United Nations

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

"UN" redirects here. United Nations_sentence_0

For other uses, see United Nations (disambiguation) and UN (disambiguation). United Nations_sentence_1

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. United Nations_sentence_2

It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. United Nations_sentence_3

The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City, with its other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, and The Hague. United Nations_sentence_4

The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. United Nations_sentence_5

On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations. United Nations_sentence_6

Pursuant to the Charter, the organization's objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. United Nations_sentence_7

At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; with the addition of South Sudan in 2011, membership is now 193, representing almost all of the world's sovereign states. United Nations_sentence_8

The organization's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. United Nations_sentence_9

Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. United Nations_sentence_10

UN membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization beginning in the 1960s. United Nations_sentence_11

Since then, 80 former colonies have gained independence, including 11 trust territories that had been monitored by the Trusteeship Council. United Nations_sentence_12

By the 1970s, the UN's budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. United Nations_sentence_13

After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks. United Nations_sentence_14

The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. United Nations_sentence_15

The UN System includes a multitude of specialized agencies, funds and programmes such as the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. United Nations_sentence_16

Additionally, non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work. United Nations_sentence_17

The UN's chief administrative officer is the Secretary-General, currently Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres, who began his five year-term on 1 January 2017. United Nations_sentence_18

The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. United Nations_sentence_19

The UN, its officers, and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes, though other evaluations of its effectiveness have been mixed. United Nations_sentence_20

Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called it ineffective, biased, or corrupt. United Nations_sentence_21

History United Nations_section_0

Main article: History of the United Nations United Nations_sentence_22

Background United Nations_section_1

In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross were formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife. United Nations_sentence_23

In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. United Nations_sentence_24

As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in Britain and the United States began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. United Nations_sentence_25

President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his Fourteen Points to end the war. United Nations_sentence_26

In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. United Nations_sentence_27

Two months later, the Allies met to hammer out formal peace terms at the Paris Peace Conference. United Nations_sentence_28

The League of Nations was approved, and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate which refused to consent to the ratification. United Nations_sentence_29

On 10 January 1920, the League of Nations formally came into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, took effect. United Nations_sentence_30

Although the United States never joined the League, the country did support its economic and social missions through the work of private philanthropies and by sending representatives to committees. United Nations_sentence_31

After some successes and some failures during the 1920s, the League proved ineffective in the 1930s. United Nations_sentence_32

It failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933. United Nations_sentence_33

Forty nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria. United Nations_sentence_34

It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini, but he used the time to send an army to Africa. United Nations_sentence_35

The League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia. United Nations_sentence_36

The League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. United Nations_sentence_37

After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. United Nations_sentence_38

But all of them realized that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. United Nations_sentence_39

During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia. United Nations_sentence_40

When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva, which remained empty throughout the war. United Nations_sentence_41

Declarations by the Allies of World War II United Nations_section_2

The first specific step towards the establishment of the United Nations was the Inter-Allied conference that led to the Declaration of St James's Palace on 12 June 1941. United Nations_sentence_42

By August 1941, American President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had drafted the Atlantic Charter to define goals for the post-war world. United Nations_sentence_43

At the subsequent meeting of the Inter-Allied Council in London on 24 September 1941, the eight governments in exile of countries under Axis occupation, together with the Soviet Union and representatives of the Free French Forces, unanimously adopted adherence to the common principles of policy set forth by Britain and United States. United Nations_sentence_44

President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met at the White House in December 1941 for the Arcadia Conference. United Nations_sentence_45

Roosevelt coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries. United Nations_sentence_46

He suggested it as an alternative to "Associated Powers", which the U.S. used in World War I (the U.S. was never formally a member of the Allies of World War I but entered the war in 1917 as a self-styled "Associated Power"). United Nations_sentence_47

The British Prime Minister accepted it, noting its use by Lord Byron in the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. United Nations_sentence_48

The text of the Declaration by United Nations was drafted on 29 December 1941, by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins. United Nations_sentence_49

It incorporated Soviet suggestions but included no role for France. United Nations_sentence_50

One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, which Stalin approved after Roosevelt insisted. United Nations_sentence_51

Roosevelt's idea of the "Four Powers", referring to the four major Allied countries, the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and Republic of China, emerged in the Declaration by United Nations. United Nations_sentence_52

On New Year's Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and T. United Nations_sentence_53 V. Soong, of China, signed the "Declaration of The United Nations", and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. United Nations_sentence_54

During the war, "the United Nations" became the official term for the Allies. United Nations_sentence_55

To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis powers. United Nations_sentence_56

By 1 March 1945, 21 additional states had signed the Declaration by United Nations. United Nations_sentence_57

Roosevelt's envoy Wendell Willkie played a key role in promoting the idea of the United States joining the new organization, publishing One World (book) in April 1943. United Nations_sentence_58

In September 1943, 81 percent of Americans - up from 63 percent in February - supported joining a "union of nations" after the war. United Nations_sentence_59

The October 1943 Moscow Conference resulted in the Moscow Declarations, including the Four Power Declaration on General Security which aimed for the creation "at the earliest possible date of a general international organization". United Nations_sentence_60

This was the first public announcement that a new international organization was being contemplated to replace the League of Nations. United Nations_sentence_61

The Tehran Conference followed shortly afterwards at which Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met and discussed the idea of a post-war international organization. United Nations_sentence_62

Founding United Nations_section_3

The new international organization was formulated and negotiated among the delegations from the Allied Big Four at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference from 21 September to 7 October 1944. United Nations_sentence_63

Representatives from the United States and the United Kingdom met first with those from the Soviet Union and, in the following week, with representatives from the Republic of China. United Nations_sentence_64

They agreed on proposals for the aims, structure and functioning of the new international organization. United Nations_sentence_65

It took the conference at Yalta, plus further negotiations with Moscow, before all the issues were resolved. United Nations_sentence_66

After months of planning, the UN Conference on International Organization opened in San Francisco, 25 April 1945, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations. United Nations_sentence_67

The four sponsoring countries invited other nations to take part and the heads of the delegations of the four chaired the plenary meetings. United Nations_sentence_68

Winston Churchill urged Roosevelt to restore France to its status of a major Power after the liberation of Paris in August 1944. United Nations_sentence_69

The drafting of the Charter of the United Nations was completing over the following two months; it was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. United Nations_sentence_70

The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, upon ratification of the Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council—the US, the UK, France, the Soviet Union and the Republic of China—and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. United Nations_sentence_71

The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council took place in London beginning in January 1946. United Nations_sentence_72

Debates began at once, covering topical issues such as the presence of Russian troops in Iranian Azerbaijan, British forces in Greece and within days the first veto was cast. United Nations_sentence_73

The General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, construction began on 14 September 1948 and the facility was completed on 9 October 1952. United Nations_sentence_74

Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi—is designated as international territory. United Nations_sentence_75

The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General. United Nations_sentence_76

Cold War era United Nations_section_4

Though the UN's primary mandate was peacekeeping, the division between the US and USSR often paralysed the organization, generally allowing it to intervene only in conflicts distant from the Cold War. United Nations_sentence_77

Two notable exceptions were a Security Council resolution on 7 July 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition to repel the North Korean invasion of South Korea, passed in the absence of the USSR, and the signing of the Korean Armistice Agreement on 27 July 1953. United Nations_sentence_78

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly approved a resolution to partition Palestine, approving the creation of the state of Israel. United Nations_sentence_79

Two years later, Ralph Bunche, a UN official, negotiated an armistice to the resulting conflict. United Nations_sentence_80

On 7 November 1956, the first UN peacekeeping force was established to end the Suez Crisis; however, the UN was unable to intervene against the USSR's simultaneous invasion of Hungary following that country's revolution. United Nations_sentence_81

On 14 July 1960, the UN established United Nations Operation in the Congo (UNOC), the largest military force of its early decades, to bring order to the breakaway State of Katanga, restoring it to the control of the Democratic Republic of the Congo by 11 May 1964. United Nations_sentence_82

While traveling to meet rebel leader Moise Tshombe during the conflict, Dag Hammarskjöld, often named as one of the UN's most effective Secretaries-General, died in a plane crash; months later he was posthumously awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. United Nations_sentence_83

In 1964, Hammarskjöld's successor, U Thant, deployed the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus, which would become one of the UN's longest-running peacekeeping missions. United Nations_sentence_84

With the spread of decolonization in the 1960s, the organization's membership saw an influx of newly independent nations. United Nations_sentence_85

In 1960 alone, 17 new states joined the UN, 16 of them from Africa. United Nations_sentence_86

On 25 October 1971, with opposition from the United States, but with the support of many Third World nations, the mainland, communist People's Republic of China was given the Chinese seat on the Security Council in place of the Republic of China that occupied Taiwan; the vote was widely seen as a sign of waning US influence in the organization. United Nations_sentence_87

Third World nations organized into the Group of 77 coalition under the leadership of Algeria, which briefly became a dominant power at the UN. United Nations_sentence_88

On 10 November 1975, a bloc comprising the USSR and Third World nations passed a resolution, over the strenuous US and Israeli opposition, declaring Zionism to be racism; the resolution was repealed on 16 December 1991, shortly after the end of the Cold War. United Nations_sentence_89

With an increasing Third World presence and the failure of UN mediation in conflicts in the Middle East, Vietnam, and Kashmir, the UN increasingly shifted its attention to its ostensibly secondary goals of economic development and cultural exchange. United Nations_sentence_90

By the 1970s, the UN budget for social and economic development was far greater than its peacekeeping budget. United Nations_sentence_91

Post-Cold War United Nations_section_5

After the Cold War, the UN saw a radical expansion in its peacekeeping duties, taking on more missions in five years than it had in the previous four decades. United Nations_sentence_92

Between 1988 and 2000, the number of adopted Security Council resolutions more than doubled, and the peacekeeping budget increased more than tenfold. United Nations_sentence_93

The UN negotiated an end to the Salvadoran Civil War, launched a successful peacekeeping mission in Namibia, and oversaw democratic elections in post-apartheid South Africa and post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia. United Nations_sentence_94

In 1991, the UN authorized a US-led coalition that repulsed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. United Nations_sentence_95

Brian Urquhart, Under-Secretary-General from 1971 to 1985, later described the hopes raised by these successes as a "false renaissance" for the organization, given the more troubled missions that followed. United Nations_sentence_96

Beginning in the last decades of the Cold War, American and European critics of the UN condemned the organization for perceived mismanagement and corruption. United Nations_sentence_97

In 1984, US President Ronald Reagan, withdrew his nation's funding from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) over allegations of mismanagement, followed by the UK and Singapore. United Nations_sentence_98

Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary-General from 1992 to 1996, initiated a reform of the Secretariat, reducing the size of the organization somewhat. United Nations_sentence_99

His successor, Kofi Annan (1997–2006), initiated further management reforms in the face of threats from the US to withhold its UN dues. United Nations_sentence_100

Though the UN Charter had been written primarily to prevent aggression by one nation against another, in the early 1990s the UN faced a number of simultaneous, serious crises within nations such as Somalia, Haiti, Mozambique, and the former Yugoslavia. United Nations_sentence_101

The UN mission in Somalia was widely viewed as a failure after the US withdrawal following casualties in the Battle of Mogadishu. United Nations_sentence_102

The UN mission to Bosnia faced "worldwide ridicule" for its indecisive and confused mission in the face of ethnic cleansing. United Nations_sentence_103

In 1994, the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda failed to intervene in the Rwandan genocide amid indecision in the Security Council. United Nations_sentence_104

From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, international interventions authorized by the UN took a wider variety of forms. United Nations_sentence_105

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 authorised the NATO-led Kosovo Force beginning in 1999. United Nations_sentence_106

The UN mission (1999-2006) in the Sierra Leone Civil War was supplemented by a British military intervention. United Nations_sentence_107

The invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 was overseen by NATO. United Nations_sentence_108

In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq despite failing to pass a UN Security Council resolution for authorization, prompting a new round of questioning of the organization's effectiveness. United Nations_sentence_109

Under the eighth Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, the UN intervened with peacekeepers in crises such as the War in Darfur in Sudan and the Kivu conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo and sent observers and chemical weapons inspectors to the Syrian Civil War. United Nations_sentence_110

In 2013, an internal review of UN actions in the final battles of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 2009 concluded that the organization had suffered "systemic failure". United Nations_sentence_111

In 2010, the organization suffered the worst loss of life in its history, when 101 personnel died in the Haiti earthquake. United Nations_sentence_112

Acting under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 in 2011, NATO countries intervened in the Libyan Civil War. United Nations_sentence_113

The Millennium Summit was held in 2000 to discuss the UN's role in the 21st century. United Nations_sentence_114

The three day meeting was the largest gathering of world leaders in history, and culminated in the adoption by all member states of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a commitment to achieve international development in areas such as poverty reduction, gender equality, and public health. United Nations_sentence_115

Progress towards these goals, which were to be met by 2015, was ultimately uneven. United Nations_sentence_116

The 2005 World Summit reaffirmed the UN's focus on promoting development, peacekeeping, human rights, and global security. United Nations_sentence_117

The Sustainable Development Goals were launched in 2015 to succeed the Millennium Development Goals. United Nations_sentence_118

In addition to addressing global challenges, the UN has sought to improve its accountability and democratic legitimacy by engaging more with civil society and fostering a global constituency. United Nations_sentence_119

In an effort to enhance transparency, in 2016 the organization held its first public debate between candidates for Secretary-General. United Nations_sentence_120

On 1 January 2017, Portuguese diplomat António Guterres, who previously served as UN High Commissioner for Refugees, became the ninth Secretary-General. United Nations_sentence_121

Guterres has highlighted several key goals for his administration, including an emphasis on diplomacy for preventing conflicts, more effective peacekeeping efforts, and streamlining the organization to be more responsive and versatile to global needs. United Nations_sentence_122

Structure United Nations_section_6

Main article: United Nations System United Nations_sentence_123

The UN system is based on five principal organs: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the International Court of Justice and the UN Secretariat. United Nations_sentence_124

A sixth principal organ, the Trusteeship Council, suspended operations on 1 November 1994, upon the independence of Palau, the last remaining UN trustee territory. United Nations_sentence_125

Four of the five principal organs are located at the main UN Headquarters in New York City. United Nations_sentence_126

The International Court of Justice is located in The Hague, while other major agencies are based in the UN offices at Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi. United Nations_sentence_127

Other UN institutions are located throughout the world. United Nations_sentence_128

The six official languages of the UN, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. United Nations_sentence_129

On the basis of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, the UN and its agencies are immune from the laws of the countries where they operate, safeguarding the UN's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries. United Nations_sentence_130

Below the six organs sit, in the words of the author Linda Fasulo, "an amazing collection of entities and organizations, some of which are actually older than the UN itself and operate with almost complete independence from it". United Nations_sentence_131

These include specialized agencies, research, and training institutions, programs and funds, and other UN entities. United Nations_sentence_132

The UN obeys the Noblemaire principle, which is binding on any organization that belongs to the UN system. United Nations_sentence_133

This principle calls for salaries that will draw and keep citizens of countries where salaries are highest, and also calls for equal pay for work of equal value independent of the employee's nationality. United Nations_sentence_134

In practice, the ICSC takes reference to the highest-paying national civil service. United Nations_sentence_135

Staff salaries are subject to an internal tax that is administered by the UN organizations. United Nations_sentence_136

General Assembly United Nations_section_7

Main article: United Nations General Assembly United Nations_sentence_137

The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the UN. United Nations_sentence_138

Composed of all UN member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions, but emergency sessions can also be called. United Nations_sentence_139

The assembly is led by a president, elected from among the member states on a rotating regional basis, and 21 vice-presidents. United Nations_sentence_140

The first session convened 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations. United Nations_sentence_141

When the General Assembly decides on important questions such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, a two-thirds majority of those present and voting is required. United Nations_sentence_142

All other questions are decided by a majority vote. United Nations_sentence_143

Each member country has one vote. United Nations_sentence_144

Apart from the approval of budgetary matters, resolutions are not binding on the members. United Nations_sentence_145

The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under consideration by the Security Council. United Nations_sentence_146

Draft resolutions can be forwarded to the General Assembly by its six main committees: United Nations_sentence_147

United Nations_unordered_list_0

As well as by the following two committees: United Nations_sentence_148

United Nations_unordered_list_1

  • General Committee – a supervisory committee consisting of the assembly's president, vice-president, and committee headsUnited Nations_item_1_6
  • Credentials Committee – responsible for determining the credentials of each member nation's UN representativesUnited Nations_item_1_7

Security Council United Nations_section_8

Main article: United Nations Security Council United Nations_sentence_149

The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries. United Nations_sentence_150

While other organs of the UN can only make "recommendations" to member states, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member states have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter Article 25. United Nations_sentence_151

The decisions of the council are known as United Nations Security Council resolutions. United Nations_sentence_152

The Security Council is made up of fifteen member states, consisting of five permanent members—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly (with end of term date)—Belgium (term ends 2020), Dominican Republic (2020), Estonia (2021), Germany (2020), Indonesia (2020), Niger (2021), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2021), South Africa (2020), Tunisia (2021), and Vietnam (2021). United Nations_sentence_153

The five permanent members hold veto power over UN resolutions, allowing a permanent member to block adoption of a resolution, though not debate. United Nations_sentence_154

The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms, with five member states per year voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis. United Nations_sentence_155

The presidency of the Security Council rotates alphabetically each month. United Nations_sentence_156

UN Secretariat United Nations_section_9

Main articles: United Nations Secretariat and Secretary-General of the United Nations United Nations_sentence_157

The UN Secretariat is headed by the secretary-general, assisted by the deputy secretary-general and a staff of international civil servants worldwide. United Nations_sentence_158

It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by UN bodies for their meetings. United Nations_sentence_159

It also carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies. United Nations_sentence_160

The secretary-general acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the UN. United Nations_sentence_161

The position is defined in the UN Charter as the organization's "chief administrative officer". United Nations_sentence_162

Article 99 of the charter states that the secretary-general can bring to the Security Council's attention "any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security", a phrase that Secretaries-General since Trygve Lie have interpreted as giving the position broad scope for action on the world stage. United Nations_sentence_163

The office has evolved into a dual role of an administrator of the UN organization and a diplomat and mediator addressing disputes between member states and finding consensus to global issues. United Nations_sentence_164

The secretary-general is appointed by the General Assembly, after being recommended by the Security Council, where the permanent members have veto power. United Nations_sentence_165

There are no specific criteria for the post, but over the years it has become accepted that the post shall be held for one or two terms of five years. United Nations_sentence_166

The current Secretary-General is António Guterres, who replaced Ban Ki-moon in 2017. United Nations_sentence_167

United Nations_table_general_0

Secretaries-General of the United NationsUnited Nations_table_caption_0
No.United Nations_header_cell_0_0_0 NameUnited Nations_header_cell_0_0_1 Country of originUnited Nations_header_cell_0_0_2 Took officeUnited Nations_header_cell_0_0_3 Left officeUnited Nations_header_cell_0_0_4 NotesUnited Nations_header_cell_0_0_5
-United Nations_cell_0_1_0 Gladwyn JebbUnited Nations_cell_0_1_1 United KingdomUnited Nations_cell_0_1_2 24 October 1945United Nations_cell_0_1_3 2 February 1946United Nations_cell_0_1_4 Served as Acting Secretary-General until Lie's electionUnited Nations_cell_0_1_5
1United Nations_cell_0_2_0 Trygve LieUnited Nations_cell_0_2_1 NorwayUnited Nations_cell_0_2_2 2 February 1946United Nations_cell_0_2_3 10 November 1952United Nations_cell_0_2_4 ResignedUnited Nations_cell_0_2_5
2United Nations_cell_0_3_0 Dag HammarskjöldUnited Nations_cell_0_3_1 SwedenUnited Nations_cell_0_3_2 10 April 1953United Nations_cell_0_3_3 18 September 1961United Nations_cell_0_3_4 Died in officeUnited Nations_cell_0_3_5
3United Nations_cell_0_4_0 U ThantUnited Nations_cell_0_4_1 BurmaUnited Nations_cell_0_4_2 30 November 1961United Nations_cell_0_4_3 31 December 1971United Nations_cell_0_4_4 First non-European to hold officeUnited Nations_cell_0_4_5
4United Nations_cell_0_5_0 Kurt WaldheimUnited Nations_cell_0_5_1 AustriaUnited Nations_cell_0_5_2 1 January 1972United Nations_cell_0_5_3 31 December 1981United Nations_cell_0_5_4 United Nations_cell_0_5_5
5United Nations_cell_0_6_0 Javier Pérez de CuéllarUnited Nations_cell_0_6_1 PeruUnited Nations_cell_0_6_2 1 January 1982United Nations_cell_0_6_3 31 December 1991United Nations_cell_0_6_4 United Nations_cell_0_6_5
6United Nations_cell_0_7_0 Boutros Boutros-GhaliUnited Nations_cell_0_7_1 EgyptUnited Nations_cell_0_7_2 1 January 1992United Nations_cell_0_7_3 31 December 1996United Nations_cell_0_7_4 Served for the shortest timeUnited Nations_cell_0_7_5
7United Nations_cell_0_8_0 Kofi AnnanUnited Nations_cell_0_8_1 GhanaUnited Nations_cell_0_8_2 1 January 1997United Nations_cell_0_8_3 31 December 2006United Nations_cell_0_8_4 United Nations_cell_0_8_5
8United Nations_cell_0_9_0 Ban Ki-moonUnited Nations_cell_0_9_1 South KoreaUnited Nations_cell_0_9_2 1 January 2007United Nations_cell_0_9_3 31 December 2016United Nations_cell_0_9_4 United Nations_cell_0_9_5
9United Nations_cell_0_10_0 António GuterresUnited Nations_cell_0_10_1 PortugalUnited Nations_cell_0_10_2 1 January 2017United Nations_cell_0_10_3 IncumbentUnited Nations_cell_0_10_4 United Nations_cell_0_10_5

International Court of Justice United Nations_section_10

Main article: International Court of Justice United Nations_sentence_168

The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, in the Netherlands, is the primary judicial organ of the UN. United Nations_sentence_169

Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. United Nations_sentence_170

The ICJ is composed of 15 judges who serve 9-year terms and are appointed by the General Assembly; every sitting judge must be from a different nation. United Nations_sentence_171

It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, sharing the building with the Hague Academy of International Law, a private centre for the study of international law. United Nations_sentence_172

The ICJ's primary purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. United Nations_sentence_173

The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference, ethnic cleansing, and other issues. United Nations_sentence_174

The ICJ can also be called upon by other UN organs to provide advisory opinions. United Nations_sentence_175

It is the only organ that is not located in New York. United Nations_sentence_176

Economic and Social Council United Nations_section_11

Main article: United Nations Economic and Social Council United Nations_sentence_177

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social co-operation and development. United Nations_sentence_178

ECOSOC has 54 members, who are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. United Nations_sentence_179

The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC. United Nations_sentence_180

The council has one annual meeting in July, held in either New York or Geneva. United Nations_sentence_181

Viewed as separate from the specialized bodies it co-ordinates, ECOSOC's functions include information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations. United Nations_sentence_182

Owing to its broad mandate of co-ordinating many agencies, ECOSOC has at times been criticized as unfocused or irrelevant. United Nations_sentence_183

ECOSOC's subsidiary bodies include the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which advises UN agencies on issues relating to indigenous peoples; the United Nations Forum on Forests, which coordinates and promotes sustainable forest management; the United Nations Statistical Commission, which co-ordinates information-gathering efforts between agencies; and the Commission on Sustainable Development, which co-ordinates efforts between UN agencies and NGOs working towards sustainable development. United Nations_sentence_184

ECOSOC may also grant consultative status to non-governmental organizations; by 2004, more than 2,200 organizations had received this status. United Nations_sentence_185

Specialized agencies United Nations_section_12

Main article: List of specialized agencies of the United Nations United Nations_sentence_186

The UN Charter stipulates that each primary organ of the United Nations can establish various specialized agencies to fulfil its duties. United Nations_sentence_187

The specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Economic and Social Council. United Nations_sentence_188

Each was integrated into the UN System by way of an agreement with the UN under UN Charter article 57. United Nations_sentence_189

There are fifteen specialized agencies because the World Bank Group, which is now treated as one organization, is composed, in part, of three specialized agencies – the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) – which, if counted separately, make seventeen specialized agencies. United Nations_sentence_190

United Nations_table_general_1

Specialized agencies of the United NationsUnited Nations_table_caption_1
No.United Nations_header_cell_1_0_0 AcronymUnited Nations_header_cell_1_0_1 AgencyUnited Nations_header_cell_1_0_2 HeadquartersUnited Nations_header_cell_1_0_3 HeadUnited Nations_header_cell_1_0_4 Established inUnited Nations_header_cell_1_0_5
1United Nations_cell_1_1_0 FAOUnited Nations_cell_1_1_1 Food and Agriculture OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_1_2 Italy Rome, ItalyUnited Nations_cell_1_1_3 China Qu DongyuUnited Nations_cell_1_1_4 1945United Nations_cell_1_1_5
2United Nations_cell_1_2_0 ICAOUnited Nations_cell_1_2_1 International Civil Aviation OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_2_2 Canada Montreal, Quebec, CanadaUnited Nations_cell_1_2_3 China Fang LiuUnited Nations_cell_1_2_4 1947United Nations_cell_1_2_5
3United Nations_cell_1_3_0 IFADUnited Nations_cell_1_3_1 International Fund for Agricultural DevelopmentUnited Nations_cell_1_3_2 Italy Rome, ItalyUnited Nations_cell_1_3_3 Togo Gilbert HoungboUnited Nations_cell_1_3_4 1977United Nations_cell_1_3_5
4United Nations_cell_1_4_0 ILOUnited Nations_cell_1_4_1 International Labour OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_4_2 Switzerland Geneva, SwitzerlandUnited Nations_cell_1_4_3 United_Kingdom Guy RyderUnited Nations_cell_1_4_4 1946 (1919)United Nations_cell_1_4_5
5United Nations_cell_1_5_0 IMOUnited Nations_cell_1_5_1 International Maritime OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_5_2 United_Kingdom London, United KingdomUnited Nations_cell_1_5_3 South_Korea Kitack LimUnited Nations_cell_1_5_4 1948United Nations_cell_1_5_5
6United Nations_cell_1_6_0 IMFUnited Nations_cell_1_6_1 International Monetary FundUnited Nations_cell_1_6_2 United_States Washington, D.C., United StatesUnited Nations_cell_1_6_3 Bulgaria Kristalina GeorgievaUnited Nations_cell_1_6_4 1945 (1944)United Nations_cell_1_6_5
7United Nations_cell_1_7_0 ITUUnited Nations_cell_1_7_1 International Telecommunication UnionUnited Nations_cell_1_7_2 Switzerland Geneva, SwitzerlandUnited Nations_cell_1_7_3 China Houlin ZhaoUnited Nations_cell_1_7_4 1947 (1865)United Nations_cell_1_7_5
8United Nations_cell_1_8_0 UNESCOUnited Nations_cell_1_8_1 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_8_2 France Paris, FranceUnited Nations_cell_1_8_3 France Audrey AzoulayUnited Nations_cell_1_8_4 1946United Nations_cell_1_8_5
9United Nations_cell_1_9_0 UNIDOUnited Nations_cell_1_9_1 United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_9_2 Austria Vienna, AustriaUnited Nations_cell_1_9_3 China Li YongUnited Nations_cell_1_9_4 1967United Nations_cell_1_9_5
10United Nations_cell_1_10_0 UNWTOUnited Nations_cell_1_10_1 World Tourism OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_10_2 Spain Madrid, SpainUnited Nations_cell_1_10_3 Georgia_(country) Zurab PololikashviliUnited Nations_cell_1_10_4 1974United Nations_cell_1_10_5
11United Nations_cell_1_11_0 UPUUnited Nations_cell_1_11_1 Universal Postal UnionUnited Nations_cell_1_11_2 Switzerland Bern, SwitzerlandUnited Nations_cell_1_11_3 Kenya Bishar Abdirahman HusseinUnited Nations_cell_1_11_4 1947 (1874)United Nations_cell_1_11_5
12United Nations_cell_1_12_0 WBGUnited Nations_cell_1_12_1 World Bank GroupUnited Nations_cell_1_12_2 United_States Washington, D.C., United StatesUnited Nations_cell_1_12_3 United_States David Malpass (President)United Nations_cell_1_12_4 1945 (1944)United Nations_cell_1_12_5
13United Nations_cell_1_13_0 WHOUnited Nations_cell_1_13_1 World Health OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_13_2 Switzerland Geneva, SwitzerlandUnited Nations_cell_1_13_3 Ethiopia Tedros AdhanomUnited Nations_cell_1_13_4 1948United Nations_cell_1_13_5
14United Nations_cell_1_14_0 WIPOUnited Nations_cell_1_14_1 World Intellectual Property OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_14_2 Switzerland Geneva, SwitzerlandUnited Nations_cell_1_14_3 Singapore Daren TangUnited Nations_cell_1_14_4 1974United Nations_cell_1_14_5
15United Nations_cell_1_15_0 WMOUnited Nations_cell_1_15_1 World Meteorological OrganizationUnited Nations_cell_1_15_2 Switzerland Geneva, SwitzerlandUnited Nations_cell_1_15_3 Finland Petteri Taalas (Secretary-General)

Germany Gerhard Adrian (President)United Nations_cell_1_15_4

1950 (1873)United Nations_cell_1_15_5

Funds and programmes, research and training institutes, and other bodies United Nations_section_13

The separately-administered funds and programmes, research and training institutes, and other subsidiary bodies are autonomous subsidiary organs of the United Nations. United Nations_sentence_191

The UN performs much of its humanitarian work through its specialized agencies and these funds and programs. United Nations_sentence_192

Examples include mass vaccination programmes (through WHO), the avoidance of famine and malnutrition (through the work of the WFP), and the protection of vulnerable and displaced people (for example, by UNHCR). United Nations_sentence_193

Membership United Nations_section_14

Main article: Member states of the United Nations United Nations_sentence_194

With the addition of South Sudan 14 July 2011, there are 193 UN member states, including all undisputed independent states apart from Vatican City. United Nations_sentence_195

The UN Charter outlines the rules for membership: United Nations_sentence_196

In addition, there are two non-member observer states of the United Nations General Assembly: the Holy See (which holds sovereignty over Vatican City) and the State of Palestine. United Nations_sentence_197

The Cook Islands and Niue, both states in free association with New Zealand, are full members of several UN specialized agencies and have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognized by the Secretariat. United Nations_sentence_198

Indonesia is the first and the only nation in UN history that once withdrew its membership following the election of Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council amid conflict between the two countries in 1965. United Nations_sentence_199

President Sukarno later formed CONEFO as a rival to the United Nations. United Nations_sentence_200

In September 1966, Suharto as de facto leader notified UN Assembly that Indonesia resumed its full membership in the UN. United Nations_sentence_201

Group of 77 United Nations_section_15

Main article: Group of 77 United Nations_sentence_202

The Group of 77 (G77) at the UN is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the UN. United Nations_sentence_203

Seventy-seven nations founded the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 133 member countries. United Nations_sentence_204

The group was founded 15 June 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). United Nations_sentence_205

The group held its first major meeting in Algiers in 1967, where it adopted the Charter of Algiers and established the basis for permanent institutional structures. United Nations_sentence_206

With the adoption of the New International Economic Order by developing countries in the 1970s, the work of the G77 spread throughout the UN system. United Nations_sentence_207

Objectives United Nations_section_16

Peacekeeping and security United Nations_section_17

Main articles: United Nations peacekeeping and List of United Nations peacekeeping missions United Nations_sentence_208

The UN, after approval by the Security Council, sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. United Nations_sentence_209

Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states. United Nations_sentence_210

These soldiers are sometimes nicknamed "Blue Helmets" for their distinctive gear. United Nations_sentence_211

The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. United Nations_sentence_212

In September 2013, the UN had peacekeeping soldiers deployed on 15 missions. United Nations_sentence_213

The largest was the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), which included 20,688 uniformed personnel. United Nations_sentence_214

The smallest, United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), included 42 uniformed personnel responsible for monitoring the ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir. United Nations_sentence_215

UN peacekeepers with the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) have been stationed in the Middle East since 1948, the longest-running active peacekeeping mission. United Nations_sentence_216

A study by the RAND Corporation in 2005 found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts. United Nations_sentence_217

It compared efforts at nation-building by the UN to those of the United States, and found that seven out of eight UN cases are at peace, as compared with four out of eight US cases at peace. United Nations_sentence_218

Also in 2005, the Human Security Report documented a decline in the number of wars, genocides, and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit circumstantial, that international activism—mostly spearheaded by the UN—has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict in that period. United Nations_sentence_219

Situations in which the UN has not only acted to keep the peace but also intervened include the Korean War (1950–53) and the authorization of intervention in Iraq after the Gulf War (1990–91). United Nations_sentence_220

The UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures. United Nations_sentence_221

In many cases, member states have shown reluctance to achieve or enforce Security Council resolutions. United Nations_sentence_222

Disagreements in the Security Council about military action and intervention are seen as having failed to prevent the Bangladesh genocide in 1971, the Cambodian genocide in the 1970s, and the Rwandan genocide in 1994. United Nations_sentence_223

Similarly, UN inaction is blamed for failing to either prevent the Srebrenica massacre in 1995 or complete the peacekeeping operations in 1992–93 during the Somali Civil War. United Nations_sentence_224

UN peacekeepers have also been accused of child rape, soliciting prostitutes, and sexual abuse during various peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Sudan and what is now South Sudan, Burundi, and Ivory Coast. United Nations_sentence_225

Scientists cited UN peacekeepers from Nepal as the likely source of the 2010–13 Haiti cholera outbreak, which killed more than 8,000 Haitians following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. United Nations_sentence_226

In addition to peacekeeping, the UN is also active in encouraging disarmament. United Nations_sentence_227

Regulation of armaments was included in the writing of the UN Charter in 1945 and was envisioned as a way of limiting the use of human and economic resources for their creation. United Nations_sentence_228

The advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the charter, resulting in the first resolution of the first General Assembly meeting calling for specific proposals for "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction". United Nations_sentence_229

The UN has been involved with arms-limitation treaties, such as the Outer Space Treaty (1967), the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1968), the Seabed Arms Control Treaty (1971), the Biological Weapons Convention (1972), the Chemical Weapons Convention (1992), and the Ottawa Treaty (1997), which prohibits landmines. United Nations_sentence_230

Three UN bodies oversee arms proliferation issues: the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization Preparatory Commission. United Nations_sentence_231

Human rights United Nations_section_18

One of the UN's primary purposes is "promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion", and member states pledge to undertake "joint and separate action" to protect these rights. United Nations_sentence_232

In 1948, the General Assembly adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, drafted by a committee headed by American diplomat and activist Eleanor Roosevelt, and including the French lawyer René Cassin. United Nations_sentence_233

The document proclaims basic civil, political, and economic rights common to all human beings, though its effectiveness towards achieving these ends has been disputed since its drafting. United Nations_sentence_234

The Declaration serves as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations" rather than a legally binding document, but it has become the basis of two binding treaties, the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. United Nations_sentence_235

In practice, the UN is unable to take significant action against human rights abuses without a Security Council resolution, though it does substantial work in investigating and reporting abuses. United Nations_sentence_236

In 1979, the General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, followed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989. United Nations_sentence_237

With the end of the Cold War, the push for human rights action took on new impetus. United Nations_sentence_238

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights was formed in 1993 to oversee human rights issues for the UN, following the recommendation of that year's World Conference on Human Rights. United Nations_sentence_239

Jacques Fomerand, a scholar of the UN, describes this organization's mandate as "broad and vague", with only "meagre" resources to carry it out. United Nations_sentence_240

In 2006, it was replaced by a Human Rights Council consisting of 47 nations. United Nations_sentence_241

Also in 2006, the General Assembly passed a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and in 2011 it passed its first resolution recognizing the rights of LGBT people. United Nations_sentence_242

Other UN bodies responsible for women's rights issues include United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, a commission of ECOSOC founded in 1946; the United Nations Development Fund for Women, created in 1976; and the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, founded in 1979. United Nations_sentence_243

The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, one of three bodies with a mandate to oversee issues related to indigenous peoples, held its first session in 2002. United Nations_sentence_244

Economic development and humanitarian assistance United Nations_section_19

Another primary purpose of the UN is "to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character". United Nations_sentence_245

Numerous bodies have been created to work towards this goal, primarily under the authority of the General Assembly and ECOSOC. United Nations_sentence_246

In 2000, the 192 UN member states agreed to achieve eight Millennium Development Goals by 2015. United Nations_sentence_247

The Sustainable Development Goals were launched in 2015 to succeed the Millennium Development Goals. United Nations_sentence_248

The SDGs have an associated financing framework called the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. United Nations_sentence_249

The UN Development Programme (UNDP), an organization for grant-based technical assistance founded in 1945, is one of the leading bodies in the field of international development. United Nations_sentence_250

The organization also publishes the UN Human Development Index, a comparative measure ranking countries by poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. United Nations_sentence_251

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), also founded in 1945, promotes agricultural development and food security. United Nations_sentence_252

UNICEF (the United Nations Children's Fund) was created in 1946 to aid European children after the Second World War and expanded its mission to provide aid around the world and to uphold the convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations_sentence_253

The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF) are independent, specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework, according to a 1947 agreement. United Nations_sentence_254

They were initially formed separately from the UN through the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944. United Nations_sentence_255

The World Bank provides loans for international development, while the IMF promotes international economic co-operation and gives emergency loans to indebted countries. United Nations_sentence_256

The World Health Organization (WHO), which focuses on international health issues and disease eradication, is another of the UN's largest agencies. United Nations_sentence_257

In 1980, the agency announced that the eradication of smallpox had been completed. United Nations_sentence_258

In subsequent decades, WHO largely eradicated polio, river blindness, and leprosy. United Nations_sentence_259

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), begun in 1996, co-ordinates the organization's response to the AIDS epidemic. United Nations_sentence_260

The UN Population Fund, which also dedicates part of its resources to combating HIV, is the world's largest source of funding for reproductive health and family planning services. United Nations_sentence_261

Along with the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the UN often takes a leading role in co-ordinating emergency relief. United Nations_sentence_262

The World Food Programme (WFP), created in 1961, provides food aid in response to famine, natural disasters, and armed conflict. United Nations_sentence_263

The organization reports that it feeds an average of 90 million people in 80 nations each year. United Nations_sentence_264

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), established in 1950, works to protect the rights of refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people. United Nations_sentence_265

UNHCR and WFP programmes are funded by voluntary contributions from governments, corporations, and individuals, though the UNHCR's administrative costs are paid for by the UN's primary budget. United Nations_sentence_266

Other United Nations_section_20

Since the UN's creation, over 80 colonies have attained independence. United Nations_sentence_267

The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers. United Nations_sentence_268

The UN works towards decolonization through groups including the UN Committee on Decolonization, created in 1962. United Nations_sentence_269

The committee lists seventeen remaining "Non-Self-Governing Territories", the largest and most populous of which is Western Sahara. United Nations_sentence_270

Beginning with the formation of the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1972, the UN has made environmental issues a prominent part of its agenda. United Nations_sentence_271

A lack of success in the first two decades of UN work in this area led to the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which sought to give new impetus to these efforts. United Nations_sentence_272

In 1988, the UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), another UN organization, established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which assesses and reports on research on global warming. United Nations_sentence_273

The UN-sponsored Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997, set legally binding emissions reduction targets for ratifying states. United Nations_sentence_274

The UN also declares and co-ordinates international observances, periods of time to observe issues of international interest or concern. United Nations_sentence_275

Examples include World Tuberculosis Day, Earth Day, and the International Year of Deserts and Desertification. United Nations_sentence_276

Funding United Nations_section_21

The UN budget for 2020 was $3.1 billion, but additional resources are donated by members, such as peacekeeping forces. United Nations_sentence_277

The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states. United Nations_sentence_278

The General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for each member. United Nations_sentence_279

This is broadly based on the relative capacity of each country to pay, as measured by its gross national income (GNI), with adjustments for external debt and low per capita income. United Nations_sentence_280

The Assembly has established the principle that the UN should not be unduly dependent on any one member to finance its operations. United Nations_sentence_281

Thus, there is a "ceiling" rate, setting the maximum amount that any member can be assessed for the regular budget. United Nations_sentence_282

In December 2000, the Assembly revised the scale of assessments in response to pressure from the United States. United Nations_sentence_283

As part of that revision, the regular budget ceiling was reduced from 25% to 22%. United Nations_sentence_284

For the least developed countries (LDCs), a ceiling rate of 0.01% is applied. United Nations_sentence_285

In addition to the ceiling rates, the minimum amount assessed to any member nation (or "floor" rate) is set at 0.001% of the UN budget ($55,120 for the two year budget 2013–2014). United Nations_sentence_286

A large share of the UN's expenditure addresses its core mission of peace and security, and this budget is assessed separately from the main organizational budget. United Nations_sentence_287

The peacekeeping budget for the 2015–16 fiscal year was $8.27 billion, supporting 82,318 troops deployed in 15 missions around the world. United Nations_sentence_288

UN peace operations are funded by assessments, using a formula derived from the regular funding scale that includes a weighted surcharge for the five permanent Security Council members, who must approve all peacekeeping operations. United Nations_sentence_289

This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. United Nations_sentence_290

the largest contributors for the UN peacekeeping financial operations for the period 2019–2021 are : the United States 27.89% China 15.21%, Japan 8.56%, Germany 6.09% , the United Kingdom 5.78%, France 5.61%, Italy 3.30% and the Russian Federation 3.04%. United Nations_sentence_291

Special UN programmes not included in the regular budget, such as UNICEF and the World Food Programme, are financed by voluntary contributions from member governments, corporations, and private individuals. United Nations_sentence_292

Evaluations, awards, and criticism United Nations_section_22

Main articles: Reform of the United Nations and Reform of the United Nations Security Council United Nations_sentence_293

See also: Criticism of the United Nations United Nations_sentence_294

Evaluations United Nations_section_23

In evaluating the UN as a whole, Jacques Fomerand writes that the "accomplishments of the United Nations in the last 60 years are impressive in their own terms. United Nations_sentence_295

Progress in human development during the 20th century has been dramatic, and the UN and its agencies have certainly helped the world become a more hospitable and livable place for millions." United Nations_sentence_296

Evaluating the first 50 years of the UN's history, the author Stanley Meisler writes that "the United Nations never fulfilled the hopes of its founders, but it accomplished a great deal nevertheless", citing its role in decolonization and its many successful peacekeeping efforts. United Nations_sentence_297

The British historian Paul Kennedy states that while the organization has suffered some major setbacks, "when all its aspects are considered, the UN has brought great benefits to our generation and ... will bring benefits to our children's and grandchildren's generations as well." United Nations_sentence_298

The French President, François Hollande, stated in 2012 that "France trusts the United Nations. United Nations_sentence_299

She knows that no state, no matter how powerful, can solve urgent problems, fight for development and bring an end to all crises ... France wants the UN to be the centre of global governance." United Nations_sentence_300

Awards United Nations_section_24

A number of agencies and individuals associated with the UN have won the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of their work. United Nations_sentence_301

Two Secretaries-General, Dag Hammarskjöld, and Kofi Annan, were each awarded the prize (in 1961 and 2001, respectively), as were Ralph Bunche (1950), a UN negotiator, René Cassin (1968), a contributor to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the US Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1945), the latter for his role in the organization's founding. United Nations_sentence_302

Lester B. Pearson, the Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, was awarded the prize in 1957 for his role in organizing the UN's first peacekeeping force to resolve the Suez Crisis. United Nations_sentence_303

UNICEF won the prize in 1965, the International Labour Organization in 1969, the UN Peace-Keeping Forces in 1988, the International Atomic Energy Agency (which reports to the UN) in 2005, and the UN-supported Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in 2013. United Nations_sentence_304

The UN High Commissioner for Refugees was awarded in 1954 and 1981, becoming one of only two recipients to win the prize twice. United Nations_sentence_305

The UN as a whole was awarded the prize in 2001, sharing it with Annan. United Nations_sentence_306

In 2007, IPCC received the prize "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change." United Nations_sentence_307

Criticism United Nations_section_25

Role United Nations_section_26

In a sometimes-misquoted statement, President George W. Bush stated in February 2003 (referring to UN uncertainty towards Iraqi provocations under the Saddam Hussein regime) that "free nations will not allow the UN to fade into history as an ineffective, irrelevant debating society." United Nations_sentence_308

In 2020, US President Barack Obama in his memoir A Promised Land noted, “In the middle of the Cold War, the chances of reaching any consensus had been slim, which is why the U.N. had stood idle as Soviet tanks rolled into Hungary or U.S. planes dropped napalm on the Vietnamese countryside. United Nations_sentence_309

Even after the Cold War, divisions within the Security Council continued to hamstring the U.N.’s ability to tackle problems. United Nations_sentence_310

Its member states lacked either the means or the collective will to reconstruct failing states like Somalia, or prevent ethnic slaughter in places like Sri Lanka.” United Nations_sentence_311

Since its founding, there have been many calls for reform of the UN but little consensus on how to do so. United Nations_sentence_312

Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world affairs, while others want its role reduced to humanitarian work. United Nations_sentence_313

Representation and structure United Nations_section_27

Core features of the UN apparatus, such as the veto privileges of some nations in the Security Council, are often described as fundamentally undemocratic, contrary to the UN mission, and as a main cause of inaction on genocides and crimes against humanity. United Nations_sentence_314

Jacques Fomerand states the most enduring divide in views of the UN is "the North–South split" between richer Northern nations and developing Southern nations. United Nations_sentence_315

Southern nations tend to favour a more empowered UN with a stronger General Assembly, allowing them a greater voice in world affairs, while Northern nations prefer an economically laissez-faire UN that focuses on transnational threats such as terrorism. United Nations_sentence_316

There have also been numerous calls for the UN Security Council's membership to be increased, for different ways of electing the UN's Secretary-General, and for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. United Nations_sentence_317

Exclusion of countries United Nations_section_28

After World War II, the French Committee of National Liberation was late to be recognized by the US as the government of France, and so the country was initially excluded from the conferences that created the new organization. United Nations_sentence_318

The future French president Charles de Gaulle criticized the UN, famously calling it a machin ("contraption"), and was not convinced that a global security alliance would help maintain world peace, preferring direct defence treaties between countries. United Nations_sentence_319

Since 1971, the Republic of China on Taiwan has been excluded from the UN and since then has always been rejected in new applications. United Nations_sentence_320

Taiwanese citizens are also not allowed to enter the buildings of the United Nations with ROC passports. United Nations_sentence_321

In this way, critics agree that the UN is failing its own development goals and guidelines. United Nations_sentence_322

This criticism also brought pressure from the People's Republic of China, which regards the territories administered by the ROC as their own territory. United Nations_sentence_323

Independence United Nations_section_29

Throughout the Cold War, both the US and USSR repeatedly accused the UN of favouring the other. United Nations_sentence_324

In 1953, the USSR effectively forced the resignation of Trygve Lie, the Secretary-General, through its refusal to deal with him, while in the 1950s and 1960s, a popular US bumper sticker read, "You can't spell communism without U.N." United Nations_sentence_325

Bias United Nations_section_30

Critics such as Dore Gold, an Israeli diplomat, Robert S. Wistrich, a British scholar, Alan Dershowitz, an American legal scholar, Mark Dreyfus, an Australian politician, and the Anti-Defamation League consider UN attention to Israel's treatment of Palestinians to be excessive. United Nations_sentence_326

In September 2015, Saudi Arabia's Faisal bin Hassan Trad has been elected Chair of the UN Human Rights Council panel that appoints independent experts, a move criticized by human rights groups. United Nations_sentence_327

Effectiveness United Nations_section_31

In 1994, former Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the UN to Somalia Mohamed Sahnoun published "Somalia: The Missed Opportunities", a book in which he analyses the reasons for the failure of the 1992 UN intervention in Somalia, showing that, between the start of the Somali civil war in 1988 and the fall of the Siad Barre regime in January 1991, the UN missed at least three opportunities to prevent major human tragedies; when the UN tried to provide humanitarian assistance, they were totally outperformed by NGOs, whose competence and dedication sharply contrasted with the UN's excessive caution and bureaucratic inefficiencies. United Nations_sentence_328

If radical reform were not undertaken, warned Mohamed Sahnoun, then the UN would continue to respond to such crises with inept improvisation. United Nations_sentence_329

Inefficiency and corruption United Nations_section_32

Critics have also accused the UN of bureaucratic inefficiency, waste, and corruption. United Nations_sentence_330

In 1976, the General Assembly established the Joint Inspection Unit to seek out inefficiencies within the UN system. United Nations_sentence_331

During the 1990s, the US withheld dues citing inefficiency and only started repayment on the condition that a major reforms initiative be introduced. United Nations_sentence_332

In 1994, the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog. United Nations_sentence_333

In 2004, the UN faced accusations that its recently ended Oil-for-Food Programme — in which Iraq had been allowed to trade oil for basic needs to relieve the pressure of sanctions — had suffered from widespread corruption, including billions of dollars of kickbacks. United Nations_sentence_334

An independent inquiry created by the UN found that many of its officials had been involved, as well as raising "significant" questions about the role of Kojo Annan, the son of Kofi Annan. United Nations_sentence_335

Other United Nations_section_33

The United Nations has inspired the extracurricular activity Model United Nations (MUN). United Nations_sentence_336

MUN is a simulation of United Nations activity based on the UN agenda and following UN procedure. United Nations_sentence_337

MUN is usually attended by high school and university students who organize conferences to simulate the various UN committees to discuss important issues of the day. United Nations_sentence_338

Today Model United Nations educates tens of thousands on United Nations activity around the world. United Nations_sentence_339

Model United Nations has many famous and notable alumni, such as former Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon. United Nations_sentence_340

See also United Nations_section_34

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United Nations.