United States Army

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United States Army_table_infobox_0

United States ArmyUnited States Army_header_cell_0_0_0
FoundedUnited States Army_header_cell_0_1_0 14 June 1775 (1775-06-14)

(245 years, 5 months ago)United States Army_cell_0_1_1

CountryUnited States Army_header_cell_0_2_0 United StatesUnited States Army_cell_0_2_1
TypeUnited States Army_header_cell_0_3_0 ArmyUnited States Army_cell_0_3_1
RoleUnited States Army_header_cell_0_4_0 Prompt and sustained land combat
Combined arms operations

Special operations Set and sustain the theater for the joint force

Integrate national, multinational, and joint power on landUnited States Army_cell_0_4_1
SizeUnited States Army_header_cell_0_5_0 472,595 Regular Army personnel (31 December 2019)

331,881 Army National Guard personnel (31 December 2019) 191,007 Army Reserve personnel (31 December 2019) 995,483 total uniformed personnel (31 December 2019) 250,576 civilian personnel (31 December 2019)

1,246,059 total

4,406 manned aircraftUnited States Army_cell_0_5_1

Part ofUnited States Army_header_cell_0_6_0 Department of the ArmyUnited States Army_cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_0_7_0 The Pentagon

Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.United States Army_cell_0_7_1

Motto(s)United States Army_header_cell_0_8_0 "This We'll Defend"United States Army_cell_0_8_1
ColorsUnited States Army_header_cell_0_9_0 Black, gold and whiteUnited States Army_cell_0_9_1
MarchUnited States Army_header_cell_0_10_0 "The Army Goes Rolling Along" Play (help·)United States Army_cell_0_10_1
Mascot(s)United States Army_header_cell_0_11_0 Army MulesUnited States Army_cell_0_11_1
AnniversariesUnited States Army_header_cell_0_12_0 Army Birthday: 14 JuneUnited States Army_cell_0_12_1
EquipmentUnited States Army_header_cell_0_13_0 List of U.S. Army equipmentUnited States Army_cell_0_13_1
EngagementsUnited States Army_header_cell_0_14_0 See listUnited States Army_cell_0_14_1
WebsiteUnited States Army_header_cell_0_15_0 United States Army_cell_0_15_1
CommandersUnited States Army_header_cell_0_16_0
Commander-in-ChiefUnited States Army_header_cell_0_17_0 President Donald TrumpUnited States Army_cell_0_17_1
Secretary of DefenseUnited States Army_header_cell_0_18_0 Christopher C. Miller (acting)United States Army_cell_0_18_1
Secretary of the ArmyUnited States Army_header_cell_0_19_0 Ryan McCarthyUnited States Army_cell_0_19_1
Chief of StaffUnited States Army_header_cell_0_20_0 GEN James C. McConvilleUnited States Army_cell_0_20_1
Vice Chief of StaffUnited States Army_header_cell_0_21_0 GEN Joseph M. MartinUnited States Army_cell_0_21_1
Sergeant Major of the ArmyUnited States Army_header_cell_0_22_0 SMA Michael A. GrinstonUnited States Army_cell_0_22_1
InsigniaUnited States Army_header_cell_0_23_0
FlagUnited States Army_header_cell_0_24_0 United States Army_cell_0_24_1
LogoUnited States Army_header_cell_0_25_0 United States Army_cell_0_25_1
Field flagUnited States Army_header_cell_0_26_0 United States Army_cell_0_26_1

The United States Army (USA) is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces. United States Army_sentence_0

It is one of the eight U.S. United States Army_sentence_1 uniformed services, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the U.S. United States Army_sentence_2 Constitution. United States Army_sentence_3

As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. United States Army_sentence_4

After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. United States Army_sentence_5

The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and considers its institutional inception to be the origin of that armed force in 1775. United States Army_sentence_6

The U.S. Army is a uniformed service of the United States and is part of the Department of the Army, which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. United States Army_sentence_7

The U.S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer, the chief of staff of the Army (CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. United States Army_sentence_8

It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army (USA) was 476,000 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) had 343,000 soldiers and the U.S. United States Army_sentence_9 Army Reserve (USAR) had 199,000 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers. United States Army_sentence_10

As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders". United States Army_sentence_11

The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. United States Army_sentence_12

Mission United States Army_section_0

The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. United States Army_sentence_13 Armed Forces. United States Army_sentence_14

defines the purpose of the army as: United States Army_sentence_15

United States Army_unordered_list_0

  • Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United StatesUnited States Army_item_0_0
  • Supporting the national policiesUnited States Army_item_0_1
  • Implementing the national objectivesUnited States Army_item_0_2
  • Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesUnited States Army_item_0_3

In 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028. United States Army_sentence_16

While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. United States Army_sentence_17

Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, and Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028. United States Army_sentence_18

The Army's five core competencies are prompt and sustained land combat, combined arms operations (to include combined arms maneuver and wide–area security, armored and mechanized operations and airborne and air assault operations), special operations, to set and sustain the theater for the joint force, and to integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land. United States Army_sentence_19

History United States Army_section_1

Main article: History of the United States Army United States Army_sentence_20

Organization United States Army_section_2

Planning United States Army_section_3

By 2017, a task force was formed to address Army modernization, which triggered shifts of units: RDECOM, and ARCIC, from within Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC, respectively, to a new Army Command (ACOM) in 2018. United States Army_sentence_21

The Army Futures Command (AFC), is a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and AMC, the other ACOMs. United States Army_sentence_22

AFC's mission is modernization reform: to design hardware, as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC. United States Army_sentence_23

TRADOC's mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM. United States Army_sentence_24

AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future. United States Army_sentence_25

In order to support the Army's modernization priorities, its FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years. United States Army_sentence_26

The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations. United States Army_sentence_27

Army components United States Army_section_4

Main article: Structure of the United States Army United States Army_sentence_28

The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775. United States Army_sentence_29

In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. United States Army_sentence_30

During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. United States Army_sentence_31

States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army. United States Army_sentence_32

By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. United States Army_sentence_33

Volunteers on four occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. United States Army_sentence_34

During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. United States Army_sentence_35

Volunteers. United States Army_sentence_36

It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the state militias. United States Army_sentence_37

In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed. United States Army_sentence_38

In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. United States Army_sentence_39

The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. United States Army_sentence_40

After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. United States Army_sentence_41

The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft. United States Army_sentence_42

Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. United States Army_sentence_43

Some states further maintain state defense forces, as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias. United States Army_sentence_44

State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service. United States Army_sentence_45

The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas. United States Army_sentence_46

Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. United States Army_sentence_47

However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. United States Army_sentence_48

Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch. United States Army_sentence_49

Careers in the Army can extend into cross-functional areas for officer, warrant officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel. United States Army_sentence_50

United States Army_table_general_1

U.S. Army branches and functional areasUnited States Army_table_caption_1
BranchUnited States Army_header_cell_1_0_0 Insignia and colorsUnited States Army_header_cell_1_0_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_0_2 BranchUnited States Army_header_cell_1_0_3 Insignia and colorsUnited States Army_header_cell_1_0_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_0_5 Functional Area (FA)United States Army_header_cell_1_0_6
Acquisition Corps (AC)United States Army_cell_1_1_0 United States Army_cell_1_1_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_1_2 Air Defense Artillery (AD)United States Army_cell_1_1_3 United States Army_cell_1_1_4 United States Army_cell_1_1_5 Information Network Engineering (FA 26)United States Army_cell_1_1_6
Adjutant General's Corps (AG)

Includes Army Bands (AB)United States Army_cell_1_2_0

United States Army_cell_1_2_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_2_2 Armor (AR)

Includes Cavalry (CV)United States Army_cell_1_2_3

United States Army_cell_1_2_4 United States Army_cell_1_2_5 Information Operations (FA 30)United States Army_cell_1_2_6
Aviation (AV)United States Army_cell_1_3_0 United States Army_cell_1_3_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_3_2 Civil Affairs Corps (CA)United States Army_cell_1_3_3 United States Army_cell_1_3_4 United States Army_cell_1_3_5 Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)United States Army_cell_1_3_6
Chaplain Corps (CH)United States Army_cell_1_4_0 United States Army_cell_1_4_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_4_2 Chemical Corps (CM)United States Army_cell_1_4_3 United States Army_cell_1_4_4 United States Army_cell_1_4_5 Space Operations (FA 40)United States Army_cell_1_4_6
Cyber Corps (CY)United States Army_cell_1_5_0 United States Army_cell_1_5_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_5_2 Dental Corps (DC)United States Army_cell_1_5_3 United States Army_cell_1_5_4 United States Army_cell_1_5_5 Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)United States Army_cell_1_5_6
Corps of Engineers (EN)United States Army_cell_1_6_0 United States Army_cell_1_6_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_6_2 Field Artillery (FA)United States Army_cell_1_6_3 United States Army_cell_1_6_4 United States Army_cell_1_6_5 Academy Professor (FA 47)United States Army_cell_1_6_6
Finance Corps (FI)United States Army_cell_1_7_0 United States Army_cell_1_7_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_7_2 Infantry (IN)United States Army_cell_1_7_3 United States Army_cell_1_7_4 United States Army_cell_1_7_5 Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)United States Army_cell_1_7_6
Inspector General (IG)United States Army_cell_1_8_0 United States Army_cell_1_8_1 United States Army_cell_1_8_2 Logistics (LG)United States Army_cell_1_8_3 United States Army_cell_1_8_4 United States Army_cell_1_8_5 Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)United States Army_cell_1_8_6
Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA)United States Army_cell_1_9_0 United States Army_cell_1_9_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_9_2 Military Intelligence Corps (MI)United States Army_cell_1_9_3 United States Army_cell_1_9_4 United States Army_cell_1_9_5 Force Management (FA 50)United States Army_cell_1_9_6
Medical Corps (MC)United States Army_cell_1_10_0 United States Army_cell_1_10_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_10_2 Medical Service Corps (MS)United States Army_cell_1_10_3 United States Army_cell_1_10_4 United States Army_cell_1_10_5 Acquisition (FA 51)United States Army_cell_1_10_6
Military Police Corps (MP)United States Army_cell_1_11_0 United States Army_cell_1_11_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_11_2 Army Nurse Corps (AN)United States Army_cell_1_11_3 United States Army_cell_1_11_4 United States Army_cell_1_11_5 Simulation Operations (FA 57)United States Army_cell_1_11_6
Psychological Operations (PO)United States Army_cell_1_12_0 United States Army_cell_1_12_1 United States Army_cell_1_12_2 Medical Specialist Corps (SP)United States Army_cell_1_12_3 United States Army_cell_1_12_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_12_5 Army Marketing (FA 58)United States Army_cell_1_12_6
Quartermaster Corps (QM)United States Army_cell_1_13_0 United States Army_cell_1_13_1 United States Army_cell_1_13_2 Staff Specialist Corps (SS)

(USAR and ARNG only)United States Army_cell_1_13_3

United States Army_cell_1_13_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_13_5 Health Services (FA 70)United States Army_cell_1_13_6
Special Forces (SF)United States Army_cell_1_14_0 United States Army_cell_1_14_1 United States Army_cell_1_14_2 Ordnance Corps (OD)United States Army_cell_1_14_3 United States Army_cell_1_14_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_14_5 Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)United States Army_cell_1_14_6
Veterinary Corps (VC)United States Army_cell_1_15_0 United States Army_cell_1_15_1 United States Army_cell_1_15_2 Public Affairs (PA)United States Army_cell_1_15_3 United States Army_cell_1_15_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_15_5 Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)United States Army_cell_1_15_6
Transportation Corps (TC)United States Army_cell_1_16_0 United States Army_cell_1_16_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_16_2 Signal Corps (SC)United States Army_cell_1_16_3 United States Army_cell_1_16_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_16_5 Behavioral Sciences (FA 73)United States Army_cell_1_16_6
Special branch insignias (for some unique duty assignments)United States Army_header_cell_1_17_0
National Guard Bureau (NGB)United States Army_cell_1_18_0 United States Army_cell_1_18_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_18_2 General StaffUnited States Army_cell_1_18_3 United States Army_cell_1_18_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_18_5 U.S. Military Academy StaffUnited States Army_cell_1_18_6 United States Army_cell_1_18_7
Chaplain CandidateUnited States Army_cell_1_19_0 United States Army_cell_1_19_1 United States Army_header_cell_1_19_2 Officer CandidateUnited States Army_cell_1_19_3 United States Army_cell_1_19_4 United States Army_header_cell_1_19_5 Warrant Officer CandidateUnited States Army_cell_1_19_6 United States Army_cell_1_19_7
Aide-de-campUnited States Army_cell_1_20_0 United States Army_header_cell_1_20_5 Senior Enlisted Advisor (SEA)United States Army_cell_1_20_6

Before 1933, members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into U.S. Army, typically on the onset of war. United States Army_sentence_51

Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916, all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status. United States Army_sentence_52

They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as a reserve members of the U.S. Army under the authority of the president, in the Army National Guard of the United States. United States Army_sentence_53

Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. United States Army_sentence_54

For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. United States Army_sentence_55

Army commands and army service component commands United States Army_section_5

Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA): United States Army_sentence_56

United States Army_table_general_2

Army CommandsUnited States Army_header_cell_2_0_0 Current commanderUnited States Army_header_cell_2_0_1 Location of headquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_2_0_2
United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)United States Army_cell_2_1_0 GEN Michael X. GarrettUnited States Army_cell_2_1_1 Fort Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_2_1_2
United States Army Futures Command (AFC)United States Army_cell_2_2_0 GEN John M. MurrayUnited States Army_cell_2_2_1 Austin, TexasUnited States Army_cell_2_2_2
United States Army Materiel Command (AMC)United States Army_cell_2_3_0 GEN Gustave F. PernaUnited States Army_cell_2_3_1 Redstone Arsenal, AlabamaUnited States Army_cell_2_3_2
United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)United States Army_cell_2_4_0 GEN Paul E. Funk IIUnited States Army_cell_2_4_1 Fort Eustis, VirginiaUnited States Army_cell_2_4_2
Army Service Component CommandsUnited States Army_header_cell_2_5_0 Current commanderUnited States Army_header_cell_2_5_1 Location of headquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_2_5_2
United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third ArmyUnited States Army_cell_2_6_0 LTG Terry FerrellUnited States Army_cell_2_6_1 Shaw Air Force Base, South CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_2_6_2
United States Army Europe and Africa (USAREUR-AF)/Seventh ArmyUnited States Army_cell_2_7_0 GEN Christopher G. CavoliUnited States Army_cell_2_7_1 Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, GermanyUnited States Army_cell_2_7_2
United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth ArmyUnited States Army_cell_2_8_0 LTG Laura J. RichardsonUnited States Army_cell_2_8_1 Joint Base San Antonio, TexasUnited States Army_cell_2_8_2
United States Army Pacific (USARPAC)United States Army_cell_2_9_0 GEN Paul LaCameraUnited States Army_cell_2_9_1 Fort Shafter, HawaiiUnited States Army_cell_2_9_2
United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth ArmyUnited States Army_cell_2_10_0 MG Daniel R. WalrathUnited States Army_cell_2_10_1 Joint Base San Antonio, TexasUnited States Army_cell_2_10_2
Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)United States Army_cell_2_11_0 BG Heidi J. HoyleUnited States Army_cell_2_11_1 Scott AFB, IllinoisUnited States Army_cell_2_11_2
United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)United States Army_cell_2_12_0 LTG Stephen G. FogartyUnited States Army_cell_2_12_1 Fort Belvoir, VirginiaUnited States Army_cell_2_12_2
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT)United States Army_cell_2_13_0 LTG Daniel L. KarblerUnited States Army_cell_2_13_1 Redstone Arsenal, AlabamaUnited States Army_cell_2_13_2
United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC)United States Army_cell_2_14_0 LTG Francis M. BeaudetteUnited States Army_cell_2_14_1 Fort Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_2_14_2
Operational Force HeadquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_2_15_0 Current commanderUnited States Army_header_cell_2_15_1 Location of headquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_2_15_2
Eighth Army (EUSA)United States Army_cell_2_16_0 LTG Michael A. BillsUnited States Army_cell_2_16_1 Camp Humphreys, South KoreaUnited States Army_cell_2_16_2
Direct reporting unitsUnited States Army_header_cell_2_17_0 Current commanderUnited States Army_header_cell_2_17_1 Location of headquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_2_17_2
Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National CemeteryUnited States Army_cell_2_18_0 Katharine Kelley (civilian)United States Army_cell_2_18_1 Arlington, VirginiaUnited States Army_cell_2_18_2
United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC)United States Army_cell_2_19_0 Craig A. Spisak (civilian)United States Army_cell_2_19_1 Fort Belvoir, VirginiaUnited States Army_cell_2_19_2
United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA)United States Army_cell_2_20_0 Carol Burton (civilian)United States Army_cell_2_20_1 Aberdeen Proving Ground, MarylandUnited States Army_cell_2_20_2
United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)United States Army_cell_2_21_0 LTG Scott A. SpellmonUnited States Army_cell_2_21_1 Washington, D.C.United States Army_cell_2_21_2
United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC)United States Army_cell_2_22_0 MG Donna R. MartinUnited States Army_cell_2_22_1 Quantico, VirginiaUnited States Army_cell_2_22_2
United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC)United States Army_cell_2_23_0 MG Joseph. R. CallowayUnited States Army_cell_2_23_1 Fort Knox, KentuckyUnited States Army_cell_2_23_2
United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)United States Army_cell_2_24_0 MG Christopher S. BallardUnited States Army_cell_2_24_1 Fort Belvoir, VirginiaUnited States Army_cell_2_24_2
United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM)United States Army_cell_2_25_0 LTG R. Scott DingleUnited States Army_cell_2_25_1 Joint Base San Antonio, TexasUnited States Army_cell_2_25_2
United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW)United States Army_cell_2_26_0 MG Omar J. Jones IVUnited States Army_cell_2_26_1 Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.United States Army_cell_2_26_2
United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC)United States Army_cell_2_27_0 MG Joel K. TylerUnited States Army_cell_2_27_1 Aberdeen Proving Ground, MarylandUnited States Army_cell_2_27_2
United States Army War College (AWC)United States Army_cell_2_28_0 MG John S. KemUnited States Army_cell_2_28_1 Carlisle, PennsylvaniaUnited States Army_cell_2_28_2
United States Military Academy (USMA)United States Army_cell_2_29_0 LTG Darryl A. WilliamsUnited States Army_cell_2_29_1 West Point, New YorkUnited States Army_cell_2_29_2

Source: U.S. Army organization United States Army_sentence_57

Structure United States Army_section_6

Main article: Reorganization plan of United States Army United States Army_sentence_58

See Structure of the United States Army for detailed treatment of the history, components, administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army. United States Army_sentence_59

The U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. United States Army_sentence_60

Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. United States Army_sentence_61

Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. United States Army_sentence_62

While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. United States Army_sentence_63

However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. president, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. United States Army_sentence_64

Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes. United States Army_sentence_65

The U.S. Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense. United States Army_sentence_66

The chief of staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States, the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. United States Army_sentence_67

In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. United States Army_sentence_68

The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense. United States Army_sentence_69

By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (CCMD): United States Army_sentence_70

United States Army_unordered_list_1

The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades. United States Army_sentence_71

Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. United States Army_sentence_72

The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. United States Army_sentence_73

As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of brigade combat teams are: United States Army_sentence_74

United States Army_unordered_list_2

  • Armored brigades, with strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.United States Army_item_2_10
  • Stryker brigades, with strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.United States Army_item_2_11
  • Infantry brigades, with strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.United States Army_item_2_12

In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. United States Army_sentence_75

Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and expeditionary military intelligence brigades. United States Army_sentence_76

Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army. United States Army_sentence_77

Combat maneuver organizations United States Army_section_7

United States Army_description_list_3

The U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. United States Army_sentence_78

The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth. United States Army_sentence_79

In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active brigade combat teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. United States Army_sentence_80

Army chief of staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018. United States Army_sentence_81

However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. United States Army_sentence_82

The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion. United States Army_sentence_83

Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. United States Army_sentence_84

The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units. United States Army_sentence_85

United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) United States Army_sentence_86

United States Army_table_general_3

Direct reporting unitsUnited States Army_header_cell_3_0_0 Current commanderUnited States Army_header_cell_3_0_1 Location of headquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_3_0_2
I CorpsUnited States Army_cell_3_1_0 LTG Randy A. GeorgeUnited States Army_cell_3_1_1 Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WashingtonUnited States Army_cell_3_1_2
III CorpsUnited States Army_cell_3_2_0 LTG Robert "Pat" WhiteUnited States Army_cell_3_2_1 Fort Hood, TexasUnited States Army_cell_3_2_2
V CorpsUnited States Army_cell_3_3_0 LTG John S. KolasheskiUnited States Army_cell_3_3_1 Fort Knox, KentuckyUnited States Army_cell_3_3_2
XVIII Airborne CorpsUnited States Army_cell_3_4_0 LTG Michael E. KurillaUnited States Army_cell_3_4_1 Fort Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_3_4_2
First Army (FUSA)United States Army_cell_3_5_0 LTG Thomas S. James Jr.United States Army_cell_3_5_1 Rock Island Arsenal, IllinoisUnited States Army_cell_3_5_2
United States Army Reserve Command (USARC)United States Army_cell_3_6_0 LTG Jody J. DanielsUnited States Army_cell_3_6_1 Fort Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_3_6_2

United States Army_table_general_4

Combat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOMUnited States Army_header_cell_4_0_0
NameUnited States Army_header_cell_4_1_0 HeadquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_4_1_1 SubunitsUnited States Army_header_cell_4_1_2 Subordinate toUnited States Army_header_cell_4_1_3
1st Armored DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_2_0 Fort Bliss, Texas and New MexicoUnited States Army_cell_4_2_1 3 armored BCTs (ABCTs), 1 Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB), and 1 sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_2_2 III CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_2_3
1st Cavalry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_3_0 Fort Hood, TexasUnited States Army_cell_4_3_1 3 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and a sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_3_2 III CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_3_3
1st Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_4_0 Fort Riley, KansasUnited States Army_cell_4_4_1 2 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_4_2 III CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_4_3
3rd Cavalry RegimentUnited States Army_cell_4_5_0 Fort Hood, TexasUnited States Army_cell_4_5_1 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron, and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division)United States Army_cell_4_5_2 III CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_5_3
3rd Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_6_0 Fort Stewart, GeorgiaUnited States Army_cell_4_6_1 2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry BCT of the Georgia Army National GuardUnited States Army_cell_4_6_2 XVIII Airborne CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_6_3
4th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_7_0 Fort Carson, ColoradoUnited States Army_cell_4_7_1 2 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_7_2 III CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_7_3
7th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_8_0 Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WashingtonUnited States Army_cell_4_8_1 Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs, and 1 DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division as well as the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard.United States Army_cell_4_8_2 I CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_8_3
10th Mountain DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_9_0 Fort Drum, New YorkUnited States Army_cell_4_9_1 3 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_9_2 XVIII Airborne CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_9_3
25th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_10_0 Schofield Barracks, HawaiiUnited States Army_cell_4_10_1 2 infantry BCTs, 1 airborne infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_10_2 I CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_10_3
82nd Airborne DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_11_0 Fort Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_4_11_1 3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 airborne sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_11_2 XVIII Airborne CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_11_3
101st Airborne DivisionUnited States Army_cell_4_12_0 Fort Campbell, KentuckyUnited States Army_cell_4_12_1 3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 air assault sustainment brigadeUnited States Army_cell_4_12_2 XVIII Airborne CorpsUnited States Army_cell_4_12_3

United States Army_table_general_5

Combat maneuver units aligned under other organizationsUnited States Army_header_cell_5_0_0
NameUnited States Army_header_cell_5_1_0 HeadquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_5_1_1 SubunitsUnited States Army_header_cell_5_1_2 Subordinate toUnited States Army_header_cell_5_1_3
2nd Cavalry RegimentUnited States Army_cell_5_2_0 Rose Barracks, Vilseck, GermanyUnited States Army_cell_5_2_1 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron, and 1 support squadronUnited States Army_cell_5_2_2 U.S. Army Europe and AfricaUnited States Army_cell_5_2_3
2nd Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_5_3_0 Camp Humphreys, South KoreaUnited States Army_cell_5_3_1 2 Stryker BCTs, 1 mechanized brigade from the ROK Army, 1 DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID), 1 sustainment brigade, a stateside ABCT from another active division that is rotated in on a regular basis, and the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National GuardUnited States Army_cell_5_3_2 Eighth ArmyUnited States Army_cell_5_3_3
173rd Airborne Brigade Combat TeamUnited States Army_cell_5_4_0 Camp Ederle, Vicenza, ItalyUnited States Army_cell_5_4_1 3 airborne infantry battalions (including 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas and Rhode Island Army National Guard), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 airborne cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion, and 1 airborne support battalionUnited States Army_cell_5_4_2 U.S. Army Europe and AfricaUnited States Army_cell_5_4_3

United States Army_table_general_6

Combat maneuver units aligned under the Army National Guard, until federalizedUnited States Army_header_cell_6_0_0
NameUnited States Army_header_cell_6_1_0 LocationsUnited States Army_header_cell_6_1_1 SubunitsUnited States Army_header_cell_6_1_2
28th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_2_0 Pennsylvania, Ohio and MarylandUnited States Army_cell_6_2_1 2nd Infantry BCT, 56th Stryker BCT, 28th Expeditionary CAB, 55th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade (MEB), and the 28th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade (SB)United States Army_cell_6_2_2
29th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_3_0 Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina and FloridaUnited States Army_cell_6_3_1 30th Armored BCT, 53rd Infantry BCT, 116th Infantry BCT, 2nd Battalion, 224th Aviation Regiment, 29th CAB, 142nd Field Artillery Regiment, 29th Infantry Division SB, and the 226th MEBUnited States Army_cell_6_3_2
34th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_4_0 Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and IdahoUnited States Army_cell_6_4_1 1st Armored BCT, 2nd Infantry BCT, 32nd Infantry BCT, 116th Cavalry BCT, 115th Field Artillery Brigade, 34th CAB, 34th Infantry Division SB, and the 157th MEBUnited States Army_cell_6_4_2
35th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_5_0 Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma, Georgia, Arkansas, and NebraskaUnited States Army_cell_6_5_1 33rd Infantry BCT, 39th Infantry BCT, 45th Infantry BCT, 130th Field Artillery Brigade, 35th CAB, and the 67th MEBUnited States Army_cell_6_5_2
36th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_6_0 Texas, Louisiana and MississippiUnited States Army_cell_6_6_1 56th Infantry BCT, 72nd Infantry BCT, 256th Infantry BCT, 155th Armored BCT, 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 36th CAB, 36th Infantry Division SB, and the 136th MEBUnited States Army_cell_6_6_2
38th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_7_0 Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and TennesseeUnited States Army_cell_6_7_1 37th Infantry BCT, 76th Infantry BCT, 138th Field Artillery Brigade, 38th CAB, 38th Infantry Division SB, and the 149th MEBUnited States Army_cell_6_7_2
40th Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_8_0 Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and WashingtonUnited States Army_cell_6_8_1 29th Infantry BCT, 41st Infantry BCT, 79th Infantry BCT, 40th CAB, and the 40th Infantry Division SBUnited States Army_cell_6_8_2
42nd Infantry DivisionUnited States Army_cell_6_9_0 New York, New Jersey and VermontUnited States Army_cell_6_9_1 27th Infantry BCT, 44th Infantry BCT, 86th Infantry BCT (Mountain), 197th Field Artillery Brigade, 42nd CAB, 42nd Infantry Division SB, and the 26th MEBUnited States Army_cell_6_9_2

For a description of U.S. Army tactical organizational structure, see: a U.S. United States Army_sentence_87 context and also a global context. United States Army_sentence_88

Special operations forces United States Army_section_8

United States Army Special Operations Command (Airborne) (USASOC): United States Army_sentence_89

United States Army_table_general_7

NameUnited States Army_header_cell_7_0_0 HeadquartersUnited States Army_header_cell_7_0_1 Structure and purposeUnited States Army_header_cell_7_0_2
1st Special Forces CommandUnited States Army_cell_7_1_0 Fort Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_7_1_1 Manages seven special forces groups designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and security force assistance. The command also manages two psychological operations groups—tasked to work with foreign nations to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives—a civil affairs brigade—that enables military commanders and U.S. ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five battalions—and a sustainment brigade—that provides combat service support and combat health support units via three distinct battalions.United States Army_cell_7_1_2
Army Special Operations Aviation CommandUnited States Army_cell_7_2_0 Ft. Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_7_2_1 Commands, organizes, mans, trains, resources, and equips Army special operations aviation units to provide responsive, special operations aviation support to special operations forces consisting of five units, including the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne).United States Army_cell_7_2_2
75th Ranger RegimentUnited States Army_cell_7_3_0 Fort Benning, GeorgiaUnited States Army_cell_7_3_1 In addition to a regimental headquarters, a special troops battalion, and a military intelligence battalion, the 75th Ranger Regiment has three maneuver battalions of elite airborne infantry specializing in large-scale, joint forcible entry operations and precision targeting raids. Additional capabilities include special reconnaissance, air assault, and direct action raids seizing key terrain such as airfields, destroying or securing strategic facilities, and capturing or killing enemies of the Nation. The Regiment also helps develop the equipment, technologies, training, and readiness that bridge the gap between special operations and traditional combat maneuver organizations.United States Army_cell_7_3_2
John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and SchoolUnited States Army_cell_7_4_0 Ft. Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_7_4_1 Selects and trains special forces, civil affairs, and psychological operations soldiers consisting of two groups and other various training units and offices.United States Army_cell_7_4_2
1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-DeltaUnited States Army_cell_7_5_0 Ft. Bragg, North CarolinaUnited States Army_cell_7_5_1 Commonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit," Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or Task Force Green, SFOD–D is the U.S. Army's Tier 1 Special Mission Unit tasked with performing the most complex, classified, and dangerous missions directed by the National Command Authority. Under the control of Joint Special Operations Command, SFOD–D specializes in hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, direct action, and special reconnaissance against high-value targets via eight squadrons: four assault, one aviation, one clandestine, one combat support, and one nuclear disposal.United States Army_cell_7_5_2

Personnel United States Army_section_9

See also: List of ranks used by the United States Army United States Army_sentence_90

These are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. United States Army_sentence_91

Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime. United States Army_sentence_92

Commissioned officers United States Army_section_10

Main article: United States Army officer rank insignia United States Army_sentence_93

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Officer Candidate School, and Direct commissioning. United States Army_sentence_94

Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. United States Army_sentence_95

Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army. United States Army_sentence_96

Most army commissioned officers (those who are generalists) are promoted based on an "up or out" system. United States Army_sentence_97

The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time. United States Army_sentence_98

Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. United States Army_sentence_99

Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)". United States Army_sentence_100

Warrant officers United States Army_section_11

Main article: United States Army officer rank insignia United States Army_sentence_101

Warrant officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. United States Army_sentence_102

They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2). United States Army_sentence_103

By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel. United States Army_sentence_104

However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank. United States Army_sentence_105

Enlisted personnel United States Army_section_12

Main article: United States Army enlisted rank insignia United States Army_sentence_106

See also: Enlisted rank United States Army_sentence_107

Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers. United States Army_sentence_108

This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade, but do not exercise leadership responsibilities. United States Army_sentence_109

Privates and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)". United States Army_sentence_110

First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)". United States Army_sentence_111

Training United States Army_section_13

Training in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. United States Army_sentence_112

Because of COVID-19 precautions, the first two weeks of basic training — not including processing & out-processing — incorporate social distancing and indoor desk-oriented training. United States Army_sentence_113

Once the recruits have tested negative for COVID-19 for two weeks, the remaining 8 weeks follow the traditional activities for most recruits, followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS). United States Army_sentence_114

Some individual's MOSs range anywhere from 14 to 20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. United States Army_sentence_115

The length of AIT school varies by the MOS. United States Army_sentence_116

The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier. United States Army_sentence_117

Certain highly technical MOS training requires many months (e.g., foreign language translators). United States Army_sentence_118

Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia. United States Army_sentence_119

Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen's pilot program for One Station Unit Training (OSUT) extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT, to 22 weeks. United States Army_sentence_120

The pilot, designed to boost infantry readiness ended December 2018. United States Army_sentence_121

The new Infantry OSUT covered the M240 machine gun as well as the M249 squad automatic weapon. United States Army_sentence_122

The redesigned Infantry OSUT started in 2019. United States Army_sentence_123

Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot, OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry. United States Army_sentence_124

One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021. United States Army_sentence_125

Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry, Engineer, and Military Police (MP) in the succeeding Fiscal Years. United States Army_sentence_126

A new training assignment for junior officers was instituted, that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training (BCT) platoons. United States Army_sentence_127

These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative, logistical, and day-to-day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to "lead, train, and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale, welfare and readiness" of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons. United States Army_sentence_128

These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons, to free up the drill sergeants for training. United States Army_sentence_129

The United States Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) is being introduced into the Army, beginning with 60 battalions spread throughout the Army. United States Army_sentence_130

The test is the same for all soldiers, men or women. United States Army_sentence_131

It will take an hour to complete, including resting periods. United States Army_sentence_132

The ACFT supersedes the Army physical fitness test (APFT), as being more relevant to survival in combat. United States Army_sentence_133

Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions: three deadlifts, a standing power throw of a ten-pound medicine ball, hand-release pushups (which replace the traditional pushup), a sprint/drag/carry 250 yard event, three pull-ups with leg tucks (one needed to pass), a mandatory rest period, and a two-mile run. United States Army_sentence_134

Eventually (by October 2020) all soldiers from all three components (Active Army, Reserve, and National guard) will be subject to this test. United States Army_sentence_135

The ACFT will test all soldiers in basic training by October 2020. United States Army_sentence_136

The ACFT becomes the official test of record 1 October 2020; before that day every Army unit is required to complete a diagnostic ACFT (All Soldiers with valid APFT scores can use them until March 2022). United States Army_sentence_137

The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield. United States Army_sentence_138

Following their basic and advanced training at the individual-level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). United States Army_sentence_139

The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it into a more specific MOS. United States Army_sentence_140

For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist or even a licensed practical nurse. United States Army_sentence_141

For commissioned officers, training includes pre-commissioning training, known as Basic Officer Leader Course A, either at USMA or via ROTC, or by completing OCS. United States Army_sentence_142

After commissioning, officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according to their future assignments. United States Army_sentence_143

Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their career. United States Army_sentence_144

Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr, Germany. United States Army_sentence_145

ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission. United States Army_sentence_146

Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment. United States Army_sentence_147

Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold-weather regions, jungles, mountains, or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain. United States Army_sentence_148

Post 9/11, Army unit-level training was for counter-insurgency (COIN); by 2014–2017, training had shifted to decisive action training. United States Army_sentence_149

Equipment United States Army_section_14

Main article: List of equipment of the United States Army United States Army_sentence_150

The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities, in order: artillery, ground vehicles, aircraft, network, air/missile defense, and soldier lethality. United States Army_sentence_151

Weapons United States Army_section_15

Individual weapons United States Army_section_16

The army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. United States Army_sentence_152

The most common weapon type used by the army is the M4 carbine, a compact variant of the M16 rifle, along with the 7.62×51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers. United States Army_sentence_153

The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol; the M11 pistol is also used. United States Army_sentence_154

Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17 through the Modular Handgun System program. United States Army_sentence_155

Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade. United States Army_sentence_156

Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level. United States Army_sentence_157

Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher. United States Army_sentence_158

The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. United States Army_sentence_159

The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. United States Army_sentence_160

Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle. United States Army_sentence_161

Crew-served weapons United States Army_section_17

The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons. United States Army_sentence_162

The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun. United States Army_sentence_163

The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. United States Army_sentence_164

In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units. United States Army_sentence_165

The U.S. Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. United States Army_sentence_166

The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level. United States Army_sentence_167

At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars. United States Army_sentence_168

The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units. United States Army_sentence_169

Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1 and the 155 mm M777. United States Army_sentence_170

The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. United States Army_sentence_171

The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. United States Army_sentence_172

The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. United States Army_sentence_173

The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles. United States Army_sentence_174

Vehicles United States Army_section_18

U.S. Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare. United States Army_sentence_175

It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009. United States Army_sentence_176

The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles. United States Army_sentence_177

While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. United States Army_sentence_178

The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank, while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle. United States Army_sentence_179

Other vehicles include the Stryker, the M113 armored personnel carrier and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles. United States Army_sentence_180

The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units. United States Army_sentence_181

While the United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. United States Army_sentence_182

These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter. United States Army_sentence_183

Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types. United States Army_sentence_184

Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). United States Army_sentence_185

For UAVs, the Army is deploying at least one company of drone MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division. United States Army_sentence_186

Uniforms United States Army_section_19

Main article: Uniforms of the United States Army United States Army_sentence_187

The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern (OCP); OCP replaced a pixel-based pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) in 2019. United States Army_sentence_188

On 11 November 2018, the Army announced a new version of 'Army Greens' based on uniforms worn during World War II will become the standard garrison service uniform. United States Army_sentence_189

The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform. United States Army_sentence_190

The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in summer of 2020. United States Army_sentence_191

Berets United States Army_section_20

The beret flash of enlisted personnel displays their distinctive unit insignia (shown above). United States Army_sentence_192

The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. United States Army_sentence_193

After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army chief of staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. United States Army_sentence_194

Soldiers who are currently in a unit in jump status still wear berets, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret), while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) wear brown berets. United States Army_sentence_195

Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. United States Army_sentence_196

Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools. United States Army_sentence_197

Tents United States Army_section_21

The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment (Force Provider Expeditionary (FPE)). United States Army_sentence_198

The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), forward operating bases (FOBs), after action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints. United States Army_sentence_199

Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center. United States Army_sentence_200

Each FPE contains billeting, latrines, showers, laundry and kitchen facilities for 50–150 Soldiers, and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1, 2, 4 and 5. United States Army_sentence_201

This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility, within 24 to 48 hours. United States Army_sentence_202

The U.S. Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter (DRASH). United States Army_sentence_203

In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System. United States Army_sentence_204

See also United States Army_section_22

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States Army.