United States Department of Justice

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United States Department of Justice_table_infobox_0

United States Department of JusticeUnited States Department of Justice_table_caption_0
Agency overviewUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_0_0
FormedUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_1_0 July 1, 1870; 150 years ago (1870-07-01)United States Department of Justice_cell_0_1_1
TypeUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_2_0 Executive departmentUnited States Department of Justice_cell_0_2_1
JurisdictionUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_3_0 U.S. federal governmentUnited States Department of Justice_cell_0_3_1
HeadquartersUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_4_0 Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building

950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington, D.C., United StatesUnited States Department of Justice_cell_0_4_1

MottoUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_5_0 "Qui Pro Domina Justitia Sequitur" (Latin: "Who prosecutes on behalf of justice (or the Lady Justice)"United States Department of Justice_cell_0_5_1
EmployeesUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_6_0 113,114 (2019)United States Department of Justice_cell_0_6_1
Annual budgetUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_7_0 $29.9 billion (FY 2019)United States Department of Justice_cell_0_7_1
Agency executivesUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_8_0 United States Department of Justice_cell_0_8_1
WebsiteUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_0_9_0 United States Department of Justice_cell_0_9_1

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the United States government responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, and is equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. United States Department of Justice_sentence_0

The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration, and administers several federal law enforcement agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the United States Marshals Service (USMS), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). United States Department of Justice_sentence_1

The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. United States Department of Justice_sentence_2

The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. United States Department of Justice_sentence_3

The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. United States Department of Justice_sentence_4

As of February 2019, the Attorney General is William Barr. United States Department of Justice_sentence_5

History United States Department of Justice_section_0

The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. United States Department of Justice_sentence_6

At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U.S. United States Department of Justice_sentence_7 Congress, as well as the President; however, in 1819, the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload. United States Department of Justice_sentence_8

Until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. United States Department of Justice_sentence_9

Early attorneys general supplemented their salaries by running private law practices, often arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. United States Department of Justice_sentence_10

Following unsuccessful efforts in 1830 and 1846 to make attorney general a full-time job, in 1867, the U.S. United States Department of Justice_sentence_11 House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and also composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. United States Department of Justice_sentence_12

On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice. United States Department of Justice_sentence_13

President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. United States Department of Justice_sentence_14

Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first solicitor general the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice. United States Department of Justice_sentence_15

The Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. United States Department of Justice_sentence_16

It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups who had been using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution. United States Department of Justice_sentence_17

Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. United States Department of Justice_sentence_18

In the first few years of Grant's first term in office, there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. United States Department of Justice_sentence_19

By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York. United States Department of Justice_sentence_20

The result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South. United States Department of Justice_sentence_21

Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. United States Department of Justice_sentence_22

George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873, during Grant's second term in office. United States Department of Justice_sentence_23

Williams then placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions partially because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions. United States Department of Justice_sentence_24

The "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States attorneys, formerly under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, and the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. United States Department of Justice_sentence_25

The law also created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Department of Justice_sentence_26

With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, and the Department of Justice tasked with performing these. United States Department of Justice_sentence_27

In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. United States Department of Justice_sentence_28

New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. United States Department of Justice_sentence_29

In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, and offsenses [sic] against, the Government of the United States, and of defending claims and demands against the Government, and of supervising the work of United States attorneys, marshals, and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." United States Department of Justice_sentence_30

Headquarters United States Department of Justice_section_1

Main article: Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building United States Department of Justice_sentence_31

The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. United States Department of Justice_sentence_32

Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the project. United States Department of Justice_sentence_33

On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m) of space. United States Department of Justice_sentence_34

The sculptor C. United States Department of Justice_sentence_35 Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. United States Department of Justice_sentence_36

Various efforts, none entirely successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice seal, Qui Pro Domina Justitia Sequitur (literally "Who For Lady Justice Strives"). United States Department of Justice_sentence_37

It is not even known exactly when the original version of the DOJ seal itself was adopted, or when the motto first appeared on the seal. United States Department of Justice_sentence_38

The most authoritative opinion of the DOJ suggests that the motto refers to the Attorney General (and thus, by extension, to the Department of Justice) "who prosecutes on behalf of justice (or the Lady Justice)". United States Department of Justice_sentence_39

The motto's conception of the prosecutor (or government attorney) as being the servant of justice itself finds concrete expression in a similarly-ordered English-language inscription ("THE UNITED STATES WINS ITS POINT WHENEVER JUSTICE IS DONE ITS CITIZENS IN THE COURTS") in the above-door paneling in the ceremonial rotunda anteroom just outside the Attorney General's office in the Department of Justice Main Building in Washington, D.C. United States Department of Justice_sentence_40

The building was renamed in honor of former Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in 2001. United States Department of Justice_sentence_41

It is sometimes referred to as "Main Justice". United States Department of Justice_sentence_42

Organization United States Department of Justice_section_2

Leadership offices United States Department of Justice_section_3

United States Department of Justice_unordered_list_0

Divisions United States Department of Justice_section_4

United States Department of Justice_table_general_1

DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_1_0_0 Year established

(as formal division)United States Department of Justice_header_cell_1_0_1

Antitrust DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_1_1_0 1933United States Department of Justice_cell_1_1_1
Civil Division

(originally called the Claims Division; adopted current name on February 13, 1953)United States Department of Justice_cell_1_2_0

1933United States Department of Justice_cell_1_2_1
Civil Rights DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_1_3_0 1957United States Department of Justice_cell_1_3_1
Criminal DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_1_4_0 1919United States Department of Justice_cell_1_4_1
Environment and Natural Resources Division (ENRD)

(originally called the Land and Natural Resources Division; adopted current name in 1990)United States Department of Justice_cell_1_5_0

1909United States Department of Justice_cell_1_5_1
Justice Management Division (JMD)

(originally called the Administrative Division; adopted current name in 1985)United States Department of Justice_cell_1_6_0

1945United States Department of Justice_cell_1_6_1
National Security Division (NSD)United States Department of Justice_cell_1_7_0 2007United States Department of Justice_cell_1_7_1
Tax DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_1_8_0 1933United States Department of Justice_cell_1_8_1
War Division (defunct)United States Department of Justice_cell_1_9_0 1942

(disestablished 1945)United States Department of Justice_cell_1_9_1

Law enforcement agencies United States Department of Justice_section_5

Several federal law enforcement agencies are administered by the Department of Justice: United States Department of Justice_sentence_43

United States Department of Justice_unordered_list_1

  • United States Marshals Service (USMS) – The office of U.S. Marshal was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The U.S. Marshals Service was established as an agency in 1969, and it was elevated to full bureau status under the Justice Department in 1974.United States Department of Justice_item_1_5
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) – On July 26, 1908, a small investigative force was created within the Justice Department under Attorney General Charles Bonaparte. The following year, this force was officially named the Bureau of Investigation by Attorney General George W. Wickersham. In 1935, the bureau adopted its current name.United States Department of Justice_item_1_6
  • Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) – the Three Prisons Act of 1891 created the federal prison system. Congress created the Federal Bureau of Prisons in 1930 by Pub. L. No. 71–218, 46 Stat. 325, signed into law by President Hoover on May 14, 1930.United States Department of Justice_item_1_7
  • National Institute of Corrections (NIC)United States Department of Justice_item_1_8
  • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) – Except for a brief period during Prohibition, ATF's predecessor bureaus were part of the Department of the Treasury for more than two hundred years. ATF was first established by Department of Treasury Order No. 221, effective July 1, 1972; this order "transferred the functions, powers, and duties arising under laws relating to alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives from the Internal Revenue Service to ATF. In 2003, under the terms of the Homeland Security Act, ATF was split into two agencies – the new Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) was transferred to the Department of Justice, while the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) was retained by the Department of the Treasury.United States Department of Justice_item_1_9
  • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)United States Department of Justice_item_1_10
  • Office of the Inspector General (OIG)United States Department of Justice_item_1_11

Offices United States Department of Justice_section_6

United States Department of Justice_unordered_list_2

Other offices and programs United States Department of Justice_section_7

United States Department of Justice_unordered_list_3

In March 2003, the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service was abolished and its functions transferred to the United States Department of Homeland Security. United States Department of Justice_sentence_44

The Executive Office for Immigration Review and the Board of Immigration Appeals, which review decisions made by government officials under Immigration and Nationality law, remain under jurisdiction of the Department of Justice. United States Department of Justice_sentence_45

Similarly the Office of Domestic Preparedness left the Justice Department for the Department of Homeland Security, but only for executive purposes. United States Department of Justice_sentence_46

The Office of Domestic Preparedness is still centralized within the Department of Justice, since its personnel are still officially employed within the Department of Justice. United States Department of Justice_sentence_47

In 2003, the Department of Justice created LifeAndLiberty.gov, a website that supported the USA PATRIOT Act. United States Department of Justice_sentence_48

It was criticized by government watchdog groups for its alleged violation of U.S. Code Title 18 Section 1913, which forbids money appropriated by Congress to be used to lobby in favor of any law, actual or proposed. United States Department of Justice_sentence_49

The website has since been taken offline. United States Department of Justice_sentence_50

Finances and budget United States Department of Justice_section_8

The Justice Department authorized the budget for 2015 United States federal budget. United States Department of Justice_sentence_51

The budget authorization is broken down as follows: United States Department of Justice_sentence_52

United States Department of Justice_table_general_2

ProgramUnited States Department of Justice_header_cell_2_0_0 Funding (in millions)United States Department of Justice_header_cell_2_0_1
Management and FinanceUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_1_0
General AdministrationUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_2_0 $129United States Department of Justice_cell_2_2_1
Justice Information Sharing TechnologyUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_3_0 $26United States Department of Justice_cell_2_3_1
Administrative Reviews and AppealsUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_4_0 $351United States Department of Justice_cell_2_4_1
Office of the Inspector GeneralUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_5_0 $89United States Department of Justice_cell_2_5_1
United States Parole CommissionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_6_0 $13United States Department of Justice_cell_2_6_1
National Security DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_7_0 $92United States Department of Justice_cell_2_7_1
Legal ActivitiesUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_8_0
Office of the Solicitor GeneralUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_9_0 $12United States Department of Justice_cell_2_9_1
Tax DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_10_0 $109United States Department of Justice_cell_2_10_1
Criminal DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_11_0 $202United States Department of Justice_cell_2_11_1
Civil DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_12_0 $298United States Department of Justice_cell_2_12_1
Environmental and Natural Resources DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_13_0 $112United States Department of Justice_cell_2_13_1
Office of Legal CounselUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_14_0 $7United States Department of Justice_cell_2_14_1
Civil Rights DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_15_0 $162United States Department of Justice_cell_2_15_1
Antitrust DivisionUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_16_0 $162United States Department of Justice_cell_2_16_1
United States AttorneysUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_17_0 $1,955United States Department of Justice_cell_2_17_1
United States Bankruptcy TrusteesUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_18_0 $226United States Department of Justice_cell_2_18_1
Law Enforcement ActivitiesUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_19_0
United States Marshals ServiceUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_20_0 $2,668United States Department of Justice_cell_2_20_1
Federal Bureau of InvestigationUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_21_0 $8,347United States Department of Justice_cell_2_21_1
Drug Enforcement AdministrationUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_22_0 $2,018United States Department of Justice_cell_2_22_1
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and ExplosivesUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_23_0 $1,201United States Department of Justice_cell_2_23_1
Federal Bureau of PrisonsUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_24_0 $6,894United States Department of Justice_cell_2_24_1
Interpol-Washington OfficeUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_25_0 $32United States Department of Justice_cell_2_25_1
Grant ProgramsUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_26_0
Office of Justice ProgramsUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_27_0 $1,427United States Department of Justice_cell_2_27_1
Office of Community Oriented Policing ServicesUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_28_0 $248United States Department of Justice_cell_2_28_1
Office on Violence Against WomenUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_29_0 $410United States Department of Justice_cell_2_29_1
Mandatory SpendingUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_30_0
Mandatory SpendingUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_31_0 $4,011United States Department of Justice_cell_2_31_1
TOTALUnited States Department of Justice_cell_2_32_0 $31,201United States Department of Justice_cell_2_32_1

See also United States Department of Justice_section_9

United States Department of Justice_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States Department of Justice.