United States Army
|United States Army|
|Founded||14 June 1775 (1775-06-14)
(245 years, 5 months ago)
|Role||Prompt and sustained land combat
Integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land
|Size||472,595 Regular Army personnel (31 December 2019)
331,881 Army National Guard personnel (31 December 2019) 191,007 Army Reserve personnel (31 December 2019) 995,483 total uniformed personnel (31 December 2019) 250,576 civilian personnel (31 December 2019)
4,406 manned aircraft
|Part of||Department of the Army|
|Motto(s)||"This We'll Defend"|
|Colors||Black, gold and white|
|March||"The Army Goes Rolling Along" Play (help·)|
|Anniversaries||Army Birthday: 14 June|
|Equipment||List of U.S. Army equipment|
|Commander-in-Chief||President Donald Trump|
|Secretary of Defense||Christopher C. Miller (acting)|
|Secretary of the Army||Ryan McCarthy|
|Chief of Staff||GEN James C. McConville|
|Vice Chief of Staff||GEN Joseph M. Martin|
|Sergeant Major of the Army||SMA Michael A. Grinston|
As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country.
After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army.
The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and considers its institutional inception to be the origin of that armed force in 1775.
The U.S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer, the chief of staff of the Army (CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army (USA) was 476,000 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) had 343,000 soldiers and the U.S. (USAR) had 199,000 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers. Army Reserve
As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders".
The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States.
The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. . Armed Forces
defines the purpose of the army as:
- Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States
- Supporting the national policies
- Implementing the national objectives
- Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States
In 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons.
The Army's five core competencies are prompt and sustained land combat, combined arms operations (to include combined arms maneuver and wide–area security, armored and mechanized operations and airborne and air assault operations), special operations, to set and sustain the theater for the joint force, and to integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land.
Main article: History of the United States Army
By 2017, a task force was formed to address Army modernization, which triggered shifts of units: RDECOM, and ARCIC, from within Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC, respectively, to a new Army Command (ACOM) in 2018.
The Army Futures Command (AFC), is a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and AMC, the other ACOMs.
AFC's mission is modernization reform: to design hardware, as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC.
TRADOC's mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM.
In order to support the Army's modernization priorities, its FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.
The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.
Main article: Structure of the United States Army
The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775.
In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works.
During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments.
States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.
By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S.
Volunteers on four occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century.
During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S.
It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the state militias.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.
In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II.
The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously.
After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve.
State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service.
The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas.
Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area.
However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia.
Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch.
Careers in the Army can extend into cross-functional areas for officer, warrant officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel.
|Branch||Insignia and colors||Branch||Insignia and colors||Functional Area (FA)|
|Acquisition Corps (AC)||Air Defense Artillery (AD)||Information Network Engineering (FA 26)|
|Adjutant General's Corps (AG)
Includes Army Bands (AB)
Includes Cavalry (CV)
|Information Operations (FA 30)|
|Aviation (AV)||Civil Affairs Corps (CA)||Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)|
|Chaplain Corps (CH)||Chemical Corps (CM)||Space Operations (FA 40)|
|Cyber Corps (CY)||Dental Corps (DC)||Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)|
|Corps of Engineers (EN)||Field Artillery (FA)||Academy Professor (FA 47)|
|Finance Corps (FI)||Infantry (IN)||Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)|
|Inspector General (IG)||Logistics (LG)||Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)|
|Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA)||Military Intelligence Corps (MI)||Force Management (FA 50)|
|Medical Corps (MC)||Medical Service Corps (MS)||Acquisition (FA 51)|
|Military Police Corps (MP)||Army Nurse Corps (AN)||Simulation Operations (FA 57)|
|Psychological Operations (PO)||Medical Specialist Corps (SP)||Army Marketing (FA 58)|
|Quartermaster Corps (QM)||Staff Specialist Corps (SS)
(USAR and ARNG only)
|Health Services (FA 70)|
|Special Forces (SF)||Ordnance Corps (OD)||Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)|
|Veterinary Corps (VC)||Public Affairs (PA)||Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)|
|Transportation Corps (TC)||Signal Corps (SC)||Behavioral Sciences (FA 73)|
|Special branch insignias (for some unique duty assignments)|
|National Guard Bureau (NGB)||General Staff||U.S. Military Academy Staff|
|Chaplain Candidate||Officer Candidate||Warrant Officer Candidate|
|Aide-de-camp||Senior Enlisted Advisor (SEA)|
Before 1933, members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into U.S. Army, typically on the onset of war.
Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916, all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status.
They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as a reserve members of the U.S. Army under the authority of the president, in the Army National Guard of the United States.
Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations.
Army commands and army service component commands
Source: U.S. Army organization
Main article: Reorganization plan of United States Army
The U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.
Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year.
While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors.
However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. president, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized.
Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.
The U.S. Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense.
The chief of staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States, the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components.
The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense.
By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (CCMD):
- United States Army Central headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
- United States Army North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- United States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- United States Army Europe headquartered at Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany
- United States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter, Hawaii
- United States Army Africa headquartered at Vicenza, Italy
Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage.
The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division.
As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of brigade combat teams are:
- Armored brigades, with strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.
- Stryker brigades, with strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.
- Infantry brigades, with strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.
In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades.
Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and expeditionary military intelligence brigades.
Combat maneuver organizations
- To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see Transformation of the United States Army#Divisions and brigades
The U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units.
The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth.
In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active brigade combat teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490,000 soldiers.
Army chief of staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018.
However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017.
The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion.
Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions.
The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.
United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)
|Direct reporting units||Current commander||Location of headquarters|
|I Corps||LTG Randy A. George||Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington|
|III Corps||LTG Robert "Pat" White||Fort Hood, Texas|
|V Corps||LTG John S. Kolasheski||Fort Knox, Kentucky|
|XVIII Airborne Corps||LTG Michael E. Kurilla||Fort Bragg, North Carolina|
|First Army (FUSA)||LTG Thomas S. James Jr.||Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois|
|United States Army Reserve Command (USARC)||LTG Jody J. Daniels||Fort Bragg, North Carolina|
|Combat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOM|
|1st Armored Division||Fort Bliss, Texas and New Mexico||3 armored BCTs (ABCTs), 1 Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB), and 1 sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|1st Cavalry Division||Fort Hood, Texas||3 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and a sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|1st Infantry Division||Fort Riley, Kansas||2 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|3rd Cavalry Regiment||Fort Hood, Texas||4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron, and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division)||III Corps|
|3rd Infantry Division||Fort Stewart, Georgia||2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry BCT of the Georgia Army National Guard||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|4th Infantry Division||Fort Carson, Colorado||2 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||III Corps|
|7th Infantry Division||Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington||Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs, and 1 DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division as well as the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard.||I Corps|
|10th Mountain Division||Fort Drum, New York||3 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|25th Infantry Division||Schofield Barracks, Hawaii||2 infantry BCTs, 1 airborne infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade||I Corps|
|82nd Airborne Division||Fort Bragg, North Carolina||3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 airborne sustainment brigade||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|101st Airborne Division||Fort Campbell, Kentucky||3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 air assault sustainment brigade||XVIII Airborne Corps|
|Combat maneuver units aligned under other organizations|
|2nd Cavalry Regiment||Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany||4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron, and 1 support squadron||U.S. Army Europe and Africa|
|2nd Infantry Division||Camp Humphreys, South Korea||2 Stryker BCTs, 1 mechanized brigade from the ROK Army, 1 DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID), 1 sustainment brigade, a stateside ABCT from another active division that is rotated in on a regular basis, and the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard||Eighth Army|
|173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team||Camp Ederle, Vicenza, Italy||3 airborne infantry battalions (including 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas and Rhode Island Army National Guard), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 airborne cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion, and 1 airborne support battalion||U.S. Army Europe and Africa|
Special operations forces
|Name||Headquarters||Structure and purpose|
|1st Special Forces Command||Fort Bragg, North Carolina||Manages seven special forces groups designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and security force assistance. The command also manages two psychological operations groups—tasked to work with foreign nations to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives—a civil affairs brigade—that enables military commanders and U.S. ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five battalions—and a sustainment brigade—that provides combat service support and combat health support units via three distinct battalions.|
|Army Special Operations Aviation Command||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Commands, organizes, mans, trains, resources, and equips Army special operations aviation units to provide responsive, special operations aviation support to special operations forces consisting of five units, including the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne).|
|75th Ranger Regiment||Fort Benning, Georgia||In addition to a regimental headquarters, a special troops battalion, and a military intelligence battalion, the 75th Ranger Regiment has three maneuver battalions of elite airborne infantry specializing in large-scale, joint forcible entry operations and precision targeting raids. Additional capabilities include special reconnaissance, air assault, and direct action raids seizing key terrain such as airfields, destroying or securing strategic facilities, and capturing or killing enemies of the Nation. The Regiment also helps develop the equipment, technologies, training, and readiness that bridge the gap between special operations and traditional combat maneuver organizations.|
|John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Selects and trains special forces, civil affairs, and psychological operations soldiers consisting of two groups and other various training units and offices.|
|1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta||Ft. Bragg, North Carolina||Commonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit," Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or Task Force Green, SFOD–D is the U.S. Army's Tier 1 Special Mission Unit tasked with performing the most complex, classified, and dangerous missions directed by the National Command Authority. Under the control of Joint Special Operations Command, SFOD–D specializes in hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, direct action, and special reconnaissance against high-value targets via eight squadrons: four assault, one aviation, one clandestine, one combat support, and one nuclear disposal.|
These are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations.
Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.
Main article: United States Army officer rank insignia
Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same.
Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army.
Most army commissioned officers (those who are generalists) are promoted based on an "up or out" system.
The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.
Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars.
Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)".
Main article: United States Army officer rank insignia
Warrant officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area.
By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel.
However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank.
Main article: United States Army enlisted rank insignia
See also: Enlisted rank
Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers.
This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade, but do not exercise leadership responsibilities.
Privates and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)".
First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)".
Training in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective.
Because of COVID-19 precautions, the first two weeks of basic training — not including processing & out-processing — incorporate social distancing and indoor desk-oriented training.
Once the recruits have tested negative for COVID-19 for two weeks, the remaining 8 weeks follow the traditional activities for most recruits, followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS).
Some individual's MOSs range anywhere from 14 to 20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT.
The length of AIT school varies by the MOS.
The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier.
Certain highly technical MOS training requires many months (e.g., foreign language translators).
Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia.
Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen's pilot program for One Station Unit Training (OSUT) extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT, to 22 weeks.
The pilot, designed to boost infantry readiness ended December 2018.
The redesigned Infantry OSUT started in 2019.
Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot, OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry.
One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021.
Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry, Engineer, and Military Police (MP) in the succeeding Fiscal Years.
A new training assignment for junior officers was instituted, that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training (BCT) platoons.
These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative, logistical, and day-to-day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to "lead, train, and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale, welfare and readiness" of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons.
These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons, to free up the drill sergeants for training.
The United States Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) is being introduced into the Army, beginning with 60 battalions spread throughout the Army.
The test is the same for all soldiers, men or women.
It will take an hour to complete, including resting periods.
The ACFT supersedes the Army physical fitness test (APFT), as being more relevant to survival in combat.
Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions: three deadlifts, a standing power throw of a ten-pound medicine ball, hand-release pushups (which replace the traditional pushup), a sprint/drag/carry 250 yard event, three pull-ups with leg tucks (one needed to pass), a mandatory rest period, and a two-mile run.
Eventually (by October 2020) all soldiers from all three components (Active Army, Reserve, and National guard) will be subject to this test.
The ACFT will test all soldiers in basic training by October 2020.
The ACFT becomes the official test of record 1 October 2020; before that day every Army unit is required to complete a diagnostic ACFT (All Soldiers with valid APFT scores can use them until March 2022).
The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield.
Following their basic and advanced training at the individual-level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI).
The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it into a more specific MOS.
For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist or even a licensed practical nurse.
After commissioning, officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according to their future assignments.
Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their career.
Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr, Germany.
ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission.
Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment.
Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold-weather regions, jungles, mountains, or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain.
Post 9/11, Army unit-level training was for counter-insurgency (COIN); by 2014–2017, training had shifted to decisive action training.
Main article: List of equipment of the United States Army
The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities, in order: artillery, ground vehicles, aircraft, network, air/missile defense, and soldier lethality.
The army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges.
Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level.
Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher.
The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen.
The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.
The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun.
The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun.
In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.
The U.S. Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available.
The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level.
At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars.
The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units.
The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability.
The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters.
The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile.
U.S. Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare.
It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009.
The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles.
While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles.
The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.
Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types.
Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions).
Main article: Uniforms of the United States Army
The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern (OCP); OCP replaced a pixel-based pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) in 2019.
On 11 November 2018, the Army announced a new version of 'Army Greens' based on uniforms worn during World War II will become the standard garrison service uniform.
The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform.
The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in summer of 2020.
The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap.
After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army chief of staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011.
Soldiers who are currently in a unit in jump status still wear berets, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret), while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) wear brown berets.
Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions.
Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.
The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment (Force Provider Expeditionary (FPE)).
The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), forward operating bases (FOBs), after action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints.
Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center.
Each FPE contains billeting, latrines, showers, laundry and kitchen facilities for 50–150 Soldiers, and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1, 2, 4 and 5.
This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility, within 24 to 48 hours.
The U.S. Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter (DRASH).
In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States Army.