United States Marine Corps

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"USMC" redirects here. United States Marine Corps_sentence_0

For other uses, see USMC (disambiguation). United States Marine Corps_sentence_1

United States Marine Corps_table_infobox_0

United States Marine CorpsUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_0_0
FoundedUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_1_0 10 November 1775 (1775-11-10)

(245 years, 1 month)United States Marine Corps_cell_0_1_1

CountryUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_2_0 United StatesUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_2_1
TypeUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_3_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_3_1
RoleUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_4_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_4_1
SizeUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_5_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_5_1
Part ofUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_6_0 Department of the NavyUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_7_0 The Pentagon

Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.United States Marine Corps_cell_0_7_1

Nickname(s)United States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_8_0 "Jarheads", "Devil Dogs", "Teufel Hunden", "Leathernecks"United States Marine Corps_cell_0_8_1
Motto(s)United States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_9_0 Semper fidelisUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_9_1
ColorsUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_10_0 Scarlet and goldUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_10_1
MarchUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_11_0 "Semper Fidelis" Play (help·)United States Marine Corps_cell_0_11_1
Mascot(s)United States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_12_0 English bulldogUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_12_1
AnniversariesUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_13_0 10 NovemberUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_13_1
EquipmentUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_14_0 List of U.S. Marine Corps equipmentUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_14_1
EngagementsUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_15_0 See listUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_15_1
DecorationsUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_16_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_17_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_17_1
CommandersUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_18_0
Commander-in-ChiefUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_19_0 President Donald J. TrumpUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_19_1
Secretary of DefenseUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_20_0 Christopher C. Miller (acting)United States Marine Corps_cell_0_20_1
Secretary of the NavyUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_21_0 Kenneth BraithwaiteUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_21_1
CommandantUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_22_0 Gen David H. BergerUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_22_1
Assistant CommandantUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_23_0 Gen Gary L. ThomasUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_23_1
Sergeant Major of the Marine CorpsUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_24_0 SMMC Troy E. BlackUnited States Marine Corps_cell_0_24_1
InsigniaUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_25_0
FlagUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_26_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_26_1
SealUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_27_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_27_1
Emblem ("Eagle, Globe, and Anchor" or "EGA")United States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_28_0 United States Marine Corps_cell_0_28_1
SongUnited States Marine Corps_header_cell_0_29_0 "The Marine's Hymn" Play (help·)United States Marine Corps_cell_0_29_1

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the maritime land force service branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations through combined arms, implementing its own infantry, armor, artillery, aerial and special operations forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_2

The U.S. Marine Corps is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. United States Marine Corps_sentence_3

The Marine Corps has been part of the U.S. United States Marine Corps_sentence_4 Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834 with its sister service, United States Navy. United States Marine Corps_sentence_5

The USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. United States Marine Corps_sentence_6

Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons, primarily Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are also embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers. United States Marine Corps_sentence_7

The history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore. United States Marine Corps_sentence_8

In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. United States Marine Corps_sentence_9

As of 2017, the USMC has around 182,000 active duty members and some 38,500 personnel in reserve. United States Marine Corps_sentence_10

Mission United States Marine Corps_section_0

As outlined in 10 U.S.C.  and as originally introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: United States Marine Corps_sentence_11

United States Marine Corps_unordered_list_0

  • Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns;United States Marine Corps_item_0_0
  • Development of tactics, technique, and equipment used by amphibious landing forces in coordination with the Army and Air Force; andUnited States Marine Corps_item_0_1
  • Such other duties as the President or Department of Defense may direct.United States Marine Corps_item_0_2

This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, and "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. United States Marine Corps_sentence_12

In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps". United States Marine Corps_sentence_13

It noted that the Corps has more often than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, Chapultepec, and numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties (such as those in Central America), World War I, and the Korean War. United States Marine Corps_sentence_14

While these actions are not accurately described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. United States Marine Corps_sentence_15

The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. United States Marine Corps_sentence_16

Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, and the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. United States Marine Corps_sentence_17

The Executive Flight Detachment also provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. United States Marine Corps_sentence_18

By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies, legations, and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide. United States Marine Corps_sentence_19

The relationship between the Department of State and the U.S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. United States Marine Corps_sentence_20

For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. United States Marine Corps_sentence_21

After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, and legations throughout the world. United States Marine Corps_sentence_22

In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnishes Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. United States Marine Corps_sentence_23

A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, and 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. United States Marine Corps_sentence_24

During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide. United States Marine Corps_sentence_25

Historical mission United States Marine Corps_section_1

The Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny; to the latter end, their quarters on the ship were often strategically positioned between the officers' quarters and the rest of the vessel. United States Marine Corps_sentence_26

Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore. United States Marine Corps_sentence_27

America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montagu and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas. United States Marine Corps_sentence_28

The role of the Marine Corps has expanded significantly since then; as the importance of its original naval mission declined with changing naval warfare doctrine and the professionalization of the naval service, the Corps adapted by focusing on formerly secondary missions ashore. United States Marine Corps_sentence_29

The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. United States Marine Corps_sentence_30

Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, battleships and aircraft carriers. United States Marine Corps_sentence_31

Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. United States Marine Corps_sentence_32

Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, and continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries. United States Marine Corps_sentence_33

Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II. United States Marine Corps_sentence_34

During World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships. United States Marine Corps_sentence_35

They often were assigned to man anti-aircraft batteries. United States Marine Corps_sentence_36

In 1950, President Truman responded to a message from Rep. Gordon L. McDonough (R–Calif). United States Marine Corps_sentence_37

McDonough had urged President Truman to add Marine representation on the Joint Chiefs of Staff. United States Marine Corps_sentence_38

President Truman, writing in a letter addressed to Rep. McDonough, stated that "The Marine Corps is the Navy's police force and as long as I am President that is what it will remain. United States Marine Corps_sentence_39

They have a propaganda machine that is almost equal to Stalin's." United States Marine Corps_sentence_40

Rep. McDonough then inserted , dated August 29, 1950, into the Congressional Record. United States Marine Corps_sentence_41

Congressmen and Marine organizations reacted, calling President Truman's remarks an insult and demanded an apology. United States Marine Corps_sentence_42

Truman apologized to the Marine commandant at the time, writing, "I sincerely regret the unfortunate choice of language which I used in my letter of August 29 to Congressman McDonough concerning the Marine Corps." United States Marine Corps_sentence_43

While Truman had apologized for his metaphor, he did not alter his position that the Marine Corps should continue to report to the Navy secretary. United States Marine Corps_sentence_44

He made amends only by making a surprise visit to the Marine Corps League a few days later, when he reiterated, "When I make a mistake, I try to correct it. United States Marine Corps_sentence_45

I try to make as few as possible." United States Marine Corps_sentence_46

He received a standing ovation. United States Marine Corps_sentence_47

When gun cruisers were retired by the 1960s, the remaining Marine detachments were only seen on battleships and carriers. United States Marine Corps_sentence_48

Its original mission of providing shipboard security finally ended in the 1990s. United States Marine Corps_sentence_49

Capabilities United States Marine Corps_section_2

The Marine Corps fulfills a critical military role as an amphibious warfare force. United States Marine Corps_sentence_50

It is capable of asymmetric warfare with conventional, irregular, and hybrid forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_51

While the Marine Corps does not employ any unique capabilities, as a force it can rapidly deploy a combined-arms task force to almost anywhere in the world within days. United States Marine Corps_sentence_52

The basic structure for all deployed units is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) that integrates a ground combat element, an aviation combat element and a Logistics Combat Element under a common command element. United States Marine Corps_sentence_53

While the creation of joint commands under the Goldwater–Nichols Act has improved inter-service coordination between each branch, the Corps's ability to permanently maintain integrated multi-element task forces under a single command provides a smoother implementation of combined-arms warfare principles. United States Marine Corps_sentence_54

The close integration of disparate Marine units stems from an organizational culture centered on the infantry. United States Marine Corps_sentence_55

Every other Marine capability exists to support the infantry. United States Marine Corps_sentence_56

Unlike some Western militaries, the Corps remained conservative against theories proclaiming the ability of new weapons to win wars independently. United States Marine Corps_sentence_57

For example, Marine aviation has always been focused on close air support and has remained largely uninfluenced by air power theories proclaiming that strategic bombing can single-handedly win wars. United States Marine Corps_sentence_58

This focus on the infantry is matched with the doctrine of "Every Marine [is] a rifleman", a focus of Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr., emphasizing the infantry combat abilities of every Marine. United States Marine Corps_sentence_59

All Marines, regardless of military specialization, receive training as a rifleman; and all officers receive additional training as infantry platoon commanders. United States Marine Corps_sentence_60

For example, at Wake Island, when all of the Marine aircraft were destroyed, pilots continued the fight as ground officers, leading supply clerks and cooks in a final defensive effort. United States Marine Corps_sentence_61

Flexibility of execution is implemented via an emphasis on "commander's intent" as a guiding principle for carrying out orders; specifying the end state but leaving open the method of execution. United States Marine Corps_sentence_62

The amphibious assault techniques developed for World War II evolved, with the addition of air assault and maneuver warfare doctrine, into the current "Operational Maneuver from the Sea" doctrine of power projection from the seas. United States Marine Corps_sentence_63

The Marines are credited with the development of helicopter insertion doctrine and were the earliest in the American military to widely adopt maneuver-warfare principles, which emphasize low-level initiative and flexible execution. United States Marine Corps_sentence_64

In light of recent warfare that has strayed from the Corps's traditional missions, it has renewed an emphasis on amphibious capabilities. United States Marine Corps_sentence_65

The Marine Corps relies on the Navy for sealift to provide its rapid deployment capabilities. United States Marine Corps_sentence_66

In addition to basing a third of the Fleet Marine Force in Japan, Marine Expeditionary Units (MEU) are typically stationed at sea so they can function as first responders to international incidents. United States Marine Corps_sentence_67

To aid rapid deployment, the Maritime Pre-Positioning System was developed: fleets of container ships are positioned throughout the world with enough equipment and supplies for a Marine Expeditionary Force to deploy for 30 days. United States Marine Corps_sentence_68

The USMC is planning to reduce its logistical requirements and by 2025 eliminate all liquid fuel use for Marine Expeditionary Forces, except for highly efficient vehicles. United States Marine Corps_sentence_69

Doctrine United States Marine Corps_section_3

Two small manuals published during the 1930s would establish USMC doctrine in two areas. United States Marine Corps_sentence_70

The Small Wars Manual laid the framework for Marine counter-insurgency operations from Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan while the Tentative Landing Operations Manual established the doctrine for the amphibious operations of World War II. United States Marine Corps_sentence_71

"Operational Maneuver from the Sea" is the current doctrine of power projection. United States Marine Corps_sentence_72

History United States Marine Corps_section_4

Main article: History of the United States Marine Corps United States Marine Corps_sentence_73

Foundation and American Revolutionary War United States Marine Corps_section_5

The United States Marine Corps traces its roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War, formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775, to raise two battalions of Marines. United States Marine Corps_sentence_74

This date is celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_75

Nicholas was nominated to lead the Marines by future president John Adams. United States Marine Corps_sentence_76

By December of that year, Nicholas raised one battalion of 300 men by recruitment in his home city of Philadelphia. United States Marine Corps_sentence_77

In January 1776, the Marines went to sea under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins, and in March undertook their first amphibious landing, the Battle of Nassau in the Bahamas, occupying the British port of Nassau for two weeks. United States Marine Corps_sentence_78

On 3 January 1777, the Marines arrived at the Battle of Princeton attached to General John Cadwalader’s Brigade, where they had been assigned by General George Washington; by December 1776 Washington was retreating through New Jersey and, "in desperate need of veteran soldiers," had ordered Nicholas and the Marines to attach themselves to the Continental Army. United States Marine Corps_sentence_79

The Battle of Princeton, where the Marines along with General Cadwalader's Brigade were personally rallied by Washington, was the first land combat engagement of the Marines; an estimated 130 Marines were present at the battle. United States Marine Corps_sentence_80

At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded in April 1783. United States Marine Corps_sentence_81

The institution itself would not be resurrected until 11 July 1798. United States Marine Corps_sentence_82

At that time, in preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_83

Marines had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797 for service in the new-build frigates authorized by the Congressional "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of 18 March 1794, which specified the numbers of Marines to recruit for each frigate. United States Marine Corps_sentence_84

The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates, when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led eight Marines and 500 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. United States Marine Corps_sentence_85

Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke sword carried by Marine officers. United States Marine Corps_sentence_86

War of 1812 and afterward United States Marine Corps_section_6

During the War of 1812, Marine detachments on Navy ships took part in some of the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first and last engagements of the conflict. United States Marine Corps_sentence_87

Their most significant contribution, however, was holding the center of General Jackson's defensive line at the 1815 Battle of New Orleans, the final major battle and one of the most one-sided engagements of the war. United States Marine Corps_sentence_88

With widespread news of the battle and the capture of HMS Cyane, HMS Levant and HMS Penguin, the final engagements between British and U.S. forces, the Marines had gained a reputation as expert marksmen, especially in defensive and ship-to-ship actions. United States Marine Corps_sentence_89

They played a large role in the 1813 defense of Sacket's Harbor, New York and Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, also taking part in the 1814 defense of Plattsburgh in the Champlain Valley during one of the final British offensives along the Canadian-American border. United States Marine Corps_sentence_90

After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a malaise that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth Commandant in 1820. United States Marine Corps_sentence_91

Under his tenure, the Corps took on expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. United States Marine Corps_sentence_92

Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army. United States Marine Corps_sentence_93

Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy as a sister service to the Navy. United States Marine Corps_sentence_94

This would be the first of many times that the independent existence of the Corps was challenged. United States Marine Corps_sentence_95

Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service in the Seminole Wars of 1835, personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps (two battalions) to war. United States Marine Corps_sentence_96

A decade later, in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City, which would be later celebrated as the "Halls of Montezuma" in the Marines' hymn. United States Marine Corps_sentence_97

In fairness to the U.S. Army, most of the troops who made the final assault at the Halls of Montezuma were Soldiers and not Marines. United States Marine Corps_sentence_98

The Americans forces were led by Army Gen. Winfield Scott. United States Marine Corps_sentence_99

Scott organized two storming parties of about 250 men each for 500 men total including 40 Marines. United States Marine Corps_sentence_100

In the 1850s, the Marines would see further service in Panama and Asia, attached to Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the Far East. United States Marine Corps_sentence_101

American Civil War to World War I United States Marine Corps_section_7

The Marine Corps played a small role in the Civil War (1861–1865); their most prominent task was blockade duty. United States Marine Corps_sentence_102

As more and more states seceded from the Union, about a third of the Corps's officers left the United States to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps, which ultimately played little part in the war. United States Marine Corps_sentence_103

The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_104

Blockade duty included sea-based amphibious operations to secure forward bases. United States Marine Corps_sentence_105

In late November 1861, Marines and sailors landed a reconnaissance in force from USS Flag at Tybee Island, Georgia, to occupy the Lighthouse and Martello Tower on the northern end of the island. United States Marine Corps_sentence_106

It would later be the Army base for bombardment of Fort Pulaski. United States Marine Corps_sentence_107

In April and May 1862, Union Marines participated in the capture and occupation of New Orleans and the occupation of Baton Rouge, Louisiana signal events in the war that helped secure Union control of the lower Mississippi River basin and denied the Confederacy a major port and naval base on the Gulf coast. United States Marine Corps_sentence_108

The remainder of the 19th century was marked by declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_109

The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. United States Marine Corps_sentence_110

Meanwhile, Marines served as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American interests overseas. United States Marine Corps_sentence_111

The Corps was involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the American Civil War to the end of 19th century. United States Marine Corps_sentence_112

They would be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States. United States Marine Corps_sentence_113

Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's tenure, Marine customs and traditions took shape: the Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem on 19 November 1868. United States Marine Corps_sentence_114

It was during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. United States Marine Corps_sentence_115

Around 1883, the Marines adopted their current motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful). United States Marine Corps_sentence_116

John Philip Sousa, the musician and composer, enlisted as a Marine apprentice at the age of 13, serving from 1867 until 1872, and again from 1880 to 1892 as the leader of the Marine Band. United States Marine Corps_sentence_117

During the Spanish–American War (1898), Marines led American forces ashore in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. United States Marine Corps_sentence_118

At Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Marines seized an advanced naval base that remains in use today. United States Marine Corps_sentence_119

Between 1899 and 1916, the Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine–American War, the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899–1901), Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, the Perdicaris incident in Morocco, Veracruz, Santo Domingo, and the Banana Wars in Haiti and Nicaragua; the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual. United States Marine Corps_sentence_120

World War I United States Marine Corps_section_8

During World War I Marines served as a part of the American Expeditionary Force under General Pershing when America entered into the war on 6 April 1917. United States Marine Corps_sentence_121

The Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCOs with battle experience, and experienced a large expansion. United States Marine Corps_sentence_122

During the war, the Marines, fighting on the Western Front in France, fought at the battle at Belleau Wood in mid-1918. United States Marine Corps_sentence_123

Though the Marines and U.S. media reported that Germans had nicknamed them Teufel Hunden as meaning "Devil Dogs", for their reputation as shock troops and marksmen at ranges up to 900 meters, there is no evidence of this in German records (as Teufelshunde would be the proper German phrase). United States Marine Corps_sentence_124

Nevertheless, the name stuck in U.S. Marine lore. United States Marine Corps_sentence_125

The U.S. Marine Corps entered the war with 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted personnel, and by 11 November 1918 had reached a strength of 2,400 officers and 70,000 enlisted. United States Marine Corps_sentence_126

African-Americans were entirely excluded from the Marine Corps during this conflict. United States Marine Corps_sentence_127

Opha May Johnson was the first woman to enlist in the Marines; she joined the Marine Corps Reserve in 1918 during World War I, officially becoming the first female Marine. United States Marine Corps_sentence_128

From then until the end of World War I, 305 women enlisted in the Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_129

Between the World Wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Commandant John A. Lejeune, and under his leadership, the Corps studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War II. United States Marine Corps_sentence_130

Many officers, including Lieutenant Colonel Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis, foresaw a war in the Pacific with Japan and undertook preparations for such a conflict. United States Marine Corps_sentence_131

Through 1941, as the prospect of war grew, the Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises with the Army and acquired amphibious equipment that would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict. United States Marine Corps_sentence_132

World War II United States Marine Corps_section_9

In World War II, the Marines performed a central role in the Pacific War, along with the U.S. Army. United States Marine Corps_sentence_133

The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam, Tinian, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. United States Marine Corps_sentence_134

Some 600,000 Americans served in the U.S. Marine Corps in World War II. United States Marine Corps_sentence_135

The Battle of Iwo Jima, which began on 19 February 1945, was arguably the most famous Marine engagement of the war. United States Marine Corps_sentence_136

The Japanese had learned from their defeats in the Marianas Campaign and prepared many fortified positions on the island including pillboxes and network of tunnels. United States Marine Corps_sentence_137

The Japanese put up fierce resistance, but American forces reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on 23 February. United States Marine Corps_sentence_138

The mission was accomplished with high losses of 26,000 American casualties and 22,000 Japanese. United States Marine Corps_sentence_139

The Marines played a comparatively minor role in the European theater. United States Marine Corps_sentence_140

Nonetheless, they did continue to provide security detachments to U.S. embassies, and ships, contributed personnel to small, special ops teams dropped into Nazi-occupied Europe as part of Office of Strategic Services (OSS, the precursor to the CIA) missions, and acted as staff planners, and trainers for U.S. Army amphibious operations, including the Normandy landings. United States Marine Corps_sentence_141

By the end of the war, the Corps expanded from two brigades to six divisions, five air wings, and supporting troops, totaling about 485,000 Marines. United States Marine Corps_sentence_142

In addition, 20 defense battalions and a parachute battalion were raised. United States Marine Corps_sentence_143

Nearly 87,000 Marines were casualties during World War II (including nearly 20,000 killed), and 82 were awarded the Medal of Honor. United States Marine Corps_sentence_144

In 1942, the Navy Seabees were created with the Marine Corps providing their organization and military training. United States Marine Corps_sentence_145

Many Seabee units were issued the USMC standard issue and were re-designated "Marine". United States Marine Corps_sentence_146

Despite the Corps's giving them their military organization, military training, issuing them uniforms and redesignating their units the Seabees remained Navy. United States Marine Corps_sentence_147

USMC historian Gordon L. Rottmann wrote that one of the "Navy's biggest contributions to the Marine Corps during WWII was the creation of the Seabees." United States Marine Corps_sentence_148

Despite Secretary of the Navy, James Forrestal's prediction that the Marine flag raising at Iwo Jima meant "a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years", the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war due to a suddenly shrunken budget. United States Marine Corps_sentence_149

Army generals pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. United States Marine Corps_sentence_150

Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, and with the assistance of the so-called "Revolt of the Admirals", the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in the National Security Act of 1947. United States Marine Corps_sentence_151

Shortly afterward, in 1952 the Douglas–Mansfield Act afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines and established the structure of three active divisions and air wings that remain today. United States Marine Corps_sentence_152

Korean War United States Marine Corps_section_10

The Korean War (1950–1953) saw the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the defensive line at the Pusan Perimeter. United States Marine Corps_sentence_153

To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur called on United Nations forces, including U.S. Marines, to make an amphibious landing at Inchon. United States Marine Corps_sentence_154

The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near the Yalu River until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. United States Marine Corps_sentence_155

Chinese troops surrounded, surprised, and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_156

The U.S. Army's X Corps, which included the 1st Marine Division and the Army's 7th Infantry Division regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast, known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. United States Marine Corps_sentence_157

The fighting calmed after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir, but late in March 1953, the relative quiet of the war was broken when the People's Liberation Army launched a massive offensive on three outposts manned by the 5th Marine Regiment. United States Marine Corps_sentence_158

These outposts were codenamed "Reno", "Vegas", and "Carson". United States Marine Corps_sentence_159

The campaign was collectively known as the Nevada Cities Campaign. United States Marine Corps_sentence_160

There was brutal fighting on Reno hill, which was eventually captured by the Chinese. United States Marine Corps_sentence_161

Although Reno was lost, the 5th Marines held both Vegas and Carson through the rest of the campaign. United States Marine Corps_sentence_162

In this one campaign, the Marines suffered approximately 1,000 casualties and might have suffered much more without the U.S. Army's Task Force Faith. United States Marine Corps_sentence_163

Marines would continue a battle of attrition around the 38th Parallel until the 1953 armistice. United States Marine Corps_sentence_164

The Korean War saw the Corps expand from 75,000 regulars to a force of 261,000 Marines, mostly reservists. United States Marine Corps_sentence_165

30,544 Marines were killed or wounded during the war and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor. United States Marine Corps_sentence_166

Vietnam War United States Marine Corps_section_11

The Marine Corps served in the Vietnam War taking part in such battles as the Battle of Hue and the Battle of Khe Sanh in 1968. United States Marine Corps_sentence_167

Individuals from the USMC generally operated in the Northern I Corps Regions of South Vietnam. United States Marine Corps_sentence_168

While there, they were constantly engaged in a guerrilla war against the Viet Cong, along with an intermittent conventional war against the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). United States Marine Corps_sentence_169

Portions of the Corps were responsible for the less-known Combined Action Program (CAP) that implemented unconventional techniques for counter-insurgency and worked as military advisers to the Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_170

Marines were withdrawn in 1971, and returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt a rescue of the crew of the SS Mayaguez. United States Marine Corps_sentence_171

Vietnam was the longest war up to that time for Marines; by its end, 13,091 had been killed in action, 51,392 had been wounded, and 57 Medals of Honor had been awarded. United States Marine Corps_sentence_172

Due to policies concerning rotation, more Marines were deployed for service during Vietnam than World War II. United States Marine Corps_sentence_173

While recovering from Vietnam, the Corps hit a detrimental low point in its service history caused by courts-martial and non-judicial punishments related partially to increased unauthorized absences and desertions during the war. United States Marine Corps_sentence_174

Overhauling of the Corps began in the late 1970s, discharging the most delinquent, and once the quality of new recruits improved, the Corps focused on reforming the NCO Corps, a vital functioning part of its forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_175

Interim: Vietnam War to the War on Terror United States Marine Corps_section_12

After the Vietnam War, the U.S. Marines resumed their expeditionary role, participating in the failed 1980 Iran hostage rescue attempt Operation Eagle Claw, the Operation Urgent Fury and the Operation Just Cause. United States Marine Corps_sentence_176

On 23 October 1983, the Marine headquarters building in Beirut, Lebanon, was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines and 21 other service members were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from the country. United States Marine Corps_sentence_177

The year 1990 saw Marines of the Joint Task Force Sharp Edge save thousands of lives by evacuating British, French and American nationals from the violence of the Liberian Civil War. United States Marine Corps_sentence_178

During the Persian Gulf War of 1990 to 1991, Marine task forces formed for Operation Desert Shield, and later liberated Kuwait, along with Coalition forces, in Operation Desert Storm. United States Marine Corps_sentence_179

Marines participated in combat operations in Somalia (1992–1995) during Operations Restore Hope, Restore Hope II, and United Shield to provide humanitarian relief. United States Marine Corps_sentence_180

In 1997, Marines took part in Operation Silver Wake, the evacuation of American citizens from the US Embassy in Tirana, Albania. United States Marine Corps_sentence_181

Global War on Terrorism United States Marine Corps_section_13

Following the attacks on 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush announced the Global War on Terrorism. United States Marine Corps_sentence_182

The stated objective of the Global War on Terror is "the defeat of Al-Qaeda, other terrorist groups and any nation that supports or harbors terrorists". United States Marine Corps_sentence_183

Since then, the Marine Corps, alongside the other military services, has engaged in global operations around the world in support of that mission. United States Marine Corps_sentence_184

In spring 2009, President Barack Obama's goal of reducing spending in the Defense Department was led by Secretary Robert Gates in a series of budget cuts that did not significantly change the Corps's budget and programs, cutting only the VH-71 Kestrel and resetting the VXX program. United States Marine Corps_sentence_185

However, the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform singled the Corps out for the brunt of a series of recommended cuts in late 2010. United States Marine Corps_sentence_186

In light of budget sequestration in 2013, General Amos set a goal of a force of 174,000 Marines. United States Marine Corps_sentence_187

He testified that this was the minimum number that would allow for an effective response to even a single contingency operation, but it would reduce the peacetime ratio of time at home bases to time deployed down to a historical low level. United States Marine Corps_sentence_188

Afghanistan Campaign (Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan) United States Marine Corps_section_14

Marines and other American forces began staging in Pakistan and Uzbekistan on the border of Afghanistan as early as October 2001 in preparation for Operation Enduring Freedom. United States Marine Corps_sentence_189

The 15th and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units were some of the first conventional forces into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in November 2001. United States Marine Corps_sentence_190

The Marines first entered Afghanistan after Army paratroopers secured their entry. United States Marine Corps_sentence_191

Since then, Marine battalions and squadrons have been rotating through, engaging Taliban and Al-Qaeda forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_192

Marines of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit flooded into the Taliban-held town of Garmsir on 29 April 2008, in Helmand Province, in the first major American operation in the region in years. United States Marine Corps_sentence_193

In June 2009, 7,000 Marines with the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in an effort to improve security, and began Operation Strike of the Sword the next month. United States Marine Corps_sentence_194

In February 2010, the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade launched the largest offensive of the Afghan Campaign since 2001, the Battle of Marjah, to clear the Taliban from their key stronghold in Helmand Province. United States Marine Corps_sentence_195

After Marjah, Marines progressed north up the Helmand River and cleared the towns of Kajahki and Sangin. United States Marine Corps_sentence_196

Marines remained in Helmand Province until 2014. United States Marine Corps_sentence_197

Iraq Campaign (Operations Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn, Inherent Resolve) United States Marine Corps_section_15

U.S. Marines served in the Iraq War, along with its sister services. United States Marine Corps_sentence_198

The I Marine Expeditionary Force, along with the U.S. Army's 3rd Infantry Division, spearheaded the Operation Iraqi Freedom. United States Marine Corps_sentence_199

The Marines left Iraq in the summer of 2003, but returned in the beginning of 2004. United States Marine Corps_sentence_200

They were given responsibility for the Al Anbar Province, the large desert region to the west of Baghdad. United States Marine Corps_sentence_201

During this occupation, the Marines lead assaults on the city of Fallujah in April (Operation Vigilant Resolve) and November 2004 (Operation Phantom Fury) and saw intense fighting in such places as Ramadi, Al-Qa'im and Hīt. United States Marine Corps_sentence_202

Their time in Iraq has courted controversy with the Haditha killings and the Hamdania incident. United States Marine Corps_sentence_203

The Anbar Awakening and 2007 surge reduced levels of violence. United States Marine Corps_sentence_204

The Marine Corps officially ended its role in Iraq on 23 January 2010 when they handed over responsibility for Al Anbar Province to the U.S. Army. United States Marine Corps_sentence_205

U.S. Marines would ultimately return to Iraq in the summer of 2014, in response to growing violence there. United States Marine Corps_sentence_206

Throughout the Global War on Terrorism, the U.S. Marines have supported operations in Africa to counter Islamic extremism and piracy in the Red Sea. United States Marine Corps_sentence_207

In late 2002, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa was stood up at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti to provide regional security. United States Marine Corps_sentence_208

Despite transferring overall command to the Navy in 2006, the Marines continued to operate in the Horn of Africa into 2007. United States Marine Corps_sentence_209

Organization United States Marine Corps_section_16

Main article: Organization of the United States Marine Corps United States Marine Corps_sentence_210

Department of the Navy United States Marine Corps_section_17

The Department of the Navy, led by the Secretary of the Navy, is a military department of the cabinet-level U.S. United States Marine Corps_sentence_211 Department of Defense that oversees the Marine Corps and the Navy. United States Marine Corps_sentence_212

The most senior Marine officer is the Commandant (unless a Marine officer is the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs), responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Marine Corps so that its forces are ready for deployment under the operational command of the Combatant Commanders. United States Marine Corps_sentence_213

The Marine Corps is organized into four principal subdivisions: Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC), the Operating Forces, the Supporting Establishment, and the Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES or USMCR). United States Marine Corps_sentence_214

Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC) United States Marine Corps_section_18

Headquarters Marine Corps consists of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Director Marine Corps Staff, the several Deputy Commandants, the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, and various special staff officers and Marine Corps agency heads that report directly to either the Commandant or Assistant Commandant. United States Marine Corps_sentence_215

HQMC is supported by the Headquarters and Service Battalion, USMC providing administrative, supply, logistics, training, and services support to the Commandant and his staff. United States Marine Corps_sentence_216

Operating Forces United States Marine Corps_section_19

The Operating Forces are divided into three categories: Marine Corps Forces (MARFOR) assigned to unified combatant commands, viz., the Fleet Marine Forces (FMF), Security Forces guarding high-risk naval installations, and Security Guard detachments at American embassies. United States Marine Corps_sentence_217

Under the "Forces for Unified Commands" memo, in accordance with the Unified Command Plan approved by the President, Marine Corps Forces are assigned to each of the Combatant Commands at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense. United States Marine Corps_sentence_218

Since 1991, the Marine Corps has maintained component headquarters at each of the regional unified combatant commands. United States Marine Corps_sentence_219

Marine Corps Forces are divided into Forces Command (MARFORCOM) and Pacific Command (MARFORPAC), each headed by a lieutenant general dual-posted as the commanding general of either FMF Atlantic (FMFLANT) or FMF Pacific (FMFPAC), respectively. United States Marine Corps_sentence_220

MARFORCOM/FMFLANT has operational control of the II Marine Expeditionary Force; MARFORPAC/FMFPAC has operational control of the I Marine Expeditionary Force and III Marine Expeditionary Force. United States Marine Corps_sentence_221

Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) United States Marine Corps_section_20

Main article: Marine Air-Ground Task Force United States Marine Corps_sentence_222

The basic framework for deployable Marine units is the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF), a flexible structure of varying size. United States Marine Corps_sentence_223

A MAGTF integrates a ground combat element (GCE), an aviation combat element (ACE), and a logistics combat element (LCE) under a common command element (CE), capable of operating independently or as part of a larger coalition. United States Marine Corps_sentence_224

The MAGTF structure reflects a strong preference in the Corps towards self-sufficiency and a commitment to combined arms, both essential assets to an expeditionary force. United States Marine Corps_sentence_225

The Marine Corps has a wariness and distrust of reliance on its sister services, and towards joint operations in general. United States Marine Corps_sentence_226

Supporting Establishment United States Marine Corps_section_21

The Supporting Establishment includes the Combat Development Command, the Logistics Command, the Systems Command, the Recruiting Command, the Installations Command, the Marine Band, and the Marine Drum and Bugle Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_227

Marine Corps bases and stations United States Marine Corps_section_22

Main article: List of United States Marine Corps installations United States Marine Corps_sentence_228

The Marine Corps operates many major bases, 14 of which host operating forces, several support and training installations, as well as satellite facilities. United States Marine Corps_sentence_229

Marine Corps bases are concentrated around the locations of the Marine Expeditionary Forces, though reserve units are scattered throughout the United States. United States Marine Corps_sentence_230

The principal bases are Camp Pendleton on the West Coast, home to I MEF; Camp Lejeune on the East Coast, home to II MEF; and Camp Butler in Okinawa, Japan, home to III MEF. United States Marine Corps_sentence_231

Other important bases include air stations, recruit depots, logistics bases, and training commands. United States Marine Corps_sentence_232

Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms in California is the Marine Corps's largest base and home to the Corps's most complex, combined-arms, live-fire training. United States Marine Corps_sentence_233

Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia is home to Marine Corps Combat Development Command, and nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Marine Corps". United States Marine Corps_sentence_234

The Marine Corps maintains a significant presence in the National Capital Region, with Headquarters Marine Corps scattered amongst the Pentagon, Henderson Hall, Washington Navy Yard, and Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. Additionally, Marines operate detachments at many installations owned by other branches, to better share resources, such as specialty schools. United States Marine Corps_sentence_235

Marines are also present at and operate many forward bases during expeditionary operations. United States Marine Corps_sentence_236

Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES/USMCR) United States Marine Corps_section_23

Marine Forces Reserve consists of the Force Headquarters Group, 4th Marine Division, 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, and the 4th Marine Logistics Group. United States Marine Corps_sentence_237

The MARFORRES/USMCR is capable of forming a 4th Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) or reinforcing/augmenting active-duty forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_238

Special Operations United States Marine Corps_section_24

Main article: United States Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command United States Marine Corps_sentence_239

See also: Marine Raider Regiment and United States Marine Corps Special Operations Capable Forces United States Marine Corps_sentence_240

Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC) includes the Marine Raider Regiment, the Marine Raider Support Group, and the Marine Raider Training Center. United States Marine Corps_sentence_241

Both the Raider Regiment and the Raider Support Group consist of a headquarters company and three operations battalions. United States Marine Corps_sentence_242

MRTC conducts screening, assessment, selection, training and development functions for MARSOC units. United States Marine Corps_sentence_243

Marine Corps Special Operations Capable forces include: Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Companies, the Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, the Marine Division Reconnaissance Battalions, Force Reconnaissance Companies, Maritime Special Purpose Force, and Special Reaction Teams. United States Marine Corps_sentence_244

Additionally, all deployed Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) are certified as "Special Operations Capable", viz. "MEU(SOC)", however Special Operations Capable forces are not considered to be special operations forces. United States Marine Corps_sentence_245

Although the notion of a Marine special operations forces contribution to the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) was considered as early as the founding of USSOCOM in the 1980s, it was resisted by the Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps_sentence_246

Then-Commandant Paul X. Kelley expressed the belief that Marines should only support Marines, and that the Corps should not fund a special operations capability that would not directly support Marine operations. United States Marine Corps_sentence_247

However, much of the resistance from within the Corps dissipated when Marine leaders watched the Corps's 15th and 26th MEU(SOC)s "sit on the sidelines" during the very early stages of Operation Enduring Freedom while other conventional units and special operations units from the Army, Navy, and Air Force actively engaged in operations in Afghanistan. United States Marine Corps_sentence_248

After a three-year development period, the Corps agreed in 2006 to supply a 2,500-strong unit, Marine Forces Special Operations Command, which would answer directly to USSOCOM. United States Marine Corps_sentence_249

Personnel United States Marine Corps_section_25

See also: List of notable United States Marines and List of historically notable United States Marines United States Marine Corps_sentence_250

Leadership United States Marine Corps_section_26

The Commandant of the Marine Corps is the highest-ranking officer of the Marine Corps, unless a Marine is either the chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. United States Marine Corps_sentence_251

The Commandant has the U.S. United States Marine Corps_sentence_252 Code Title 10 responsibility to staff, train, and equip the Marine Corps and has no command authority. United States Marine Corps_sentence_253

The Commandant is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. United States Marine Corps_sentence_254

The Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps acts as the chief deputy to the Commandant. United States Marine Corps_sentence_255

The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is the senior enlisted Marine and acts as an adviser to the Commandant. United States Marine Corps_sentence_256

Headquarters Marine Corps comprises the rest of the Commandant's counsel and staff, with deputy Commandants that oversee various aspects of the Corps assets and capabilities. United States Marine Corps_sentence_257

The current and 38th Commandant is David Berger, who assumed the position on 11 July 2019. United States Marine Corps_sentence_258

The 35th and current Assistant Commandant is Gary L. Thomas, while the 19th and current Sergeant Major is Troy E. Black United States Marine Corps_sentence_259

Women United States Marine Corps_section_27

Main article: Women in the United States Marines United States Marine Corps_sentence_260

Women have served in the United States Marine Corps since 1918. United States Marine Corps_sentence_261

The first woman to have enlisted was Opha May Johnson (1878–1955). United States Marine Corps_sentence_262

In January 2017, three women joined an infantry battalion at Camp Lejeune, NC. United States Marine Corps_sentence_263

Women had not served as infantry Marines prior to this. United States Marine Corps_sentence_264

In 2017, the Marines released a recruitment advertisement that focused on women for the first time. United States Marine Corps_sentence_265

As of October 2019, female Marines make up 7.8% of the force. United States Marine Corps_sentence_266

In December 2020, the Marine Corps began a trial program to have females integrated into the training companies at their recruit depot on the west coast in San Diego, California, as Congress has mandated an end to the male-only program there. United States Marine Corps_sentence_267

For the 60 female recruits, scheduled to begin training in San Diego in February 2021, the Corps will transfer female drill instructors from their recruit depot on east coast on Parris Island, South Carolina, which already has a coed program. United States Marine Corps_sentence_268

Rank structure United States Marine Corps_section_28

Main article: United States Marine Corps rank insignia United States Marine Corps_sentence_269

As in the rest of the United States Armed Forces (excluding the Air Force and Space Force, which does not currently appoint warrant officers), Marine Corps ranks fall into one of three categories: commissioned officer, warrant officer, and enlisted, in decreasing order of authority. United States Marine Corps_sentence_270

To standardize compensation, each rank is assigned a pay grade. United States Marine Corps_sentence_271

Commissioned officers United States Marine Corps_section_29

Commissioned officers are distinguished from other officers by their commission, which is the formal written authority, issued in the name of the President of the United States, that confers the rank and authority of a Marine officer. United States Marine Corps_sentence_272

Commissioned officers carry the "special trust and confidence" of the President of the United States. United States Marine Corps_sentence_273

Marine Corps commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system in accordance with the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. United States Marine Corps_sentence_274

Warrant officers United States Marine Corps_section_30

See also: Warrant officer (United States) United States Marine Corps_sentence_275

Warrant officers are primarily former enlisted experts in a specific specialized field and provide leadership generally only within that speciality. United States Marine Corps_sentence_276

Enlisted United States Marine Corps_section_31

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States Marine Corps.