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Federal Supreme Council, appoints the ministers. United Arab Emirates_sentence_164

The Council of Ministers is made up of 22 members and manages all internal and foreign affairs of the federation under its constitutional and federal law. United Arab Emirates_sentence_165

The UAE is the only country in the world that has a Ministry of Tolerance, a Ministry of Happiness, and a Ministry of Artificial Intelligence. United Arab Emirates_sentence_166

The UAE also has a virtual ministry called the Ministry of Possibilities, designed to find solutions to challenges and improve quality of life. United Arab Emirates_sentence_167

The UAE also has a National Youth Council, which is represented in the UAE cabinet by the Minister of Youth. United Arab Emirates_sentence_168

The UAE legislative is the Federal National Council which convenes nationwide elections every 4 years. United Arab Emirates_sentence_169

The FNC consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_170

Each emirate is allocated specific seats to ensure full representation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_171

Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are elected. United Arab Emirates_sentence_172

By law, the council members have to be equally divided between males and females. United Arab Emirates_sentence_173

The FNC is restricted to a largely role. United Arab Emirates_sentence_174

The UAE is described by western observers as an "autocracy". United Arab Emirates_sentence_175

According to The New York Times, the UAE is "an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state". United Arab Emirates_sentence_176

The UAE ranks poorly in freedom indices measuring civil liberties and political rights. United Arab Emirates_sentence_177

The UAE is annually ranked as "Not Free" in Freedom House's annual Freedom in the World report, which measures civil liberties and political rights. United Arab Emirates_sentence_178

The UAE also ranks poorly in the annual Reporters without Borders' Press Freedom Index. United Arab Emirates_sentence_179

Sheikh Zayed was asked by The New York Times in April 1997 on why there is no elected democracy in the United Arab Emirates, in which he replied: United Arab Emirates_sentence_180

Foreign relations United Arab Emirates_section_9

Main article: Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_181

The UAE has extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. United Arab Emirates_sentence_182

It plays a significant role in OPEC and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). United Arab Emirates_sentence_183

One of the main anchorers of the UAE's foreign policy has been building cooperation-based relations with all countries of the world. United Arab Emirates_sentence_184

Substantial development assistance has increased the UAE's stature among recipient states. United Arab Emirates_sentence_185

Most of this foreign aid (in excess of $15 billion) has been to Arab and Muslim countries. United Arab Emirates_sentence_186

The UAE is a member of the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies (ICAO, ILO, UPU, WHO, WIPO), as well as the World Bank, IMF, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), OPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement. United Arab Emirates_sentence_187

Also, it is an observer in the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. United Arab Emirates_sentence_188

The UAE maintains close relations with Egypt and is Egypt's largest investor from the Arab world. United Arab Emirates_sentence_189

Pakistan was the first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners. United Arab Emirates_sentence_190

China and UAE are also strong international allies, with significant cooperation across economic, political and cultural lines. United Arab Emirates_sentence_191

The largest expatriate presence in the UAE is Indian. United Arab Emirates_sentence_192

Following British withdrawal from the UAE in 1971 and the establishment of the UAE as a state, the UAE disputed rights to three islands in the Persian Gulf against Iran, namely Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, and Lesser Tunb. United Arab Emirates_sentence_193

The UAE tried to bring the matter to the International Court of Justice, but Iran dismissed the notion. United Arab Emirates_sentence_194

The dispute has not significantly impacted relations because of the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties. United Arab Emirates_sentence_195

The UAE also has a long and a close relationship with the UK and Germany, and many European nationals reside in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_196

Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair serves as a funded adviser to the Mubadala Development Company, a wholly owned investment vehicle of the government of Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_197

The United Arab Emirates and the United States enjoy very close strategic ties. United Arab Emirates_sentence_198

The UAE has been described as the United States' best counter-terrorism ally in the Gulf by Richard A. Clarke, the US national security advisor and counter-terrorism expert. United Arab Emirates_sentence_199

The US maintains three military bases in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_200

The UAE is also the only country in the Middle East which has a US border preclearance that is staffed and operated by US Customs and Border Protection officers, allowing travelers to reach the US as domestic travelers. United Arab Emirates_sentence_201

In 2013, The UAE spent more than any other country in the world to influence U.S. United Arab Emirates_sentence_202 policy and shape domestic debate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_203

In its dispute with the United States, Iran has repeatedly threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz, a vital oil-trade route. United Arab Emirates_sentence_204

Therefore, in July 2012, the UAE began operating a key overland oil pipeline, the Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline, which bypasses the Strait of Hormuz in order to mitigate any consequences of an Iranian shut-off. United Arab Emirates_sentence_205

It was reported in 2019 that UAE's National Electronic Security Authority (NESA) has enlisted the help of American and Israeli experts in its targeting of political leaders, activists and the governments of Qatar, Turkey and Iran. United Arab Emirates_sentence_206

According to Reuters their surveillance activities have also targeted American citizens. United Arab Emirates_sentence_207

The UAE was one of only three countries to recognise the Taliban as Afghanistan's legitimate government (Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were the other two countries). United Arab Emirates_sentence_208

At the encouragement of the United States, the UAE attempted to host a Taliban embassy under three conditions, which include: denouncing Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, recognizing the Afghan constitution, and renouncing violence and laying down their weapons. United Arab Emirates_sentence_209

The Taliban refused all three conditions, and the UAE withdrew its offer. United Arab Emirates_sentence_210

The UAE rescinded diplomatic relations with the Taliban after 11 September attacks in 2001 (alongside Pakistan). United Arab Emirates_sentence_211

The UAE has been actively involved in Saudi-led intervention in Yemen and has supported Yemen's internationally recognized government as well as the separatist Southern Transitional Council in Yemen against the Houthi takeover in Yemen. United Arab Emirates_sentence_212

The Saudi-led coalition has been repeatedly accused of conducting indiscriminate and unlawful airstrikes on civilian targets. United Arab Emirates_sentence_213

The UAE and Saudi Arabia became close allies when Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud became King of Saudi Arabia in 2015 and Mohammed bin Salman as Crown Prince in 2017. United Arab Emirates_sentence_214

In June 2017, the UAE alongside multiple Middle Eastern and African countries cut diplomatic ties with Qatar due to allegations of Qatar being a state sponsor of terrorism, resulting in the Qatar diplomatic crisis. United Arab Emirates_sentence_215

The UAE backed Saudi Arabia in its 2018 dispute with Canada. United Arab Emirates_sentence_216

The UAE also backed Saudi Arabia's statement about the death of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_217

Pope Francis was the first pope to visit the Arabian Peninsula on a trip to Abu Dhabi in 2019 and held papal mass to more than 120,000 attendees in the Zayed Sports City Stadium. United Arab Emirates_sentence_218

As a result of the successful foreign policy of the UAE, the Emirati passport became the largest individual climber in Henley & Partners Passport Index in 2018 over the past decade, increasing its global rank by 28 places. United Arab Emirates_sentence_219

According to the Henley Passport Index, as of 28 March 2019, Emirati citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 165 countries and territories, ranking the Emirati passport 21st in the world in terms of travel freedom. United Arab Emirates_sentence_220

In August 2020, the UAE and Israel reached a historic Israel–United Arab Emirates peace agreement to lead towards full normalization of relations between the two countries. United Arab Emirates_sentence_221

The agreement formally became part of the Abraham Accords involving the UAE and Israel and was signed on September 15, 2020. United Arab Emirates_sentence_222

The agreement came as a result of Emirati efforts to halt Israel's planned annexation of parts of the West Bank. United Arab Emirates_sentence_223

Military United Arab Emirates_section_10

Main article: United Arab Emirates Armed Forces United Arab Emirates_sentence_224

The United Arab Emirates military force was formed in 1971 from the historical Trucial Oman Scouts, a long symbol of public order in Eastern Arabia and commanded by British officers. United Arab Emirates_sentence_225

The Trucial Oman Scouts were turned over to the United Arab Emirates, as the nucleus of its defence forces in 1971, with the formation of the UAE, and was absorbed into the Union Defence Force. United Arab Emirates_sentence_226

Although initially small in number, the UAE armed forces have grown significantly over the years and are presently equipped with some of the most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of western military advanced countries, mainly France, the US and the UK. United Arab Emirates_sentence_227

Most officers are graduates of the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, with others having attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, the Royal Military College, Duntroon in Australia, and St Cyr, the military academy of France. United Arab Emirates_sentence_228

France and the United States have played the most strategically significant roles with defence cooperation agreements and military material provision. United Arab Emirates_sentence_229

Some of the UAE military deployments include an infantry battalion to the United Nations UNOSOM II force in Somalia in 1993, the 35th Mechanised Infantry Battalion to Kosovo, a regiment to Kuwait during the Iraq War, demining operations in Lebanon, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, American-led intervention in Libya, American-led intervention in Syria, and the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen. United Arab Emirates_sentence_230

The active and effective military role, despite its small active personnel, has led the UAE military to be nicknamed as "Little Sparta" by United States Armed Forces Generals and former US defense secretary James Mattis. United Arab Emirates_sentence_231

The UAE intervened in the Libyan Civil War in support of General Khalifa Haftar's Libyan National Army in its conflict with the internationally recognised Government of National Accord (GNA). United Arab Emirates_sentence_232

Examples of the military assets deployed include the enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Libya by sending six UAEAF F-16 and six Mirage 2000 multi-role fighter aircraft, ground troop deployment in Afghanistan, 30 UAEAF F-16s and ground troops deployment in Southern Yemen, and helping the US launch its first airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria. United Arab Emirates_sentence_233

The UAE has begun production of a greater amount of military equipment, in a bid to reduce foreign dependence and help with national industrialisation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_234

Example of national military development include the Abu Dhabi Shipbuilding company (ADSB), which produces a range of ships and is a prime contractor in the Baynunah Programme, a programme to design, develop and produce corvettes customised for operation in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. United Arab Emirates_sentence_235

The UAE is also producing weapons and ammunition through Caracal International, military transport vehicles through Nimr LLC and unmanned aerial vehicles collectively through Emirates Defence Industries Company. United Arab Emirates_sentence_236

The UAE operates the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon F-16E Block 60 unique variant unofficially called "Desert Falcon", developed by General Dynamics with collaboration of the UAE and specifically for the United Arab Emirates Air Force. United Arab Emirates_sentence_237

The United Arab Emirates Army operates a customized Leclerc tank and is the only other operator of the tank aside from the French Army. United Arab Emirates_sentence_238

The largest defence exhibition and conference in the Middle East, International Defence Exhibition, takes place biennially in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_239

The UAE introduced a mandatory military service for adult males, since 2014, for 16 months to expand its reserve force. United Arab Emirates_sentence_240

The highest loss of life in the history of UAE military occurred on Friday 4 September 2015, in which 52 soldiers were killed in Marib area of central Yemen by a Tochka missile which targeted a weapons cache and caused a large explosion. United Arab Emirates_sentence_241

Administrative divisions United Arab Emirates_section_11

See also: Politics of the United Arab Emirates, List of cities in the United Arab Emirates, and Emirates of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_242

The United Arab Emirates comprises seven emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_243

Dubai is the most populous emirate with 35.6% of the UAE population. United Arab Emirates_sentence_244

The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has 31.2%, meaning that over two-thirds of the UAE population lives in either Abu Dhabi or Dubai. United Arab Emirates_sentence_245

Abu Dhabi has an area of 67,340 square kilometres (26,000 square miles), which is 86.7% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. United Arab Emirates_sentence_246

It has a coastline extending for more than 400 km (250 mi) and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions. United Arab Emirates_sentence_247

The Emirate of Dubai extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately 72 km (45 mi). United Arab Emirates_sentence_248

Dubai has an area of 3,885 square kilometres (1,500 square miles), which is equivalent to 5% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. United Arab Emirates_sentence_249

The Emirate of Sharjah extends along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the UAE's Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 km (50 mi) into the interior. United Arab Emirates_sentence_250

The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometres (1,498 square miles). United Arab Emirates_sentence_251

There are two areas under joint control. United Arab Emirates_sentence_252

One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_253

There is an Omani exclave surrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madha. United Arab Emirates_sentence_254

It is located halfway between the Musandam peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_255

It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 square miles) and the boundary was settled in 1969. United Arab Emirates_sentence_256

The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan-Fujairah road, barely 10 metres (33 feet) away. United Arab Emirates_sentence_257

Within the Omani exclave of Madha, is a UAE exclave called Nahwa, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_258

It is about eight kilometres (5.0 miles) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. United Arab Emirates_sentence_259

It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange. United Arab Emirates_sentence_260

United Arab Emirates_table_general_1

FlagUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_0_0 EmirateUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_0_1 CapitalUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_0_2 PopulationUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_0_3 AreaUnited Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_0_5
2018United Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_1_0 %United Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_1_1 (km)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_1_2 (mi)United Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_1_3 %United Arab Emirates_header_cell_1_1_4
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_0 Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_1 Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_2 2,784,490United Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_3 29.0%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_4 67,340United Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_5 26,000United Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_6 86.7%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_2_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_0 AjmanUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_1 AjmanUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_2 372,922United Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_3 3.9%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_4 259United Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_5 100United Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_6 0.3%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_3_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_0 DubaiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_1 DubaiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_2 4,177,059United Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_3 42.8%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_4 3,885United Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_5 1,500United Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_6 5.0%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_4_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_0 FujairahUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_1 FujairahUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_2 152,000United Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_3 1.6%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_4 1,165United Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_5 450United Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_6 1.5%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_5_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_0 Ras al-KhaimahUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_1 Ras al-KhaimahUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_2 416,600United Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_3 4.3%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_4 2,486United Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_5 950United Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_6 3.2%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_6_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_0 SharjahUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_1 SharjahUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_2 2,374,132United Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_3 24.7%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_4 2,590United Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_5 1,000United Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_6 3.3%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_7_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_0 Umm al-QuwainUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_1 Umm al-QuwainUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_2 72,000United Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_3 0.8%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_4 777United Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_5 300United Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_6 1%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_8_7
United Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_0 UAEUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_1 Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_2 9,599,353United Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_3 100%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_4 77,700United Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_5 30,000United Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_6 100%United Arab Emirates_cell_1_9_7

Law United Arab Emirates_section_12

Main articles: Legal system of the United Arab Emirates and Crime in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_261

The UAE has a federal court system. United Arab Emirates_sentence_262

There are three main branches within the court structure: civil, criminal and Sharia law. United Arab Emirates_sentence_263

The UAE's judicial system is derived from the civil law system and Sharia law. United Arab Emirates_sentence_264

The court system consists of civil courts and Sharia courts. United Arab Emirates_sentence_265

UAE's criminal and civil courts apply elements of Sharia law, codified into its criminal code and family law. United Arab Emirates_sentence_266

Corporal and capital punishment United Arab Emirates_section_13

Flogging is a punishment for criminal offences such as adultery, premarital sex and alcohol consumption. United Arab Emirates_sentence_267

According to Sharia court rulings, flogging ranges from 80 to 200 lashes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_268

Verbal abuse pertaining to a person's honour is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_269

Between 2007 and 2014, many people in the UAE were sentenced to 100 lashes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_270

More recently in 2015, two men were sentenced to 80 lashes for hitting and insulting a woman. United Arab Emirates_sentence_271

In 2014, an expatriate in Abu Dhabi was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 80 lashes after alcohol consumption and raping a toddler. United Arab Emirates_sentence_272

As of November 2020, Alcohol consumption for Muslims and non Muslims is legal. United Arab Emirates_sentence_273

In the past, many Muslims have been sentenced to 80 or 40 lashes for alcohol consumption. United Arab Emirates_sentence_274

Illicit sex is sometimes penalized by 60 lashes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_275

80 lashes is the standard number for anyone sentenced to flogging in several emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_276

Sharia courts have penalized domestic workers with floggings. United Arab Emirates_sentence_277

In October 2013, a Filipino housemaid was sentenced to 100 lashes for illegitimate pregnancy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_278

Drunk-driving is strictly illegal and punishable by 80 lashes; many expatriates have been sentenced to 80 lashes for drunk-driving. United Arab Emirates_sentence_279

Under UAE law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_280

Stoning is a legal punishment in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_281

In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_282

Other expatriates have been sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery. United Arab Emirates_sentence_283

Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning. United Arab Emirates_sentence_284

Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison. United Arab Emirates_sentence_285

In recent years, several people have retracted their guilty plea in illicit sex cases after being sentenced to stoning or 100 lashes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_286

The punishment for committing adultery is 100 lashes for unmarried people and stoning to death for married people. United Arab Emirates_sentence_287

Amputation is a legal punishment in the UAE due to the Sharia courts. United Arab Emirates_sentence_288

Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_289

Article 1 of the Federal Penal Code states that "provisions of the Islamic Law shall apply to the crimes of doctrinal punishment, punitive punishment and blood money." United Arab Emirates_sentence_290

The Federal Penal Code repealed only those provisions within the penal codes of individual emirates which are contradictory to the Federal Penal Code. United Arab Emirates_sentence_291

Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously. United Arab Emirates_sentence_292

Sharia courts and family law United Arab Emirates_section_14

Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction over family law cases and also have jurisdiction over several criminal cases including adultery, premarital sex, robbery, alcohol consumption and related crimes. United Arab Emirates_sentence_293

The Sharia-based personal status law regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody. United Arab Emirates_sentence_294

The Islamic personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. United Arab Emirates_sentence_295

Non-Muslim expatriates can be liable to Sharia rulings on marriage, divorce and child custody. United Arab Emirates_sentence_296

Emirati women must receive permission from a male guardian to marry and remarry. United Arab Emirates_sentence_297

This requirement is derived from the UAE's interpretation of Sharia, and has been federal law since 2005. United Arab Emirates_sentence_298

In all emirates, it is illegal for Muslim women to marry non-Muslims. United Arab Emirates_sentence_299

In the UAE, a marriage union between a Muslim woman and non-Muslim man is punishable by law, since it is considered a form of "fornication". United Arab Emirates_sentence_300

The UAE Marriage Fund reported in 2012 that a majority of women over 30 were unmarried; this had tripled from 1995, when only one-fifth of women over 30 were unmarried. United Arab Emirates_sentence_301

Kissing in public is illegal and can result in deportation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_302

Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public. United Arab Emirates_sentence_303

In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public. United Arab Emirates_sentence_304

A new federal law in the UAE prohibits swearing in Whatsapp and penalizes swearing by a 250,000 AED fine and imprisonment; expatriates are penalized by deportation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_305

In July 2015, an Australian expatriate was deported for swearing on Facebook. United Arab Emirates_sentence_306

Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offence in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_307

In 2013, an Emirati man was on trial for being accused of a "gay handshake". United Arab Emirates_sentence_308

Article 80 of the Abu Dhabi Penal Code makes sodomy punishable with imprisonment of up to 14 years, while article 177 of the Penal Code of Dubai imposes imprisonment of up to 10 years on consensual sodomy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_309

In November 2020, UAE announced that it decriminalised alcohol, lifted ban on unmarried couples living together and ended clement punishment on honor killing. United Arab Emirates_sentence_310

Foreigners living in the Emirates were allowed to follow their native country's laws on divorce and inheritance. United Arab Emirates_sentence_311

Blasphemy law United Arab Emirates_section_15

Apostasy is a crime punishable by death in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_312

Blasphemy is illegal; expatriates involved in insulting Islam are liable for deportation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_313

UAE incorporates hudud crimes of Sharia (i.e., crimes against God) into its Penal Code – apostasy being one of them. United Arab Emirates_sentence_314

Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty; therefore, apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_315

In several cases, the courts of the UAE have jailed women who have reported rape. United Arab Emirates_sentence_316

For example, a British woman, after she reported being gang raped by three men, was charged with the crime of "alcohol consumption". United Arab Emirates_sentence_317

Another British woman was charged with "public intoxication and extramarital sex" after she reported being raped, while an Australian woman was similarly sentenced to jail after she reported gang rape in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_318

In another recent case, an 18-year Emirati girl withdrew her complaint of gang rape by six men when the prosecution threatened her with a long jail term and flogging. United Arab Emirates_sentence_319

The woman still had to serve one year in jail. United Arab Emirates_sentence_320

In July 2013, a Norwegian woman, Marte Dalelv, reported rape to the police and received a prison sentence for "illicit sex and alcohol consumption". United Arab Emirates_sentence_321

During the month of Ramadan, it is illegal to publicly eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset. United Arab Emirates_sentence_322

Exceptions are made for pregnant women and children. United Arab Emirates_sentence_323

The law applies to both Muslims and non-Muslims, and failure to comply may result in arrest, however, this law is disappearing year by year due to the Expo 2020 in Dubai. United Arab Emirates_sentence_324

Dancing in public is illegal in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_325

Human rights United Arab Emirates_section_16

Main article: Human rights in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_326

Flogging and stoning are legal punishments in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_327

The requirement is derived from Sharia law, and has been federal law since 2005. United Arab Emirates_sentence_328

Some domestic workers in the UAE are victims of the country's interpretations of Sharia judicial punishments such as flogging and stoning. United Arab Emirates_sentence_329

The annual Freedom House report on Freedom in the World has listed the United Arab Emirates as "Not Free" every year since 1999, the first year for which records are available on their website. United Arab Emirates_sentence_330

The UAE has escaped the Arab Spring; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms. United Arab Emirates_sentence_331

Since 2011, the UAE government has increasingly carried out forced disappearances. United Arab Emirates_sentence_332

Many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been arrested and abducted by the state. United Arab Emirates_sentence_333

The UAE government denies these people are being held (to conceal their whereabouts), placing these people outside the protection of the law. United Arab Emirates_sentence_334

According to Human Rights Watch, the reports of forced disappearance and torture in the UAE are of grave concern. United Arab Emirates_sentence_335

The Arab Organization for Human Rights has obtained testimonies from many defendants, for its report on "Forced Disappearance and Torture in the UAE", who reported that they had been kidnapped, tortured and abused in detention centres. United Arab Emirates_sentence_336

The report included 16 different methods of torture including severe beatings, threats with electrocution and denying access to medical care. United Arab Emirates_sentence_337

In 2013, 94 Emirati activists were held in secret detention centres and put on trial for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government. United Arab Emirates_sentence_338

Human rights organizations have spoken out against the secrecy of the trial. United Arab Emirates_sentence_339

An Emirati, whose father is among the defendants, was arrested for tweeting about the trial. United Arab Emirates_sentence_340

In April 2013, he was sentenced to 10 months in jail. United Arab Emirates_sentence_341

The latest forced disappearance involves three sisters from Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_342

Repressive measures were also used against non-Emiratis in order to justify the UAE government's claim that there is an "international plot" in which UAE citizens and foreigners were working together to destabilize the country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_343

Foreign nationals were also subjected to a campaign of deportations. United Arab Emirates_sentence_344

There are many documented cases of Egyptians and other foreign nationals who had spent years working in the UAE and were then given only a few days to leave the country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_345

Foreign nationals subjected to forced disappearance include two Libyans and two Qataris. United Arab Emirates_sentence_346

Amnesty reported that the Qatari men have been abducted by the UAE government and the UAE government has withheld information about the men's fate from their families. United Arab Emirates_sentence_347

Amongst the foreign nationals detained, imprisoned and expelled is Iyad El-Baghdadi, a popular blogger and Twitter personality. United Arab Emirates_sentence_348

He was arrested by UAE authorities, detained, imprisoned and then expelled from the country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_349

Despite his lifetime residence in the UAE, as a Palestinian citizen, El-Baghdadi had no recourse to contest this order. United Arab Emirates_sentence_350

He could not be deported back to the Palestinian territories, therefore he was deported to Malaysia. United Arab Emirates_sentence_351

In 2007, the UAE government attempted to cover up information on the rape of a French teenage boy by three Emirati locals, one of whose HIV-positive status was hidden by Emirati authorities. United Arab Emirates_sentence_352

Diplomatic pressure led to the arrest and conviction of the Emirati rapists. United Arab Emirates_sentence_353

In April 2009, a video tape of torture smuggled out of the UAE showed Sheikh Issa bin Zayed Al Nahyan torturing a man (Mohammed Shah Poor) with whips, electric cattle prods, wooden planks with protruding nails and running him over repeatedly with a car. United Arab Emirates_sentence_354

In December 2009, Issa appeared in court and proclaimed his innocence. United Arab Emirates_sentence_355

The trial ended on 10 January 2010, when Issa was cleared of the torture of Mohammed Shah Poor. United Arab Emirates_sentence_356

Human Rights Watch criticised the trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by UAE security personnel and other persons of authority. United Arab Emirates_sentence_357

The US State Department has expressed concern over the verdict and said all members of Emirati society "must stand equal before the law" and called for a careful review of the decision to ensure that the demands of justice are fully met in this case. United Arab Emirates_sentence_358

In recent years, many Shia Muslim expatriates have been deported from the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_359

Lebanese Shia families in particular have been deported for their alleged sympathy for Hezbollah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_360

According to some organizations, more than 4,000 Shia expatriates have been deported from the UAE in recent years. United Arab Emirates_sentence_361

The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic workers is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007. United Arab Emirates_sentence_362

Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process. United Arab Emirates_sentence_363

In its 2013 Annual Report, Amnesty International drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. United Arab Emirates_sentence_364

They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's use of the death penalty. United Arab Emirates_sentence_365

In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to beatings and electric shocks after arresting them on drugs charges. United Arab Emirates_sentence_366

The British Prime Minister, David Cameron, expressed "concern" over the case and raised it with the UAE President, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, during his 2013 state visit to the UK. United Arab Emirates_sentence_367

The three men were pardoned and released in July 2013. United Arab Emirates_sentence_368

In 2013, police arrested a US citizen and some UAE citizens, in connection with a YouTube parody video which allegedly portrayed Dubai and its residents in a bad light. United Arab Emirates_sentence_369

The video was shot in areas of Satwa, Dubai, and featured gangs learning how to fight using simple weapons, including shoes, the aghal, etc. United Arab Emirates_sentence_370

In 2015, nationals from different countries were put in jail for offences. United Arab Emirates_sentence_371

An Australian woman was accused of 'writing bad words on social media' after she had posted a picture of a vehicle parked illegally. United Arab Emirates_sentence_372

She was later deported from the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_373

The State Security Apparatus in the UAE has been accused of a series of atrocities and human rights abuses including enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests and torture, United Arab Emirates_sentence_374

Freedom of association is also severely curtailed. United Arab Emirates_sentence_375

All associations and NGOs have to register through the Ministry of Social Affairs and are therefore under de facto State control. United Arab Emirates_sentence_376

About twenty non-political groups operate on the territory without registration. United Arab Emirates_sentence_377

All associations have to be submitted to censorship guidelines and all publications have first to be approved by the government. United Arab Emirates_sentence_378

In a report released on 12 July 2018, Amnesty International urged for probe of torture claims on UAE-run prisons in Yemen. United Arab Emirates_sentence_379

On 10 September 2018, Yemeni detainees in a UAE-run prison underwent a hunger strike to protest their detention. United Arab Emirates_sentence_380

Despite orders by the prosecutors to release some of the detained prisoners, the detainees are still being held. United Arab Emirates_sentence_381

On 30 September 2019, the Gulf Centre for Human Rights (GCHR) reported that Ahmed Mansoor was beaten up by the Abu Dhabi Al-Sadr Prison authorities for holding a hunger strike against his imprisonment. United Arab Emirates_sentence_382

In March 2020, a British court ruled that on the balance of probabilities, the prime minister of the UAE and ruler of Dubai, Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, had abducted two of his daughters and had threatened his former wife, Princess Haya. United Arab Emirates_sentence_383

In May 2020, US-based Gulf rights group ADHRB (Americans for Democracy and Human Rights in Bahrain) criticized the UAE for practicing the culture of "impunity". United Arab Emirates_sentence_384

Emirati authorities are accused of using torture methods against those they perceive as a threat; this "threat" most commonly refers to human rights defenders, political opposition, religious figures, and journalists, said ADHRB in its report. United Arab Emirates_sentence_385

In August 2020, a report by BBC stated that it uncovered evidence confirming that the UAE-operated drones killed 26 cadets in January 2020, at a military academy in Tripoli. United Arab Emirates_sentence_386

An investigation by BBC Africa Eye and BBC Arabic Documentaries revealed that a Chinese Blue Arrow 7 missile was used in the strike. United Arab Emirates_sentence_387

Besides, the sophisticated weapon was fired using the UAE-operated Wing Loong II drone, which were solely being operated from the Emirates’ Al-Khadim air base in Libya, during that time. United Arab Emirates_sentence_388

On October 1, 2020, a UAE security chief, Major General Nasser Ahmed Al-Raisi was revealed to have bid to become the new head of Interpol, according to leaked information. United Arab Emirates_sentence_389

Prior to the bid, he was accused of being responsible for the torture of a British academic. United Arab Emirates_sentence_390

Besides, two British citizens also accused the security chief of being responsible for torture and cited that he should never become Interpol's president. United Arab Emirates_sentence_391

Migrant workers United Arab Emirates_section_17

Main articles: Migrant workers in the United Arab Emirates and Migrant workers in the Gulf region United Arab Emirates_sentence_392

Migrant workers in the UAE are not allowed to join trade unions or go on strike. United Arab Emirates_sentence_393

Those who strike may risk prison and deportation, as seen in 2014 when dozens of workers were deported for striking. United Arab Emirates_sentence_394

The International Trade Union Confederation has called on the United Nations to investigate evidence that thousands of migrant workers in the UAE are treated as slave labour. United Arab Emirates_sentence_395

A report In January 2020 highlighted that the employers in the United Arab Emirates have been exploiting the Indian labor and hiring them on tourist visas, which is easier and cheaper than work permits. United Arab Emirates_sentence_396

These migrant workers are left open to labor abuse, where they also fear reporting exploitation due to their illegal status. United Arab Emirates_sentence_397

Besides, the issue remains unknown as the visit visa data is not maintained in both the UAE and Indian migration and employment records. United Arab Emirates_sentence_398

In a 22 July 2020 news piece, Reuters reported human rights groups as saying conditions had deteriorated because of the coronavirus pandemic. United Arab Emirates_sentence_399

Many migrant workers racked up debt and depended on the help of charities. United Arab Emirates_sentence_400

The report cited salary delays and layoffs as a major risk, in addition to overcrowded living conditions, lack of support and problems linked with healthcare and sick pay. United Arab Emirates_sentence_401

Reuters reported at least 200,000 workers, mostly from India but also from Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines and Nepal, had been repatriated, according to their diplomatic missions. United Arab Emirates_sentence_402

On 2 May 2020, the Consul General of India in Dubai, Vipul, confirmed that more than 150,000 Indians in the United Arab Emirates registered to be repatriated through the e-registration option provided by Indian consulates in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_403

According to the figures, 25% applicants lost their jobs and nearly 15% were stranded in the country due to lockdown. United Arab Emirates_sentence_404

Besides, 50% of the total applicants were from the state of Kerala, India. United Arab Emirates_sentence_405

On 9 October 2020, The Telegraph reported that many migrant workers were left abandoned, as they lost their jobs amidst the tightening economy due to COVID-19. United Arab Emirates_sentence_406

With no jobs and expired visas, many hived in parks under the city's glistening skyscrapers, appealing for repatriation flights home. United Arab Emirates_sentence_407

White collar job workers were also threatened by the pandemic in the Emirates, as many UK expats returned home since the beginning of coronavirus. United Arab Emirates_sentence_408

Dress code United Arab Emirates_section_18

The UAE has a modest dress code, which is part of Dubai's criminal law. United Arab Emirates_sentence_409

Most malls in the UAE have a dress code displayed at entrances. United Arab Emirates_sentence_410

At Dubai's malls, women are encouraged to cover their shoulders and knees. United Arab Emirates_sentence_411

Despite this, people are allowed to wear swimwear at pools and beaches. United Arab Emirates_sentence_412

People are also requested to wear modest clothing when entering mosques, such as the Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_413

Those mosques which are open to tourists provide modest clothing for men and women if needed. United Arab Emirates_sentence_414

Media United Arab Emirates_section_19

The UAE's media is annually classified as "not free" in the Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House. United Arab Emirates_sentence_415

The UAE ranks poorly in the annual Press Freedom Index by Reporters without Borders. United Arab Emirates_sentence_416

Dubai Media City and twofour54 are the UAE's main media zones. United Arab Emirates_sentence_417

The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and Orbit Showtime Network. United Arab Emirates_sentence_418

In 2007, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum decreed that journalists can no longer be prosecuted or imprisoned for reasons relating to their work. United Arab Emirates_sentence_419

At the same time, the UAE has made it illegal to disseminate online material that can threaten "public order", and hands down prison terms for those who "deride or damage" the reputation of the state and "display contempt" for religion. United Arab Emirates_sentence_420

Economy United Arab Emirates_section_20

Main article: Economy of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_421

The UAE has developed from a juxtaposition of Bedouin tribes to one of the world's most wealthy states in only about 50 years. United Arab Emirates_sentence_422

Economic growth has been impressive and steady throughout the history of this young confederation of emirates with brief periods of recessions only, e.g. in the global financial and economic crisis years 2008–09, and a couple of more mixed years starting in 2015 and persisting until 2019. United Arab Emirates_sentence_423

Between 2000 and 2018, average real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth was at close to 4%. United Arab Emirates_sentence_424

It is the second largest economy in the GCC (after Saudi Arabia), with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$414.2 billion, and a real GDP of 392.8 billion constant 2010 USD in 2018. United Arab Emirates_sentence_425

Since its independence in 1971, the UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to 1.45 trillion AED in 2013. United Arab Emirates_sentence_426

The non-oil trade has grown to 1.2 trillion AED, a growth by around 28 times from 1981 to 2012. United Arab Emirates_sentence_427

Backed by the world's seventh-largest oil deposits, and thanks to considerate investments combined with decided economic liberalism and firm Government control, the UAE has seen their real GDP more than triple in the last four decades. United Arab Emirates_sentence_428

Nowadays the UAE is one of the world's richest countries, with GDP per capita almost 80% higher than OECD average. United Arab Emirates_sentence_429

As impressive as economic growth has been in the UAE, the total population has increased from just around 550,000 in 1975 to close to 10 million in 2018. United Arab Emirates_sentence_430

This growth is mainly due to the influx of foreign workers into the country, making the national population a minority. United Arab Emirates_sentence_431

The UAE features a unique labour market system, in which residence in the UAE is conditional on stringent visa rules. United Arab Emirates_sentence_432

This system is a major advantage in terms of macroeconomic stability, as labour supply adjusts quickly to demand throughout economic business cycles. United Arab Emirates_sentence_433

This allows the Government to keep unemployment in the country on a very low level of less than 3%, and it also gives the Government more leeway in terms of macroeconomic policies – where other governments often need to make trade-offs between fighting unemployment and fighting inflation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_434

Between 2014 and 2018, the accommodation and food, education, information and communication, arts and recreation, and real estate sectors overperformed in terms of growth, whereas the construction, logistics, professional services, public, and oil and gas sectors underperformed. United Arab Emirates_sentence_435

Business and finance United Arab Emirates_section_21

The UAE offers businesses a strong enabling environment: stable political and macroeconomic conditions, a future-oriented Government, good general infrastructure and ICT infrastructure. United Arab Emirates_sentence_436

Moreover, the country has made continuous and convincing improvements to its regulatory environment and is generally a top country for doing business. United Arab Emirates_sentence_437

UAE is ranked as the 26th best nation in the world for doing business by the Doing Business 2017 Report published by the World Bank Group. United Arab Emirates_sentence_438

The UAE are in the top ranks of several global indices, such as the Doing Business, the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), the World Happiness Report (WHR) and the Global Innovation Index (GII). United Arab Emirates_sentence_439

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), for example, assigns the UAE rank two regionally in terms of business environment and 22 worldwide. United Arab Emirates_sentence_440

From the 2018 Arab Youth Survey the UAE emerges as top Arab country in areas such as living, safety and security, economic opportunities, and starting a business, and as an example for other states to emulate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_441

The weaker points remain the level of education across the UAE population, limitations in the financial and labour markets, barriers to trade and some regulations that hinder business dynamism. United Arab Emirates_sentence_442

The major challenge for the country, though, remains translating investments and strong enabling conditions into knowledge, innovation and creative outputs. United Arab Emirates_sentence_443

UAE law does not allow trade unions to exist. United Arab Emirates_sentence_444

The right to collective bargaining and the right to strike are not recognised, and the Ministry of Labour has the power to force workers to go back to work. United Arab Emirates_sentence_445

Migrant workers who participate in a strike can have their work permits cancelled and be deported. United Arab Emirates_sentence_446

Consequently, there are very few anti-discrimination laws in relation to labour issues, with Emiratis – and other GCC Arabs – getting preference in public sector jobs despite lesser credentials than competitors and lower motivation. United Arab Emirates_sentence_447

In fact, just over eighty percent of Emirati workers hold government posts, with many of the rest taking part in state-owned enterprises such as Emirates airlines and Dubai Properties. United Arab Emirates_sentence_448

The UAE's monetary policy is in the service of stability and predictability, as the Central Bank of the UAE (CBUAE) keeps a peg to the US Dollar (USD) and moves interest rates close to the Federal Funds Rate. United Arab Emirates_sentence_449

This policy makes sense in the current situation of global and regional economic and geopolitical uncertainty. United Arab Emirates_sentence_450

Also considering the fact that exports have become the main driver of the UAE's economic growth (the contribution of international trade to GDP grew from 31% in 2017 to 33.5% in 2018, outpacing overall GDP growth for the period), and the fact that the AED is currently undervalued, a departure from this policy – and particularly the peg – would negatively affect this important part of the UAE economy in the short term. United Arab Emirates_sentence_451

In the mid- to long term, however, the peg will become less important, as the UAE transitions to a knowledge-based economy – and becomes yet more independent from the oil and gas sector (oil is currently still being traded not in AED, but in USD). United Arab Emirates_sentence_452

On the contrary, it will become more and more important for the Government to have monetary policy at its free disposal to target inflation, shun too heavy reliance on taxes, and avoid situations where decisions on exchange rates and interest rates contradict fiscal policy measures – as has been the case in recent years, where monetary policy has limited fiscal policy effects on economic expansion. United Arab Emirates_sentence_453

According to Fitch Ratings, the decline in property sector follows risks of progressively worsening the quality of assets in possession with UAE banks, leading the economy to rougher times ahead. United Arab Emirates_sentence_454

Even though as compared to retail and property, UAE banks fared well. United Arab Emirates_sentence_455

The higher US interest rates followed since 2016 – which the UAE currency complies to – have boosted profitability. United Arab Emirates_sentence_456

However, the likelihood of plunging interest rates and increasing provisioning costs on bad loans, point to difficult times ahead for the economy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_457

Since 2015, economic growth has been more mixed due to a number of factors impacting both demand and supply. United Arab Emirates_sentence_458

In 2017 and 2018 growth has been positive but on a low level of 0.8 and 1.4%, respectively. United Arab Emirates_sentence_459

To support the economy the Government is currently following an expansionary fiscal policy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_460

However, the effects of this policy are partially offset by monetary policy, which has been contractionary. United Arab Emirates_sentence_461

If not for the fiscal stimulus in 2018, the UAE economy would probably have contracted in that year. United Arab Emirates_sentence_462

One of the factors responsible for slower growth has been a credit crunch, which is due to, among other factors, higher interest rates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_463

Government debt has remained on a low level, despite high deficits in a few recent years. United Arab Emirates_sentence_464

Risks related to government debt remain low. United Arab Emirates_sentence_465

Inflation has been picking up in 2017 and 18. United Arab Emirates_sentence_466

Contributing factors were the introduction of a value added tax (VAT) of 5% in 2018 as well as higher commodity prices. United Arab Emirates_sentence_467

Despite the Government's expansionary fiscal policy and a growing economy in 2018 and at the beginning of 2019, prices have been dropping in late 2018 and 2019 owing to oversupply in some sectors of importance to consumer prices. United Arab Emirates_sentence_468

In July 2020, a UAE-based firm, Essentra FZE agreed to pay a fine of $665,112 to the US Department of Justice. United Arab Emirates_sentence_469

The firm defrauded the US sanctions on North Korea by devising a criminal scheme to use a deceitful network of front companies and financial entities to manipulate US banks into processing prohibited US dollar transactions for benefiting North Korea. United Arab Emirates_sentence_470

Oil and gas United Arab Emirates_section_22

The UAE leadership has driven forward economic diversification efforts already before the oil price crash in the 1980s, and the UAE is nowadays the most diversified economy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. United Arab Emirates_sentence_471

Although the oil and gas sector does still play an important role in the UAE economy, these efforts have paid off in terms of great resilience during periods of oil price fluctuations and economic turbulence. United Arab Emirates_sentence_472

In 2018, the oil and gas sector contributed 26% to overall GDP. United Arab Emirates_sentence_473

The introduction of the VAT has provided the Government with an additional source of income – approximately 6% of the total revenue in 2018, or 27 billion United Arab Emirates Dirham (AED) – affording its fiscal policy more independence from oil- and gas-related revenue, which constitutes about 36% of the total Government revenue. United Arab Emirates_sentence_474

While the Government may still adjust the exact arrangement of the VAT, it is not likely that any new taxes will be introduced in the foreseeable future. United Arab Emirates_sentence_475

Additional taxes would destroy one of the UAE's main enticements for businesses to operate in the country and put a heavy burden on the economy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_476

Tourism United Arab Emirates_section_23

Tourism acts as a growth sector for the entire UAE economy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_477

Dubai is the top tourism destination in the Middle East. United Arab Emirates_sentence_478

According to the annual MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, Dubai is the fifth most popular tourism destination in the world. United Arab Emirates_sentence_479

Dubai holds up to 66% share of the UAE's tourism economy, with Abu Dhabi having 16% and Sharjah 10%. United Arab Emirates_sentence_480

Dubai welcomed 10 million tourists in 2013. United Arab Emirates_sentence_481

The UAE has the most advanced and developed infrastructure in the region. United Arab Emirates_sentence_482

Since the 1980s, the UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure. United Arab Emirates_sentence_483

These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. United Arab Emirates_sentence_484

The northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property. United Arab Emirates_sentence_485

On 6 January 2020, Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum announced that the tourist visa to the United Arab Emirates, which was earlier valid for 30–90 days, was extended to five years. United Arab Emirates_sentence_486

Transport United Arab Emirates_section_24

Main article: Transport in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_487

Dubai International Airport was the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2014, overtaking London Heathrow. United Arab Emirates_sentence_488

A 1,200 km (750 mi) country-wide railway is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports. United Arab Emirates_sentence_489

The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula. United Arab Emirates_sentence_490

The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, and Port Khor Fakkan. United Arab Emirates_sentence_491

Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, and Ras Al Khaimah are connected by the E11 highway, which is the longest road in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_492

In Dubai, in addition to the metro, Dubai Tram and Palm Jumeirah Monorail also connect specific parts of the city. United Arab Emirates_sentence_493

Telecommunications United Arab Emirates_section_25

The UAE is served by two telecommunications operators, Etisalat and Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company ("du"). United Arab Emirates_sentence_494

Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007. United Arab Emirates_sentence_495

Internet subscribers were expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 2.66 million in 2012. United Arab Emirates_sentence_496

The regulator, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, mandates filtering websites for religious, political and sexual content. United Arab Emirates_sentence_497

5G wireless services were installed nationwide in 2019 through a partnership with Huawei. United Arab Emirates_sentence_498

Culture United Arab Emirates_section_26

Main article: Culture of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_499

See also: Emirati Dialect United Arab Emirates_sentence_500

Emirati culture is based on Arabian culture and has been influenced by the cultures of Persia, India, and East Africa. United Arab Emirates_sentence_501

Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of the local Emirati identity. United Arab Emirates_sentence_502

Persian influence on Emirati culture is noticeably visible in traditional Emirati architecture and folk arts. United Arab Emirates_sentence_503

For example, the distinctive wind tower which tops traditional Emirati buildings, the barjeel has become an identifying mark of Emirati architecture and is attributed to Persian influence. United Arab Emirates_sentence_504

This influence is derived both from traders who fled the tax regime in Persia in the early 19th century and from Emirati ownership of ports on the Persian coast, for instance the Al Qassimi port of Lingeh. United Arab Emirates_sentence_505

The United Arab Emirates has a diverse society. United Arab Emirates_sentence_506

Dubai's economy depends more on international trade and tourism, and is more open to visitors, while Abu Dhabi society is more domestic as the city's economy is focused on fossil fuel extraction. United Arab Emirates_sentence_507

Major holidays in the United Arab Emirates include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_508

Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment that covers most parts of the body. United Arab Emirates_sentence_509

Ancient Emirati poetry was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed. United Arab Emirates_sentence_510

The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_511

The most famous Emirati writers were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). United Arab Emirates_sentence_512

Three other poets from Sharjah, known as the Hirah group, are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and Romantic poets. United Arab Emirates_sentence_513

The Sharjah International Book Fair is the oldest and largest in the country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_514

The list of museums in the United Arab Emirates includes some of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums, which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World. United Arab Emirates_sentence_515

In Dubai, the area of Al Quoz has attracted a number of art galleries as well as museums such as the Salsali Private Museum. United Arab Emirates_sentence_516

Abu Dhabi has established a culture district on Saadiyat Island. United Arab Emirates_sentence_517

Six grand projects are planned, including the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi and the Louvre Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_518

Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthal museum and a district for galleries and artists. United Arab Emirates_sentence_519

Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia. United Arab Emirates_sentence_520

Liwa is a type of music and dance performed locally, mainly in communities that contain descendants of Bantu peoples from the African Great Lakes region. United Arab Emirates_sentence_521

The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists. United Arab Emirates_sentence_522

The cinema of the United Arab Emirates is minimal but expanding. United Arab Emirates_sentence_523

Cuisine United Arab Emirates_section_27

Main article: Emirati cuisine United Arab Emirates_sentence_524

The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish and meat. United Arab Emirates_sentence_525

The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. United Arab Emirates_sentence_526

Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. United Arab Emirates_sentence_527

Meat and rice are other staple foods, with lamb and mutton preferred to goat and beef. United Arab Emirates_sentence_528

Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be complemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinctive flavour. United Arab Emirates_sentence_529

Popular cultural Emirati dishes include threed, machboos, khubisa, khameer and chabab bread among others while Lugaimat is a famous Emirati dessert. United Arab Emirates_sentence_530

With the influence of western culture, fast food has become very popular among young people, to the extent that campaigns have been held to highlight the dangers of fast food excesses. United Arab Emirates_sentence_531

Alcohol is allowed to be served only in hotel restaurants and bars. United Arab Emirates_sentence_532

All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. United Arab Emirates_sentence_533

Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol, but these products are sold in separate sections. United Arab Emirates_sentence_534

Likewise, pork, which is haram (not permitted for Muslims), is sold in separate sections in all major supermarkets. United Arab Emirates_sentence_535

Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood. United Arab Emirates_sentence_536

Sports United Arab Emirates_section_28

Main article: Sport in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_537

Formula One is particularly popular in the United Arab Emirates, and a Grand Prix is annually held at the Yas Marina Circuit in Yas Island in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_538

The race takes place in the evening, and was the first ever Grand Prix to start in daylight and finish at night. United Arab Emirates_sentence_539

Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis. United Arab Emirates_sentence_540

The emirate of Dubai is also home to two major golf courses: the Dubai Golf Club and Emirates Golf Club. United Arab Emirates_sentence_541

In the past, child camel jockeys were used, leading to widespread criticism. United Arab Emirates_sentence_542

Eventually the UAE passed laws banning the use of children for the sport, leading to the prompt removal of almost all child jockeys. United Arab Emirates_sentence_543

Recently robot jockeys have been introduced to overcome the problem of child camel jockeys which was an issue of human right violations. United Arab Emirates_sentence_544

Ansar Burney is often praised for the work he has done in this area. United Arab Emirates_sentence_545

Football United Arab Emirates_section_29

Football is a popular sport in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_546

Al Nasr, Al Ain, Al Wasl, Sharjah, Al Wahda, and Shabab Al Ahli are the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions. United Arab Emirates_sentence_547

The United Arab Emirates Football Association was established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organising youth programmes and improving the abilities of not only its players, but also the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. United Arab Emirates_sentence_548

The UAE qualified for the FIFA World Cup in 1990, along with Egypt. United Arab Emirates_sentence_549

It was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying, after Kuwait and Algeria in 1982, and Iraq and Algeria again in 1986. United Arab Emirates_sentence_550

The UAE has won the Gulf Cup Championship twice: the first cup won in January 2007 held in Abu Dhabi and the second in January 2013, held in Bahrain. United Arab Emirates_sentence_551

The country hosted the 2019 AFC Asian Cup. United Arab Emirates_sentence_552

The UAE team went all the way to the semi-finals, where they were defeated by the eventual champions, Qatar. United Arab Emirates_sentence_553

Cricket United Arab Emirates_section_30

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the SAARC countries, the United Kingdom, and Australia. United Arab Emirates_sentence_554

The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah has hosted four international test cricket matches so far. United Arab Emirates_sentence_555

Sheikh Zayed Cricket Stadium in Abu Dhabi has also hosted international cricket matches. United Arab Emirates_sentence_556

Dubai has two cricket stadia (Dubai Cricket Ground No. United Arab Emirates_sentence_557

1 and No. United Arab Emirates_sentence_558

2) with a third, the DSC Cricket Stadium, as part of Dubai Sports City. United Arab Emirates_sentence_559

Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council. United Arab Emirates_sentence_560

The UAE national cricket team qualified for the 1996 Cricket World Cup and narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. United Arab Emirates_sentence_561

They qualified for the 2015 Cricket World Cup held in Australia and New Zealand. United Arab Emirates_sentence_562

The 14th edition of the Asia Cup Cricket tournament was held in the UAE in September 2018. United Arab Emirates_sentence_563

UAE has also hosted two IPLs.The 7th edition of Indian Premier League was held in UAE.The UAE leg hosted 20 matches before moving to India. United Arab Emirates_sentence_564

The 2020 Indian Premier League was also held in UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_565

Education United Arab Emirates_section_31

Main article: Education in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_566

The education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education in all emirates except Abu Dhabi, where it falls under the authority of the Abu Dhabi Education Council. United Arab Emirates_sentence_567

It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools. United Arab Emirates_sentence_568

The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates' development goals. United Arab Emirates_sentence_569

The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. United Arab Emirates_sentence_570

There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. United Arab Emirates_sentence_571

Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary. United Arab Emirates_sentence_572

The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. United Arab Emirates_sentence_573

The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduate institutions. United Arab Emirates_sentence_574

The adult literacy rate in 2015 was 93.8%. United Arab Emirates_sentence_575

The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. United Arab Emirates_sentence_576

Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centres and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and Institute for Enterprise Development. United Arab Emirates_sentence_577

According to the QS Rankings, the top-ranking universities in the country are the United Arab Emirates University (421–430th worldwide), Khalifa University (441–450th worldwide), the American University of Sharjah (431–440th) and University of Sharjah (551–600th worldwide). United Arab Emirates_sentence_578

Demographics United Arab Emirates_section_32

Main article: Demographics of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_579

According to an estimate by the World Bank, the UAE's population in 2018 stands at 9.543 million. United Arab Emirates_sentence_580

Expatriates and immigrants account for 88.52% while Emiratis make up the remaining 11.48%. United Arab Emirates_sentence_581

This unique imbalance is due to the country's exceptionally high net migration rate of 21.71, the world's highest. United Arab Emirates_sentence_582

UAE citizenship is very difficult to obtain other than by filiation and only granted under very special circumstances. United Arab Emirates_sentence_583

The UAE is ethnically diverse. United Arab Emirates_sentence_584

The five most populous nationalities in the emirates of Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman are Indian (25%), Pakistani (12%), Emirati (9%), Bangladeshi (7%), and Filipino (5%). United Arab Emirates_sentence_585

Expatriates from Europe, Australia, Northern America and Latin America make up 500,000 of the population. United Arab Emirates_sentence_586

More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_587

The rest of the population are from other Arab states. United Arab Emirates_sentence_588

About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban. United Arab Emirates_sentence_589

The average life expectancy was 76.7 in 2012, higher than for any other Arab country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_590

With a male/female sex ratio of 2.2 males for each female in the total population and 2.75 to 1 for the 15–65 , the UAE's gender imbalance is second highest in the world after Qatar. United Arab Emirates_sentence_591

Religion United Arab Emirates_section_33

Main article: Religion in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_592

Islam is the largest and the official state religion of the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_593

The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims. United Arab Emirates_sentence_594

There are more Sunni than Shia Muslims in the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_595

85% of the Emirati population are Sunni Muslims. United Arab Emirates_sentence_596

The vast majority of the remainder 15% are Shia Muslims, who are concentrated in the Emirates of Dubai and Sharjah. United Arab Emirates_sentence_597

Although no official statistics are available for the breakdown between Sunni and Shia Muslims among noncitizen residents, media estimates suggest less than 20 percent of the noncitizen Muslim population are Shia. United Arab Emirates_sentence_598

Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi is the largest mosque in the country and a major tourist attraction. United Arab Emirates_sentence_599

Ibadi is common among Omanis in the UAE, while Sufi influences exist as well. United Arab Emirates_sentence_600

Roman Catholics and Protestants form significant proportions of the Christian minority. United Arab Emirates_sentence_601

The country has at least 45 churches. United Arab Emirates_sentence_602

Many Christians in the United Arab Emirates are of Asian, African, and European origin, along with fellow Middle Eastern countries such as Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt. United Arab Emirates_sentence_603

The United Arab Emirates forms part of the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia and the Vicar Apostolic Bishop Paul Hinder is based in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_604

There is a small Jewish community in the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_605

There is only one known synagogue, in Dubai, which has been open since 2008. United Arab Emirates_sentence_606

The synagogue also welcomes visitors. United Arab Emirates_sentence_607

As of 2019, according to Rabbi Marc Schneier of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding, it is estimated that there are about 150 families to 3,000 Jews who live and worship freely in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_608

South Asians in the United Arab Emirates constitute the largest ethnic group in the country. United Arab Emirates_sentence_609

Over 2 million Indian migrants (mostly from the southern states of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Coastal Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) are estimated to be living in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_610

There is currently only one Hindu temple in the UAE in Dubai, the Hindu Temple, Dubai (referred to locally as Shiva and Krishna Mandir) located in Dubai. United Arab Emirates_sentence_611

Another temple, the BAPS Hindu Mandir Abu Dhabi is a Hindu temple that is being built by the BAPS Swaminarayan Sansthan in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates_sentence_612

Other religions also exist in the United Arab Emirates, including Sikhism, Buddhism, Judaism, Baháʼís and Druze. United Arab Emirates_sentence_613

Largest cities United Arab Emirates_section_34

Languages United Arab Emirates_section_35

Arabic is the national language of the United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates_sentence_614

The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people. United Arab Emirates_sentence_615

Since the area was occupied by the British until 1971, English is the primary lingua franca in the UAE. United Arab Emirates_sentence_616

As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most local jobs. United Arab Emirates_sentence_617

Health United Arab Emirates_section_36

Main article: Health in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates_sentence_618

The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 76.96 years. United Arab Emirates_sentence_619

Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28% of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies. United Arab Emirates_sentence_620

According to World Health Organisation data from 2016, 34.5% of adults in the UAE are clinically obese, with a body mass index (BMI) score of 30 or more. United Arab Emirates_sentence_621

In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. United Arab Emirates_sentence_622

The strategy focuses on unifying healthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. United Arab Emirates_sentence_623

The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. United Arab Emirates_sentence_624

Nine were scheduled to open in 2008. United Arab Emirates_sentence_625

The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependants was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. United Arab Emirates_sentence_626

Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. United Arab Emirates_sentence_627

Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme. United Arab Emirates_sentence_628

The country has benefited from medical tourists from all over the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. United Arab Emirates_sentence_629

The UAE attracts medical tourists seeking cosmetic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf. United Arab Emirates_sentence_630

See also United Arab Emirates_section_37

United Arab Emirates_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United Arab Emirates.