United States Navy

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"USN" redirects here. United States Navy_sentence_0

For other uses, see USN (disambiguation). United States Navy_sentence_1

United States Navy_table_infobox_0

United States NavyUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_0_0
FoundedUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_1_0 13 October 1775 (1775-10-13)

(245 years, 2 months)United States Navy_cell_0_1_1

CountryUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_2_0 United StatesUnited States Navy_cell_0_2_1
TypeUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_3_0 NavyUnited States Navy_cell_0_3_1
RoleUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_4_0 United States Navy_cell_0_4_1
SizeUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_5_0 336,978 active duty personnel

279,471 civilian employees 101,583 ready reserve personnel 290 deployable ships (as of 2019) of 480 total ships 3,900+ Dept. of Navy manned aircraft combined (U.S. Navy operates 2,623 manned aircraft and the U.S. Marine Corps operates 1,304 manned aircraft)United States Navy_cell_0_5_1

Part ofUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_6_0 Department of the NavyUnited States Navy_cell_0_6_1
HeadquartersUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_7_0 The Pentagon

Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.United States Navy_cell_0_7_1

Motto(s)United States Navy_header_cell_0_8_0 "Semper Fortis" (English: "Always Courageous"), (official)

"Non sibi sed patriae" (English: "Not for self but for country") (unofficial)United States Navy_cell_0_8_1

ColorsUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_9_0 Blue and goldUnited States Navy_cell_0_9_1
MarchUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_10_0 "Anchors Aweigh" Play (help·)United States Navy_cell_0_10_1
AnniversariesUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_11_0 13 OctoberUnited States Navy_cell_0_11_1
EquipmentUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_12_0 List of U.S. Navy equipmentUnited States Navy_cell_0_12_1
EngagementsUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_13_0 See listUnited States Navy_cell_0_13_1
DecorationsUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_14_0 Presidential Unit Citation

Navy Unit Commendation

Meritorious Unit CommendationUnited States Navy_cell_0_14_1

WebsiteUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_15_0 United States Navy_cell_0_15_1
CommandersUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_16_0
Commander-in-ChiefUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_17_0 President Donald TrumpUnited States Navy_cell_0_17_1
Secretary of DefenseUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_18_0 Christopher C. Miller (acting)United States Navy_cell_0_18_1
Secretary of the NavyUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_19_0 Kenneth BraithwaiteUnited States Navy_cell_0_19_1
Chief of Naval OperationsUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_20_0 ADM Michael M. GildayUnited States Navy_cell_0_20_1
Vice Chief of Naval OperationsUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_21_0 ADM William K. LescherUnited States Navy_cell_0_21_1
Master Chief Petty Officer of the NavyUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_22_0 MCPON Russell L. SmithUnited States Navy_cell_0_22_1
InsigniaUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_23_0
FlagUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_24_0 United States Navy_cell_0_24_1
JackUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_25_0 United States Navy_cell_0_25_1
PennantUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_26_0 United States Navy_cell_0_26_1
Anchor, Constitution, and EagleUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_27_0 United States Navy_cell_0_27_1
LogoUnited States Navy_header_cell_0_28_0 United States Navy_cell_0_28_1

The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. United States Navy_sentence_2

It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. United States Navy_sentence_3

It has the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction, and five other carriers planned. United States Navy_sentence_4

With 336,978 personnel on active duty and 101,583 in the Ready Reserve, the U.S. Navy is the third largest of the U.S. military service branches in terms of personnel. United States Navy_sentence_5

It has 290 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of June 2019. United States Navy_sentence_6

The U.S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. United States Navy_sentence_7

After suffering significant loss of goods and personnel at the hands of the Barbary pirates from Algiers, the U.S. Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 for the construction of six heavy frigates, the first ships of the U.S. Navy. United States Navy_sentence_8

The U.S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers. United States Navy_sentence_9

It played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. United States Navy_sentence_10

The U.S. Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world. United States Navy_sentence_11

The 21st century U.S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. United States Navy_sentence_12

It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U.S. foreign and military policy. United States Navy_sentence_13

The U.S. Navy is part of the Department of the Navy, alongside the U.S. Marine Corps, which is its coequal sister service. United States Navy_sentence_14

The Department of the Navy is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_15

The Department of the Navy is itself a military department of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. United States Navy_sentence_16

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior Navy officer serving in the Department of the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_17

Mission United States Navy_section_0

The U.S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. United States Navy_sentence_18

The Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: United States Navy_sentence_19

United States Navy_unordered_list_0

  • The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war.United States Navy_item_0_0
  • The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, and all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy.United States Navy_item_0_1
  • The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and equipment of naval combat and service elements.United States Navy_item_0_2

U.S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U.S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." United States Navy_sentence_20

The Navy's five enduring functions are sea control, power projection, deterrence, maritime security, and sealift. United States Navy_sentence_21

History United States Navy_section_1

Main article: History of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_22

Origins United States Navy_section_2

The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. United States Navy_sentence_23

In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia. United States Navy_sentence_24

The rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. United States Navy_sentence_25

Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, and make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. United States Navy_sentence_26

Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. United States Navy_sentence_27

Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchantmen and reported the captures to the Congress. United States Navy_sentence_28

On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchantmen; this resolution created the Continental Navy and is considered the first establishment of the U.S. Navy. United States Navy_sentence_29

The Continental Navy achieved mixed results; it was successful in a number of engagements and raided many British merchant vessels, but it lost twenty-four of its vessels and at one point was reduced to two in active service. United States Navy_sentence_30

In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. United States Navy_sentence_31

In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775. United States Navy_sentence_32

From re-establishment to the Civil War United States Navy_section_3

See also: Union Navy United States Navy_sentence_33

The United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U.S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. United States Navy_sentence_34

The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U.S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U.S. United States Navy_sentence_35 Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U.S. United States Navy_sentence_36 Coast Guard. United States Navy_sentence_37

Although the USRCS (United States Revenue Cutter Service) conducted operations against the pirates, the pirates' depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794. United States Navy_sentence_38

The Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, and USS Constitution. United States Navy_sentence_39

Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". United States Navy_sentence_40

In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. United States Navy_sentence_41

From 1801 to 1805, in the First Barbary War, the U.S. Navy defended U.S. ships from the Barbary pirates, blockaded the Barbary ports and executed attacks against the Barbary' fleets. United States Navy_sentence_42

The U.S. Navy saw substantial action in the War of 1812, where it was victorious in eleven single-ship duels with the Royal Navy. United States Navy_sentence_43

It proved victorious in the Battle of Lake Erie and prevented the region from becoming a threat to American operations in the area. United States Navy_sentence_44

The result was a major victory for the U.S. Army at the Niagara Frontier of the war, and the defeat of the Native American allies of the British at the Battle of the Thames. United States Navy_sentence_45

Despite this, the U.S. Navy was unable to prevent the British from blockading its ports and landing troops. United States Navy_sentence_46

But after the War of 1812 ended in 1815, the U.S. Navy primarily focused its attention on protecting American shipping assets, sending squadrons to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, where it participated in the Second Barbary War that ended piracy in the region, South America, Africa, and the Pacific. United States Navy_sentence_47

From 1819 to the outbreak of the Civil War, the Africa Squadron operated to suppress the slave trade, seizing 36 slave ships, although its contribution was smaller than that of the much larger British Royal Navy. United States Navy_sentence_48

During the Mexican–American War the U.S. Navy blockaded Mexican ports, capturing or burning the Mexican fleet in the Gulf of California and capturing all major cities in Baja California peninsula. United States Navy_sentence_49

In 1846–1848 the Navy successfully used the Pacific Squadron under Commodore Robert Stockton and its marines and blue-jackets to facilitate the capture of California with large-scale land operations coordinated with the local militia organized in the California Battalion. United States Navy_sentence_50

The Navy conducted the U.S. military's first large-scale amphibious joint operation by successfully landing 12,000 army troops with their equipment in one day at Veracruz, Mexico. United States Navy_sentence_51

When larger guns were needed to bombard Veracruz, Navy volunteers landed large guns and manned them in the successful bombardment and capture of the city. United States Navy_sentence_52

This successful landing and capture of Veracruz opened the way for the capture of Mexico City and the end of the war. United States Navy_sentence_53

The U.S. Navy established itself as a player in United States foreign policy through the actions of Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, which resulted in the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. United States Navy_sentence_54

Naval power played a significant role during the American Civil War, in which the Union had a distinct advantage over the Confederacy on the seas. United States Navy_sentence_55

A Union blockade on all major ports shut down exports and the coastal trade, but blockade runners provided a thin lifeline. United States Navy_sentence_56

The Brown-water navy components of the U.S. navy control of the river systems made internal travel difficult for Confederates and easy for the Union. United States Navy_sentence_57

The war saw ironclad warships in combat for the first time at the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, which pitted USS Monitor against CSS Virginia. United States Navy_sentence_58

For two decades after the war, however, the U.S. Navy's fleet was neglected and became technologically obsolete. United States Navy_sentence_59

20th century United States Navy_section_4

A modernization program beginning in the 1880s when the first steel-hulled warships stimulated the American steel industry, and "the new steel navy" was born. United States Navy_sentence_60

This rapid expansion of the U.S. Navy and its easy victory over the Spanish Navy in 1898 brought a new respect for American technical quality. United States Navy_sentence_61

Rapid building of at first pre-dreadnoughts, then dreadnoughts brought the U.S. in line with the navies of countries such as Britain and Germany. United States Navy_sentence_62

In 1907, most of the Navy's battleships, with several support vessels, dubbed the Great White Fleet, were showcased in a 14-month circumnavigation of the world. United States Navy_sentence_63

Ordered by President Theodore Roosevelt, it was a mission designed to demonstrate the Navy's capability to extend to the global theater. United States Navy_sentence_64

By 1911, the U.S. had begun building the super-dreadnoughts at a pace to eventually become competitive with Britain. United States Navy_sentence_65

The 1911 also saw the first naval aircraft with the navy which would lead to the informal establishment of United States Naval Flying Corps to protect shore bases. United States Navy_sentence_66

It was not until 1921 US naval aviation truly commenced. United States Navy_sentence_67

World War I and interwar years United States Navy_section_5

During World War I, the U.S. Navy spent much of its resources protecting and shipping hundreds of thousands of Soldiers and Marines of the American Expeditionary Force and war supplies across the Atlantic in U-boat infested waters with the Cruiser and Transport Force. United States Navy_sentence_68

It also concentrated on laying the North Sea Mine Barrage. United States Navy_sentence_69

Hesitation by the senior command meant that naval forces were not contributed until late 1917. United States Navy_sentence_70

Battleship Division Nine was dispatched to Britain and served as the Sixth Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet. United States Navy_sentence_71

Its presence allowed the British to decommission some older ships and reuse the crews on smaller vessels. United States Navy_sentence_72

Destroyers and U.S. United States Navy_sentence_73

Naval Air Force units like the Northern Bombing Group contributed to the anti-submarine operations. United States Navy_sentence_74

The strength of the United States Navy grew under an ambitious ship building program associated with the Naval Act of 1916. United States Navy_sentence_75

Naval construction, especially of battleships, was limited by the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22. United States Navy_sentence_76

The aircraft carriers USS Saratoga (CV-3) and USS Lexington (CV-2) were built on the hulls of partially built battle cruisers that had been canceled by the treaty. United States Navy_sentence_77

The New Deal used Public Works Administration funds to build warships, such as USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6). United States Navy_sentence_78

By 1936, with the completion of USS Wasp (CV-7), the U.S. Navy possessed a carrier fleet of 165,000 tonnes displacement, although this figure was nominally recorded as 135,000 tonnes to comply with treaty limitations. United States Navy_sentence_79

Franklin Roosevelt, the number two official in the Navy Department during World War I, appreciated the Navy and gave it strong support. United States Navy_sentence_80

In return, senior leaders were eager for innovation and experimented with new technologies, such as magnetic torpedoes, and developed a strategy called War Plan Orange for victory in the Pacific in a hypothetical war with Japan that would eventually become reality. United States Navy_sentence_81

World War II United States Navy_section_6

Main articles: United States Navy in World War II and Naval history of World War II United States Navy_sentence_82

Further information: Pacific Crucible: War at Sea in the Pacific, 1941–1942; The Conquering Tide: War in the Pacific Islands, 1942–1944; and Twilight of the Gods: War in the Western Pacific, 1944-1945 United States Navy_sentence_83

The U.S. Navy grew into a formidable force in the years prior to World War II, with battleship production being restarted in 1937, commencing with USS North Carolina (BB-55). United States Navy_sentence_84

Though ultimately unsuccessful, Japan tried to neutralize this strategic threat with the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. United States Navy_sentence_85

Following American entry into the war, the U.S. Navy grew tremendously as the United States was faced with a two-front war on the seas. United States Navy_sentence_86

It achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific Theater, where it was instrumental to the Allies' successful "island hopping" campaign. United States Navy_sentence_87

The U.S. Navy participated in many significant battles, including the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Solomon Islands Campaign, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. United States Navy_sentence_88

By 1943, the navy's size was larger than the combined fleets of all the other combatant nations in World War II. United States Navy_sentence_89

By war's end in 1945, the U.S. Navy had added hundreds of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, and had over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater. United States Navy_sentence_90

At its peak, the U.S. Navy was operating 6,768 ships on V-J Day in August 1945. United States Navy_sentence_91

Doctrine had significantly shifted by the end of the war. United States Navy_sentence_92

The U.S. Navy had followed in the footsteps of the navies of Great Britain and Germany which favored concentrated groups of battleships as their main offensive naval weapons. United States Navy_sentence_93

The development of the aircraft carrier and its devastating utilization by the Japanese against the U.S. at Pearl Harbor, however, shifted U.S. thinking. United States Navy_sentence_94

The Pearl Harbor attack destroyed or took out of action a significant number of U.S. Navy battleships. United States Navy_sentence_95

This placed much of the burden of retaliating against the Japanese on the small number of aircraft carriers. United States Navy_sentence_96

During World War II some 4,000,000 Americans served in the United States Navy. United States Navy_sentence_97

Cold War United States Navy_section_7

The potential for armed conflict with the Soviet Union during the Cold War pushed the U.S. Navy to continue its technological advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. United States Navy_sentence_98

U.S. naval strategy changed to that of forward deployment in support of U.S. allies with an emphasis on carrier battle groups. United States Navy_sentence_99

The navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War, blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines, became an important aspect of the United States' nuclear strategic deterrence policy. United States Navy_sentence_100

The U.S. Navy conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf against Iran in 1987 and 1988, most notably Operation Praying Mantis. United States Navy_sentence_101

The Navy was extensively involved in Operation Urgent Fury, Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Allied Force, Operation Desert Fox and Operation Southern Watch. United States Navy_sentence_102

The U.S. Navy has also been involved in search and rescue/search and salvage operations, sometimes in conjunction with vessels of other countries as well as with U.S. Coast Guard ships. United States Navy_sentence_103

Two examples are the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash incident and the subsequent search for missing hydrogen bombs, and Task Force 71 of the Seventh Fleet's operation in search for Korean Air Lines Flight 007, shot down by the Soviets on 1 September 1983. United States Navy_sentence_104

21st century United States Navy_section_8

The U.S. Navy continues to be a major support to U.S. interests in the 21st century. United States Navy_sentence_105

Since the end of the Cold War, it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts. United States Navy_sentence_106

The navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and is a major participant in the ongoing War on Terror, largely in this capacity. United States Navy_sentence_107

Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier and the Littoral combat ship. United States Navy_sentence_108

Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from U.S. shores, the current U.S. Navy remains an asset for the United States. United States Navy_sentence_109

Moreover, it is the principal means through which the U.S. maintains international global order, namely by safeguarding global trade and protecting allied nations. United States Navy_sentence_110

In 2007, the U.S. Navy joined with the U.S. United States Navy_sentence_111 Marine Corps and U.S. United States Navy_sentence_112 Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. United States Navy_sentence_113

The strategy was presented by the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and Commandant of the Coast Guard at the International Sea Power Symposium in Newport, RI on 17 October 2007. United States Navy_sentence_114

The strategy recognized the economic links of the global system and how any disruption due to regional crises (man-made or natural) can adversely impact the U.S. economy and quality of life. United States Navy_sentence_115

This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the U.S. United States Navy_sentence_116

In 2010, Admiral Gary Roughead, Chief of Naval Operations, noted that demands on the Navy have grown as the fleet has shrunk and that in the face of declining budgets in the future, the U.S. Navy must rely even more on international partnerships. United States Navy_sentence_117

In its 2013 budget request, the navy focused on retaining all eleven big deck carriers, at the expense of cutting numbers of smaller ships and delaying the SSBN replacement. United States Navy_sentence_118

By the next year the USN found itself unable to maintain eleven aircraft carriers in the face of the expiration of budget relief offered by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 and CNO Jonathan Greenert said that a ten ship carrier fleet would not be able to sustainably support military requirements. United States Navy_sentence_119

The British First Sea Lord George Zambellas said that the USN had switched from "outcome-led to resource-led" planning. United States Navy_sentence_120

One significant change in U.S. policymaking that is having a major effect on naval planning is the Pivot to East Asia. United States Navy_sentence_121

In response, the Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus stated in 2015 that 60 percent of the total U.S. fleet will be deployed to the Pacific by 2020. United States Navy_sentence_122

The Navy's most recent 30-year shipbuilding plan, published in 2016, calls for a future fleet of 350 ships in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive international environment. United States Navy_sentence_123

A provision of the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act called for expanding the naval fleet to 355 ships "as soon as practicable", but did not establish additional funding nor a timeline. United States Navy_sentence_124

Organization United States Navy_section_9

Main article: Structure of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_125

The U.S. Navy falls under the administration of the Department of the Navy, under civilian leadership of the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV). United States Navy_sentence_126

The most senior naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), a four-star admiral who is immediately under and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_127

At the same time, the Chief of Naval Operations is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which is the second-highest deliberative body of the armed forces after the United States National Security Council, although it only plays an advisory role to the President and does not nominally form part of the chain of command. United States Navy_sentence_128

The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Navy so that it is ready for operation under the commanders of the unified combatant commands. United States Navy_sentence_129

Operating forces United States Navy_section_10

Main article: List of units of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_130

There are nine components in the operating forces of the U.S. Navy: the United States Fleet Forces Command (formerly United States Atlantic Fleet), United States Pacific Fleet, United States Naval Forces Central Command, United States Naval Forces Europe, Naval Network Warfare Command, Navy Reserve, United States Naval Special Warfare Command, Operational Test and Evaluation Force, and Military Sealift Command. United States Navy_sentence_131

Fleet Forces Command controls a number of unique capabilities, including Military Sealift Command, Naval Expeditionary Combat Command, and Navy Cyber Forces. United States Navy_sentence_132

The United States Navy has seven active numbered fleets – Second, Third, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh Fleet and Tenth Fleets are each led by a vice admiral, and the Fourth Fleet is led by a rear admiral. United States Navy_sentence_133

These seven fleets are further grouped under Fleet Forces Command (the former Atlantic Fleet), Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces Europe-Africa, and Naval Forces Central Command, whose commander also doubles as Commander Fifth Fleet; the first three commands being led by four-star admirals. United States Navy_sentence_134

The United States First Fleet existed after the Second World War from 1947, but it was redesignated the Third Fleet in early 1973. United States Navy_sentence_135

The United States Second Fleet was deactivated in September 2011 but reestablished in August 2018 amid heightened tensions with Russia. United States Navy_sentence_136

It is headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, with responsibility over the East Coast and North Atlantic. United States Navy_sentence_137

In early 2008, the Navy reactivated the United States Fourth Fleet to control operations in the area controlled by Southern Command, which consists of US assets in and around Central and South America. United States Navy_sentence_138

Other number fleets were activated during World War II and later deactivated, renumbered, or merged. United States Navy_sentence_139

Further information: Structure of the United States Navy § Numbered_fleets United States Navy_sentence_140

Shore establishments United States Navy_section_11

Shore establishments exist to support the mission of the fleet through the use of facilities on land. United States Navy_sentence_141

Among the commands of the shore establishment, as of April 2011, are the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, the Naval Information Warfare Systems Command, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, the Naval Supply Systems Command, the Naval Air Systems Command, the Naval Sea Systems Command, the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, the Bureau of Naval Personnel, the United States Naval Academy, the Naval Safety Center, the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center, and the United States Naval Observatory. United States Navy_sentence_142

Official Navy websites list the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Naval Operations as part of the shore establishment, but these two entities effectively sit superior to the other organizations, playing a coordinating role. United States Navy_sentence_143

Relationships with other service branches United States Navy_section_12

United States Marine Corps United States Navy_section_13

Main article: United States Marine Corps United States Navy_sentence_144

In 1834, the United States Marine Corps came under the Department of the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_145

Historically, the Navy has had a unique relationship with the USMC, partly because they both specialize in seaborne operations. United States Navy_sentence_146

Together the Navy and Marine Corps form the Department of the Navy and report to the Secretary of the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_147

However, the Marine Corps is a distinct, separate service branch with its own uniformed service chief – the Commandant of the Marine Corps, a four-star general. United States Navy_sentence_148

The Marine Corps depends on the Navy for medical support (dentists, doctors, nurses, medical technicians known as corpsmen) and religious support (chaplains). United States Navy_sentence_149

Thus Navy officers and enlisted sailors fulfill these roles. United States Navy_sentence_150

When attached to Marine Corps units deployed to an operational environment they generally wear Marine camouflage uniforms, but otherwise, they wear Navy dress uniforms unless they opt to conform to Marine Corps grooming standards. United States Navy_sentence_151

In the operational environment, as an expeditionary force specializing in amphibious operations, Marines often embark on Navy ships to conduct operations from beyond territorial waters. United States Navy_sentence_152

Marine units deploying as part of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operate under the command of the existing Marine chain of command. United States Navy_sentence_153

Although Marine units routinely operate from amphibious assault ships, the relationship has evolved over the years much as the Commander of the Carrier Air Group/Wing (CAG) does not work for the carrier commanding officer, but coordinates with the ship's CO and staff. United States Navy_sentence_154

Some Marine aviation squadrons, usually fixed-wing assigned to carrier air wings train and operate alongside Navy squadrons; they fly similar missions and often fly sorties together under the cognizance of the CAG. United States Navy_sentence_155

Aviation is where the Navy and Marines share the most common ground since aircrews are guided in their use of aircraft by standard procedures outlined in a series of publications known as NATOPS manuals. United States Navy_sentence_156

United States Coast Guard United States Navy_section_14

Main article: United States Coast Guard United States Navy_sentence_157

The United States Coast Guard, in its peacetime role with the Department of Homeland Security, fulfills its law enforcement and rescue role in the maritime environment. United States Navy_sentence_158

It provides Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) to Navy vessels, where they perform arrests and other law enforcement duties during naval boarding and interdiction missions. United States Navy_sentence_159

In times of war, the Coast Guard operates as a service in the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_160

At other times, Coast Guard Port Security Units are sent overseas to guard the security of ports and other assets. United States Navy_sentence_161

The Coast Guard also jointly staffs the Navy's naval coastal warfare groups and squadrons (the latter of which were known as harbor defense commands until late-2004), which oversee defense efforts in foreign littoral combat and inshore areas. United States Navy_sentence_162

Personnel United States Navy_section_15

Main article: Personnel of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_163

The United States Navy has over 400,000 personnel, approximately a quarter of whom are in ready reserve. United States Navy_sentence_164

Of those on active duty, more than eighty percent are enlisted sailors and around fifteen percent are commissioned officers; the rest are midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy and midshipmen of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps at over 180 universities around the country and officer candidates at the Navy's Officer Candidate School. United States Navy_sentence_165

Enlisted sailors complete basic military training at boot camp and then are sent to complete training for their individual careers. United States Navy_sentence_166

Sailors prove they have mastered skills and deserve responsibilities by completing Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) tasks and examinations. United States Navy_sentence_167

Among the most important is the "warfare qualification", which denotes a journeyman level of capability in Surface Warfare, Aviation Warfare, Information Dominance Warfare, Naval Aircrew, Special Warfare, Seabee Warfare, Submarine Warfare or Expeditionary Warfare. United States Navy_sentence_168

Many qualifications are denoted on a sailor's uniform with U.S. United States Navy_sentence_169 Navy badges and insignia. United States Navy_sentence_170

Uniforms United States Navy_section_16

See also: Uniforms of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_171

The uniforms of the U.S. Navy have evolved gradually since the first uniform regulations for officers were issued in 1802 on the formation of the Navy Department. United States Navy_sentence_172

The predominant colors of U.S. Navy uniforms are navy blue and white. United States Navy_sentence_173

U.S. Navy uniforms were based on Royal Navy uniforms of the time, and have tended to follow that template. United States Navy_sentence_174

Commissioned officers United States Navy_section_17

See also: United States Navy officer rank insignia and Ranks and insignia of NATO navies officers United States Navy_sentence_175

The commissioned officer ranks of the U.S. Navy are divided into three categories: junior officers, senior officers, and flag officers. United States Navy_sentence_176

Junior officers are those officers in pay grades O-1 to O-4, while senior officers are those in pay grades O-5 and O-6, and flag officers are those in pay grades of O-7 and above. United States Navy_sentence_177

Navy officers serve either as a line officer or as a staff corps officer. United States Navy_sentence_178

Line officers wear an embroidered gold star above their rank of the naval service dress uniform while staff corps officers and commissioned warrant officers wear unique specialty devices. United States Navy_sentence_179

Warrant officers United States Navy_section_18

Main article: Warrant officer (United States) United States Navy_sentence_180

Warrant and chief warrant officer ranks are held by technical specialists who direct specific activities essential to the proper operation of the ship, which also require commissioned officer authority. United States Navy_sentence_181

Navy warrant officers serve in 30 specialties covering five categories. United States Navy_sentence_182

Warrant officers should not be confused with the limited duty officer (LDO) in the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_183

Warrant officers perform duties that are directly related to their previous enlisted service and specialized training. United States Navy_sentence_184

This allows the Navy to capitalize on the experience of warrant officers without having to frequently transition them to other duty assignments for advancement. United States Navy_sentence_185

Most Navy warrant officers are accessed from the chief petty officer pay grades, E-7 through E-9, analogous to a senior non-commissioned officers in the other services, and must have a minimum 14 years time in service. United States Navy_sentence_186

Enlisted United States Navy_section_19

See also: List of United States Navy enlisted rates, Ranks and insignia of NATO navies enlisted, and List of United States Navy ratings United States Navy_sentence_187

Sailors in pay grades E-1 through E-3 are considered to be in apprenticeships. United States Navy_sentence_188

They are divided into five definable groups, with colored group rate marks designating the group to which they belong: Seaman, Fireman, Airman, Constructionman, and Hospitalman. United States Navy_sentence_189

E-4 to E-6 are non-commissioned officers (NCOs), and are specifically called Petty officers in the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_190

Petty Officers perform not only the duties of their specific career field but also serve as leaders to junior enlisted personnel. United States Navy_sentence_191

E-7 to E-9 are still considered Petty Officers, but are considered a separate community within the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_192

They have separate berthing and dining facilities (where feasible), wear separate uniforms, and perform separate duties. United States Navy_sentence_193

After attaining the rate of Master Chief Petty Officer, a service member may choose to further their career by becoming a Command Master Chief Petty Officer (CMC). United States Navy_sentence_194

A CMC is considered to be the senior-most enlisted service member within a command, and is the special assistant to the Commanding Officer in all matters pertaining to the health, welfare, job satisfaction, morale, utilization, advancement and training of the command's enlisted personnel. United States Navy_sentence_195

CMCs can be Command level (within a single unit, such as a ship or shore station), Fleet level (squadrons consisting of multiple operational units, headed by a flag officer or commodore), or Force level (consisting of a separate community within the Navy, such as Subsurface, Air, Reserves). United States Navy_sentence_196

CMC insignia are similar to the insignia for Master Chief, except that the rating symbol is replaced by an inverted five-point star, reflecting a change in their rating from their previous rating (i.e., MMCM) to CMDCM. United States Navy_sentence_197

The stars for Command Master Chief are silver, while stars for Fleet or Force Master Chief are gold. United States Navy_sentence_198

Additionally, CMCs wear a badge, worn on their left breast pocket, denoting their title (Command/Fleet/Force). United States Navy_sentence_199

Badges of the United States Navy United States Navy_section_20

See also: Badges of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_200

Insignia and badges of the United States Navy are military "badges" issued by the United States Department of the Navy to naval service members who achieve certain qualifications and accomplishments while serving on both active and reserve duty in the United States Navy. United States Navy_sentence_201

Most naval aviation insignia are also permitted for wear on uniforms of the United States Marine Corps. United States Navy_sentence_202

As described in Chapter 5 of U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations, "badges" are categorized as breast insignia (usually worn immediately above and below ribbons) and identification badges (usually worn at breast pocket level). United States Navy_sentence_203

Breast insignia are further divided between command and warfare and other qualification. United States Navy_sentence_204

Insignia come in the form of metal "pin-on devices" worn on formal uniforms and embroidered "tape strips" worn on work uniforms. United States Navy_sentence_205

For the purpose of this article, the general term "insignia" shall be used to describe both, as it is done in Navy Uniform Regulations. United States Navy_sentence_206

The term "badge", although used ambiguously in other military branches and in informal speak to describe any pin, patch, or tab, is exclusive to identification badges and authorized marksmanship awards according to the language in Navy Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5. United States Navy_sentence_207

Below are just a few of the many badges maintained by the Navy. United States Navy_sentence_208

The rest can be seen in the article cited at the top of this section: United States Navy_sentence_209

United States Navy_unordered_list_1

  • United States Navy_item_1_3
  • United States Navy_item_1_4
  • United States Navy_item_1_5

Bases United States Navy_section_21

Main article: List of United States Navy installations United States Navy_sentence_210

The size, complexity, and international presence of the United States Navy requires a large number of navy installations to support its operations. United States Navy_sentence_211

While the majority of bases are located inside the United States itself, the Navy maintains a significant number of facilities abroad, either in U.S.-controlled territories or in foreign countries under a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA). United States Navy_sentence_212

Eastern United States United States Navy_section_22

The second largest concentration of installations is at Hampton Roads, Virginia, where the navy occupies over 36,000 acres (15,000 ha) of land. United States Navy_sentence_213

Located at Hampton Roads are Naval Station Norfolk, homeport of the Atlantic Fleet; Naval Air Station Oceana, a Master Jet Base; Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek; and Training Support Center Hampton Roads as well as a number of Navy and commercial shipyards that service navy vessels. United States Navy_sentence_214

The Aegis Training and Readiness Center is located at the Naval Support Activity South Potomac in Dahlgren, Virginia. United States Navy_sentence_215

Maryland is home to NAS Patuxent River, which houses the Navy's Test Pilot School. United States Navy_sentence_216

Also located in Maryland is the United States Naval Academy, situated in Annapolis. United States Navy_sentence_217

NS Newport in Newport, Rhode Island is home to many schools and tenant commands, including the Officer Candidate School, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and more, and also maintains inactive ships. United States Navy_sentence_218

There is also a naval base in Charleston, South Carolina. United States Navy_sentence_219

This is home to the Nuclear A-School, and the Nuclear Field Power school, and one of two nuclear 'Prototype' Schools. United States Navy_sentence_220

The state of Florida is the location of three major bases, NS Mayport, the Navy's fourth largest, in Jacksonville, Florida; NAS Jacksonville, a Master Air Anti-submarine Warfare base; and NAS Pensacola; home of the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Air Technical Training Center that provides specialty training for enlisted aviation personnel and is the primary flight training base for Navy and Marine Corps Naval Flight Officers and enlisted Naval Aircrewman. United States Navy_sentence_221

There is also NSA Panama City, Florida which is home to the Navy Diving and Salvage Training Center. United States Navy_sentence_222

The main U.S. Navy submarine bases on the east coast are located in Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut and NSB Kings Bay in Kings Bay, Georgia. United States Navy_sentence_223

The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard near Portsmouth, New Hampshire, which repairs naval submarines. United States Navy_sentence_224

NS Great Lakes, north of Chicago, Illinois is the home of the Navy's boot camp for enlisted sailors. United States Navy_sentence_225

The Washington Navy Yard in Washington, DC is the Navy's oldest shore establishment and serves as a ceremonial and administrative center for the U.S. Navy, home to the Chief of Naval Operations, and is headquarters for numerous commands. United States Navy_sentence_226

Western United States and Hawaii United States Navy_section_23

The navy's largest complex is Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California, which covers 1.1 million acres (4,500 km) of land, or approximately 1/3 of the U.S. Navy's total land holdings. United States Navy_sentence_227

Naval Base San Diego, California is the main homeport of the Pacific Fleet, although its headquarters is located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. United States Navy_sentence_228

NAS North Island is located on the north side of Coronado, California, and is home to Headquarters for Naval Air Forces and Naval Air Force Pacific, the bulk of the Pacific Fleet's helicopter squadrons, and part of the West Coast aircraft carrier fleet. United States Navy_sentence_229

NAB Coronado is located on the southern end of the Coronado Island and is home to the navy's west coast SEAL teams and special boat units. United States Navy_sentence_230

NAB Coronado is also home to the Naval Special Warfare Center, the primary training center for SEALs. United States Navy_sentence_231

The other major collection of naval bases on the west coast is in Puget Sound, Washington. United States Navy_sentence_232

Among them, NS Everett is one of the newer bases and the navy states that it is its most modern facility. United States Navy_sentence_233

NAS Fallon, Nevada serves as the primary training ground for navy strike aircrews, and is home to the Naval Strike Air Warfare Center. United States Navy_sentence_234

Master Jet Bases are also located at NAS Lemoore, California, and NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, while the carrier-based airborne early warning aircraft community and major air test activities are located at NAS Point Mugu, California. United States Navy_sentence_235

The naval presence in Hawaii is centered on NS Pearl Harbor, which hosts the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet and many of its subordinate commands. United States Navy_sentence_236

United States territories United States Navy_section_24

Guam, an island strategically located in the Western Pacific Ocean, maintains a sizable U.S. Navy presence, including NB Guam. United States Navy_sentence_237

The westernmost U.S. territory, it contains a natural deep water harbor capable of harboring aircraft carriers in emergencies. United States Navy_sentence_238

Its naval air station was deactivated in 1995 and its flight activities transferred to nearby Andersen Air Force Base. United States Navy_sentence_239

Puerto Rico in the Caribbean formerly housed NS Roosevelt Roads, which was shut down in 2004 shortly after the controversial closure of the live ordnance training area on nearby Vieques Island. United States Navy_sentence_240

Foreign countries United States Navy_section_25

The largest overseas base is the United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, which serves as the home port for the navy's largest forward-deployed fleet and is a significant base of operations in the Western Pacific. United States Navy_sentence_241

European operations revolve around facilities in Italy (NAS Sigonella and Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station Naples) with NSA Naples as the homeport for the Sixth Fleet and Command Naval Region Europe, Africa, Southwest Asia (CNREURAFSWA), and additional facilities in nearby Gaeta. United States Navy_sentence_242

There is also NS Rota in Spain and NSA Souda Bay in Greece. United States Navy_sentence_243

In the Middle East, naval facilities are located almost exclusively in countries bordering the Persian Gulf, with NSA Bahrain serving as the headquarters of U.S. United States Navy_sentence_244 Naval Forces Central Command and U.S. United States Navy_sentence_245 Fifth Fleet. United States Navy_sentence_246

NS Guantanamo Bay in Cuba is the oldest overseas facility and has become known in recent years as the location of a detention camp for suspected al-Qaeda operatives. United States Navy_sentence_247

Equipment United States Navy_section_26

Main article: Equipment of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_248

As of 2018, the navy operates over 460 ships, including vessels operated by the Military Sealift Command (MSC) crewed by a combination of civilian contractors and a small number of uniformed Naval personnel, 3,650+ aircraft, 50,000 non-combat vehicles and owns 75,200 buildings on 3,300,000 acres (13,000 km). United States Navy_sentence_249

Ships United States Navy_section_27

Main article: United States Navy ships United States Navy_sentence_250

See also: List of current ships of the United States Navy, List of currently active United States military watercraft, and United States ship naming conventions United States Navy_sentence_251

The names of commissioned ships of the U.S. Navy are prefixed with the letters "USS", designating "United States Ship". United States Navy_sentence_252

Non-commissioned, civilian-manned vessels of the navy have names that begin with "USNS", standing for "United States Naval Ship" The names of ships are officially selected by the secretary of the navy, often to honor important people or places. United States Navy_sentence_253

Additionally, each ship is given a letter-based hull classification symbol (for example, CVN or DDG) to indicate the vessel's type and number. United States Navy_sentence_254

All ships in the navy inventory are placed in the Naval Vessel Register, which is part of "the Navy List" (required by article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea). United States Navy_sentence_255

The register tracks data such as the current status of a ship, the date of its commissioning, and the date of its decommissioning. United States Navy_sentence_256

Vessels that are removed from the register prior to disposal are said to be stricken from the register. United States Navy_sentence_257

The navy also maintains a reserve fleet of inactive vessels that are maintained for reactivation in times of need. United States Navy_sentence_258

The U.S. Navy was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels; today, nuclear energy powers all active U.S. aircraft carriers and submarines. United States Navy_sentence_259

In the case of the Nimitz-class carrier, two naval reactors give the ship almost unlimited range and provide enough electrical energy to power a city of 100,000 people. United States Navy_sentence_260

The U.S. Navy previously operated nuclear-powered cruisers, but all have been decommissioned. United States Navy_sentence_261

The U.S. Navy had identified a need for 313 combat ships in early 2010s, but under its plans at the time could only afford 232 to 243. United States Navy_sentence_262

In March 2014, the Navy started counting self-deployable support ships such as minesweepers, surveillance craft, and tugs in the "battle fleet" in order to reach a count of 272 as of October 2016, and it includes ships that have been put in "shrink wrap". United States Navy_sentence_263

Aircraft carriers United States Navy_section_28

Main article: List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_264

An aircraft carrier is typically deployed along with a host of additional vessels, forming a carrier strike group. United States Navy_sentence_265

The supporting ships, which usually include three or four Aegis-equipped cruisers and destroyers, a frigate, and two attack submarines, are tasked with protecting the carrier from air, missile, sea, and undersea threats as well as providing additional strike capabilities themselves. United States Navy_sentence_266

Ready logistics support for the group is provided by a combined ammunition, oiler, and supply ship. United States Navy_sentence_267

Modern carriers are named after American admirals and politicians, usually presidents. United States Navy_sentence_268

The Navy has a statutory requirement for a minimum of 11 aircraft carriers. United States Navy_sentence_269

Currently there are 10 that are deployable and one, USS Gerald R. Ford, that is currently undergoing extensive systems and technologies testing until around 2021. United States Navy_sentence_270

Amphibious warfare vessels United States Navy_section_29

Main article: List of United States Navy amphibious warfare ships United States Navy_sentence_271

Amphibious assault ships are the centerpieces of US amphibious warfare and fulfill the same power projection role as aircraft carriers except that their striking force centers on land forces instead of aircraft. United States Navy_sentence_272

They deliver, command, coordinate, and fully support all elements of a 2,200-strong Marine Expeditionary Unit in an amphibious assault using both air and amphibious vehicles. United States Navy_sentence_273

Resembling small aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships are capable of V/STOL, STOVL, VTOL, tiltrotor, and rotary wing aircraft operations. United States Navy_sentence_274

They also contain a well deck to support the use of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) and other amphibious assault watercraft. United States Navy_sentence_275

Recently, amphibious assault ships have begun to be deployed as the core of an expeditionary strike group, which usually consists of an additional amphibious transport dock and dock landing ship for amphibious warfare and an Aegis-equipped cruiser and destroyer, frigate, and attack submarine for group defense. United States Navy_sentence_276

Amphibious assault ships are typically named after World War II aircraft carriers. United States Navy_sentence_277

Amphibious transport docks are warships that embark, transport, and land Marines, supplies, and equipment in a supporting role during amphibious warfare missions. United States Navy_sentence_278

With a landing platform, amphibious transport docks also have the capability to serve as secondary aviation support for an expeditionary group. United States Navy_sentence_279

All amphibious transport docks can operate helicopters, LCACs, and other conventional amphibious vehicles while the newer San Antonio class of ships has been explicitly designed to operate all three elements of the Marines' "mobility triad": Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles (EFVs), the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, and LCACs. United States Navy_sentence_280

Amphibious transport docks are typically named after U.S. cities. United States Navy_sentence_281

The dock landing ship is a medium amphibious transport that is designed specifically to support and operate LCACs, though it is able to operate other amphibious assault vehicles in the United States inventory as well. United States Navy_sentence_282

Dock landing ships are normally deployed as a component of an expeditionary strike group's amphibious assault contingent, operating as a secondary launch platform for LCACs. United States Navy_sentence_283

All dock landing ships are named after cities or important places in U.S. and U.S. United States Navy_sentence_284

Naval history. United States Navy_sentence_285

Cruisers United States Navy_section_30

Main article: List of cruisers of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_286

Cruisers are large surface combat vessels that conduct anti-air/anti-missile warfare, surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, and strike operations independently or as members of a larger task force. United States Navy_sentence_287

Modern guided missile cruisers were developed out of a need to counter the anti-ship missile threat facing the United States Navy. United States Navy_sentence_288

This led to the development of the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar and the Standard missile with the Aegis combat system coordinating the two. United States Navy_sentence_289

Ticonderoga-class cruisers were the first to be equipped with Aegis and were put to use primarily as anti-air and anti-missile defense in a battle force protection role. United States Navy_sentence_290

Later developments of vertical launch systems and the Tomahawk missile gave cruisers additional long-range land and sea strike capability, making them capable of both offensive and defensive battle operations. United States Navy_sentence_291

The Ticonderoga class is the only active class of cruiser. United States Navy_sentence_292

All cruisers in this class are named after battles. United States Navy_sentence_293

Destroyers United States Navy_section_31

Main article: List of destroyers of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_294

Destroyers are multi-mission medium surface ships capable of sustained performance in anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-ship, and offensive strike operations. United States Navy_sentence_295

Like cruisers, guided missile destroyers are primarily focused on surface strikes using Tomahawk missiles and fleet defense through Aegis and the Standard missile. United States Navy_sentence_296

Destroyers additionally specialize in anti-submarine warfare and are equipped with VLA rockets and LAMPS Mk III Sea Hawk helicopters to deal with underwater threats. United States Navy_sentence_297

When deployed with a carrier strike group or expeditionary strike group, destroyers and their fellow Aegis-equipped cruisers are primarily tasked with defending the fleet while providing secondary strike capabilities. United States Navy_sentence_298

With very few exceptions, destroyers are named after U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes. United States Navy_sentence_299

Frigates and Littoral combat ships United States Navy_section_32

Main article: List of frigates of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_300

See also: Littoral combat ship United States Navy_sentence_301

Modern U.S. frigates mainly perform anti-submarine warfare for carrier and expeditionary strike groups and provide armed escort for supply convoys and merchant shipping. United States Navy_sentence_302

They are designed to protect friendly ships against hostile submarines in low to medium threat environments, using torpedoes and LAMPS helicopters. United States Navy_sentence_303

Independently, frigates are able to conduct counterdrug missions and other maritime interception operations. United States Navy_sentence_304

As in the case of destroyers, frigates are named after U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes. United States Navy_sentence_305

As of autumn 2015, the U.S. Navy has retired its most recent class of frigates, and expects that by 2020 the Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) will assume many of the duties the frigate had with the fleet. United States Navy_sentence_306

The LCS is a class of relatively small surface vessels intended for operations in the littoral zone (close to shore). United States Navy_sentence_307

It was "envisioned to be a networked, agile, stealthy surface combatant capable of defeating anti-access and asymmetric threats in the littorals". United States Navy_sentence_308

They have the capabilities of a small assault transport, including a flight deck and hangar for housing two helicopters, a stern ramp for operating small boats, and the cargo volume and payload to deliver a small assault force with fighting vehicles to a roll-on/roll-off port facility. United States Navy_sentence_309

The ship is easy to reconfigure for different roles, including anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, anti-surface warfare, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, homeland defense, maritime intercept, special operations, and logistics, all by swapping mission-specific modules as needed. United States Navy_sentence_310

The LCS program is still relatively new as of 2018 with only ten active ships, but the navy has announced plans for up to 32 ships. United States Navy_sentence_311

(See: List of littoral combat ships) The navy has announced that a further 20 vessels to be built after that will be redesignated as 'frigates'. United States Navy_sentence_312

A special case is the USS Constitution, commissioned in 1797 as one of the original six frigates of the United States Navy, and which remains in commission at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. United States Navy_sentence_313

She serves as a tribute to the heritage of the Navy, and occasionally sails for commemorative events such as Independence Day and various victories during the War of 1812. United States Navy_sentence_314

Constitution is currently the oldest commissioned warship afloat. United States Navy_sentence_315

HMS Victory is older, and in commission, but is in permanent drydock. United States Navy_sentence_316

Mine countermeasures ships United States Navy_section_33

Main article: List of mine warfare vessels of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_317

Mine countermeasures vessels are a combination of minehunters, a naval vessel that actively detects and destroys individual naval mines, and minesweepers, which clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of the mines. United States Navy_sentence_318

The navy has approximately a dozen of these in active service, but the mine countermeasure (MCM) role is also being assumed by the incoming classes of littoral combat ships. United States Navy_sentence_319

MCM vessels have mostly legacy names of previous US Navy ships, especially WWII-era minesweepers. United States Navy_sentence_320

Patrol boats United States Navy_section_34

Main article: List of patrol vessels of the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_321

A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties. United States Navy_sentence_322

There have been many designs for patrol boats, though the navy currently only has a single class. United States Navy_sentence_323

They may be operated by a nation's navy or coast guard, and may be intended for marine ("blue water") or estuarine or river ("brown water") environments. United States Navy_sentence_324

The Navy has approximately a dozen in active service, which are mainly used in the littoral regions of the Persian Gulf, but have also been used for home port patrols and drug interdiction missions. United States Navy_sentence_325

The navy's current class of patrol boats have names based on weather phenomena. United States Navy_sentence_326

Submarines United States Navy_section_35

Main article: Submarines in the United States Navy United States Navy_sentence_327

All current and planned U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear-powered, as only nuclear propulsion allows for the combination of stealth and long duration, high-speed sustained underwater movement that makes modern nuclear submarines so vital to a modern blue-water navy. United States Navy_sentence_328

The U.S. Navy operates three types: ballistic missile submarines, guided missile submarines, and attack submarines. United States Navy_sentence_329

U.S. Navy (nuclear) ballistic missile submarines carry the stealthiest leg of the U.S. strategic triad (the other legs are the land-based U.S. strategic missile force and the air-based U.S. strategic bomber force). United States Navy_sentence_330

These submarines have only one mission: to carry and, if called upon, to launch the Trident nuclear missile. United States Navy_sentence_331

The primary missions of attack and guided missile submarines in the U.S. Navy are peacetime engagement, surveillance and intelligence, special operations, precision strikes, and control of the seas. United States Navy_sentence_332

To these, attack submarines also add the battlegroup operations mission. United States Navy_sentence_333

Attack and guided missile submarines have several tactical missions, including sinking ships and other subs, launching cruise missiles, gathering intelligence, and assisting in special operations. United States Navy_sentence_334

As with other classes of naval vessels, most U.S. submarines (or "boats") are named according to specific conventions. United States Navy_sentence_335

The boats of the current U.S. ballistic missile submarine class, Ohio class, are named after U.S. states. United States Navy_sentence_336

As the four current U.S. guided missile submarines are converted Ohio-class boats, they have retained their U.S. state names. United States Navy_sentence_337

The members of the oldest currently-commissioned attack submarine class, the Los Angeles class, are typically named for cities. United States Navy_sentence_338

The follow-on Seawolf class' three submarines—Seawolf, Connecticut and Jimmy Carter—share no consistent naming scheme. United States Navy_sentence_339

With the current Virginia-class attack submarines, the U.S. Navy has extended the Ohio class' state-based naming scheme to these submarines. United States Navy_sentence_340

Attack submarines prior to the Los Angeles class were named for denizens of the deep, while pre-Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines were named for famous Americans and foreigners with notable connections to the United States. United States Navy_sentence_341

Aircraft United States Navy_section_36

Main articles: List of United States naval aircraft and List of military aircraft of the United States (naval) United States Navy_sentence_342

See also: List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons and List of active United States military aircraft United States Navy_sentence_343

Carrier-based aircraft are able to strike air, sea, and land targets far from a carrier strike group while protecting friendly forces from enemy aircraft, ships, and submarines. United States Navy_sentence_344

In peacetime, aircraft's ability to project the threat of sustained attack from a mobile platform on the seas gives United States leaders significant diplomatic and crisis-management options. United States Navy_sentence_345

Aircraft additionally provide logistics support to maintain the navy's readiness and, through helicopters, supply platforms with which to conduct search and rescue, special operations, anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and anti-surface warfare (ASuW). United States Navy_sentence_346

The U.S. Navy began to research the use of aircraft at sea in the 1910s, with Lieutenant Theodore G. "Spuds" Ellyson becoming the first naval aviator on 28 January 1911, and commissioned its first aircraft carrier, USS Langley (CV-1), in 1922. United States Navy_sentence_347

United States naval aviation fully came of age in World War II, when it became clear following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the Battle of the Coral Sea, and the Battle of Midway that aircraft carriers and the planes that they carried had replaced the battleship as the greatest weapon on the seas. United States Navy_sentence_348

Leading navy aircraft in World War II included the Grumman F4F Wildcat, the Grumman F6F Hellcat, the Chance Vought F4U Corsair, the Douglas SBD Dauntless, and the Grumman TBF Avenger. United States Navy_sentence_349

Navy aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat becoming military icons of the era. United States Navy_sentence_350

The navy's current primary fighter and attack airplanes are the multi-mission F/A-18C/D Hornet and its newer cousin, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. United States Navy_sentence_351

The F-35 Lightning II is presently under development and was scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet beginning in 2012. United States Navy_sentence_352

Initial operational capability of the F-35C is now expected to be February 2019. United States Navy_sentence_353

The Navy is also looking to eventually replace its F/A-18E/F Super Hornets with the F/A-XX program. United States Navy_sentence_354

The Aircraft Investment Plan sees naval aviation growing from 30 percent of current aviation forces to half of all procurement funding over the next three decades. United States Navy_sentence_355

Weapons United States Navy_section_37

Main article: List of United States Navy weapons United States Navy_sentence_356

Current U.S. Navy shipboard weapons systems are almost entirely focused on missiles, both as a weapon and as a threat. United States Navy_sentence_357

In an offensive role, missiles are intended to strike targets at long distances with accuracy and precision. United States Navy_sentence_358

Because they are unmanned weapons, missiles allow for attacks on heavily defended targets without risk to human pilots. United States Navy_sentence_359

Land strikes are the domain of the BGM-109 Tomahawk, which was first deployed in the 1980s and is continually being updated to increase its capabilities. United States Navy_sentence_360

For anti-ship strikes, the navy's dedicated missile is the Harpoon Missile. United States Navy_sentence_361

To defend against enemy missile attack, the navy operates a number of systems that are all coordinated by the Aegis combat system. United States Navy_sentence_362

Medium-long range defense is provided by the Standard Missile 2, which has been deployed since the 1980s. United States Navy_sentence_363

The Standard missile doubles as the primary shipboard anti-aircraft weapon and is undergoing development for use in theater ballistic missile defense. United States Navy_sentence_364

Short range defense against missiles is provided by the Phalanx CIWS and the more recently developed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile. United States Navy_sentence_365

In addition to missiles, the navy employs Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes and various types of naval mines. United States Navy_sentence_366

Naval fixed-wing aircraft employ much of the same weapons as the United States Air Force for both air-to-air and air-to-surface combat. United States Navy_sentence_367

Air engagements are handled by the heat-seeking Sidewinder and the radar guided AMRAAM missiles along with the M61 Vulcan cannon for close range dogfighting. United States Navy_sentence_368

For surface strikes, navy aircraft utilize a combination of missiles, smart bombs, and dumb bombs. United States Navy_sentence_369

On the list of available missiles are the Maverick, SLAM-ER and JSOW. United States Navy_sentence_370

Smart bombs include the GPS-guided JDAM and the laser-guided Paveway series. United States Navy_sentence_371

Unguided munitions such as dumb bombs and cluster bombs make up the rest of the weapons deployed by fixed-wing aircraft. United States Navy_sentence_372

Rotary aircraft weapons are focused on anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and light to medium surface engagements. United States Navy_sentence_373

To combat submarines, helicopters use Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes. United States Navy_sentence_374

Against small watercraft, they utilize Hellfire and Penguin air to surface missiles. United States Navy_sentence_375

Helicopters also employ various types of mounted anti-personnel machine guns, including the M60, M240, GAU-16/A, and GAU-17/A. United States Navy_sentence_376

Nuclear weapons in the U.S. Navy arsenal are deployed through ballistic missile submarines and aircraft. United States Navy_sentence_377

The Ohio-class submarine carries the latest iteration of the Trident missile, a three-stage, submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with MIRV capability; the current Trident II (D5) version is expected to be in service past 2020. United States Navy_sentence_378

The navy's other nuclear weapon is the air-deployed B61 nuclear bomb. United States Navy_sentence_379

The B61 is a thermonuclear device that can be dropped by strike aircraft such as the F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet at high speed from a large range of altitudes. United States Navy_sentence_380

It can be released through free-fall or parachute and can be set to detonate in the air or on the ground. United States Navy_sentence_381

Naval jack United States Navy_section_38

The current naval jack of the United States is the Union Jack, a small blue flag emblazoned with the stars of the 50 states. United States Navy_sentence_382

The Union Jack was not flown for the duration of the War on Terror, during which Secretary of the Navy Gordon R. England directed all U.S. naval ships to fly the First Navy Jack. United States Navy_sentence_383

While Secretary England directed the change on 31 May 2002, many ships chose to shift colors later that year in remembrance of the first anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks. United States Navy_sentence_384

The Union Jack, however, remained in use with vessels of the U.S. United States Navy_sentence_385 Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. United States Navy_sentence_386

A jack of similar design to the Union Jack was used in 1794, with 13 stars arranged in a 3–2–3–2–3 pattern. United States Navy_sentence_387

When a ship is moored or anchored, the jack is flown from the bow of the ship while the ensign is flown from the stern. United States Navy_sentence_388

When underway, the ensign is raised on the mainmast. United States Navy_sentence_389

Before the decision for all ships to fly the First Navy Jack, it was only flown on the oldest ship in the active American fleet, which is currently USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19). United States Navy_sentence_390

U.S. Navy ships and craft returned to flying the Union Jack effective 4 June 2019. United States Navy_sentence_391

The date for reintroduction of the jack commemorates the Battle of Midway, which began on 4 June 1942. United States Navy_sentence_392

Notable sailors United States Navy_section_39

For a more comprehensive list, see List of United States Navy people. United States Navy_sentence_393

Many past and present United States historical figures have served in the navy. United States Navy_sentence_394

Notable officers include John Paul Jones, John Barry (Continental Navy officer and first flag officer of the United States Navy), Edward Preble, James Lawrence (whose last words "don't give up the ship" are memorialized in Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy), Stephen Decatur Jr., David Farragut, David Dixon Porter, Oliver Hazard Perry, Commodore Matthew Perry (whose Black Ships forced the opening of Japan), George Dewey (the only person in the history of the United States to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy), and the officers who attained the rank of Fleet Admiral during World War II: William D. Leahy, Ernest J. King, Chester W. Nimitz, and William F. Halsey Jr.. United States Navy_sentence_395

The first American president who served in the navy was John F. Kennedy (who commanded the famous PT-109). United States Navy_sentence_396

Others included Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George H. W. Bush. United States Navy_sentence_397

Both Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Assistant Secretary of the Navy prior to their presidencies. United States Navy_sentence_398

Many members of Congress served in the navy, notably U.S. United States Navy_sentence_399 Senators Bob Kerrey, John McCain, and John Kerry. United States Navy_sentence_400

Other notable former members of the U.S. Navy include astronauts (Scott Kelly, Michael J. Smith, Neil Armstrong, Lisa Nowak), entertainers (Mike Douglas), authors (Brandon Webb, Marcus Luttrell), professional athletes, and others (Gordon Haller, John Barry). United States Navy_sentence_401

See also United States Navy_section_40

United States Navy_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States Navy.